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Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering UNIT-III -EDC


___________________________________________________________________________

UNIT - II
RECTIFIERS, FILTERS AND REGULATORS

Introduction:

For the operation of most of the electronics devices and circuits, a d.c. source is required.
So it is advantageous to convert domestic a.c. supply into d.c. voltages. The process of converting
a.c. voltage into d.c. voltage is called as rectification.This is achieved with i) Step-down
Transformer, ii) Rectifier, iii) Filter and iv) Voltage regulator circuits.

These elements constitute d.c. regulated power supply shown in the figure below.

o m
. c
ls
ir a
e
Jn
t
tu
m
at
a
er
Fig. Block diagram of Regulated D.C. Power Supply

ia
ls.
co
The block diagram of a regulated D.C. power supply consists of step-down transformer, rectifier,

m
M
filter, voltage regulator and load.
An ideal regulated power supply is an electronics circuit designed to provide a
predetermined d.c. voltage Vo which is independent of the load current and variations in the input
voltage ad temperature.

t u
n
If the output of a regulator circuit is a AC voltage then it is termed as voltage stabilizer,
whereas if the output is a DC voltage then it is termed as voltage regulator.

TRANSFORMER:
J
The elements of the regulated DC power supply are discussed as follows:

A transformer is a static device which transfers the energy from primary winding to
secondary winding through the mutual induction principle, without changing the frequency. The
transformer winding to which the supply source is connected is called the primary, while the
winding connected to the load is called secondary.

If N1,N2 are the number of turns of the primary and secondary of the transformer then
N
α= 2 is called the turns ratio of the transformer.
N1
The different types of the transformers are

1) Step-Up Transformer
2) Step-Down Transformer
3) Centre-tapped Transformer

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The voltage, current and impedance transformation ratios are related to the turns ratio of
the transformer by the following expressions.

V2 N 2
Voltage transformation ratio : =
V1 N1
I 2 N1
Current transformation ratio : =
I1 N 2
2
ZL N 
Impedance transformation ratio : = 2 
Zin  N1 
RECTIFIER:

Any electrical device which offers a low resistance to the current in one direction but a high
resistance to the current in the opposite direction is called rectifier. Such a device is capable of
converting a sinusoidal input waveform, whose average value is zero, into a unidirectional

o m
c
waveform, with a non-zero average component.

A rectifier is a device which converts a.c. voltage (bi-directional) to pulsating d.c. voltage
(Uni-directional).

Important characteristics of a Rectifier Circuit:

ls .
1. Load currents: They are two types of output current. They are average or d.c. current
and RMS currents.

ir a
e
i) Average or DC current: The average current of a periodic function is

Jn
t
tu
defined as the area of one cycle of the curve divided by the base.

m
at

a
er
1
∫0 id (ωt ) ; where i = Im sin ωt

ia
I dc =

ls.
It is expressed mathematically as

co
m
ii)

M
Effective (or) R.M.S. current: The effective (or) R.M.S. current squared of a

u
periodic function of time is given by the area of one cycle of the curve which

t
represents the square of the function divided by the base.
1
 1 2π

J n
It is expressed mathematically as

2. Load Voltages: There are two types of output voltages. They are average or D.C. voltage
I rms = 
 2π
 0
2

2
i d (ωt ) 

and R.M.S. voltage.

i) Average or DC Voltage: The average voltage of a periodic function is defined


as the areas of one cycle of the curve divided by the base.
It is expressed mathematically as

1
Vdc =
2π ∫0 Vd (ωt ) ; Where V = Vm sin ωt
(or) Vdc = I dc × RL
ii) Effective (or) R.M.S Voltage: The effective (or) R.M.S voltage squared of
a periodic function of time is given by the area of one cycle of the curve which
represents the square of the function divided by the base.

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1
 2π 2
Vrms =  1 V 2d (ωt )  ∫ Vrms = I rms × RL
 2π 0 
 
3. Ripple Factor (γ ) : It is defined as ration of R.M.S. value of a.c. component to the d.c.
component in the output is known as “Ripple Factor”.

'
γ = Vrms
V
dc
W here V 'rms = Vrms

∴γ =
2 −V 2
dc

V 
2

o m
 rms
V
 dc



−1
. c
4. Efficiency (η ) :
ls
It is the ratio of d.c output power to the a.c. input power. It

ir a
signifies, how efficiently the rectifier circuit converts a.c. power into d.c. power.

P
It is given by η = dc

e
Jn
Pac

t
tu
m
at
5. Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV): It is defined as the maximum reverse voltage that a

a
er
diode can withstand without destroying the junction.

ia
ls.
co
6. Regulation: The variation of the d.c. output voltage as a function of d.c. load current is

m
called regulation. The percentage regulation is defined as

u M
Vno−load − V full −load
×100%
% Regulation =

n t V full −load

J
For an ideal power supply, % Regulation is zero.

Using one or more diodes in the circuit, following rectifier circuits can be designed.

1. Half - Wave Rectifier


2. Full – Wave Rectifier
3. Bridge Rectifier

HALF-WAVE RECTIFIER:

A Half – wave rectifier is one which converts a.c. voltage into a pulsating voltage using only
one half cycle of the applied a.c. voltage. The basic half-wave diode rectifier circuit along with its
input and output waveforms is shown in figure below.

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___________________________________________________________________________

o m
. c
ls
ir a
e
Jn
The half-wave rectifier circuit shown in above figure consists of a resistive load; a rectifying

t
tu
element i.e., p-n junction diode and the source of a.c. voltage, all connected is series. The a.c.

m
at
voltage is applied to the rectifier circuit using step-down transformer.

a
er
ia
V = Vm sin ωt

ls.
The input to the rectifier circuit, Where Vm is the peak value of secondary a.c.

co
m
M
voltage

u
Operation:

n t
For the positive half-cycle of input a.c. voltage, the diode D is forward biased and hence it
conducts. Now a current flows in the circuit and there is a voltage drop across RL. The waveform
of the diode current (or) load current is shown in figure.

J
For the negative half-cycle of input, the diode D is reverse biased and hence it does not
conduct. Now no current flows in the circuit i.e., i=0 and Vo=0. Thus for the negative half-cycle
no power is delivered to the load.

Analysis:

In the analysis of a HWR, the following parameters are to be analyzed.

i) DC output current ii) DC Output voltage


iii) R.M.S. Current iv) R.M.S. voltage
v) Rectifier Efficiency (η ) vi) Ripple factor (γ )
vii) Regulation viii) Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF)
ix) Peak Factor (P)

Let a sinusoidal voltage Vi be applied to the input of the rectifier.

Then V = Vm sin ωt Where Vm is the maximum value of the secondary voltage.

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Let the diode be idealized to piece-wise linear approximation with resistance Rf in the
forward direction i.e., in the ON state and Rr (=∞) in the reverse direction i.e., in the OFF state.

Now the current ‘i’ in the diode (or) in the load resistance RL is given by

i = Im sin ωt for 0 ≤ ωt ≤ π
i=0 for π ≤ ωt ≤ 2π
Vm
where Im =
R f + RL
i) Average (or) DC Output Current (Iav or Idc):

m
The average dc current Idc is given by


I dc = 1
2π ∫ id (ωt )
0
. co
= 1

π 2π 
 I sin ωtd (ωt ) + 0 × d (ωt )
∫ ∫ ls
ir a
 m 
0 π 

= 1 Im (− cosωt )π0 


2π 
e
Jn

t
tu
m
= 1 Im (+1− (−1))

at
a
er
2π 

ia

ls.
co
m
= Im = 0.318 I
π ,

u M m

Vm
Substituting the value of

n t Im , we get Idc =

Idc =
Vm
π ( R f + RL )
Vm

ii) Average (or) DC Output Voltage (Vav or Vdc):

The average dc voltage is given by


J
If RL>>Rf then
π RL
= 0.318
RL

Im × R Vm RL
Vdc = I dc × RL
π π ( R f + RL )
= L =

Vm RL
⇒ Vdc =
π ( R f + RL )
Vm Vm
If RL>>Rf then Vdc = = 0.318 Im ∴Vdc =
π π
iii) R.M.S. Output Current (Irms):

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___________________________________________________________________________

The value of the R.M.S. current is given by


1
 2π 2
Irms =  1 i d (ωt )


2


2π 0 
1
 π 2π 2
=  1 ∫ I2m sin 2 ωt.d (ωt ) + 1 ∫ 0 • d (ωt )
2π 0 2π

 π 
1
 I2 π  1 − cos ωt  2
=  m 
 2π 0  2



d (ω
∫ t ) 


o m
=
 I2 
 m (ωt ) − 1 sin ωt  

π 2
1

. c
ls
 4π  2  

 0 


ir a
1
 I2 
− 0 − sin 2π
  2
=  m
 4π
π + sin 0
 2 

e
Jn
t
tu
m
1

at
 I2 2
= Im
=  m
a
er

ia
ls.
 2
 4 

co
m
∴ Irms = Im Irms =

u M 2
(or)
Vm
2 ( R f + RL )
iv) R.M.S. Output Voltage (Vrms):

n t
R.M.S. voltage across the load is given by

Vrms = I rms × RL
J =
(
2 R f + RL
Vm RL
)
=

Vm
Rf 
2 1+ 
 RL 
Vm
If RL >> Rf then Vrms =
2
v) Rectifier efficiency ( η) :
The rectifier efficiency is defined as the ration of d.c. output power to the a.c. input power i.e.,

Pdc
∴η =
Pac
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___________________________________________________________________________

I m2 RL
Pdc = I dc
2 R =
L
π2
R + R f ) = ( RL + R f )
rms ( L
I m2
Pac = I2
4
Pdc I m2 RL 4 4  RL 
∴η = = × = 
Pac π 2 I 2 R + R
m L f
π 2R +R
 L f ( ) 

⇒η = 42 × 1
= 0.406
π 


R 
1+ f  1+ R
RL 

Rf
L

o m
⇒ %η = 40.6 . c
R
1+ f
ls
ir a
RL
Theoretically the maximum value of rectifier efficiency of a half-wave rectifier is 40.6%
Rf

e
when = 0.

