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EXTENSION AND REMODELING CRITERIA OF A UNIVERSITY

HERITAGE BUILDING

ALTERNATIVE PLAN OF
DEVELOPMENT FOR THE CAMPUS ORIENTE, UC

“CAMPUS IN A CITY”
By

JORIS KATKEVICIUS

Thesis presented to the Faculty of Architecture of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile,
Thesis presented to the Faculty of Architecture of Politecnico de Milano,
  to apply for the academic degree / professional degree of Architect

Professor Guide:

This thesis is a work of several years aboad during my double degree programme and I am greatfull for
several mentors for guiding:
Prof: Germán Hidalgo, José Quintanilla - Aula Patrimonial
Prof: Sebastián Gray Avins - Aula Libre
Prof: Jacopo Leveratto - Final Thesis

Medina Sidonia, España


© June, 2017, Joris Katkevicius
For the infinite amount of love that this earth can bear.

1935. View of Campus Oriente, east façade. Source: Marcos Bravo Archive

Full or partial reproduction is authorized, for academic purposes, by any means or procedure, including
the bibliographic citation of the document.

103
BIBLIOGRAPHY ABSTRACT

The Campus Oriente Building - construction of the BeauxArt language and neo-romanesque appearance
was built with the intention of educating young girls, by the French Nuns. Started in 1927, it is of a cloister type,
occupying a large green field, which is dedicated to sports, cultivation and recreation that was never completely
Aymonino Carlo. 1980. Campus scolastico a Pesaro. Progetto / dettaglio. Presentazione di Francesco finished, nor its occupation of land, nor in its decorations. The building that originally contemplated 8 courtyards
Moschini. Roma, Edizioni Kappa. Bannen Lanata P.; Seisdedos Morales S., 2007. Campus Oriente : edificio y with a central temple, but throughout the years due to the lack of money, began to sell their properties, selling
ciudad como realidades paralelas : el diálogo secreto entre arquitectura y territorio, pasos tras la historia del lugar. them, until culminating with the transfer of Campus to the Catholic University, which in the beginning from
Universidad Católica de Chile. Campus Oriente, Santiago, Chile. the 80’s’ did not have enough space for several faculties. At that time for its activities and demonstrations, this
campus used to be called ‘’ the red campus ‘’. At the end of the development of the San Joaquin Campus, the
Busquets, J. 2004. Bringing the harvard yards to the river. Cambridge mass: Harvard Design School.
Oriente Campus was emptied, leaving only the Faculties of Arts, Music, Theater and Esthetics Institute, the
Coppola Pignatelli P., Mandolesi D., 1997. L’architettura delle università. Roma, Italia. Language Center. The SSCC Monjitas are currently installed in the western part of the same block, in houses
Corporación Ciudad Accesible. 2014. Guía de accesibilidad universal. Santiago, Chile. built as a professional school.
Kahn, L. I. 1984 .Forma y diseño. Buenos aires: nueva visión. The current Campus Oriente development plan contemplates the construction of new spaces for new
Ministerio de Educación, División de Planificación y Presupuesto, UNESCO. 2009. Guía de diseño de facilities. In general terms, the “Anchor” Program includes the following: Oriente Extension Center - (5,685
espacios educativos ministerio de educación, división de planificación. Santiago, Chile. m2), Language Center - (2,665 m2), Offices of the Centers - (191 m2), Other enclosures - (942 m2), Parking -
(7,550 m2). In the last phase it is planned to acquire land from the current SSCC school, reaching 89 thousand
Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo, 16 de Abril de 1992. Ordenanza General de Urbanismo y
square meters of land, with 140 thousand meters of program.
Construcciones, Santiago, Chile.
With the current plan some problems are generated:
Moneo, R. 1985 “La vida de los edificios. Las ampliaciones de la mezquita de córdoba”. Revista arquitectura
nº 256, Madrid, Spain. First, - programmatic: many spaces are planned for the extension center but the current needs of the
students are not resolved.
Muthesius, S. 2000. The postwar university. Utopianist campus and college. New haven and london: yale
university press. Second: the distribution of programmed spaces is still a kind of ‘’ salad ‘’
Norberg–Schulz, C. 1992. Genius loci. Paesaggio ambiente architettura. Milano: Electa. Third: the front garden of the existing mansion is not respected - the current plan aims to generate the
hard square on underground parking just between the façade of the building and the east diagonal cutting
Pallasmaa, J. 2006. Los ojos de la piel: la arquitectura y los sentidos. Barcelona: Gustavo Gili.
existing palm trees, which may have a future as a park between two communes.
Perec Georges - 2001. Especies de Espacios, Barcelona, Spain.
Fourth: actual proposal does not foresee a future growth of the campus as a whole, as a consolidated
Prado José A. Cristián Valdés R.; 2014. Anteproyecto plan regulador Campus Oriente. Pontificia super block university campus. Neither generates any opening to the public, has no interaction in its semi-public
Universidad Católica de Chile. Campus Oriente, Santiago, Chile. perimeter membrane with the urban context.
Rasmussen, S. E. 2004. La experiencia de la arquitectura. Sobre la percepción de nuestro entorno. In alternative program there are the 14,000 m2 built of what are 5,000 m2 of parking, alternative plan
Barcelona: Editorial Reverté. proposes to start from the last phase planned in the current development - the acquisition of the grounds of the
Sekler, Eduard F. 1978. Le corbusier at work: the genesis of the carpenter center for the visual arts. Cambridge, College, to achieve an east-west axis as the pragmatic axis in the orthogonal relationship with the historical-
mass.: Harvard university press. representative axis (there is still only 1 entrance in the block of a perimeter of 1km). Thus displacing the
Universidad Católica de Chile. 2012. Informe al Consejo Superior sobre el estado del anteproyecto para el interventions in front of the façade, (which is protected by being of historical preservation building category),
campus San Joaquín UC. Campus San Joaquín, Santiago, Chile. inside the block, dividing it into two parts - east and west. In other words, generating a project intervention on
the campus scale - consolidating the block again.
It is not about proposing the design of a building, nor the design of a part of the city, but intervening on
an intermediate scale between both instances.
Therefore, the theme of this project will be: Criteria for expansion and remodeling of a university heritage
building, and the case: Alternative Development Plan for Campus Oriente, UC or in simple words - the campus
in the city.

102 3
INDEX

ABSTRACT p. 3
INDEX p. 4
THEME p. 6
CASE p. 7
CLIENT p. 9
ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY p. 14
ROLE OF THE CAMPUS ORIENTE IN THE URBANIZATION OF ÑUÑOA
DURING THE 20TH CENTURY p. 18
FRAGMENTATION OF A TERRITORY. CONSOLIDATION OF
THE CAMPUS ORIENTE BLOCK p. 27
THE START OF THE INTERNMENT OF ÑUÑOA OF THE SS.CC. p. 33
PROJECTS - THE CREATION OF CAMPUS ORIENTE p. 38
PLACE p. 47
FLORA LOCAL p. 53
LOCAL MATERIALS p. 56
FLORA OF CAMPUS p. 59
CAMPUS VEGETATION p. 60
BUILDING MATERIALS AND DETAILS p. 61
GENERAL ORDINANCE OF URBAN PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTIONS p. 62
LOCAL REGULATIONS p. 63
MAPPING p. 65
ACCESSABILITY AND SECURITY NORMATIVES p. 67
REQUEST AND STRATEGIES p. 68
CRITICISM OF THE CURRENT PLAN p. 69
ORIENTE (EAST) - PONIENTE (WEST) REAR PLACES - POTENTAL OPORTUNITY p. 71 Model views of West (top) and East (bottom) Temple model and day-light simulation
CORRIDOR AS A PLACE p. 72
ASSIGNMENT p. 73
MASTER PLAN p. 74
PROGRAM p. 76
REFERENCES p. 79
PROJECT ARGUMENTS p. 81
DEFINITION OF THE ARCHITECTURE PROBLEM p. 82
SCHEMES OF THE PROJECT p. 84
PHYSICAL MODEL p. 100
BIBLIOGRAPHY p. 102

4 101
PHYSICAL MODEL

Various model views

Source: Perec Georges - Espèces d’espaces

100 5
THEME

Criteria for expansion and remodeling of a university heritage building.

