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La Consolacion College of Pasig (LCCP)

Graduate School Department

MAE GEN SCIENCE

DIY - MARIGOLD SKIN LIGHTENING AND


MOISTURIZER
Science Investigatory Project (SIP)

In Partial
Fulfillment for the Requirements in
Plant Morphology and Anatomy (Subject Code)

Prepared by:

Rodriguez, Marie R.
Sara, Nena Ross B.
Tesoro, Rowena N.

Submitted to:

Dr. Corazon G. Briones


January 2018


 
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page …………………………………………………………………………………..…….. 1

Table of Contents ………………………………………………………………………….…. 2

Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………………..….. 3

Introduction ………………………………………………………………………….…….……. 4

Significance, Scope and Limitation …………………………………………….…... 5

Review of Related Literature ……………………………………………….….…….. 6

Framework ………………………………………………………………………………..…….. 16

Methodology ……………………………………………………………………..…….………. 18

Results and Discussion ………………………………………………………..…………… 22

Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………..…..…………. 25

Recommendation ……………………………………………………………………………… 26

Bibliography …………………………………………………………………………….……… 27

Appendices ………………………………………………………………………..……….…… 28


 
ABSTRACT
 

  This science investigative project involves making a

moisturizer/lotion out of plant parts that can be used as an alternative

for any commercialized lotion. Through the use of petals from a certain

plant such as Marigold Flowers (Calendula officinalis), because of its many

uses and benefits to skin. Instead of buying any moisturizers/lotion which is

full of chemically induced ingredients.

After a few trials and analysis, and experimentations, the researchers

found out that a component of Marigold together with its beneficial effects can

be extracted and could produce a very healthy and organic moisturizer. It is

more affordable and the ingredients or materials are easy to find in the

market. It is also eco-friendly than any moisturizer/lotion. The addition of

Olive oil and beeswaxes further enhances the soothing effect of the

extracted marigold flower. It is an added advantage for a very

effective moisturizer.

The new moisturizer/lotion is highly recommended and can be a

competitive business idea if given proper introduction and package as

compared to the expensive and chemically induced lotion.


 
CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION

This Investigatory Project is all about using Marigold flower and other

natural ingredients in making Moisturizing Lotion. We were inspired by people

who apply lotion made from chemicals on their skin regularly. This will provide

information on people that they can make an effective and affordable home

made moisturizing lotion made from natural ingredients instead of buying and

supporting products made from unnatural ingredients or chemicals that may

be harmful to skin. The study will also inform people that they can make their

own lotion that will prevent the skin in drying by means of using alternative

natural ingredients like local citrus fruits that will be available in rural areas

with financial incapability. This will also help the environment in managing

chemical use and recycling biodegradable products like citrus fruit peelings

and leftover juice extracts that people used to throw out.

This Do It Yourself Lotion may be a common one but what will make it extra

ordinary is the use of Marigold Flowers (Calendula officinalis) that are

extremely beneficial to the human skin.

Many studies revealed that it is still convenient and safe to use organic

lotion/moisturizer, mainly because it is easy to prepare and affordable.


 
SIGNIFICANCE, SCOPE AND LIMITATION

This study will benefit the consumers especially the poor as good

business venture to start with. Likewise, they will be benefited since the

effects of the Marigold moisturizer is the same as the branded and high

priced lotion, and at the same time they can be sure that it is purely

organic.

This will also help people save money because they can find the

needed materials in their surroundings. The significance is just how one

resourcefully utilizes the cheap, the natural abundance of nature, and

the untiring quest to alternatives and remedies.

This Science Investigatory Project (SIP) is only limited to the

investigation of Marigold Flowers (Calendula officinalis) to be used as an

alternative source for making cream that moisturizes skin.

This research will help the ecosystem and the surroundings

because it does not have any harmful substances such as chemicals; it

also gives a pleasing fragrance because of the natural aroma of

Calendula officinalis (Marigold flower)


 
Research shows that calendula’s dozens of active organic

chemicals make it a natural cytotoxic, hepatoprotective and

spasmogenic herb that’s been demonstrated in both animal and human

experiments.