Jn
RL

t
tu
m
at
(γ ) :
a
er
vi) Ripple Factor

ia
ls.
co
γ

m
The ripple factor is given by

I 
2

u M V 
2

γ=  rms
 I
 dc


n t −1 (or) γ=  rms
V
 dc



−1

∴γ =
 I /2
 m 
 I /π 
 m 
J 2
−1 =



π 2 −1
2 
= 1.21

⇒ γ =1.21
vii) Regulation:

The variation of d.c. output voltage as a function of d.c. load current is called regulation.

The variation of Vdc with Idc for a half-wave rectifier is obtained as follows:

Idc = Im = Vm / π
π R f + RL

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But Vdc = I dc × RL

RL   R f 
Vdc = Vm  = Vm 1−
π  R f + RL  π 
 R f + RL 
   

= Vm − I dc R f
π
∴Vdc = Vm − I dc R f
π

m
Vm
This result shows that Vdc equals at no load and that the dc voltage decreases linearly
π
with an increase in dc output current. The larger the magnitude of the diode forward resistance,
the greater is this decrease for a given current change.

. c o
ls
viii) Transformer Utilization Factor (UTF):

The d.c. power to be delivered to the load in a rectifier circuit decides the rating of the

ir a
transformer used in the circuit. So, transformer utilization factor is defined as
Pdc
∴TUF =
Pac(rated )

e
Jn
t
tu
The factor which indicates how much is the utilization of the transformer in the circuit is called

m
at
Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF).

a
er
ia
ls.
The a.c. power rating of transformer = Vrms Irms

co
1

m
M
The secondary voltage is purely sinusoidal hence its rms value is times maximum while the
2

current is half sinusoidal hence its rms value is

t u 1
2
of the maximum.

∴Pac(rated )
J n =
Vm Im Vm Im
×
2 2
=
2 2
2
 
= I2 RL =  Im  RL
π 
The d.c. power delivered to the load
dc

Pdc
∴TUF =
Pac(rated )
2
 
=  Im  RL = 2 2
π  Vm Im
I2m RL 2 2
= 2 2 (QVm ≈ Im RL )
• •

π Im RL • •

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___________________________________________________________________________

= 0.287

∴TUF = 0.287
The value of TUF is low which shows that in half-wave circuit, the transformer is not fully
utilized.

If the transformer rating is 1 KVA (1000VA) then the half-wave rectifier can deliver 1000 X
0.287 = 287 watts to resistance load.

ix) Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV):

It is defined as the maximum reverse voltage that a diode can withstand without destroying
the junction. The peak inverse voltage across a diode is the peak of the negative half-cycle. For
half-wave rectifier, PIV is Vm.
x) Form factor (F):

The Form Factor F is defined as

o m
c
F = rms value / average value

F=
Im/ 2
Im/ π

ls .
ir a
0.5 Im
F= = 1.57
0.318 Im
xi) Peak Factor (P):

e
Jn
t
tu
The peak factor P is defined as

m
at
a
er
Vm

ia
=

ls.
P= Peak Value / rms value =2 P=2
Vm / 2

co
m
Disadvantages of Half-Wave Rectifier:

u M
t
1. The ripple factor is high.
2. The efficiency is low.

n
3. The Transformer Utilization factor is low.

J
Because of all these disadvantages, the half-wave rectifier circuit is normally not used as a
power rectifier circuit.

Problems from previous external question paper:

1. A diode whose internal resistance is 20Ω is to supply power to a 100Ω load from 110V(rms)
source pf supply. Calculate (a) peak load current (b) the dc load current (c) the ac load
current (d) the percentage regulation from no load to full load.
Solution:
Given a half-wave rectifier circuit Rf=20Ω, RL=100Ω
Given an ac source with rms voltage of 110V, therefore the maximum amplitude of
sinusoidal input is given by

Vm = 2 ×Vrms = 2 x 110 = 155.56V.


Vm 155.56
(a) Peak load current : Im = ⇒ Im = = 1.29A
R + RL 120
f

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Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering UNIT-III -EDC


___________________________________________________________________________

I
(b) The dc load current : I = m = 0.41A
dc π
I
(c) The ac load current : Irms = m = 0.645A
2
Vm 155.56
(d) Vno-load : = = 49.51 V
π π
Vm
Vfull-load −I R = 41.26 V
π
:
dc f
V −V
no−load full −load
% Regulation = ×100 = 19.97%
V
full −load
2. A diode has an internal resistance of 20Ω and 1000Ω load from 110V(rms) source pf
supply. Calculate (a) the efficiency of rectification (b) the percentage regulation from no
load to full load.
o m
Solution:

. c
ls
Given a half-wave rectifier circuit Rf=20Ω, RL=1000Ω

Given an ac source with rms voltage of 110V, therefore the maximum amplitude of

ir a
sinusoidal input is given by

Vm = 2 ×Vrms = 2 x 110 = 155.56V.

te
Jn
tu
40.6 40.6
% Efficiency ( η ) =

m
(a) = = 39.8%.

at
20 1.02
1+

a
er
ia
100

ls.
co
m
Vm 155.56
(b) Peak load current

u M : Im =
R + RL
f
=
1020
= 0.1525 A

The dc load current :


n t I
= 152.5 mA

I
= m = 48.54 mA

Vfull-load =
J Vno-load

Vm
−I R
dc
=
π
Vm
π
=
155.56
π
= 49.51 V

= 49.51 – (48.54 x10-3 x 20)


π dc f
= 49.51 – 0.97 = 48.54 V

V −V
no−load full −load
% Regulation = ×100
V
full −load
49.51 − 48.54
= × 100 = 1.94 %
48.54

3. An a.c. supply of 230V is applied to a half-wave rectifier circuit through transformer of


turns ration 5:1. Assume the diode is an ideal one. The load resistance is 300Ω.

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Find (a) dc output voltage (b) PIV (c) maximum, and (d) average values of power
delivered to the load.

Solution: (a) The transformer secondary voltage = 230/5 = 46V.


Maximum value of secondary voltage, Vm = 2 x 46 = 65V.

V 65
Therefore, dc output voltage, V = m = = 20.7 V
dc π π
(b) PIV of a diode : Vm = 65V
Vm 65
(c) Maximum value of load current, Im = = = 0.217 A
R
L
300
Therefore, maximum value of power delivered to the load,

(d) The average value of load current, I


Pm = Im2 x RL = (0.217)2 x 300 = 14.1W

=
V
dc = 20.7 = 0.069A

o m
c
dc R 300
L
Therefore, average value of power delivered to the load,

ls .
Pdc = Idc2 x RL = (0.069)2 x 300 = 1.43W

A full-wave rectifier converts an ac voltage into a pulsating dc voltage using both half cycles
FULL – WAVE RECTIFIER

ir a
e
of the applied ac voltage. In order to rectify both the half cycles of ac input, two diodes are used in

Jn
t
tu
this circuit. The diodes feed a common load RL with the help of a center-tap transformer.

m
at
A center-tap transformer is the one which produces two sinusoidal waveforms of same

a
er
ia
magnitude and frequency but out of phase with respect to the ground in the secondary winding of

ls.
the transformer. The full wave rectifier is shown in the figure below.

co
m
u M
n t
J
Fig. Full-Wave Rectifier.
The individual diode currents and the load current waveforms are shown in figure below:

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___________________________________________________________________________

o m
. c
ls
ir a
Fig. The input voltage, the individual diode currents and the load current waveforms.
Operation:

During positive half of the input signal, anode of diode D1 becomes positive and at the

e
Jn
same time the anode of diode D2 becomes negative. Hence D1 conducts and D2 does not conduct.

t
tu
The load current flows through D1 and the voltage drop across RL will be equal to the input voltage.

m
at
a
er
During the negative half cycle of the input, the anode of D1 becomes negative and the

ia
anode of D2 becomes positive. Hence, D1 does not conduct and D2 conducts. The load current

ls.
co
flows through D2 and the voltage drop across RL will be equal to the input voltage.

m
It is noted that the load current flows in the both the half cycles of ac voltage and in the
same direction through the load resistance.