From the understanding that architecture is a vital cycle, the project takes on a new meaning, becoming
specific by incorporating a new degree of responsibility, a new ethic, in the face of the transformation process that
it takes over. I refer to a process in which the intervention must be transparent. This need to reveal what has been
a process that has developed over time, according to certain formal logics, constructive, and programmatic, was
subject to the investigative dimension that I considered in this stage of the title, investigating the possibilities of
generating a university campus in the city.
This approach makes it necessary to conceptually define what a campus is. In practical terms, it is a
matter of the proposal giving account of said scale, without having to come to propose, necessarily and strictly,
a proposal for the totality of what exists. It is, at heart, to touch that magnitude of the problem.
Logically, this aspect of the problem raised the practical question of graphic scales. Questions to be
answered were: what will be the most appropriate work scales in relation to the campus scale? What is the
scale assumed by the whole? What is the scale that the part assumes? What is, finally, the magnitude of the
intervention?
Finally, in methodological terms, the Patrimonial Thematic Classroom with which I started my degree
(Guiding teachers: Germán Hidalgo - José Quintanilla) proposed a work system based on the evaluation of
observation and, consequently, the necessary consideration of the pre-existing . For this, representation was
proposed as the main method leading to the project. And this, in a double instance: first as a research method,
that is, as a mode of study and therefore of access to knowledge; and second, as project method, that is, creation
and proposal.
Representation as a research method: the survey was proposed as a form of work, as a cognitive strategy
that, in a strict sense, has been at the origin of the discipline since the fi fteenth century onwards. The survey
thus raised also assumes a double meaning: as a normative and conventional uprising, and as an “appropriate”
or intentional uprising.
Representation as project method: architectural representation will be understood in its generative
dimension, a quality that emerges, according to Robin Evans, from its own regulations and regulatory keys. The
themes of architecture, its motives, are generated from itself, based on its strengths and limitations.
Interior view of new temple
In view of this double look on the object of study and that has the representation at its center, the proposal
of architecture is expected to emerge. In summary, this method of work has its foundations in the sentence of
Manuel de Solá-Morales, which synthesizes a work of decades in the Urbanism Laboratory of Barcelona, which
states that “to draw is to select, to select is to interpret, and to interpret is to propose “
As it is possible to notice, if each of the components of this phrase is analyzed in depth, the drawing
assumes a central role, both in the process of understanding a certain reality that we wish to modify, and in the
method to be followed for its transformation. . Thus, it is perfectly applicable to any of the design arts, be it the
architecture, the city, or the landscape, that is, to any of these arts that considers a previously existing reality,
and that is at the base of that which is to come.
The Campus is more than a set of buildings, less than a city and has several project entries. So, what are
the existing criteria of first importance? Which are intangible, and which ones do I consider to propose?

6 99
CASE

We address a specific case: What could be the alternative plan to the development plan campus
east, UC?

From a real development plan, I reinterpreted this requirement opening the possibility of “speculating”
academically on the scope of this initiative - that is, understanding the project in the same terms as an
investigation.
The need to incorporate a new program in an old and unfinished building, is an opportunity to rethink
it, in the sense of giving a Copernican turn to its atavistic enclosure, opening it to the city and the community.
It is not, however, a symbolic opening, in the terms that could be inferred from this type of program, but
to open it formally and physically according to the possibilities offered by the neighborhood and the city
of Santiago at present. That is to say, insofar as creation of a new institution, sensitive to the spirit of the times,
inserts in a more open, democratic, and inclusive society.
In summary: it is intended that the Plan for future development will house both the Faculty of Art
(School of Art, Theater and Music), Institute of Aesthetics, and the New East Extension Center. Between these
two large units, places and spaces that potentially can host unpublished programs not contemplated in the
current program, and that give meaning to the functioning of both entities, should be considered.

Isometric cut new temple

Isometric view of university campus and main heritage building

98 7
Current situation of the campus - introduction:
A Current Campus Oriente
B Current CC.SS. site
C - ‘’ El Campo ‘’ sports, recreation, leisure
D - the original ‘chacra’ - farm field) ( of the convent - SS.CC. school)
E - Esplanade
1 Temple
2 Patio de artes - main courtyard
3 Courtyard faculty of arts
4 Library courtyard
5 Music courtyard Oriente workshop view from -4m

6 Patio of the virgin - theater courtyard


7 Language courtyard
8 Courtyard of the temple - courtyard of aesthetic institute
9 DUOC courtyard

8 97
CLIENT

Source: Plan desarrollo de Campus Oriente, (2012)