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter contains some literatures and studies of previous

researchers who have conducted similar researches which gave light

and clearer understanding to this study.

A particular species of marigold flower, Calendula officinalis (commonly

just called calendula or “pot marigold”), is used to make healing herbal


 
ointments, teas, tinctures and topical treatments that have been in

existence for almost 1,000 years.

Calendula officinalis is in the plant family known as Asteraceae or

Compositae. Calendula marigolds are yellow-orange in color and form

small florets of petals that are harvested and dried for their numerous

medicinal properties. While there are various species of marigold flowers

grown around the world, calendula is considered to be the most

medicinal. It’s native to Egypt and parts of the Mediterranean but is now

grown in every continent, usually blooming during the warmer months

of the year (from about May through October in the Northern

Hemisphere).

The name it goes by these days, marigold, was introduced in the early

days of Christianity. People named it Mary’s Gold in honor of the Virgin

Mary, which was then shortened through time into “marigold.” But while

it’s called marigold – also “pot marigold” or “English marigold” – in

Europe, in the U.S. it’s more popularly known as calendula. To make it

more confusing, the “marigold” flower that is popular in the U.S. is

actually the Tagetes plant.

Botanical research shows that calendula marigolds contain many active

constituents, including various antioxidants and volatile oils. These are

responsible for the flowers’ bright color and strong smell; ability to repel


 
certain fungi, pests and insects; and also its capability of improving

blood flow and controlling inflammation.

Calendula can
be utilized as:
- Teas
- Calendula oil
- Salves
- Lotions/Creams
- Body butters
- Lip balms
- Soaps

Marigolds (Calendula officinalis) are mainstays in gardens all over the

world because of their sunny appearance. But aside from this flowering

plant’s bright color and magnetic charm, numerous studies have focused

on the health benefits that people can get from it.

Benefits and uses for Calendula officinalis marigolds include treating

conditions, such as rashes, allergies, eczema and dermatitis; pain,

swelling and redness caused from muscle cramps, muscular injuries or

sprains; eye inflammation and itchiness caused by conjunctivitis; and

fungal infections, including athlete’s foot, candida, ear infections and

ringworm.


 
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives

(the fruit of Olea europaea; family

Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the

Mediterranean Basin. The oil is produced by

pressing whole olives. It is commonly used in

cooking, whether for frying or as a salad

dressing. It is also used in cosmetics,

pharmaceuticals, and soaps, and as a fuel for

traditional oil lamps, and has additional uses

in some religions. There is limited evidence

of its possible health benefits. The olive is

one of three core food plants in

Mediterranean cuisine; the other two are

wheat and grapes.

Olive trees have been grown around the Mediterranean since the 8th

millennium BC. Spain is the largest producer of olive oil, followed by

Italy and Greece. However, per capita consumption is highest in Greece,

followed by Spain, Italy, and Morocco. Consumption in North America

and northern Europe is far less, but rising steadily.

The composition of olive oil varies with the cultivar, altitude, time of

harvest and extraction process. It consists mainly of oleic acid (up to


 
83%), with smaller amounts of other fatty acids including linoleic acid

(up to 21%) and palmitic acid (up to 20%). Extra virgin olive oil is

required to have no more than 0.8% free acidity and is considered to

have favorable flavor characteristics.

The health benefits of olive

oil are unrivaled, and research

reveals more benefits nearly

every day. In fact, we are only

just beginning to understand the

countless ways olive oil can

improve our health, and our lives.

Olive oil is the cornerstone of the Mediterranean diet  — an essential

nutritional mainstay for the world’s longest living cultures.

Skin care

Olive oil has a long history of being used as a home remedy for

skincare. Egyptians used it alongside beeswax as a cleanser,

moisturizer, and antibacterial agent since pharaonic times. In ancient

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Greece, olive oil was used during massage, to prevent sports injuries,

relieve muscle fatigue, and eliminate lactic acid buildup. In 2000, Japan

was the top importer of olive oil in Asia (13,000 tons annually) because

consumers there believe both the ingestion and topical application of

olive oil to be good for skin and health.