u M
Analysis:

n t
Let a sinusoidal voltage Vi be applied to the input of a rectifier. It is given by Vi=Vm sinωt
The current i1 though D1 and load resistor RL is given by
i = Im sin ωt
1

i =0
1
J for

for
0 ≤ ωt ≤ π

π ≤ ωt ≤ 2π Where Im =
Vm
R + RL
f
Similarly, the current i2 through diode D2 and load resistor RL is given by

i2 = 0 for 0 ≤ ωt ≤ π
i = Im sin ωt
2
for π ≤ ωt ≤ 2π

Therefore, the total current flowing through RL is the sum of the two currents i1 and i2.
i.e., iL = i1 + i2.

i) Average (or) DC Output Current (Iav or Idc):

The average dc current Idc is given by

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2π 2π
I dc = 1 1
∫0 i1d (ωt ) 2π ∫0 i2d (ωt )

+

 π  2π
= 1  ∫ Im sin ωtd (ωt ) + 0 + 0 + ∫ Im sin ωtd (ωt )
2π 0 π
 

= Im + Im
π π
=
2Im = 0.318 I
π
m
m

∴ Idc = 2Im
π
2 Vm
. co
ls
Im , we get Idc =
π ( R f + RL )
Substituting the value of

ir a
This is double that of a Half-Wave Rectifier.
ii) Average (or) DC Output Voltage (Vav or Vdc):

e
Jn
The dc output voltage is given by

t
tu
m
at
2 Im RL
Vdc = I dc × RL
a
er
ia
=
π

ls.
co
2 Vm RL

m
⇒V =
dc π R + R
f L

u M
If RL>>Rf then

n t Vdc =
2Vm
π
iii) R.M.S. Output Current (Irms):

The value of the R.M.S. current is given by

 1 2π 2
J 2
Irms =  ∫ i d (ωt ) 
1

 2π 0 L 
1
 1 π 2 1 2π 2 2
= ∫ i d (ωt ) + ∫ i d (ωt ) 
 2π 0 1 2π π 2 
1
 1 π 2 2 1 2π 2 2  2
= ∫ I m sin ωt.d (ωt ) + ∫ I m sin ωt.d (ωt ) 
 2π 0 2π π 

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___________________________________________________________________________

1
 I2 π I2 2π  1 − cos 2ωt  2
  1 − cos 2ω t  
 d (ωt ) +  d (ωt ) 
= m m
 2π ∫  2  2π π
∫ 
 2 
 0 
1
 I2 π I2 2π  2
  sin 2ωt   sin 2ωt  
= m ωt − ωt  + m ωt − ωt  
 4π  0 4π  π 
 
1
I 2 I 2 2
 
=  m [ (π − 0) − (0) ] + m [ (2π − 0) − (π − 0) ]
 4π

1

1

o m
 I2
=  m ×π
 4π
+
I

2 
m ×π 

2 

I2
= 2× m

2

. c
 = Im

ls
4 2
   
I Vm
∴ I rms = m I rms =

ir a
(or)
2  
2R +R 
 f L

e
Jn
t
tu
m
iv) R.M.S. Output Voltage (Vrms):

at
a
er
ia
ls.
R.M.S. voltage across the load is given by

co
m
Vrms = I rms × RL

u M =

Vm
2R +R 

× RL

⇒ Vrms =
n t Vm
 f L 

J V


2 1+


R
R
f
L



If RL >> Rf then Vrms = m


2
v) Rectifier efficiency ( η) :
The rectifier efficiency is defined as the ration of d.c. output power to the a.c. input power
P
i.e., ∴η = dc
Pac

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___________________________________________________________________________

2 4I 2 R
P =I R = m L
dc dc L π2


I2 
Pac = I 2 R + R  = m  RL + R 

rms  L f  2  f 

P 4I 2 R 2
∴η = dc = m L×
Pac π2  
I2 R + R 
m L f 

=
8  RL

π 2  RL + R f

 




=

8

π 2 1 +
R 
f 
=
0.812

1+
R

ofm


RL 

. c RL

⇒ %η =
81.2
R
ls
ir a
f
1+
R
L
Theoretically the maximum value of rectifier efficiency of a full-wave rectifier is 81.2%

e
Jn
t
tu
Rf

m
when = 0. Thus full-wave rectifier has efficiency twice that of half-wave rectifier.

at
RL

a
er
ia
ls.
γ):

co
vi) Ripple Factor (

m
The ripple factor, γ is given by

u M
I
∴γ =  rms
 I

n t
 −1

2
(or)
V
∴γ =  rms
 V
2

 −1

I
 dc

∴γ =  m ×
π 
 2 2I 
 −1
J 

2
=
 dc

 π 
  −1
2

= 0.48
 m 2 2

⇒ γ = 0.48
vii) Regulation:

The variation of Vdc with Idc for a full-wave rectifier is obtained as follows:

V =I ×R
dc dc L
2I  2I m 
= mR Q I dc = π 
π L  

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___________________________________________________________________________

2Vm RL
=
π  RL + R 
 f 
 R 
2V  f  2Vm
= m 1 − = −I R
π R + RL  π dc f
 f 
2V
∴V = m − I R
dc π dc f
The percentage regulation of the Full-wave rectifier is given by

% Regulation =
V
no−load
V
−V
full −load
full −load
×100

o m
2Vm  2Vm 
. c
ls
− −I R
π  π dc f  I R
dc f
= ×100 = ×100
2Vm I RL

ir a
−I R dc
π dc f
R
f
⇒ ×100
e
Jn
% Regulation =

t
tu
R

m
L

at
a
er
ia
ls.
co
viii) Transformer Utilization Factor (UTF):

m
The average TUF in full-wave rectifying circuit is determined by considering the primary and
secondary winding separately. There are two secondaries here. Each secondary is associated with

u M
0.287.

TUF of primary = Pdc / Volt-Amp rating of primary


n t
one diode. This is just similar to secondary of half-wave rectifier. Each secondary has TUF as

∴ (TUF ) P
J =
I 2 .R
dc L
Im Vm
=
 Im 
 2 π  .RL
 
Vm Im
2

.
2 2 2
 
 
4 I2 2R 8  1 
= m. L =  
I m  R + RL 

π 2 2 π2  Rf 
 f   1+ 
 R 
 L 
8
If RL >>Rf then (TUF)p = = 0.812.
π2

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___________________________________________________________________________

∴ (TUF )av = Pdc / V-A rating of transformer

=
(TUF ) p + (TUF ) s + (TUF ) s
3
0.812 + 0.287 + 0.287
= = 0.693
3
∴ (TUF ) = 0.693

ix) Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV):

Peak Inverse Voltage is the maximum possible voltage across a diode when it is reverse

m
biased. Consider that diode D1 is in the forward biased i.e., conducting and diode D2 is reverse
biased i.e., non-conducting. In this case a voltage Vm is developed across the load resistor RL.
Now the voltage across diode D2 is the sum of the voltages across load resistor RL and voltage
across the lower half of transformer secondary Vm. Hence PIV of diode D2 = Vm + Vm = 2Vm.

Similarly PIV of diode D1 is 2Vm.

. c o
ls
x) Form factor (F):

ir a
The Form Factor F is defined as F = rms value / average value
Im/ 2 0.707 Im
F= = = 1.12 F=1.12
2 Im/ π 0.63Im

e
Jn
xi) Peak Factor (P):

t
tu
m
The peak factor P is defined as

at
a
er
Im
=

ia
P= Peak Value / rms value = 2 = 1.414 P = 1.414

ls.
Im / 2

co
m
Problems from previous External Question Paper:

4)

u M
A Full-Wave rectifier circuit is fed from a transformer having a center-tapped secondary

Calculate:
i) Power delivered to load,
n t
winding. The rms voltage from wither end of secondary to center tap is 30V. if the diode
forward resistance is 5Ω and that of the secondary is 10Ω for a load of 900Ω,

Solution:
ii)
iii)
iv) J
% regulation at full-load,
Efficiency at full-load and
TUF of secondary.

Given Vrms = 30V, Rf =5Ω, Rs=10Ω, RL=900Ω

V
But Vrms = m ⇒ Vm = 30 × 2 = 42.426 V.
2
Vm 30 2
Im = = = 46.36 mA.
R + R + RL 5 + 10 + 900
f S
2I 2 × 46.36
I = m = = 29.5mA
dc π π

( )
2
i) Power delivered to the load = I 2 RL = 29.5 ×10−3 × 900 = 0.783W
dc

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___________________________________________________________________________

V −V
no−load full −load
ii) % Regulation at full-load = ×100
V
full −load

2V 2 × 42.426
V = m = = 27.02 V.
no−load π π
V = I RL = 29.5 x 10-3 x 900 = 26.5 V
full −load dc

27.02 − 26.5
% Regulation = ×100 = 1.96 %
26.5

iii) Efficiency of Rectification =


81.2
R +R
=
81.2
15
o m
= 79.8%

c
f S 1+
1+

.
900
RL

ls
iv) TUF of secondary = DC power output / secondary ac rating

×10−3
46.36
30 ×

ir a
Transformer secondary rating = Vrms Irms = W
2
P = I 2 RL
dc dc

te
Jn
tu
0.783

m
∴TUF =

at
= 0.796
×10−3
46.36

a
er
30 ×

ia
ls.
2

co
m
5) A Full-wave rectifier circuit uses two silicon diodes with a forward resistance of 20Ω each.
A dc voltmeter connected across the load of 1kΩ reads 55.4volts. Calculate

i) IRMS,

u M
ii)
iii)
iv)
Average voltage across each diode,
Ripple factor, and

n t
Transformer secondary voltage rating.
Solution:

Given Rf =20Ω, RL=1kΩ, Vdc = 55.4V

For a FWR
J
V = m
2V
∴Vm =
55.4 × π
= 86.9 V
dc π 2
Vm
Im = =0.08519A
R + RL
f
I
i) Irms = m = 0.06024A
2
ii) V= 86.9/2 = 43.45V
iii) Ripple factor

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___________________________________________________________________________

2
I  2I m I
γ =  rms  − 1 , I = =0.05423A Irms = m =0.06024A
 I  dc π 2
 dc 
∴γ = 0.48
V 86.9
iv) Transformer secondary voltage rating: Vrms = m = = 61.49 Volts.
2 2
6) A 230V, 60Hz voltage is applied to the primary of a 5:1 step down, center tapped
transformer used in the Full-wave rectifier having a load of 900Ω. If the diode resistance
and the secondary coil resistance together has a resistance of 100Ω. Determine:
i)
ii)
iii)
dc voltage across the load,
dc current flowing through the load,
dc power delivered to the load, and

o m
c
iv) ripple voltage and its frequency.

