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PREPARATION OF FRUITS CANDY FROM JACKFRUIT AND

MANGO USING A MECHANICAL DRYER

Abstract

Candies were prepared from Jackfruit bulbs and mango slices which were treated with

preservatives and firming agents to standardize the procedure and packed in different

packaging materials for 6 months. Initially, moisture content of jackfruit and mango candy

was 10.0%, where as total sugar, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid and acidity were 45.46% and

26.50%, 18.54% and 16.45%, 6.90 mg/100g and 11.19 mg/100g and 0.12% and 0.91%

respectively. The candies were tasted by a taste-testing panel for different sensory attributes

using 9-point hedonic scale. During 6 months storage, the results showed that jackfruit and

mango candy packed in metalex foil pouch secured the highest sensory score and more

nutritional quality, while packed in high density polyethylene pouch and polypropylene

pouch showed the lowest score.

Keywords: Fruit candy, nutritional composition, storage studies, sensory evaluation

Introduction

The importance of fruit is the human diet is universally recognized. Fruits are not only ready

made delicious food but there also valued for their vitamin and mineral contents, without

these the human body can not continue to be healthy or resistant to disease. Jackfruit and

mango are good sources of vitamin A and C, minerals and calories. As they are not cooked,

provide a high nutrition value. The production of mango and jackfruit in Bangladesh was

639820 and 719920 metric tons respectively during 2005-06 (BBS, 2006). These fruits are

seasonal. Mango and jackfruit often forms a glut in the market during their harvesting time. If

these fruits are processed into candy at the grower’s level, they can sale it at good price and

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consumers will have the taste in off season. Both jackfruit and mango are perishable and

cannot be stored for long time for its inherent compositional and textural characteristics.

Being highly perishable in nature, a larger portion of harvested fruits goes to wastage due to

lack of proper postharvest handling and storage technique. The magnitude of postharvest

losses in fresh fruits in Bangladesh is 25-50% (Amiruzzaman, 1990) and it is only 5-25% in

developed countries (Khader, 1992). Carlos (1992) estimated the postharvest loss of mango

in Bangladesh was about 17%. Hossain (1989) stated that 40% postharvest loss of mango

occur due to improper harvesting, handling and lack of storage technique especially

processing and preservation technique. Due to seasonal abundance and short market life,

sometimes their price becomes low and a considerable amount is lost. But if these perishable

fruits are processed into shelf-stable products, the above losses can be minimized to a great

extent.

Candies are palatable food item, composed of sweet taste and high calorie. Processing of

fruits into candies is an osmotic dehydration process where sugar goes into the tissues

bringing out water into the syrup. As sugar is transferred from the syrup to the tissues, the

concentration goes up inside the fruits while moisture content becomes lower and lower. A

fruit impregnated with sugar and glucose, and subsequently drained and dried is called

candied fruit (Girdhari, 1986). Candies are attractive in stickiness, taste, flavour, colour and

overall acceptability and nutritional quality. Uddin (1991) stated that there is a good scope for

processing preserves and candies from mango, carrot, papaya, pineapple and watermelon

grown under agro-climatic conditions in Bangladesh. Sheel et al. (1997) also prepared

suitable preserves and candies from muskmelon, sweet gourd, ridge gourd and cucumber. The

processed products from mango are mainly dried slices, juices, jam, jelly and pickle. But

there is scanty information on processing and preservation of jackfruit and mango candies in

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Bangladesh. Hence, this study was under taken to standardize the preparation technique of

candies from jackfruit and mango and also to select suitable packaging material.

Materials and Methods

The experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Postharvest Technology Section,

Horticulture Research Center (HRC) of the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute

(BARI), Joydebpur, Gazipur during June to December 2007. Mango and jackfruit were

collected from the Fruit Research Farm of HRC, BARI, Gazipur.

Analysis

Fresh fruits as well as prepared fresh and stored candies were analyzed for moisture content,

total sugar, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, acidity and ascorbic acid. Moisture was

determined by Oven Drying Method, total sugar and reducing sugar by Lane and Eynon

Method, acidity by treating against standard NaOH solution and ascorbic acid by 2, 6-

Dichlorophenol-Indophenol Visual Titration Method Ranganna (1991).

Processing

The candy making procedure outlined by Uddin (1991) and Sheel et al. (1997) was modified

to shorten the processing time. The fully matured jackfruit and mango were washed

thoroughly by potable water. Mango and jackfruit were peeled with a stainless steel knife.

Jackfruit bulbs and mango pulps without seeds were cut into 1x 0.5x 0.5 cm pieces. Then the

slices were blanched in hot water at 95 oC for 10 minutes and rinsed in tap water. After

blanching, the slices were immersed in 2% NaCl and calcium lactate solution having 0.1%

KMS (Potassium metabisulphite) for 2 hours. Then the slices were drained out. After drained,

the slices were dipped into 25%Brix syrup and heated slowly until 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50%

Brix at 12 hours interval. The ratio of the fruit to syrup was maintained at 1:3 by adding

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syrup. At this stage 5% citric acid was added. After 24 hours interval, the material was

cooked until the syrup attained 60 and 70% Brix. Then the slices were drained and dipped in

water to remove adhering syrup followed by blottering. The sugar impregnated slices were

dried in the cabinet dryer at 700C for one hour and the rest of the period maintained 600C

until the product reached the moisture content of 10%. Then the candy pieces were packed in

metalex foil pouch, high density polyethylene and polypropylene pouch at room temperature

(28-32oC).