Olive oil is popular for use in massaging infants and toddlers, but

scientific evidence of its efficacy is mixed. One analysis of olive oil

versus mineral oil found that, when used for infant massage, olive oil

can be considered a safe alternative to sunflower, grapeseed and

fractionated coconut oils. This stands true particularly when it is mixed

with a lighter oil like sunflower, which "would have the further effect of

reducing the already low levels of free fatty acids present in olive oil".

Another trial stated that olive oil lowered the risk of dermatitis for

infants in all gestational stages when compared with emollient cream.

Applying olive oil to the skin does not help prevent or reduce stretch

marks.

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What Is Beeswax?

Beeswax (Cera alba) is a natural wax produced by honey bees of the

genus Apis. The wax is formed into "scales" by eight wax-producing

glands in the abdominal segments of worker bees, who discard it in or

at the hive. The hive workers collect and use it to form cells for honey-

storage and larval and pupal protection within the beehive. Chemically,

beeswax consists mainly of esters of fatty acids and various long-chain

alcohols.

Beeswax has long-standing applications in human food and flavoring.

For example, it is used as a glazing agent, a sweetener, or as a

light/heat source. It is edible, in the sense of having similar negligible

toxicity to plant waxes, and is approved for food use in most countries

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and the European Union under the E number E901. However, the wax

monoesters in beeswax are poorly hydrolysed in the guts of humans and

other mammals, so they have insignificant nutritional value.[1] Some

birds, such as honeyguides, can digest beeswax. Beeswax is the main

diet of Wax moth larvae.

The wax is made by the female worker honeybees (what can’t these

girls do?) in special wax-producing glands on their abdomens. The gland

is able to convert sugar from the honey into a waxy substance which

deposits as flakes that the other bees collect and chew in their mouths.

Once it is ready it is used by the bees to build honeycomb.

It’s in these cells that they store the honey, pollen and raise their young.

The wax is smooth, brittle, has a slight honey aroma and is even edible.

Newly made comb is almost white but will turn light yellow and

eventually brown as it ages and the bees clean

and reuse it.

Important Note: When you buy beeswax you

can find it in white or yellow. Though you might

think the white is just brand new comb, it’s not.

It’s yellow comb that has been highly refined and

bleached and I suggest you avoid it.

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It is always recommended that you buy yellow beeswax and buy it from

a local beekeeper if possible. If you can’t find it locally, you can usually

find it at a health food store or there are several sources online.

Here are some of the amazing qualities of beeswax:

Protective—when applied to the skin it provides a barrier from

environmental contaminants. It holds in moisture and reduces dryness

which is why it’s often used in lip balms. But unlike petroleum jelly, it is

also breathable so it doesn’t clog pores.

Humectant—it’s a substance that attracts water molecules, helping to

keep skin hydrated.

Antibacterial—just like honey, beeswax is antibacterial, keeping skin

clean and reducing the risk of infection.

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Vitamin A—it’s surprisingly high in vitamin A which means it helps in

cell turnover rates, reconstruction and skin elasticity.

Anti-Inflammatory—like honey, beeswax is anti-inflammatory and has

been shown to help soothe burns, eczema and promote healing of

wounds.

Is It Possible To Be Allergic To Beeswax?

Well, the answer is yes and no.

The problem isn’t the beeswax as pure beeswax has not been shown to

cause an allergic reaction in people. More likely the allergic reaction is

caused by propolis which is a sticky resinous substance that bees collect

from the sap of trees, usually poplar and conifer trees.

The bees blend this substance with wax flakes secreted from glands on

their abdomens and use this “glue” to line the cells of their honeycomb

and to fill in gaps in the beeswax walls. If you’ve ever tried to pry the

frames apart when inspecting your beehive you know that propolis is

nature’s super-glue.

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FRAMEWORK

a.) THEORETICAL

Calendula officinalis (Marigold)


Cera alba (Beeswax)
Olive oil (the fruit of Olea europaea)

Chemical Composition

Boiling

Leaves Extract

Figure 1
Flowchart showing the nature of the Calendula officinalis
(Marigold);
Cera alba (Beeswax) and Olive oil (the fruit of Olea europaea)

These plants are considered as herbal plants in the Philippines. As seen

in this figure, the Calendula officinalis (marigold) contains active

ingredients that are very good in moisturizing skin. As for the Cera alba

(beeswax) , and olive oil, they acts as antibacterial and barrier to keep

the molecules of the skin intact and soft. Beeswax is also as anti-

inflammatory and has been shown to help soothe burns, eczema and

promote healing of wounds.