Solution: Given Vp(rms) = 230V

N2
N1
=
V
S (rms)
2V

1
5
=
ls .2V
S (rms)
230

ir a
P(rms)
⇒V = 23V
S (rms )

te
Jn
Given RL =900Ω, Rf + Rs =100Ω

tu
2V

m
Vsm s(rms) 2 × 23

at
Im =

a
er
= = = 0.03252 Amp.
R + R + RL R + R + RL 900 + 100

ia
ls.
f S f S

co
m
∴I
dc
=
2 Im
π
=
2 × 0.03252
π
u M = 0.0207 Amp.

i)

ii) IDC = 0.0207 Amp.

n t
VDC = IDC RL = 0.0207 X 100 = 18.6365 Volts.

iii)

iv)
P = I 2 RL
dc dc
PIV = 2Vsm
J = 2X
(or) VDC IDC = 0.3857 Watts.

2 X 23 = 65.0538 Volts
V
r (rms)
v) Ripple factor = 0.482 =
V
DC
Therefore, ripple voltage = Vr(rms) = 0.482 x 18.6365
= 8.9827 Volts.
Frequency of ripple = 2f = 2x60 = 120 Hz

Bridge Rectifier

The full-wave rectifier circuit requires a center tapped transformer where only one half of
the total ac voltage of the transformer secondary winding is utilized to convert into dc output. The
need of the center tapped transformer in a Full-wave rectifier is eliminated in the bridge rectifier.

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___________________________________________________________________________

The bridge rectifier circuit has four diodes connected to form a bridge. The ac input voltage us
applied to diagonally opposite ends of the bridge. The load resistance is connected between the
other two ends of the bridge. The bridge rectifier circuits and its waveforms are shown in figure.

o m
. c
ls
ir a
e
Jn
t
tu
m
at
a
er
ia
ls.
co
m
u MFig. and waveforms

t
Operation:

n
For the positive half cycle of the input ac voltage diodes D1 and D3 conduct, whereas diodes
D2 and D4 do not conduct. The conducting diodes will be in series through the load resistance RL, so

J
the load current flows through the RL.
During the negative half cycle of the input ac voltage diodes D2 and D4 conduct, whereas
diodes D1 and D3 do not conduct.
The conducting diodes D2 and D4 will be in series through the load resistance RL and the
current flows through the RL, in the same direction as in the previous half cycle. Thus a
bidirectional wave is converted into a unidirectional wave.

Analysis:

The average values of output voltage and load current, the rms values of voltage and
current, the ripple factor and rectifier efficiency are the same as for as center tapped full-wave
rectifier.
Hence,
2V
V = m
dc π

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___________________________________________________________________________

2 Im Vm
I = Im =
dc π R + RL
f
V I
Vrms = m I rms = m
2 2
Since the each half cycle two diodes conduct simultaneously

γ = 0.48
81.2
η=
2R
f
1+
RL
The transformer utilization factor (TUF) of primary and secondary will be the same as there
is always through primary and secondary.

o m
TUF of secondary = Pdc / V-A rating of secondary
2
. c
ls
2  2 Im 
I  π  RL
= dc =  = 0.812

ir a
Vrms I rms  Vm   I m 
  
 2  2 
TUF in case of secondary of primary of FWR is 0.812

e
Jn
t
tu
(TUF ) p + (TUF ) s

m
∴ (TUF )av

at
=

a
er
ia
2

ls.
co
0.812 + 0.812

m
=

M
= 0.812
2
∴TUF = 0.812

t
The reverse voltage appearing across the reverse biased diodes is 2Vm, but two diodes are
u
sharing it, therefore the PIV rating of the diodes is Vm.
Advantages of Bridge rectifier circuit:

1)
2)
3)
J n
No center-tapped transformer is required.
The TUF is considerably high.
PIV is reduced across the diode.

Disadvantages of Bridge rectifier circuit:

The only disadvantage of bridge rectifier is the use of four diodes as compared to two
diodes for center-tapped FWR. This reduces the output voltage.

Problems:

7. A bridge rectifier uses four identical diodes having forward resistance of 5Ω and the
secondary voltage of 30V(rms). Determine the dc output voltage for IDC=200mA and the
value of the ripple voltage.

Solution: Vs(rms)=30V, RS=5Ω, Rf=5Ω, IDC=200mA

I
Now IDC = 2 m
π
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___________________________________________________________________________

200 ×10−3 × π
∴ Im = = 0.3415 Amp.
2
Vsm 2V
s(rms)
But Im = =
R + 2 R + RL R + 2 R + RL
S f S f
2 × 30
⇒ 0.3415 =
5 + ( 2 × 5) + R
L
⇒ RL = 120.051Ω ≈ 120Ω
VDC =IDC RL = 200 x10-3 x120 = 24Volts

Ripple factor =
V
r (rms)
o m
For Bridge rectifier, ripple factor = 0.482
V
dc

. c
∴V
r (rms)
= rms value of ripple voltage

ls
ir a
= Vdcx0.482
= 24x0.482
=11.568 Volts

e
Jn
t
tu
m
8. In a bridge rectifier the transformer is connected to 220V, 60Hz mains and the turns ratio

at
a
er
of the step down transformer is 11:1. Assuming the diode to be ideal, find:

ia
i) Idc

ls.
co
ii) voltage across the load

m
M
iii) PIV assume load resistance to be 1kΩ

Solution:
N
N
2 = 1,
1
t11
uVp(rms) = 220V, f=60Hz, RL= 1kΩ

N
N
2
1
J =
V
V n
S (rms)
P(rms)

1
11
=
V
S (rms)
220
⇒ V
S (rms)
=
220
11
= 20V

Vsm = 2Vs(rms )
V 28.2842
i) Im = sm = = 28.2842 mA
R
L 1×10−3
2I
∴I = m = 18 mA
dc π
ii) Vdc = Idc RL = 18x10-3Xx10-3 = 18 Volts

iv) PIV = Vsm = 28.2842 Volts

Comparison of Rectifier circuits:

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___________________________________________________________________________

Sl. Half-Wave
Parameter Full-Wave Rectifier Bridge Rectifier
No. Rectifier

1. Number of diodes 1 2 4

Im 2I m 2I m
2. Average dc current, Idc
π π π
Vsm 2Vsm 2Vsm
3. Average dc voltage, Vdc
π π π
Im Im Im
4. RMS current, Irms

m
2 2 2

5. DC Power output, Pdc


I2 R
m L
π2
4I 2 R
m L
π2

. c o 4I 2 R
m L
π2

6. AC Power input, PAC (


I 2 RL + R + RS
m f ) m( f
sl ) (
I 2 R + RS + + RL I 2 2 R + RS + + RL
m f )

ir a
4 2 2

Max. rectifier efficiency


7. 40.6% 81.2% 81.2%
(η)

te
Jn
tu
m
8. Ripple factor (γ) 1.21 0.482 0.482

at
a
er
ia
ls.
9. PIV Vm 2Vm 2Vm

co
m
10. TUF

u M Vsm
0.287

Vsm
0.693 0.812

Vsm
11. Max. load current (Im)

n t R +R +R
S f L
R +R +R
S f L
R + 2R + R
S f L
The Harmonic components in Rectifier circuits:

J
An analytical representation of the output current wave in a rectifier is obtained by means
of a Fourier series. The result of such an analysis for the half-wave rectifier circuit leads to the
following expression for the current waveform.

1 1 2 cos ωt 
i = Im  + sin ωt − ∑ 
 π 2 π K =2,4,6..... ( K +1)( K −1) 
The lowest angular frequency present in this expression is that of the primary source of the
a.c. power. Except for this single term of angular frequency (ω), all other terms in the above
expression are even harmonics of the power frequency.

We know that the full-wave circuit consists essentially of two half-wave circuits which are
so arranged that one circuit conducts during one half cycle and the second operates during the
second half cycle. That is, the currents are functionally related by the
expression i (α ) = i (α + π ) .
1 2

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___________________________________________________________________________

Therefore the total load current is i=i1+i2.