The Campus Oriente Development Plan has been designed to respond to the need to project, revitalize
and increase university activity in the Campus Oriente, by incorporating units and programs whose objectives
contribute to the fulfi llment of the University’s mission. The fundamental purpose is that “the Campus Oriente
is constituted in a space dedicated to generate, welcome and articulate current and new academic programs in
the cultural, artistic, social and educational spheres that, based on the principles and values of the Catholic
Church , are aimed at realizing the purposes of the university in national and international society. “
Likewise, the Plan seeks to position the campus as a convener place in the themes of faith, culture and
development and a pioneer in articulating units of the continuum that are part of the educational system of
the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, particularly in the fields of education. continuous, professional
technical training and the Catholic world. In this sense, the Campus Oriente constitutes a favorable space for
new encounters of the university with different worlds and audiences, offering lucid and effective answers to the
needs and challenges of contemporary society.
The projects included in this Plan will make it possible to give a coherent sense to the development of the
campus, recover its architectural heritage value and establish the bases to provide its operation with financial
sustainability. To achieve the above, the plan proposes to increase the offer of continuing education courses on
the Campus, along with the installation of four new centers, whose characteristics allow synergies and savings
with the units that currently operate there. The gradual application of all these decisions, together with the
teaching programs of the Bachelor of Arts, Music, Acting and Aesthetics, will increase the critical mass of
students on campus, from 1,224 in 2012, to 3,405 students in the year 2015.
The plan includes the design and construction of a new place for continuing education and extension
activities: “Oriente Extension Center”. This Center will respond to the growing demand for improvement
of professionals, technicians and the general public, through a wide range of programs of Diplomas, Cycles,
Seminars and Courses of improvement. Likewise, it will house activities of the Extension both of the University
and external. The Oriente Extension Center will have adequate facilities and equipment for conducting
lectures, congresses and events (auditoriums, halls, rooms); exhibitions (square, galleries, rooms) and with the
Poniente view
services for adult public (restaurant, cafeteria, parking, library). This new Extension Center has the additional
advantage of establishing synergies and economies to enhance the activities of the Faculty of Arts, the Institute
of Aesthetics and the Confucius Institute, constituting a new cultural center and another exhibition platform
for the community, installed in a new territoriality
In the institutional dimension of Catholic identity and service to society, the creation of the “Faith,
Culture and Development Center in Latin America” is proposed, defined as an academic multidisciplinary
space dedicated to promoting the dialogue of the Catholic faith with culture, trying to contribute to a deeper
and unitary understanding of the Latin American reality and to find adequate responses to the challenges that
cultural changes represent for the people and peoples of this continental region. Dedicated to strengthening
Catholic reflection on society, this center of thought and dialogue is organized to bring together academics
from the faculties of the University, and other national and international centers of study, who have research
and publications that integrate knowledge in subjects of faith, culture and development. In the first phase it will
organize Permanent Seminars, Diplomas, Courses of Continuing Education and General Training. In a second
stage of maturation, with the endorsement of the Faculties, this Center could advance towards the postgraduate
offer.
In response to the increase in the needs of national teachers for permanent training, the creation of
the “Center for Professional Development in Education” is contemplated, aimed at making a leap in terms
of magnitude and quality in the offer of opportunities for improvement and updating professors in exercise,
who work in the levels of Nursery, Primary and Secondary Education. To the traditional need of recycling
View from second floor East and improvement of the national teaching, new demands associated with the Chilean Education Reform, the
96 9
development of technologies for the teaching and learning processes, the increase in the coverage of tertiary
education are added, and the greater demands of training and certification to exercise managerial functions.
This center is connected to the development lines of the Faculty of Education, represents a great opportunity to
take a position at the national level and articulates well with the competencies and capacities of other faculties
of the university regarding disciplines, technologies and training of management cadres.
The “UC Language Center” is the fourth center considered in the Campus Oriente Plan, in response
to the increasingly growing need and demand for language proficiency experienced by Chilean professionals,
technicians, students and citizens, given the internationalization in which an important part of national
activities is found. The project consists of installing a Language Center, mainly of the English language, that
applies innovative and effective methodologies, supported by the UC brand and in association with a foreign
and / or national entity. It will offer regular and intensive English programs and courses, aimed at university
students, professionals, technicians and other interested publics. The Center will have its own space in the
Campus Oriente, “English Town” designed and set to reproduce and generate the conditions of immersion in
the English language, a decisive factor for the mastery of a language. In this way a new standard of facilities is
generated to enhance the English language training of the students of the university. The Language Center UC,
will also allow to host and articulate the teaching of Spanish for foreigners, Chinese, German and French that
make different units of the university.
Remodeling and constructions:
View of -4m Entrance to Poniente theater
The project contemplates a complete plan of remodeling and construction to have the adequate
infrastructure to the new activities that will be installed in the Campus, making a more efficient use of its
buildings, at the same time respecting the patrimonial and architectural value of it.
The plan consists of a first stage in the remodeling of a series of rooms, spaces and offices to host the
installation and commissioning of the four centers. The first group of rooms and offices was enabled as of
the second semester of 2013, which has made it possible to carry out the first activities. In January 2014 the
construction of a building for teaching use of the Faculty of Arts will begin. Along with the above, a series
of works is estimated in successive stages, for the installation of the UC Language Center and the Teacher
Professional Development Center, as well as for a Faith, Culture and Development Center, all of which will be
installed in the courtyards. that face the front of the building, including underground parking lots in sufficient
quantity to absorb the new demand, all of which will be programmed starting from the vacating of spaces in
the sector.
Finally, the installation of a teaching building for the Oriente Extension Center will be studied, a work
that would occupy in principle a large part of the subsoil facing Jaime Guzmán Street, and that would close this
important development project of the University in the sector .
As of November 2013, a more active dissemination of the Plan has begun within the academic community
of the UC. The info-graphic presented below has been installed in several areas of the East Campus.
“Anchor” Program
In general terms, the “Anchor” Program includes the following parts:
• Oriente Extension Center 5.685 m2
• Language Center 2,665 m2
• Offices of the Centers 191 m2
• Other enclosures942 m2
• Parking spaces 7,550 m2

Poniente view

10 95
The service entrance and front of palm trees

Top view of the project

Left - commune of Providencia - on the right Ñuñoa

View from Poniente entrance

Current parking occupying the campus floor


94 11
Temple view View of music patio aisle

Isometric sections Oriente

Temple patio view Temple aisle - terrace view


12 93
New building of faculty of Arts View of the second floor to the east

Principal entrance Arts courtyard - main patio

Corner view N-E View from transept of the temple to the courtyard of the virgin

Isometric sections Poniente

View of the library courtyard with temple apse View of the field with cordillera behind.

92 13
ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY

Floor level plan generated by direct personal survey

14 91
Building:
Today it has 8 courtyards of which the last two in front of Avenida Jaime Guzmán Errázuriz already has
its blueprints that foresee some ‘’ bridges ‘’ with first floor free and second floor occupied by classrooms. The
main building has 2 floors of height 4.5m, the width of 7.5m and the corridors that run for approx. 1.6 km are
on average 3 meters wide and the rhythm of the colonnades of the first floor east to 4.20, articulating up to
4.50 in the crossings. The second floor has a 1.1m parapet and double colonnade density. Building is made of
reinforced concrete and clay bricks level, partially decorated - at the entrance, and in the aesthetic courtyard. It
has a lot of thermal mass, and withstood several tremors without any serious damage.

Main sections

Elevations and section from personal direct survey

90 15
Current context - vegetation and built

16 89
Second floor plan

Current context - satellite views - top, west (poniente), east (oriente).


88 17
ROLE OF THE CAMPUS ORIENTE IN THE URBANIZATION OF
ÑUÑOA DURING THE 20TH CENTURY

Palms of front garden. Source: Archivo Marcos Bravo

Actual picture

18 87
Source: Marcos Bravo Archive

Context in which the building is located:


In a first assessment of the current configuration of Ñuñoa, the huge building built between 1922 and
1932 as the seat of the College of the French Nuns of the Sacred Heart, and the block on which it is located,
constitutes a kind of turning point or break, in which the structure of the commune, a grid layout in a north-
south direction faces a “diagonal” that extends parallel to the position of the Campus.
It is possible that in the process of urbanization of the commune, the location of the building and its
block are the detonators of this break, that is, that part of the urban layout of Ñuñoa is a consequence of the
position of the building we are studying. We are going to discover the role that Campus Oriente has and the
block it occupies, in the urbanization of the piece of city that forms its environment.
The building designed by Juan Lyon to be a school and convent, is located in the then eastern periphery
of Santiago, in the municipality of Ñuñoa, in the context of a relatively recent expansion of the city beyond its
historic center. The same factors that cause this phenomenon explain to a large extent the characteristics of the
original project, such as its location, its position, and its dimensions.
It was possible to locate it in that distant commune of the early twentieth century, thanks to the fact
that it had a network of electric trams and “blood cars” that connected it internally and with the rest of the
city. As René León Echaiz (1972) comments: “... as a symbol of the mixed urban and rural character that still
preserves the region, it was seen running through the streets of Ñuñoa, along with electric trams, exponents of
the progress of the century, to the old trams pulled by horses ... “The nearest electric tram was N ° 3,” Ñuñoa-Los
Guindos “, which passed by Ñuñoa road (current Irarrázabal) from Vicuña Mackenna to av. Ossa. The school
is located relatively close to these lines, but at a sufficient distance so as not to be disturbed by the noises and
Ground floor plan smells, negative externalities of these transport systems.
The Autonomous Community Law of 1891 creates the municipality of Ñuñoa and empowers the
municipality to finance itself by means of plots. This produces the dynamic by which Ñuñoa is urbanized and in
86 19
which the School is registered. This one is built
to the northeast of the San Jose farm, occupying
a whole block, and to the south west the Regina
Pacis population is finished urbanizing a couple
of years after the end of the construction of the
building. The planners privilege the orientation
of the farm before that of the pre-existing layout
for reasons that will be discussed later.
On the other hand, the recent colonies
of immigrants that settle down to live and
work in Ñuñoa introduce the concern for
hygiene when choosing where to settle. This is
how Ñuñoa sports and recreational facilities
appear, such as the “Haras Limited” race track.
According to Montserrat Palmer (1984), “the
hygienic way of life” meant new spaces, which
introduce an unprecedented measure in the
Spanish-Frenchified city of the old town ...
“ This explains the scale, not so much of the
building that is meant to be large to house a
school and a convent, but of the block in which
it is placed alone and surrounded by a large area
of unbuilt land, available for activities sports
and recreation. Armando de Ramón (2000)
Trams - Intervention “General plan of Santiago and its surroundings” 1924,
comments in this regard that young people of prepared by the “Compañía Chilena de Electricidad Ltda.”
the upper class look with “envy and remoteness” Source: “Ñuñohye”, René León Echaiz, 1972
this way of life, and soon find ways to leave the
old town. The middle class is followed by the
high school, which is not minor, taking into
account the target audience of the school.
Urban operations of the Juan Lyon
and Jorge Munita Project:
In the context described above takes the
project of Juan Lyon. The San José farm owned
by the French Nuns limited to the north in
the current Av. Echenique, to the east in the
Camino Cerda (current Eliecer Parada) and to
the south in Simón Bolívar. It was located to
the east of the working Population of the same
name, which dates from 1896, being one of the
oldest populations of Ñuñoa.
It is a typical Ñuñoa practice to plot land
from the idea of an block in the traditional
city, with turns and deformations among the
previous rural routes. However, neither the Site isometric view
Appreciation of two routes around Campus Oriente
position of the school, nor the size of its block,
nor the urbanization of the remaining land of
the original farm, are adapted to the preexisting
grid. The building is placed on a diagonal with
respect to the layout of the San José population,
20 85
SCHEMES OF THE PROJECT

privileging the orientation of the farm. It is noticeable by the layout itself that the intention of the designers was
not to link with the population. Neither Juan Lyon in charge of the building, nor Jorge Munida, in charge of the
urbanization, carry out operations that reveal the intent of linking the school and the population.
The originated streets are:
The current Chile Spain, in the section that goes from Av. Echenique to Simón Bolívar, and that is the
street where the roads of the population are located. The current Jaíme Guzmán (in those days known as Santa
Clara) only in its section between Chile Spain and Eliecer Parada. Regina Pacis, placed in the central axis of the
building that tops it.
Av. Holland, in those days continuing avenue San Luis of the population San José to Simón Bolívar.
A milestone to the borede of the city:
The blocks that make up these streets are parceled. Gradually begin to be effective in the model of garden
city in the twenties, which contrasts sharply with the traditional city model of continuous façade and without
front garden of the population San Jose.
The adoption of this model, the arrival of the middle class and finally of the upper class to the communes
occurs in parallel to the construction of the building. In this scenario the school was inaugurated at the
beginning of the thirties, still in a peripheral situation, but trusting first female students of the city, beyond
their imediations.
It is posed by turning its back on the preexistence of the commune, in a very removed position, trusting
in the arrival of the most affluent actors. Possibly they hope to provoke a change in the place, finally attracting
the families of their students to live nearby.
This is how a representation of the initial situation of the school of the French nuns was constructed, as
an architectural, social and cultural milestone.
Configuration of an urbanity:
The immediate surroundings of the College can be considered urbanized only in the first years of the
fi fties. The mechanics of the gradual but unstoppable urbanization of Ñuñoa have already been explained,
mainly by means of private land subdivisions, independent of each other.
At the moment that the construction begins, the great existing urbanization is the population San José to
the west. Further to the south extends the population of Spain in 1911. To the north there are no urbanizations,
only the “Haras Limited” race track, and to the east the Cerda farm, still undeveloped. In parallel, towards
the end of the construction of the building, Bolívar and Brown streets (current Simón Bolívar and Brown
Norte) have been extended and the Regina Pacis population has been urbanized, in the remaining land of
the San José farm. The Walker Martínez population has also been urbanized, connecting the School with
the Plaza de Ñuñoa in Irarrázabal, and with the electric tram. Towards the end of the thirties, the Banco de
Chile population expanded, and the diagonal continued; and the urbanization of the Los Leones hacienda has
advanced, connecting the streets of Los Leones and Ricardo Lyon with the population of San José.
All the tracings so far tend to repeat the typical north-south grid, with some deformations due to the
pre-existing rural roads.
The next ten years, the forties, are crucial for the consolidation of the immediate environment of the
school of the French Nuns, and of Ñuñoa as a city of Jardin. It is in this era where the notion of the place of the
rural space is finally lost. To the south east, on the other side of the current Eliecer Parada, the old Cerdada road,
and to the north, on the other side of the current Echenique Avenue, the farms “Lo Cerda” and “El Belloto”
were extended respectively. The population of South America, which is based on the first, is parallel to the
Site plan position of the School, but in the extreme south it is connected to the Ñuñoa route by Simón Bolívar, taking
advantage of creating curves typical of a garden city.
In the second property the population El Belloto I and II is installed, whose layout is a superposition of
both tissues, the traditional layout and the new parallel to the School. In a first operation the north section of
Brown Street is drawn and urbanized, placing it on the same axis as the street of the same name that extended
84 21
to the south of the building. The axis of these
streets is interrupted by an unoccupied corner
of the school block. In the slow process of
urbanization, towards the fi fties, secondary
streets appear, which draw curves that connect
with the layout of the South American
population.
Also in the 50’s the Hacienda Los Leones
was finished urbanizing. The land occupied
by the “Haras Limited” is now the residential
Blibao population, which continues the
curvilinear layout of the El Belloto population
and connects it with the fabric of Providencia
The decisions of Karl Brunner:
The 1930s are marked by the first attempt
to rationalize the garden city originated in the
manner described above. Under the Influence
of Karl Brunner concepts, regulatory blueprints Limits of Ñuñoa in period studied - intervention on “General plan of
for Ñuñoa and Providencia begin to be studied. Santiago and its surroundings” 1924, prepared by the “Compañía Chilena
It is in this context that the current Avenida de Electricidad Ltda.”
Jaime Guzmán or Diagonal Oriente originates, Source: “Ñuñohue”, René León Echaiz, 1972
which passes through the façade of the School.
The school of the French Nuns was
already being built, and in its final stages, when
Brunner arrived in 1929 and began to study.
The lack of available sources with regard to the
designers of the School makes it difficult to
know for sure if they ever took the diagonal into
account in their intentions. Nor is it possible to
establish whether the Austrian decided to draw
the diagonal taking into account the building.
He never mentions the school of the French
Nuns among the architectural landmarks
that he wishes to promote, although the
block in which it is located does appear in the
illustrations.
In spite of the above, it is possible to
delimit through its urban concepts, and of
declared intentions, some qualities that the
diagonals must fulfi ll that explain to some
extent how the Diagonal Oriente and the
convent school are related.
According to Brunner himself (1930) in
an inaugural lecture at the University of Chile,
the studies for the diagonal start as specific
blueprints for Ñuñoa and Providencia. In 1932
Project location 1934. San José farm and original block
it is already conceived definitively, from Plaza Sources: Piano of Santiago and its surroundings “I” 3u, prepared by D.A.K.
Italia to Irarrázabal, on the corner of Berlin, “Santiago” map prepared by the Chilean Army. 1895 -1905 “Housing and
passing through the Plaza de Septiembre of the urbanization of Ñuñoa in the 20th century”, Margarita de Murtinho, 1987