Sensory evaluation

Sensory evaluation of prepared fresh and stored candies was done by taste testing panel. The

panel consisted of 10 panelists. They were asked to evaluate for stickiness, taste, flavour,

colour and overall acceptability on a 9-point hedonic scale; 9=Like extremely, 8=Like very

much, 7=Like moderately, 6=Like slightly, 5=Neither like nor dislike, 4=Dislike slightly,

3=Dislike moderately, 2=Dislike very much and 1=Dislike extremely. The difference

preferences as indicated by scores were evaluated by statistical methods (ANOVA). The

analysis of variance method was used for this evaluation. The difference was quantified by

Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT).

Storage studies

The changes in moisture, sugar, acidity and ascorbic acid contents during 6 months of storage

of the candies were observed under room temperature (28-320C) in metalex foil pouch, high

density polyethylene and polypropylene pouch. Stickiness, taste, flavour, colour, overall

acceptability and visual fungal growth were also monitored periodically at an interval of 3

months.

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Results and Discussion

Nutritional composition of fresh jackfruit bulb and mango pulp

Fresh jackfruit bulb and mango pulp were analyzed for reducing sugar, non reducing sugar,

total sugar, ascorbic acid, acidity and moisture content (Table 1). These were more or less

agreement with Chaudhry and Farooque (1969), Palaniswamy et.al. (1974), Bhatnagar and

Subramanyam (1973) and Anon (1979).

Table1. Nutritional composition of fresh jackfruit and mango fruits

Fresh fruits Reducing Non- Total Ascorbi Acidity Moisture


sugar (%) reducin sugar c acid (%) (%)
g sugar (%) (mg/100
(%) g)
Jackfruit 7.40 9.40 16.80 7.50 0.10 86.0
Mango 4.39 8.24 12.63 31.50 0.80 78.0

Nutritional composition of jackfruit and mango candies at different storage periods:

Reducing sugar

During the storage period, the reducing sugar content of the prepared candies slightly

increased (Table 2). At the day of packaging (0 day), reducing sugar content of jackfruit and

mango candies in metalex foil pouch, high density polyethylene and polypropylene pouch

were found 18.54% and 16.45%. After 6 months storage, the reducing sugar content in

metalex foil pouch was found 25%, while that of in high density polyethylene and

polypropylene pouch were found 20.48 and 19.69% respectively. It was observed that the

reducing sugar slightly increased in metalex foil, high density polyethylene and

polypropylene pouch probably because of hydrolysis of sugar in presence of citric acid

during storage periods. Ewaidah (1972) also found that the content of reducing sugar

increased in different packaging materials during storage periods.

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Non-reducing sugar

Non-reducing sugar content of the prepared candies of jackfruit and mango preserved in all

the packaging materials were found 26.92 % and 10.05% (Table 2) at the day of packaging (0

day). After 6 months of storage, it is observed that for all the packaging materials, the non-

reducing sugar slightly decreased. This might be due to conversion of disaccharides into

monosaccharide by the influence of high storage temperature in presence of citric acid.

Total sugar

A negligible changes in total sugar content in the prepared candies through 6 months storage

periods was observed at room temperature 28-320C (Table 2). In the storage periods (0-6

months), the total sugar ranges in jackfruit candies were found 45.46-45.12% in metalex foil

pouch, 45.46-43.02% in high density polyethylene and 45.46-41.18% in polypropylene

pouch. In case of mango candy, the total sugar ranges were found 26.50-24.32% in metalex

foil pouch, 26.50-25.10% in high density polyethylene pouch and 26.50-24.69% in

polypropylene pouch. From the data, the total sugar ranges were decreased in both jackfruit

and mango candies during storage. This might be due to its oxidation during the long

concentration steps in room temperature and atmospheric pressure following the open pan

method.

Ascorbic acid

At the day of packaging (0 day), ascorbic acid of jackfruit and mango candies were found

6.90 and 11.19 (mg/100g) respectively (Table 2). After 6 months of storage, ascorbic acid in

preserved candies slightly decreased in all the packaging materials. This might be due to its

oxidation during the long concentration steps in room temperature and atmospheric pressure

following the open pan method. Ashwah et.al (1980) reported that the content of ascorbic

acid in orange and lime beverages decreased after storage of few months.

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Acidity

The acidity percentages of jackfruit and mango candies prepared to be packed in

different packaging pouch were found 0.12% and 0.91% at the day of packaging (0

day) (Table 2). After 6 months of storage period, the acidity ranges of jackfruit candy

were slightly increased and were found 0.12-0.16%, 0.12-0.15%, 0.12-0.14% in

metalex foil pouch, high density polyethylene pouch and polypropylene pouch. In

case of mango candy, these were found as 0.91-0.96%, 0.91-0.98% and 0.91-0.99%

respectively. The increasing of acidity might be relation with duration of storage

periods.