The expression for the output current waveform of the full wave rectifier circuit is of the form

2 4 cos Kωt 
i = Im  − ∑
 π π K =2,4,6..... ( K +1)( K −1) 
 
In the above equation, we observe that the fundamental angular frequency (ω) has been
eliminated from the equation. The lowest frequency in the output is being 2ω, which is a second
harmonic term. This offers a definite advantage in the effectiveness of filtering of the output.

FILTERS

The output of a half-wave (or) full-wave rectifier circuit is not pure d.c., but it contains
fluctuations (or) ripple, which are undesired. To minimize the ripple content in the output, filter
circuits are used. These circuits are connected between the rectifier and load. Ideally, the output of

o m
the filter should be pure d.c. practically, the filter circuit will try to minimize the ripple at the
output, as far as possible. Basically, the ripple is ac, i.e., varying with time, while dc is a constant

. c
ls
w.r.t. time.

Hence in order to separate dc from ripple, the filter circuit should use components which
have widely different impedance for ac and dc. Two such components are inductance and

ir a
capacitance. Ideally, the inductance acts as a short circuit for dc, but it has large impedance for ac.

Similarly, the capacitor acts as open for dc if the value of capacitance is sufficiently large
enough. Hence, in a filter circuit, the inductance is always connected in series with the load, and

e
Jn
the capacitance is connected in parallel to the load.

t
tu
m
Definition of a Filter:

at
a
er
ia
ls.
Filter is an electronic circuit composed of a capacitor, inductor (or) combination of both and

co
connected between the rectifier and the load so as to convert pulsating dc to pure dc.

m
The different types of filters are:

u M
t
1) Inductor Filter,
2) Capacitor Filter,

n
3) LC (or) L-Section Filter, and
4) CLC (or) ∏-section Filter.

Inductor Filter:

Half-Wave rectifier with series Inductor Filter: J


The Inductor filter for half-wave rectifier is shown in figure below.

Fig. Series Inductor filter for HWR.

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In this filter the inductor (choke) is connected in series with the load. The operation of the inductor
filter depends upon the property of the inductance to oppose any change of current that may flow
through it.
Expression for ripple factor:

For a half-wave rectifier, the output current is given by,


 
1 1 2 cos ωt 
i = Im  + sin ωt − ∑ ( K +1)( K −1) 
π 2 π K =even 
 K ≠0 
I I 2I  cos 2ωt cos 4ωt 
i = m + m sin ωt − m  + + ....... …………… (1)
π 2 π  3 15
Neglecting the higher order terms, we have

V Im

o m
I = = m
dc π π R
L
……………… (2)

. c
ls
If I1 be the rms value of fundamental component of current, then
I Vm Vm
I = m = =
( )
………….(3)
dc 2 2 2 2 R + jω L

a
1
( )
2 2 R + jω L
ir
L 2 2 2 2
L
At operating frequency, the reactance offered by inductance ‘L’ is very large compared to RL

e
Jn
(i.e., ωL >> RL) and hence RL can be neglected.

t
tu
m
Vm
∴I =

at
…………..(4)

a
er
1 2 2ω L

ia
ls.
If I2 be rms value of second harmonic,

co
m
Then
2I
∴I = m
2 3 2π
=

3 2π  R 2 + 4ω L 
u M 2Vm
1
2 2 2
=
Vm
3 2πω L
(Q RL << ω L ) ……. (5)

If Iac be the rms value of all current components, then

n t
 L 
I ac = I12 + I 22

Now, γ V
= ac ≈
V
dc
J I ac RL
I
= ac
I RL I
dc dc
2 2
 Vm   Vm 
  + 
 2 2ω L   2 2πω L 
=
Vm
π RL

Vm 1 1
+
ω L 8 18π 2 π RL 1 1
= = +
Vm ω L 8 18π 2
π RL

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1.13RL 1.13RL
= ∴γ = …………(6)
ωL ωL
Full-wave rectifier with series inductor filter:
A FWR with series inductor filter is shown in figure.

FIG. FWR with series inductor filter.

o m
The inductor offers high impedance to a.c. variations. The inductor blocks the a.c.
component and allows only t

. c
ls
he dc component to reach the load.
To analyze the inductor filter for a FWR, the Fourier series can be written as

ir a
2Vm 4Vm  1 1 
VO = −  cos 2ωt + cos 6ωt + ....... ………………..(1)
π π 3 15 

e
Jn
2Vm

t
tu
The dc component is
π

m
at
a
er
Assuming the third and higher terms contribute little output voltage is

ia
ls.
2Vm 4Vm
VO = − cos 2ωt

co
…………………(2)

m
π 3π

u M
For the sake of simplicity, the diode drop and diode resistance are neglected because they

introduce a little error.

n t
Thus for dc component, the current
V
Im = m
R
L
. For ac component, the

J
impedance of L and RL will be in series and is given by,

Z = RL2 + ( 2ω L )
2
, frequency of ac component = 2ω

= RL2 + 4ω 2 L2
Vm
Thus for ac component Im =
RL2 + 4ω 2 L2
2I 4I
The current flowing in a FWR is given by, i = m − m cos 2ωt ……………..(3)
π 3π
Substituting the value of Im for dc and ac equation (3), we get,

2Vm 4Vm
i= − cos ( 2ωt − φ ) …………….(4)
π RL 3π R 2 + 4ω 2 L2
L
Where Ф is the angle by which the load current lags behind the voltage. This is given by

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 2ω L 
φ = tan −1   …………….(5)
 R 
 L 
Expression for Ripple Factor:

I r ,rms
γ =
I
dc
2V 4Vm
From equation (4), I = m , I r ,rms =
dc π R
L 3π 2 RL2 + 4ω 2 L2

m
4Vm 1
3π 2 R 2 + 4ω 2 L2
∴γ = L
2Vm
π RL
∴ γ =
2
3 2
1 +
1
 4ω 2 L2 

 R2 

. c o
ls
 L 

4ω 2 L2 1 RL RL
If >>1, then γ= = 0.236 .

ir a
RL2 3 2 ωL ωL
R
∴γ = L ……………….. (6)
3 2ω
e
Jn
t
L

tu
m
The expression shows that ripple varies inversely as the magnitude of the inductance, Also,

at
a
er
the ripple is smaller for smaller values of RL i.e., for high currents.

ia
ls.
2
RL → ∞ γ γ=

co
When the value of is given by = 0.471 (close to the value 0.482 of

m
3 2
rectifier). Thus the inductor filter should be used when RL is consistently small.

Problems:

u M
9.

n t
A full-wave rectifier with a load resistance of 15kΩ uses an inductor filter of 15H. The peak
value of the applied voltage is 250V and the frequency is 50 cycles/second. Calculate the
dc load current, ripple factor and dc output voltage.
Solution:

J
The rectified output voltage across load resistance RL up to second harmonic is

VO =
2Vm
π

2Vm
π
cos ωt
2V
Therefore, DC component of output voltage is given by V = m
dc π
V 2V
∴I = dc = m
dc R
L
π RL
2 × 250
= = 10.6 x 10-3 A = 10.6 mA
π ×15 ×10−3
Vdc = Idc RL = (2.12x10-3) (15x103) = 31.8 V.

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___________________________________________________________________________

4Vm
Peak value of ripple voltage =

1 4Vm
∴Vac =
2 3π
1 4Vm
Now I ac = 2 3π =
2 2Vm
RL2 + ( 2ω L ) 3π RL2 + ( 2ω L )
2 2

2 ×1.414 × 250
=
( )
3 × 3.14 15 ×103 + ( 4 × 3.14 × 50 ×15 )
2

= 4.24x10-3 A = 4.24 mA

o m
So, ripple factor, γ I
= ac
I
=
4.24mA
10.6mA
= 0.4

. c
ls
dc
10. A dc voltage of 380 volt with a peak ripple voltage not exceeding 7volt is required to supply

ir a
a 500Ω load. Find out if only inductor is used for filtering purpose in full-wave rectifier
circuit,
i) inductance required and
ii) input voltage required, if transformer ratio is 1:1.

e
Jn
Solution:

t
tu
m
i) Given that peak ripple = 7V

at
a
er
7
2 Vrms ⇒ Vrms =

ia
Therefore, 7= = 4.95V

ls.
2

co
m
M
V
Now γ = rms =
4.95
= 0.013
V 380
In case of inductor filter
1 RL 1 RL
dc

t u
⇒L=
3 2 ωL
1 R
× L
1335 ωγ
γ=
⇒L=
3 2 ωγ

(∴f=50Hz) J n
500
⇒L= = 28.8 Henry
1335 × 0.013
2V
ii) V = m = 0.636Vm
dc π
V 380
∴Vm = dc = = 597.4 V
0.636 0.636
This is maximum voltage on half secondary. So, the voltage across complete secondary =
2x 597.4 = 1195V

∴ Input voltage = 1195V because turns ratio is 1:1.

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Capacitor Filter:

Half-wave rectifier wit capacitor filter:

The half-wave rectifier with capacitor input filter is shown in figure below:

Fig. HWR with capacitor filter.

o m
The filter uses a single capacitor connected in parallel with the load RL. In order to minimize

. c
ls
the ripple in the output, the capacitor C used in the filter circuit is quite large of the order of tens of
microfarads.
The operation of the capacitor filter depends upon the fact that the capacitor stores energy

ir a
during the conduction period and delivers this energy to the load during non-conduction period.