22 83
DEFINITION OF THE ARCHITECTURE PROBLEM

Urbanization by stages of the current Providencia commune: from rural order until today.
Source: Municipalidad de Providencia - SECPLA - Urban Advisory Department - PRCP 2007 - Explanatory Memory

San José town and the school. In the publication that same year, of “Santiago de Chile, its present state and
future formation” and in the conference of 1930 already mentioned, it explains the concepts behind the tracing
of its diagonals, and specifically of which it declares more important: the Diagonal East.
For Brunner, the diagonals respond to road and architectural needs. On the one hand you want to connect
Ñuñoa expeditiously with the center, on the other, it emphasizes repeatedly that the diagonals must improve
the architectural ensemble of the city, creating monumental views of the noblest buildings and facilitating the
arrival to them. Brunner believes that the city is the physical expression of the “culture and civilization” of those
who inhabit it, so he strives to embellish it and improve its architecture. He has no problems in proposing the
opening of streets, but he is careful to destroy public and large buildings.
82 23
PROJECT ARGUMENTS

Sources: “General map of Santiago and its surroundings” 1924, prepared by “Compañía Chilena de Electricidad
Ltda.” “Housing and urbanization of Ñuñoa in the XX century”, Margarita de Murtinho. 1987 “The commune of
Providence and the Garden City”, Montserrat Palmer T. 1984

24 81
Un ejemplo de MAT-building Universidad Libre de Berlín.

Arquitectos colaboradores:
Geroges Candilis
Alezis Josic
Shadrach Woods
Manfried Schiedhelm
Jean Prouvé

1963 - Propuesta de concurso.


1964 Encargo del proyecto de la 1a fase
1967 Inicio de la construcción
1973 Se completa la construcción de la 1a fase

1920 - 1964 Entorno del Colegio (en construcción)


Sources: “General map of Santiago and its surroundings” 1924, prepared by “Compañía Chilena de Electricidad
Ltda.” “Housing and urbanization of Ñuñoa in the XX century”, Margarita de Murtinho. 1987 “The commune of
Providence and the Garden City”, Montserrat Palmer T. 1984

Providence commune: garden city, city within city - open public space Urbanization process
as an urban landmark.
Source: Municipality of Providencia - SECPLA - urban advisory
department - PRCP 2007 - explanatory report

80 25
REFERENCES

It includes the diagonal in two sections. The first one that goes from Plaza Italia to Plaza de Septiembre, The Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba, formerly
which at first attempts to draw in a straight line, almost in the same sense as the Forest Park. This layout is «Santa María Madre de Dios» or «Great Mosque
unfavorable because it produces very oblique intersections that alter the widths and distort the views. He opts of Córdoba», currently known as the Cathedral of
at the end to draw one in 45 degrees, until Manuel Montt with Pizarra street (currently Pedro Lautaro Ferrer). the Assumption of Our Lady of ecclesiastical form or
Thus, he says, he creates beautiful perspectives of some remarkable buildings. This part of the route can not be simply Mosque of Cordoba or Cathedral of Córdoba
completed in its diagonal section because it has been projected onto a relatively consolidated section of the city. in general, It is a building in the city of Córdoba, Spain.
From the intersection of Manuel Montt with Pizarro, and towards the east Brunner indicates the Diagonal is It began to be built as a mosque in the year 785,
mandatory and are already contained in the urbanization plans. with the appropriation and reuse of the materials of
This is how categorical it is. The first section of the diagonal is Santa Clara Street, which has already been the Hispano-Roman basilica of San Vicente Mártir,
extended around 1944 to Plaza de Septiembre, crossing an unconsolidated block of the San José population. On which was in its place, by the Muslim conquerors. The
the west, it has already been adopted by the Banco de Chile population. Towards 1954 arrives at Irarrázabal as resulting building was extensions during the Emirate of
it was planned, and it extends until avenue Ossa, although not with a constant condition of avenue. Cordoba and the Caliphate of Cordoba. With 23,400
Final consolidation: square meters, it was the second largest mosque in the
world on the surface, behind the Mecca Mosque, only
We can summarize the urbanization process as the joint action of private plots and a rationalizing (or
later reached by the Blue Mosque (Istanbul, 1588). One
civilizatory) action on the part of Karl Brunner. The first progresses around the school, fi lling patches and
of its main characteristics is that its qibla wall was not
continuing paths, the second progresses from north west to south east, passing through the facade of the
oriented towards Mecca, but 51º degrees farther south,
building, and somehow consolidating the turn of this respect to the grid.
something usual in the al-Ándalus mosques.
From the fi fties, and until the sixties, the last phenomenon can be identified before the final consolidation
In 1238, after the Christian Reconquest of the
of the environment of the future East Campus, this is the subdivision of blocks through passages and streets.
city, his consecration was carried out as a cathedral
The very block of the still College of the French Nuns is seen in this phenomenon. Towards 1964 they have
of the diocese with the episcopal ordination of his
detached from the northeastern end of the block two long blocks, that originate the streets Eduardo Munita
first bishop, Lope de Fitero. The building houses the
Quiroga and Sacred Heart. Thus, Brown North can never be completed, being now interrupted by buildings.
cathedral chapter of the Diocese of Córdoba, any
This operation to some extent anticipates the end of the occupation of the building as the seat of the College.
collective worship or organized non-Catholic prayer.5
Since the 1940s, Ñuñoa has ceased to be the commune of the upper class, which is beginning to move to the
In 1523, under the direction of the architects Hernán
recent subdivisions of the San Pascual estate, the future El Golf neighborhood. With it they begin to move also
Ruiz, the Elder and his son, his cruciform basilica was
the families and the students that initially bet to attract.
built in Renaissance Plateresque style.
Conclusions:
In the beginning the school of the French Nuns settles down like an attracting landmark, at least in its
intentions, of population of middle and high class to the one of Ñuñoa of the Twenties. Its diagonal position
with respect to the typical grid follows, to a certain extent, the orientation of the agricultural property in which
it is located. It also seeks to differentiate itself from the San José chacras, producing a break in the layout, which
is given weight by the dimensions of the block, and the Diagonal Oriente. The future developments of the
garden city are adapting, trying to reconcile two different paths that also coincide with different city models.
Thus, by the influence of its position and dimension in the resulting grid, it acquires a tracer role. The
most immediate urbanizations to the School are those that do not follow the traditional grid, oriented in the
north-south direction. To the extent that it acquires this role, the initial milestone function begins to decline,
not being able to contain the emigration of the upper class towards Golf. The obsolescence of the building could
be delayed by subdividing and building the block, making the extension of the floor it was on smaller.
This fact marks the beginning of the end of the occupation of the building as a school, and augurs its
future transfer, almost for free, to the Catholic University.