Moisture content

Initial moisture content of both jackfruit and mango candies were set at 10 % (Table

2) at the day of packaging (0day). After 6 months of storage, moisture content of

candies packed in different packaging materials was increased. This might be due to

absorption of moisture through mechanical and /or experimental error (Molla et.al,

2007).

Storage studies in relation to quality attributes

Prepared candies were stored at room temperature (28-320C). During the storage

period of 6 months, sensory attributes like stickiness, taste, flavour, colour and overall

acceptability were evaluated (Table 3). Nutritional traits like reducing sugar, non

reducing sugar, total sugar, ascorbic acid, acidity and moisture content (Table 2) were

also observed at 3 months interval. Most of the candies were not subjected to

microbial spoilage because of their comparatively high sugar and low moisture

content with exceptions to the chocolates with soft centers of fondant or of inverted

sugar, which under certain conditions, burst or ‘explode’ (Frazier, 1958). Up to 6

months storage of the products, the maximum level of moisture content was 15.98%

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and this was not suitable condition for microbial growth. For this reason,

microbiological analysis was not carried out. No visual fungal growth was detected.

After 6 months storage, the products in polypropylene were just noticeable the sugary

flavour and going to be sticky. In addition, the polypropylene lost its transparency

slightly. Up to 6 months, the products in metalex foil were found in good condition.

Table 2. Nutritional composition of jackfruit and mango candies in different packaging


materials during 6 months storage at room temperature (28-32oC)

Nutritional Jackfruit candy Mango candy


composition Storage Packaging materials Packaging materials
period Metalex High Polypro Metal High Polypropylene
(Months) foil Density pylene ex foil Density Pouch
pouch Polyeth Pouch pouch Polyeth
ylene ylene
Pouch Pouch
Reducing 0 18.54 18.54 18.54 16.45 16.45 16.45
sugar (%) 3 20.04 19.36 19.10 18.00 17.36 17.10
6 25.00 20.48 19.69 20.00 19.48 18.45
Non- 0 26.92 26.92 26.92 10.05 10.05 10.05
reducing 3 25.20 23.86 27.25 7.88 8.14 7.84
sugar (%) 6 20.12 22.54 21.49 4.32 5.62 6.24
Total sugar 0 45.46 45.46 45.46 26.50 26.50 26.50
(%) 3 45.24 43.22 45.35 25.88 25.50 24.94
6 45.12 43.02 41.18 24.32 25.10 24.69
Ascorbic acid 0 6.90 6.90 6.90 11.19 11.19 11.19
(mg/100g) 3 6.67 6.43 6.15 10.80 9.45 8.88
6 6.30 6.20 6.02 9.00 8.02 7.90
Acidity (%) 0 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.91 0.91 0.91
3 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.94 0.96 0.97
6 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.96 0.98 0.99
Moisture 0 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
content (%) 3 15.10 15.12 15.14 15.00 15.40 15.81
6 15.14 15.16 15.18 15.84 15.92 15.98
* Results are mean of 3 replications.

Sensory evaluation of candies in different packaging materials

The mean score for stickiness, texture, flavour, colour and overall acceptability of

jackfruit and mango candies stored in different packaging materials for 6 months are

shown in Table 3. A one way analysis of variance was carried for all the attributes and

F-values were tabulated at 5% level of significance. Based on the taste testing panel,

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the data revealed that jackfruit and mango candies in all the packaging materials

secured higher score and were ranked from “like very much” to “like extremely”.

Thus, it was found that no significant variation was exists in sensory attributes of

stored candies in different packaging materials. This indicates that there was no

packaging effect on the quality of stored candies during six month storage.

Table 3. The mean score for stickiness, texture, flavour, colour, texture and overall
acceptability of stored jackfruit and mango candies after six month storage
Sensory attributes
Type of Stickiness Texture Flavour Colour Overall acceptability
candy metale HDPE PP metalex HDP PP metale HDPE PP metalex HDP PP metalex HDPE PP
x foil foil E x foil foil E foil
Jack 7.18a 6.90a 6.58a 7.23a 6.89a 6.65a 7.33a 6.98a 6.80a 6.60a 6.50a 6.05a 7.70a 7.20a 6.83b
fruit

Mango 7.2a 6.8a 6.36a 7.53a 6.98a 6.56a 7.40a 7.18a 6.88a 7.80a 7.68a 7.28a 7.60a 7.40a 7.02a

*HDPE = High Density Polypropylene, PP =Polypropylene


Means followed by a common letter in a column are not significantly different at 5%level by DMRT

Conclusion

This study indicates that candies can be easily prepared from jackfruit bulbs and

mango slices. The processed candies can be stored in metalex foil, high density

polyethylene and polypropylene pouch at ambient condition up to six months.

Though there was no significant difference, the products in metalex foil pouch were

found better for its nutritional composition and quality attributes.

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