Operation:

e
During, the positive quarter cycle of the ac input signal, the diode D is forward biased and

Jn
t
tu
hence it conducts. This quickly charges the capacitor C to peak value of input voltage Vm.

m
Practically the capacitor charge (Vm-Vγ) due to diode forward voltage drop.

at
a
er
ia
When the input starts decreasing below its peak value, the capacitor remains charged at Vm

ls.
co
and the ideal diode gets reverse biased. This is because the capacitor voltage which is cathode

m
M
voltage of diode becomes more positive than anode.

u
Therefore, during the entire negative half cycle and some part of the next positive half

t
cycle, capacitor discharges through RL. The discharging of capacitor is decided by RLC, time
constant which is very large and hence the capacitor discharge very little from Vm.

J n
In the next positive half cycle, when the input signal becomes more than the capacitor
voltage, he diode becomes forward biased and charges the capacitor C back to Vm. The output
waveform is shown in figure below:

Fig. HWR output with capacitor filter.


The discharging if the capacitor is from A to B, the diode remains non-conducting. The
diode conducts only from B to C and the capacitor charges.

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Expression for Ripple factor:

m
Let, T = time period of the ac input voltage
T1 = time for which the diode is non conducting.

<
T2 = time for which diode is conducting.
Let Vr be the peak to peak value of the ripple voltage which is assumed to be triangular
waveform. It is known mathematically that the rms value of such a triangular waveform is

. c o
ls
' = Vr
Vrms
2 3

ir a
During the time interval T1, the capacitor C is discharging through the load resistance RL.
Therefore the charge lost is Q= C Vr
T1
dQ
But, i= ∴ Q = ∫ idt = Idc .T1

e
Jn
dt 0

t
tu
m
at
As integration gives average (or) dc value,

a
er
ia
ls.
Hence Idc .T1 = C . Vr

co
m
I T
∴Vr = dc 1
C

u M
t
But T1+T2 = T Normally, T1>>T2,

∴T + T ≈ T ⇒ T = T
1 2 1

J
1

∴Vr = dc
n
I ⋅T
C
I
= dc
f ⋅C

∴T = 

1
f 
V  Vr I 
But I = dc , V
 dc = V −
m 2 , = V − dc
m 2 fc 
dc R  
L
V
∴Vr = dc
fCR
L
V' Vr V
Ripple factor, γ = rms ⇒γ = = dc
V
dc 2 3 ⋅V 2 3 fCRL ⋅V
dc dc

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___________________________________________________________________________

γ⇒ 1
2 3 fCR
L
The product of CRL is the time constant of the filter circuit.

Surge current in Half-wave rectifier using capacitor filter:

o m
. c
ls
ir a
Fig. Surge current in HWR using capacitor filter
In half-wave rectifier, the diode is forward biased only for short period of time and conducts
only during this time interval to charge the filter capacitance. The instant at which the diode gets
forward biased, the capacitor instantaneously acts as short circuit and a surge current flow through

e
Jn
a diode.

t
tu
When the diode is non-conducting, the capacitor discharges through load resistance RL.

m
at
Thus total amount of charge that flows through conducting diode (or) diodes to recharge the

a
er
capacitor must be equal to the amount of charge lost during the period when the diode (or) diodes

ia
ls.
are non-conducting and capacitor is discharging through load resistance RL.

co
m
M
It can be seen that conduction period T1 is very small compared to time period T, for the
diode. Let, Idc = average dc current

u
Ip(surge) = peak value of the surge current.
Assume the current pulse to be rectangular assuming peak surge current flows for the
entire conduction period of diode which is T1.
Then Q (discharge) = Q (charge)

n t
, ∴I T = I
dc
T
J
P( surge) 1
As T1 << T, it can be observed that Ip(surge) can be many times larger than the average dc
current supplied to the load.
∴I
P( surge)
=I
T 
 
dc  T 
 1

Problem from previous External examinations:


10. A HWR circuit has filter capacitor of 1200µF and is connected to a load of 400Ω. The
rectifier is connected to a 50Hz, 120V rms source. It takes 2msec for the capacitor to
recharge during each cycle. Calculate the minimum value of the repetitive surge current
for which the diode should be rated.
Solution:
Given C=1200µF, RL=400Ω, f=50Hz, Vrms=120V
Conduction period of the diode, T1=1ms

Vsm = 2 × V = = 2 × 120 V
S (rms)

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___________________________________________________________________________

I
V = Vsm − dc
dc 2 fC
V
⇒ V = Vsm − dc
dc 2 fCR
L
Vsm
⇒V =
dc 1
1+
2 fCR
L
120 2
= = 3.46 V
1
1+

V
∴ I = dc =
2 × 50 ×1200 ×10−6 × 400
3.46
=8.658mA
o m
dc R
Now IdcT = Ip(surge)T1
L
400

. c
ls
T  1
I =I   =8.658mA x
P( surge) dc  T  50 ×10−3

ir a
 1
∴I = 0.17316 A
P(surge)

e
Jn
Full-wave rectifier with capacitor filter:

t
tu
m
at
The full-wave rectifier with capacitor filter is shown in the figure below:

a
er
ia
ls.
co
m
u M
n t
Operation:
J Fig. Full-wave rectifier with capacitor filter

During the positive quarter cycle of the ac input signal, the diode D1 is forward biased, the
capacitor C gets charges through forward bias diode D1 to the peak value of input voltage Vm.
π
In the next quarter cycle from to π the capacitor starts discharging through RL,
2
because once the capacitor gets charges to Vm, the diode D1 gets reverse biased and stops
π
conducting, so during the period from to π the capacitor C supplies the load current.
2

In the next quarter half cycle, that is, π to of the rectified output voltage, if the input
2
voltage exceeds the capacitor voltage, making D2 forward biased, this charges the capacitor back
to Vm.

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In the next quarter half cycle, that is, from to 2π , the diode gets reverse biased and
2
the capacitor supplies the load current.

In FWR, as the time required by the capacitor to charge is very small and it discharges very
little due to large time constant, hence ripple in the output gets reduced considerably. The output
waveform is shown in figure below:

o m
. c
ls
ir a
Fig. FWR output with capacitor filter.

Expression for Ripple factor:

e
Jn
t
tu
m
at
a
er
ia
ls.
co
m
u M
Let, T

n t
= time period of the ac input voltage

T1
T2
T
2
= time for which diode is conducting
= time for which diode is non-conducting
J = half of the time period

During time T1, capacitor gets charged and this process is quick. During time T2, capacitor
gets discharged through RL. As time constant RLC is very large, discharging process is very slow
and hence T2>>T1.
Let Vr be the peak to peak value of ripple voltage, which is assumed to be triangular as
shown in the figure below:

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Fig. Triangular approximation of ripple

It is known mathematically that the rms value of such a triangular waveform is,

m
Vr
Vrms =
2 3

The charge lost is, Q = CVr


During the time interval T2, the capacitor C is discharging through the load resistance RL.

But i=
dQ
dt
. c o
ls
T2
∴ Q = ∫ idt = I DCT2

ir a
0
As integration gives average (or) dc value, hence Idc .T2 = C . Vr

I T2

e T

Jn
∴Vr = dc T +T =

t
But

tu
C 1 2 2

m
at
a
Normally, T2 >> T1,

er
ia
ls.
T 1
∴T + T ≈ T = T=

co
where

m
1 2 1 2 f

u M I DC × T I

t
I DC  T 
∴Vr = = = DC
C  2  2C 2 fC

But I DC
J V
= DC
R
L
n , ∴Vr =

V
VDC
2 fCR
L
= peak to peak ripple voltage

dc
V 1 2 fCRL  Vr 
Ripple factor, = rms = × ∴Vrms = 
V 2 3 V  2 3
dc dc

∴Ripple factor = 1
4 3 fCRL
L-Section Filter (or) LC Filter:

The series inductor filter and shunt capacitor filter are not much efficient to provide low
ripple at all loads. The capacitor filter has low ripple at heavy loads while inductor filter at small
loads. A combination of these two filters may be selected to make the ripple independent of load
resistance. The resulting filter is called L-Section filter (or) LC filter (or) Choke input filter. This

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___________________________________________________________________________

name is due to the fact that the inductor and capacitor are connected as an inverted L. A full-wave
rectifier with choke input filter is shown in figure below:

m
Fig. Full-wave rectifier with choke input filter.

o
The action of choke input filter is like a low pass filter. The capacitor shunting the load
bypasses the harmonic currents because it offers very low reactance to a.c. ripple current while it

c
appears as an open circuit to dc current.

On the other hand the inductor offers high impedance to the harmonic terms. In this way,
most of the ripple voltage is eliminated from the load voltage.