26 79
FRAGMENTATION OF A TERRITORY. CONSOLIDATION OF THE
CAMPUS ORIENTE BLOCK
The heterogeneity of the blocks in the Oriente campus sector makes this neighborhood a particular place
within the city of Santiago. Being the checkerboard the traditional way to divide and urbanize the city in Latin
America, there are times when it breaks with this approach. When a territory is divided into farms before
urbanization, as is the case in this sector, the questions arise: How are the farms subdivided at the time of
urbanization? Under what logic and form are the blocks generated?
Appearance of the Chakras:
At the time of the conquest, the land that we know today as the Oriente Campus, was part of a large
territory called “Ñuñohue”. Place that aroused interest from the beginning, as can be seen in the quote taken
from René León Echaiz who in his book “Ñuñohue” says: “The beauty of the lands ñuñoínas, its fertility and
irrigation that in many of its sectors had introduced the natives, attracted from the first moments the attention

Emergence of Chacras (farm fields) Fragmentation y Urbanization of Chacras


Source: Plan de Santiago 1875 Source: Gustavo A. Ruiz

Plan of Santiago 1922. Plan of trapezoidal blocs.


Source: Municipalidad de Ñuñoa. Source: Municipalidad de Ñuñoa.

78 27


   
VICERRECTORĶA ECONÓMICA Y DE GESTIÓN
 

   

PLAN ALTERNATIVO DE DESARROLLO CAMPUS ORIENTE, UC


PROGRAMA DE RECINTOS REQUERIDOS 23
JORIS KATKEVICIUS Version : XXVI VIII MMXVI
of the conquerors “’. The privileged characteristics of the territory and the interest that they aroused at that con algunos Requerimientos de Infraestructura de Carlos Di Giorgis (6 de Septiembre de 2012)

time were, to a large extent, what led to the fact that around the 16th century, begin to concession the land in I CAMPUS ORIENTE
Recintos Usuarios Usuarios Estįndar Superficie % Superficie Superficie Superficie
Nŗ Nŗ Nŗ total M2/pp M2 śtil Circ y muros M2 total M2 įrea
“chacras”. In Nuñoa, said charas were distributed mainly by Don Pedro de Valdivia, Don Rodrigo de Quiroga, b) Facultadad de Artes
Sala - taller heramientas ruidosas Artes compartido con otras facultades plana para 80 alumnos, que permitan la
(1).

and the Governor of Santiago. A farm in Ñuñoa had about 400 “varas” in the background (about 30 blocks) and flexibilidad de montaje, extracion de materiales peligrosas, como talleres de ceramica, y fotografia, trabajos con
plomo en escultura, los ordenadores, servicios de artes y estetica, bańos, camerines, duchas 1 120
1,5 180,00 1,4
252,00

Sala - taller Artes plana para 60 alumnos, que permitan la flexibilidad de montaje. Trabajo al terra, possibilidad de
a front of about 100 to 200 varas. These departed in the north along the Mapocho River, and extended to the abrirse a exterior.
Sala Reuniones - expoziciones para 25 personas
1
1
60
25


1,5
1,5
90,00
37,50
1,4
1,4
126,00
52,50

south, as indicated in the concession made to Francisco de Villagra, in which it is said that the farm considered: Sala - Taller 12 estudiantes de postgrado Artes
Oficinas - talleres artes 12 profesores
1
12
12
1




1,5
18
18,00
216,00
1,4
1,4
25,20
302,40

“... long to the town that used to to be of the cacique Martín where there are four or five trees ... “. This place is Bańos y duchas
Facultadad de Artes 758,10

where today is Irarrázaval Avenue. Over the years these lands were fragmented and in some cases, adding under
c) Instituto de Estetica
Sala - espacio demonstrativo para 120 alumnos, que permitan la flexibilidad de montaje de obras, doble altura,
altillos, gruas, parte de almanecer de obras en transito 1 120
1,5 180,00 1,4 252,00
inheritance and sale deals. Auditorio Reuniones 60 estudiantes de postgrado Artes
Sala 12 alumnos de postgrado Estetica
1
2
60
12


1,5
1,5
90,00
36,00
1,4
1,4
126,00
50,40
Sala 12 alumnos de postgrado Estetica 2 12 1,5 36,00 1,4 50,40
It is so during the nineteenth century appears the farm San José, land where today is east campus, bounded Oficina instituto de estetica - 12 profesores
Bańos y duchas
12 1
9 108,00 1,4 151,20

on the north by the property Los Leones, on the south by Simón Bolívar street, and southwest by Camino Lo d) Facultadad de Musica
Instituto de Estetica 630,00

Cerda, now Eliécer Parada. Sala de musica 120 personas, area foller, box, banos
Sala - Musica isolocion acustica con la massa, 12 estudiantes.
1
1
120
12




1,5
1,5
180,00
18,00
1,4
1,4
252,00
25,20
Sala - taller experimental auditorio acustica adeguata, isolocion con la massa, 12 estudiantes 1 12
3 36,00 1,4 50,40
 Fragmentation and Urbanization of the Chacras: Salas de computación estudio de gravación para 12 estudiantes.
Oficina taller acustico facultad de Musica
1
12
12
1




5
12
60,00
144,00
1,4
1,4
84,00
201,60

Although there is no more information about how the San José farm was developed, if there is any of the
Bańos y duchas
Facultadad de Musica 613,20
d) Facultadad de Teatro
properties in its surroundings. In the case of the farm Lo Cañita, after the death of its owner, José Domingo Teatro 250 personas, area foller, box, altura para illuminacion articial y natural, flexibilidad de montaje - taller
Sala - taller plana Teatro para 12 estudiantes, que permitan la flexibilidad de montaje.
1
2
250
12


1,2
1,5
300,00
36,00
1,4
1,4
420,00
50,40
Cañas, part of the land is subdivided and donated to charities. For example, the Campo de Sport de Ñuñoa was Talleres Teatro experimental para 25 alumnos tranformables en una sala con 50 visitantes
Oficina taller acustico facultad de Musica
1
12
50
1



2,5
12
125,00
144,00
1,4
1,4
175,00
201,60

built in 1918. Within the property that ranged from the current San Eugenio Street to Pedro de Valdivia Avenue Bańos y duchas
Facultadad de Teatro 847,00

and from Irarrázaval Avenue to Velasco Castle are the following: José Domingo Cañas Avenue, honoring the e) Biblioteca - arquivio y exposicion de obras Coloneales.
Traslado de Biblioteca actual en el templo
(4). Sala de Arte Pueblos Originarios (Soublette) 1 30 30 4 120,00 1,4 168,00
memory of its deceased owner; Bartolomé Cañas street, currently Dublé Almeida; and Calle Castillo Velasco, (4). Sala de Arte Colonial (Gandarillas) 1 30 30 4 120,00 1,4 168,00
Biblioteca - arquivio y exposicion
336,00de obras Coloneales.
then Tocornal Avenue. f) Patio de Comidas.
Traslado del Casino actual para generar įrea de Banquetearķa externa o para concesión. (222,94 śtil actual
CEX)(1,00m2/pp +20% servicios)
In a similar way and during the same period, the surrounding farms are divided and urbanized. The land
1 300 1,5 450,00 1,4 630,00

II CENTRO DE EXTENSIÓN ORIENTE


is divided among heirs and subdivided to be sold by plots, which in most cases were used for the construction Recintos

Usuarios

Usuarios
Nŗ total
Estįndar
M2/pp
Superficie
M2 śtil
% Superficie
Circ y muros
Superficie
M2 total
Superficie
M2 įrea

of towns. The rapid fragmentation of the farms allowed a significant increase in the population of the sector. In Espacios publicos nuevos
d x
600

1911 Ñuñoa had 6,307 inhabitants, while in 1920, this number more than doubled, reaching 16,409. Esapcios verdes - recreativos privados
Plazas Techadas, una plaza central como en Centro de Extension Casa Central min 600 personas, matrimonios y 1 600  1 600,00 1
1200
600,00
matriculadas
Įrea Cafeterķa (174,80 M2 śtil actual CEX. Capacidada 100 usuarios) 1 100 100 1,5 150,00 1,4 210,00
Librerķa UC (71,37 M2 śtil actual CEX) 1 20 20 3,5 70,00 1,4 98,00
First Detachment: Population San José: Salas de centro de Extencion 2 20 40 3,5 140,00 1,4 196,00
total CDXE: 2 904,00

Designed and urbanized with the traditional Spanish checkerboard, and apparently designed to continue Subtotales Personas M2 śtil

its growth towards the east with this same framework (checkerboard), the population of workers San José Totales programa
Centro de Extensión Casa Central (2).
2 093

3 684,50
5 453,92
6 088,30
7 632,10 (3).

conforms, without major changes, the current northwest sector of the Oriente campus neighborhood and is III ESTACIONAMIENTOS AUTOS

also the first population established in the farm San José.