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CONCEPTUAL

  PROCESS 
INPUT  OUTPUT 

Nature of * Analyze chemical Known Chemical


Dieffenbachias composition and toxicity
composition of
(Bakya), of Dieffenbachias
Dieffenbachias (Bakya),
Tinospora (Bakya), Tinospora
Tinospora Cordifolia
Cordifolia (Makabuhay)
Cordifolia (Makabuhay) and
and Jathropa Curcas L.
(Makabuhay) and Jathropa Curcas L.
(Tubang Bakod)
Jathropa Curcas (Tubang Bakod) plants
L. (Tubang * Toxicity test on
Bakod) plants Household Cockroaches  

Figure 2
Paradigm of the concepts of the study from input, process to the
output processes.

It provides the researchers an overview of the processes, testing

and output so that other researchers will be guided. Nature of Calendula

officinalis (marigold) flower and Cera alba (beeswax), and olive oil and

its chemical composition will serve as the primary source of information

of the study.

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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH DESIGN AND SETTING

In conducting the study of the moisturizers, constant researches

were done. Facts were obtained from books and computer resources.

The abundance of the said products which most of the time left out

wilted aroused a curious mind thus; the research drew its concept. A

series of trial and error was made wherein the ingredients were keenly

observed.

INGREDIENTS:

Handful of Fresh calendula flower petals

20 grams of Beeswax or Petroleum Jelly

125 ml of Olive oil (Or another oil that you prefer. Almond and avocado

are good options, as is jojoba although it is not edible)

Lemon peel (optional for added vitamin C)

MATERIALS:

Small pot to boil the mixtures

Clean bottle for finished product

Spatula / spoon

Stove

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PROCEDURE:

This is the traditionally preferred method because it is thought to

preserve the delicate constituents found in calendula best. However,

sometimes it’s just not practical to wait weeks for a batch because the

components of the flower may evaporate.

Step 1: Prepare all the necessary ingredients.

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Step 2: Carefully remove the calendula petals from the stalk and place

it in a clean, dry pot. Next, pour in the olive oil – add enough so that

the petals are covered by about one inch of oil.

9 The reason this is done is that the petals expand as they soak in

the liquid, so you add extra to ensure that they stay covered.

Step 3: Boil the mixture until almost half and the flowers are already

cooked usually 5 to 10 minutes or more. Stir constantly to avoid the

flower from sticking in the pot.

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Step 4: Add the beeswax or petroleum jelly if you think that the flower

is already cooked. Boil again for another 5 minutes.

Step 5: Use a clean cloth to strain it and transfer the mixture to a clean

jar.

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Step 6: Let it cool a little and place in a cover the jar with a tight fitting

lid

Step 7: Try the consistency in your skin and if it is fine already, Place

the jar in a warm, sunny window. Once the oil has been infused within 1

to 3 days, it is now ready to be used.

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CHAPTER 4

RESULT AND DISCUSSION


CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICSOF MATERIALS
USED

Calendula Cera alba Olive oil


officinalis (beeswax)
(marigold)
 
¾ The flowers ¾ The main raw
¾ Olive oil is
petals are edible materials for
composed
and commonly wax formation
mainly of
utilized in salads, are

soups, stews. carbohydrates,


9 triacylglycerols
i.e. the honey
(triglycerides or
sugars fructose,
¾ The main fats)
glucose and
chemical 9 contains small
sucrose
components of quantities of
Marigold oil are free fatty acids
¾ Use of beeswax
(FFA),
in skin care and
9 glycerol,
9 Plant sterols cosmetics has
9 phosphatides,
known as been increasing.
9 pigments,
calendulin ¾ A German study
9 flavor
9 Calendic acid found beeswax
compounds,
9 Polysaccharides to be superior to
9 sterols, and
9 Linoleic acid similar barrier
9 Microscopic bits
9 Carotenoids creams (usually
of olive.
9 Flavonoids mineral oil-
¾ Olive Oil provide
9 Triterpenes based creams
immense
saponins, such such as