Regulation:

ls .
ir a
2Vm 4Vm
The output voltage of the rectifier is given by, υ= − cos 2ωt
π 3π
2V
The dc voltage at no load condition is V = m

te
dc π

Jn
tu
2V

m
= m −I

at
The dc voltage on load is V R
π

a
er
dc dc

ia
ls.
co
R=R +R +R

m
Where

M
f C S
R , R , R are resistances of diode, choke an secondary winding.
Ripple Factor:
f C S

t u
n
The main aim of the filter is to suppress the harmonic components. So the reactance of the

J
choke must be large as compared with the combined parallel impedance of capacitor and resistor.

The parallel impedance of capacitor and resistor can be made small by making the
reactance of the capacitor much smaller than the resistance of the load. Now the ripple current
which has passed through L will not develop much ripple voltage across RL because the reactance
of C at the ripple frequency is very small as compared with RL.

Thus for LC filter, XL >> XC at 2ω = 4Πf and RL >> XC

Under these conditions, the a.c. current through L is determined primarily by XL= 2ωL (the
reactance of the inductor at second harmonic frequency). The rms value of the ripple current is

I
r (rms)
=
4Vm 1
.
3π 2 X L
=
2  2Vm 
  =
2
V
3 2 X L  π  3 X L dc
( )
Always it was stated that XC is small as compared with RL, but it is not zero. The a.c.
voltage across the load (the ripple voltage) is the voltage across the capacitor.

Hence Vr ( rms ) = I r ( rms ) × X


C

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 2 
= V X
dc C
 3X L
  
We know that ripple factor γ is given by

Vr ( rms ) 2X
γ= = C
V 3X
dc L
1
But X = and XL = 2ωL
C 2ωC

∴γ =
2 1 1
3 ( 2ω L )
×
2ωC
=
6 2ω 2 LC

o m
∴γ =
6 2ω 2 LC
1

. c
This shows that ω is independent of RL.

ls
ir a
The necessity of Bleeder Resistance RB:

The basic requirement of this filter circuit is that the current through the choke must be

e
continuous and not interrupted. An interrupted current through the choke may develop a large

Jn
t
back e.m.f which may be in excess of PIV rating of the diodes and/or maximum voltage rating of

tu
m
the capacitor C. Thus this back e.m.f is harmful to the diodes and capacitor. To eliminate the back

at
a
e.m.f. developed across the choke, the current through it must be maintained continuous. This is

er
ia
assured by connecting a bleeder resistance, RB across the output terminals.

ls.
co
m
The full-wave rectifier with LC filter and bleeder resistance is shown in the figure below:

u M
n t
J
Fig. filter with Bleeder resistance
2 Vsm
We know, I = where RC is choke terminal resistance , R is RB RL
π RC + R
DC

4 Vsm
I =
2m 3π 2ω L

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___________________________________________________________________________

o m
. c
Thus IDC is seen to depend on load resistance R = R

ls

B RL  while I2m does not. I2m is

ir a
constant, independent of RL. The second harmonic terminal I2m is superimposed on IDC, as shown in
figure. If the load resistance is increased, IDC will decrease, but I2m will not.

If the load resistance is still further increased, a stage may come where IDC may become

e
Jn
less than I2m. In such situation, for a certain period of time in each cycle, the net current in the

t
tu
m
circuit will be zero. In other words, the current will be interrupted and not continuous. This

at
interruption of current, producing large back emf is harmful to both the diodes and filter capacitor

a
er
ia
C. To avoid such situation, certain minimum load current has to be drawn. For this purpose, the

ls.
bleeder resistance RB is so selected that it draws, a minimum current through choke.

co
m
The condition is IDC ≥ I2m

2 Vsm
u M =
4 Vsm
I DC =

⇒ RC + R ≥ 3ω L
π RC + R

n t ≥ I
2m 3π 2ω L

connected, then R=RB


Since R = J
RB RL ,
Usually RC << R, then R ≥ 3ω L

considering the worst case that the load resistance RL is not

∴ RB ≥ 3ω L
∴ RB ≥ 6π fL (Qω = 2π f )
If f=50Hz then RB ≥ 943L Practically, RB is selected to be equal to 900L.

Critical Inductance:

We have assumed that the current flows through the circuit all the times. For this, the
value of inductance L must be kept above certain minimum value which is called critical
Inductance. This value of inductance depends on load resistance RL and supply frequency ω.
R
The required value of critical inductance for 50Hz supply frequency is LC ≥ L
943
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Problem from previous External examination:

12. A full-wave rectifier supplies a load requiring 300V at 200mA. Calculate the transformer
secondary voltage for
i) a capacitor input filter using a capacitor of 10µF.
ii) a choke input filter using a choke of 10H and a capacitance of 10µF.
Neglect the resistance of choke.

Solution:

o m
. c
ls
ir a
e
Jn
t
tu
m
at
a
er
ia
ls.
co
m
u M
n t
J

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Multiple L-Section filters:

The number of L-sections i.e., LC circuits can be connected one after another to obtain
multiple L-section filter. It gives excellent filtering and smooth dc output voltage. The figure below
shows multiple L-section filter.

o m
. c
ls
ir a
Fig. Multiple L-sections.

⇒γ =
2 X C1 X C 2

e
Jn
For two section LC filter, the ripple factor is given by . .

t
tu
3 X X

m
L1 L 2

at
a
er
CLC Filter (or) Π – section Filter:

ia
ls.
co
This is capacitor input filter followed by a L-section filter. The ripple rejection capability of

m
M
a Π-section filter is very good. The full-wave rectifier with Π-section filter is shown in the figure.

t u
J n
Fig. Π-section Filter.

It consists of an inductance L with a dc winding resistance as RC and two capacitors C1 and


C2. The filter circuit is fed from fill wave rectifier. Generally two capacitors are selected equal.

The rectifier output is given to the capacitor c1. This capacitor offers very low reactance to
the ac component but blocks dc component. Hence capacitor C1 bypasses most of the ac
component. The dc component then reaches to the choke L. The choke L offers very high
reactance to dc. So it blocks ac component and does not allow it to reach to load while it allows dc
component to pass through it. The capacitor C2 now allows to pass remaining ac component and
almost pure dc component reaches to the load. The circuit looks like a Π, hence called Π-Filter.

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Ripple Factor:
The Fourier analysis of a triangular wave is given by

sin 4ωt sin 6ωt 


υ = Vdc − r  sin ωt −
V
+ ....  ……………(1)
π  2 3 
In case of full wave rectifier with capacitor filter, we have proved that

(∴C = C1here )
I I
Vγ = dc = dc ……………(2)
2 fC 2 fC1
The rms second harmonic voltage is
V
Vr ( rms ) = r ………….(3)
2
Substituting the value of Vr from equation (2) in equation (3), we get

Vr ( rms ) =
I
dc = 2 I . XC1
o m
c
…………(4)
2π fC1 2 dc

Where XC1 =
1
=
2ωC1 4π fC1
1
= reactance of C1 at second harmonic frequency.

ls .
ir a
The voltage Vr(rms) is impressed on L-section.
XC2
Now, the ripple voltage V’r(rms) can be obtained by multiplying Vr(rms) by i.e.,
XL

( ) e
Jn
XC
= (Vr )rms × 1
t
tu
Vr'

m
at
rms X

a
er
L

ia
ls.
( )
XC

co
Vr' = 2 I XC . 2

m
(or) …………(5)
rms dc 1 X

XC
L

u M
∴γ =
'
Vr
V
rms =
2 I XC
( )
dc 1 X
V
.
L
2

n t
dc dc

⇒γ =
J 2. XC . XC
R .X
1
L L
2
 I
Q dc =
 V
 dc
1 
RL 

2. XC . XC
∴γ = 1 2
R .X
L L
Here all reactances are calculated at second harmonic frequency. Substituting the values,
2
we get γ= 3
8ω C C LR
1 2 L
At f= 50Hz, γ= 5700
LC C RL
1 2
Where C1 and C2 are in µF, L in henrys and RL in ohms.

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___________________________________________________________________________

Multiple Π-Section Filter:

To obtain almost pure dc to the load, more Π-sections may be used one after another. Such
a filter using more than one Π-section is called multiple Π-section filter. The figure shows multiple
Π-section filters.

o m
. c
ls
Fig. Multiple Π-section Filter.

X X X

ir a
The ripple factor of two section Π-filter is given by γ = 2. C11 . C12 . C 22
RL X X
1 2
Problems:

e
Jn
t
tu
14. Design a CLC (or) Π-section filter for Vdc=10V, IL=200mA and γ=2%

m
at
a
er
Solution:

ia
V

ls.
10
RL = dc =

co
= 50Ω
200 ×10−3

m
I

γ=
L
5700

u M ⇒ 0.02 =
5700
=
114
LC C RL
1 2
If we assume L=10H and C1=C2=C, we have

n t LC C RL
1 2
LC C
1 2

⇒ 0.02 =

2
C = 750
114
LC 2
=
11.4
C2
⇒ 570
J = 24µF

Voltage Regulators:

A voltage regulator is an electronic device which produces constant output voltage


irrespective of variations in the input voltage and load variations.
A voltage regulator is an electronic circuit that produces a stable dc voltage independent of
the load current, temperature and ac line voltage variations.