23 
 
as triterpenoid petroleum jelly), benefits to your
9 Tocopherols when used skin, hair, and
9 Oleanolic acid according to its nails. Here are
glycosides protocol. some of the
¾ Beeswax is used olive oil skin
¾ It is also best
in lip balm, lip benefits you
consumed as
gloss, hand may find
tea for faster
creams, salves, surprising.
effects
and
¾ Due to 9 Antioxidant
moisturizers;
their antioxidan Protection
and in cosmetics
t properties, 9 Doesn’t Clog
such as eye
uses for Pores
shadow, blush,
marigolds
and eye liner. 9 Enhances
include:
Exfoliation
9 Homemade
¾ Beeswax is also
Skin Treatment
an important
9 Immune-
ingredient in
Boosting 9 General Beauty
moustache wax
Formula Booster
and hair
9 Eye, Genital or
pomades, which
Skin Infection
make hair look
Treatment
sleek and shiny.
 

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CONCLUSIONS

The result of the experiment/investigation is pretty good but there

are things that become hard to achieve. At first they got a hard time

figuring out how to make the mixture become paste or lotion type of

texture, second, the effect of use of beeswax in the solution. After so

many trials the ratio of olive oil and beeswax is finally met to be able to

have a paste texture lotion and the measurement of the oil to a handful

of flower should be well taken into consideration because after so many

trials, the products often yields to a very thin mixtures that is not

mostly soft to feel in the skin.

Moreover, based after trial and error and interpretations, the

following conclusions were drawn:

Marigold flower can give soothing effects as those obtain from any

lotion.

Petals of Marigold flowers can be extracted and give so many

beneficial uses to human skin.

Beeswax helps in binding the extracted petals and olive oil to

become good texture like lotion or gel and at the same time it also

adds more beneficial effects to skin.

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RECOMMENDATIONS

The researchers highly recommend the use of this Home made

Marigold Extract as alternative to any commercialized lotion which is full

of chemical contents.

It is also cheaper and fits in the budget. The researchers therefore

recommend that it must be used in every beauty regimen as an

alternative use of organic skin care moisturizer.

For future researchers, they must include in their study the grace

period on how long can these product may be stored or used. Even if

the olive oil gives lasting life span, there is no guarantee if it is mixed

with petals of any flower. Calendula or Marigold extract is beneficial for

dry or damaged skin and also promotes the fast healing and

regeneration of the skin thanks to its anti-inflammatory and

antibacterial properties. According to YourHealth.com, applying

calendula topically may help decrease inflammation and promote the

healing of wounds, burns, eczema and other inflammatory skin

conditions.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Top 11 Uses & Benefits of Marigolds, Including for the Skin, Eyes &
More
• https://draxe.com/marigolds/

• https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-
b&ei=q4ZPWraECYOb8wWLuYX4Cg&q=marigold+lotion&oq=marig
old+lotion&gs_l=psy-
ab.3...0.0.1.385.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0..0.0....0...1c..64.psy-
ab..0.0.0....0.uDY1AVAuCM0&gfe_rd=cr&dcr=0
• www.ecoindia.com › Flora › Flowers
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tagetes
• How to Plant, Grow, and Care for Marigolds
• Calendula Healing Salves, Lotions, and lip balms

Benefits of Olive Oil for Skin


• https://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/benefits-of-
olive-oil-for-skin/
• Global Healing Center
• https://fabulousfarmgirl.com/diy/lip-balm/
• oliveoilsource.com
• olive oil chemical components
• https://www.oliveoilsource.com/page/chemical-characteristics

Beeswax chemical components


• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beeswax
• www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2001/loveridge/index-page4.html
• The Chemistry of Bees
• Composition and Synthesis of Beeswaxes
• Benefits of Beeswax in the skin
• Beeswax uses.com / Best Beeswax to use

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APPENDICES

I - General Procedure

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II. Boiling / Cooking / Mixing Procedure

III. Extraction Procedure

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IV. Finished Product / Testing Procedure

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