Factors determining the stability:


The output voltage VO depends on the input unregulated dc voltage Vin, load current IL and
temperature T. Hence the change in output voltage of power supply can be expressed as follows:
∂VO ∂V ∂V
∆VO = ∆Vin + O ∆I L + O ∆T
∂Vin ∂I ∂T
L

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___________________________________________________________________________

∆VO = SV ∆Vin + RO ∆I L + ST ∆T
Where the three coefficients are defined as
∆VO
Input regulation factor, SV =
∆Vin ∆Vin=0 ; ∆T = 0
∆V
Output resistance, RO = O
∆I L ∆Vin=0 ; ∆T = 0
∆V
Temperature coefficient, ST = O
∆T ∆Vin=0 ; ∆I L = 0
Smaller the value of the three coefficients, better the regulation of power supply.

Load Regulation:

Load regulation is expressed as


o m
Load regulation =
V
no−load
−V
full −load

. c
ls
V
no−load
(or)

ir a
V −V
no−load full −load
Load regulation =
V
full −load

e
Jn
Where Vno-load is the output voltage at zero load current and Vfull-load is the output voltage at

t
tu
related load current. This is usually denoted in percentage.

m
at
a
er
Zener diode voltage regulator:

ia
ls.
co
m
u M
n t
J
Zener voltage regulator is shown in figure above, in which a zener diode is connected in
Fig. Zener Regulator.

parallel to the load resistance RL. The resistance RS is a current limiting resistor.

Vi, RS and RL fixed:

The analysis can be carried out into two steps.


i) Determining the state of the zener diode by removing it from the network and
calculating the voltage across the resulting open circuit.

RLVi
V = Vo =
R + RL
S
if V ≥ VZ the zener diode is ‘ON’
if V < VZ the zener diode is ‘OFF’.

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___________________________________________________________________________

ii) Substitute the appropriate equivalent circuit and solve for the desired unknowns.

VO = VZ

IZ = I R − I L

V
IL = Z
RL

V
IR = R
R
S
VR = Vi − VZ

PZ = VZ I Z

o m
Problem:

. c
ls
For the zener diode network of below figure determine VO, VR, VZ and PZ. Repeat the same
with RL=3kΩ

ir a
e
Jn
t
tu
m
at
a
er
ia
ls.
co
m
Solution:
To find the diode status, replace the diode by open circuit and by finding the voltage across

u M
the open circuit.

Vo =
16V ×1.2k Ω
n t Vo =
16 ×1.2
= 8.72 Volts

V
1 + 1.2k Ω
∴Vo < VZ ,

8.72
J 2.2
the zener diode is in ‘OFF’ state ∴ IZ = 0

IL = L = = 7.27 mA
RL 1.2k

V V − Vo 16 − 7.27
IR = R = i = = 8.72 mA
R R 1k Ω
With RL = 3KΩ:

16 × 3
Vo = = 12Volts.
4
VO > VZ ∴ The zener diode is ‘ON’.
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The equivalent circuit is replacing the zener by its equivalent voltage, to determine all the
parameters are shown below.
16 × 3
VL = = 12 Volts
4
Zener is ON
∴Vo = VZ = 10V
V 10
IL = Z = = 3.33mA
RL 3k Ω
V V −V 16 − 10 6
IR = R = i Z = = = 6mA
R R 1k Ω 1k Ω
IR = IZ + IL

I Z = I R − I L = 6-3.33 = 2.667 mA
o m
PZ = VZ .I Z = 10x2.667 = 2.66 mW.

. c
ls
Fixed Vi, R and variable RL:
R V
Vo = VZ = L i

ir a
R +R
S
Solving for RL
RV

e
Jn
R = i Z

t
tu
L min V − V

m
i Z

at
a
er
VZ

ia
I L max =

ls.
co
R

m
L min
Once the diode is in ‘ON’ state

VR = Vi − VZ
u M
V
IR = R
n t IZ = IR − IL

Problem:
I
R

L min
= I R − I ZM J RL max =
I
VZ

L min

For the network shown below, determine the range of RL and IL that will result in VL being
maintained at 10V.

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___________________________________________________________________________

Solution:
RV. Z 1k Ω×10V 10k Ω
R = = = = 0.25k Ω
L min V − V 50 − 10 40
i Z
VZ 10
I L max = = = 40mA
R 0.25k
L min
VR = Vi − VZ

VR = 50 − 10 = 40

V 40
IR = R = = 40mA

I
R 1k Ω

L min
= I R − I ZM
o m
VZ
= 40-32 = 8mA

. c
ls
10
RL max = = = 1.25k Ω
I 8mA
L min
Fixed R, RL and variable Vi:
R V
Vo = VZ = L i
R + RL ir a
e
Jn
t
tu
( R + RL )VZ

m
at
a
er
V =

ia
i min

ls.
RL

co
m
I R max = I ZM + I L

IZ = Z
V

u M
RL
Vi max = VR max + VZ
n t
Problem:
VR max = I R max . R ( J )

Determine the range of values of Vi, that will maintain the zener diode of figure below is in
the ‘ON’ state.

Solution:

Vimin = 23.67V Vimax = 36.87V

V =
( R + RL )VZ
i min RL

=
( 220 + 1200 ) 20 = 23.67V
1200
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___________________________________________________________________________

Vi max = VR max + VZ

( )
= I R max R + VZ

= ( I ZM + I L ) R + VZ

 20 
=  60mA + ( 220 ) + 20
 1.2k 
=36.87 Volts

Basic Voltage Regulator:

i)
ii)
The basic voltage regulator in its simplest form consists of,
Voltage reference, VR
Error amplifier

o m
iii)
iv)
Feedback network
Active series (or) shunt control element.

. c
ls
The voltage reference generally a voltage level which is applied to the comparator circuit,
which is generally error amplifier. The second input to the error amplifier is obtained through

ir a
feedback network. Generally using the potential divider, the feedback signal is derived by sampling
the output voltage. The error amplifier converts the difference between the output sample and the
reference voltage into an error signal. This error signal in turn controls the active element of the
regulator circuit, in order to compensate the change in the output voltage. Such an active element
is generally a transistor. Thus the output voltage of the regulator is maintained constant.

e
Jn
t
tu
Types of voltage Regulators:

m
at
a
er
There are two types of voltage regulators available namely,

ia
ls.
i) Shunt voltage regulator

co
ii) Series voltage regulator

m
Shunt Voltage Regulator:
Each type provides a constant dc output voltage which is regulated.

u M
The heart of any voltage regulator circuit is a control element.

n t
If such a control element is connected in shunt with the load, the regulator circuit is called

J
shunt voltage regulator.
The figure shows the block diagram of shunt voltage regulator circuit.

Fig. Block diagram of shunt voltage regulator.

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The unregulated input voltage Vin, tries to provide the load current. But part of the current
is taken by the control element, to maintain the constant voltage across the load.

If there is any change in the load voltage, the sampling circuit provides a feedback signal to
the comparator circuit.
The comparator circuit compares the feedback signal with the reference voltage and
generates a control signal which decides the amount of current required to be shunted to keep the
load voltage constant.
For example, if load voltage increases then comparator circuit decides the control signal
based on the feedback information, which draws increased shunt current Ish value.
Due to this, the load current IL deceases and hence the load voltage decreases to its
normal.

m
Thus control element maintains the constant output voltage by shunting the current; hence
the regulator circuit is called voltage shunt regulator circuit.

Series Voltage Regulator:

If in a voltage regulator circuit, the control element is connected in series with the load, the

. c o
ls
circuit is called series voltage regulator circuit.
Figure shows the block diagram of series voltage regulator circuit.

ir a
The unregulated dc voltage is the input to the circuit.

e
Jn
t
tu
m
at
a
er
ia
ls.
co
m
u M
n t
J
The control element controls the amount of the input voltage that gets to the output. The
sampling circuit provides the necessary feedback signal. The comparator circuit compares the
Fig. Block diagram of series voltage regulator.

feedback with the reference voltage to generate the appropriate control signal.

For example, if the load voltage tries to increase, the comparator generates a control signal
based on the feedback information. This control signal causes the control element to decrease the
amount of the output voltage. Thus the output voltage is maintained constant.

Thus, the control element which regulates the load voltage, based on the control signal is in
series with the load and hence the circuit is called series voltage regulator circuit.

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Comparison of Shunt and Series voltage regulators:

Sl.
Shunt Regulator Series Regulator
No.

The control element is in parallel with The control element is in series with
1.
the load. the load.

Only small current passes through the


The entire load current IL always
2. control element which is required to be
passes through the control element.
diverted to keep output constant

3.
Any change in output voltage is
compensated by changing the current
Ish through the control element as per m
Any change in output voltage is

o
compensated by adjusting the voltage
across the control element as per the
the control signal. control signal.

. c
ls
The control element is low current, The control element is high current,
4.
high voltage rating component. low voltage rating component.

5. The regulation is poor.

ir a
The regulation is good.

e
Efficiency depends on the output

Jn
6. Efficiency depends on the load current.
voltage.

t
tu
m
at
a
er
ia
Not suitable for varying load

ls.
7. conditions. Preferred for fixed voltage Preferred for fixed as well as variable.

co
m
applications.

u M Complicated to design as compared to

t
8. Simple to design.
shunt regulators.

9.

J
Examples: Zener Shunt regulators,
transistorized shunt regulator etc., n Examples: Series feedback type
regulator, series regulator with pre-
regulator and feedback limiting etc.,

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