Nŗ USUARIOS NORMATIVA REQUERIMIENTO EST. EXIGIDOS

CAMPUS ORIENTE (Educacional) 871 .%&+"+3",$").,2'%&+$'"


$"%"
&/01%'"+0&/3,+"$,+(1+0,&%1$  
The construction of the population began in 1886, delimited by what they are today: to the north Diego (5). Alumnos Pregrado y Posgrado (1ŗ semestre 2013)   
 
!".0  
")  

"%'$',+")-"."2'/'0"/

%&)0,0")-"."%'/$"-"$'0"%,/


de Almagro street, to the south Simón Bolívar street, and to the west the Pedro de Valdivia avenue; when at 973
1#0,0")/0"$',+"*'&+0,/
.%&+"+3",$").,2'%&+$'"
$"%"
&/01%'"+0&/



that time it was between the Los Leones property and the San José farm. On a Santiago map of 1922, belonging ".0

!".0  
")  

"%'$',+")-"."2'/'0"/

%&)0,0")-"."%'/$"-"$'0"%,/



1#0,0")/0"$',+"*'&+0,/ 
to the Municipality of Ñuñoa, it appears urbanized and as a consolidated population. Here, it is identified as a 10.c
CENTRO DE EXTENSIÓN (Centro Eventos, Teatro, Auditorios y Plaza Techada) 760 .%&+"+3",$").,2'%&+$'"
$"%"
"/'/0&+0&/ 

unitary and independent project of approximately 723,500 square meters, and shows that it is the first fragment Asistentes Centro Eventos !".0  
")  
1#0,0")/0"$',+"*'&+0,/

%&)0,0")-"."%'/$"-"$'0"%,/


of land to be detached and urbanized in the farm; while, the rest of the terrain looks like a site eriazo.     

       

Understanding urban project under the concepts used by Solá-Morales in his book “Forms of Urban N.B min bicicletas 20 un.

Growth”, it is worth noting that the population of San José is the first urban project executed in the farm. That RESUMEN:
Superficie

is to say, the first project that gives shape to a physical, architectural and engineering process that combines soil, I
II

CENTRO DE EXTENSIÓN ORIENTE
6 088,30
2 904,00
 ESTACIONAMIENTOS 5 006,25 (6).
building and infrastructure. Totales 13998,55

Second Detachment: Convent and Colepo Sacred Heart: Este edificio comprende toda la operación regular de la VRCEC para:
- Extensión Cultural
- Educación Continua

In 1922 and continuously to the established population of San José, the construction of the convent Diseńo:
- Arriendo de espacios y salas para eventos

Similar a Centro de Extensión UC, es decir una plaza como punto de realización de Ferias, exposiciones, actividades sociales , y alrededor de éstas
and Sacred Heart school begins. The lands that are acquired and in which it is built, currently belong to las salas de clases donde los alumnos sean parte de la extensión de la Universidad y les permitan revivir la experiencia de volver a la Universidad.
Campus Oriente como el Campo en contexto de la Ciudad

Echeñique street to av. Jaime Guzmán, and from Chile-Spain street to Eliécer Parada. All of these streets,
a) Requerimientos bįsicos salas y espacios:
Salas: Espacios en general:
Salas Aisladas acśsticamente. Sistema de Clima. Iluminación sectorizada. Sistema de ascensores de carga y descarga
with the exception of Chile-Spain, were originally called differently: Echeñique was formerly Calle Carmen; Sistema de dos puertas por sala - ventilacion natural (2x un lado, 5x ancho ventelacion con patio o 2 lados ventanas).Įrea
Salas ( escuela, grupo ) con cierre de paneles que permitir adecuar su uso.
Wi-fi.
de ingreso de proveedores camiones de 3/4. Generador de emergencia.
Vias de evacuación y seguridad en caso de siniestros. Mobiliario adecuado.
Ventilacion natural, vistas abiertas mas de sugerencia 12 m, Corredores ancho minimo 2,7
avenida Jaime Guzmán was in the beginning Santa Clara; and Eliécer Parada was Camino Lo Cerda. It is worth Personas
(Salas: 2.416,54 śtil actual CEX. Capacidad: 1.603 usuarios)

emphasizing that two of these are drawn together to the construction of the site: the already named Santa Clara (1). % de Circulaciones y muros (40%) consideradas para espacios de gran afluencia de pśblico y obtenidas del % existente en el Centro de Extensión de Casa Central
(2). Nŗ de usuarios del Centro de Extensión incluyendo 800 en Salón Fresno y 675 en Plaza central.
street; and Carmen Street, which extends from the town of San José, dividing the new construction with the (3).
(4).
Superficie catastrada śtil del Centro de Extensión Casa Central = 7.066,76 m2 a la que se le adiciona una estimación de un 8% de Muros
Acuerdo establecido entre el Sr. Alberrto Vasquez y el profesor Gastón Soublette. 26 noviembre de 2012

uncultivated land of the farm. Place where the El Belloto population appears between 1944 and 1950. This Sala de Arte Colonial corresponde a sala de exhibición de la Colección Gandarillas.
(5). Alumnos primer semestre 2012, Dirección de Anįlisis y Planificación (DAIP). Información enviada por Yasna Pereira el 18 de Julio de 2013. Alumnos de Pregrado (820), postgrado (51) y postķtulo.
(6). Se produce una diferencia con Estudio de Cabida (total 19.011 m²) de 1.976,55 m², debido principalmente a:

28 77

PROGRAM

The program, more than a list of requirements, can be understood as a powerful force that by itself alters
the conditions of a place. The program is a small structured universe and it is interesting to see the formal
communications it offers. The program stimulates the form. In this regard, the incorporation of the program
associated with the New UC Extension Center in the Oriente Campus, should introduce a change in its
location, use and habitability. The program, based on real and concrete requirements, should be specified, in
terms of selecting those parts or components that are most relevant in the context of each particular proposal.
In this sense, the base program, already developed for the UC Extension Center, will be the starting point
and the framework that will allow to regulate the proposals, however, it should be kept in mind that there is
flexibility to freely choose between the proposed components.
It is a real program, delivered by the principal (mandante), whose parts are summarized below. However,
and despite the fact that in reality o this program has already been assigned a location, in an alternative plan it
is being relocatet elsewhere, along with this, I interpellate proposed program.
From dirrect observations of current life on campus and his surrounding, from interviews from people
from academia, from whas openly discussed with students, I propose certain modifications to the program, in
addition to its location: More workshops for students - these spaces can be still linked to the CEO and also Aerial photograph of the school block, 1954.
Source: IGM
allow personify and adopt each room for his needs - one can imagine that photography workshop has other
needs than a theater workshop.
Aerial photograph of the block of the school, 1943.
Source: IGM
In general terms, the Alternative Plan:
Creating new Workshops for the Faculty of Art, Theater and Music. Its possible relocation, dimensions,
specificity, and degree of connection with the CEO should be considered.
Creating new Experimental Theater. The figure that allows it to be part of the internal activities of the
School of Theater and the CEO at the same time must also be argued.
Creating a new Concert Hall. It is an area of the School of Music open to the community. It can be
considered that, as a dependent room of the Faculty, it has a multifunctionality, and can also be used by the
experimental Theater, described above.
Moving the library. Its role and thematic profi le must be specified, in the understanding that it is a UC
library open to the community, specifically, to the neighborhood in which it is inserted.
Creating a new Exhibition Hall. You can consider a room under the administration of the Faculty,
independent or not of the current Sala Machina. Its role and profi le should be specified, as it will be linked to
the CEO.
Creating a new Colonial Art Room, “Gandarillas Collection”. It is about housing an art collection
recently incorporated into the university, which is already inventoried, which is why the proposal of this
program has a high degree of reality, backed by solid technical foundations.
Relocation of kindergarten and nursery to current SS.CC. . .
Define the Sports Zone - the open and intimate green field of the campus. Contemplating that, in the Aerial photograph of the school block, 1964. Aerial photograph of the school block, 1970.
context of the CEO, there are sports activities that can be open to the community. Source: IGM Source: IGM

detachment of 160,000 square meters approximately, is broken down from the farm becoming the property of
Alternative program in next page. the congregation of French Nuns.
The construction of the school took place between 1922 and 1934, years in which unfortunately, there
are no municipal records of its construction, because formerly it was not necessary for schools to apply, and since
it is not until 1943 that it is officially registered .
Th ird Detachment: Trapezoidal Blocks:
Along with the detachment of the newly named property, two blocks are urbanized to the south west
of it, which are limited by Santa Clara Street, Simón Bolívar Street, Chile-Spain Street, Holland Avenue, and

76 29
2

4
4

Plot of plot of land belonging to the congregation of 1963.


Source Research Workshop 2017, PUC ARQ.
3

Camino Lo Cerda. The unique trapezoidal morphology acquired by these blocks results from the urbanization
of the remaining land between the population and the lands of the congregation.
Dividing the two new blocks and in front of the main entrance of the school, the street Regina Pacis is
drawn. This is presented in a similar way to Hausman’s interventions in Paris, where through the drawing of
new avenues, it generates perspectives that finish off in venues and places of importance. The street Regina Pacis, 1
keeping the obvious proportions, produces a perspective that ends in the school monumentalizing the building,
enhancing the main entrance, and exploiting the positive externalities when placing it as the center of attention.
As a result, the dimensions of the building take on a greater weight, which, in turn, is directly related to the
houses that are built on the premises of this street. Which, are benefited by the monumentality and image that
radiates the establishment increasing its value. This presented an attractive offer for those who, at that time,
were looking for a family neighborhood with tranquility and social status
Fourth Detachment: Longitudinal Blocks:
The great extension of the land acquired by the congregation gave the possibility of allocating part of it
to different uses that were not necessarily related to those of a center of education. As seen in the aerial photo of
1954, the land is divided into two parts: one with everything directly related to an educational establishment,
the building and sports areas, located in what is now the campus block East. While the other half, it is destined
to cultivation areas. Precisely, this abundant amount of land, is what facilitates the subsequent detachment
of longitudinal blocks, without affecting or intervening school infrastructure, or the services it offered to the
community.
30 75
MASTER PLAN

Alternative plan envision 4 stages in which , in which are faculty of arts in the south east quarter of Block, Thus, on May 28, 1963, a subdivision plan was approved, which divides the previously used fragment for
Theater Music and Aesthetics shares the following 3 quadrants in clock wise sense. crops into independent sites destined for housing. It is worth noting that this did not authorize the building
or sale of any of the lots, as long as it was not accredited with a certificate by the Municipal Works Directorate.
This document would certify that all the urbanization works required by the standard of that time have been
The stages consist of:
executed or guaranteed.16
Between the detachment and the reduced terrain of the school, Sacred Heart Street appears, whose
1 PONIENTE (WEST) layout allows to create forty-two new properties distributed symmetrically along the same, nineteen on each
Building west, so you can free the eastern part of parking. The experimental theater and music room also side. In them, you can identify three different types of properties of different dimensions. The first, applicable
appears first under-floor parking on campus. to thirty-eight of these, has an original dimension of 24.00 by 15.15 meters in front. In which, the two lots at
the end that intersects with Eliécer Parada street give to it, unlike the other thirty-six, which give to Sacred
2 ORIENTE (EAST) Heart Street. The second type, identified in the properties located at the intersection with Chile-Spain street,
has a dimension of 24.00 by 11.77 meters in front, which face the newly named street. Finally, between the
Building east, so you can free the eastern part of parking. Large arts workshop and a South-North gallery buildings that face Eliécer Parada Street and those that face Sacred Heart Street, there are two lots of 24.00 by
appear 23.00 meters in front, where one takes a trapezoidal shape, thus varying the area. of the site in relation to the
other.
3 EXTENSION CAMPUS ORIENTE Although there is no graphic record to corroborate the date of the Eduardo Munita Quiroga street, it
Construction of bridges buildings on the current facade of the building, making the new CEO rooms can be deduced from the building permits that were granted by the Municipality of Ñuñoa to the new owners
of those lots. The method of analysis consists of identifying the date on which the permit is given for three
different properties: one located on Sacred Heart Street, and the other two located on each side of the street
4 NEW TEMPLE
in question.
Construction of the new temple, transfer of the library in the current temple and convert it into a library
The result indicates that the dates of delivery of the permits vary in ten years. Of which, the permit
- archive as the heart of the academy. The current library patio is covered with a roof, fruit trees are raised and
granted in 1973 was made for the property located in the block of the school, in front of the Sacred Heart street.
the current casino is moved, thus demolishing the current building, except the service knot, which will be used
Meanwhile, the one granted in 1963 is the one furthest away, located in one of the properties on the north-
by the new terrace generated in front of the pool and the casino. The children’s garden and nursery moves in the
east side of Eduardo Munita Quiroga Street. With this it is understood that the lotos in the streets Sagrado
SS.CC school grounds. Demolition of the current casino.
Corazón and Eduardo Munita Quiroga are made both in 1963, and it is in this year that the longitudinal
blocks appear. Only the date on which each owner decided to build on them varies.
Consolidation of the Campus Oriente Block:
From here one can speculate on possible patterns of campus growth, may it be a whole mega block full of Along with the building of the Sacred Heart school, a free technical school is built on the northwest side
self interlacing patios with various faculties, a possible return to leave just an original building. And hopefully of the land, which gives the population San José. In the aerial photo of 1954 previously used, it is possible to
preserve the existences of cultivatable green fields for recreational activities, a big front park between both observe that this school is the first independent site in detachment of the block of campus East.
municipalities, between a rising up city and growing university campus facade.
With the exception of the above and the 1963 subdivision plan, which makes the block lot on the side of
Sacred Heart Street official, the lack of information required for the study that directly confirms the date of the
sale of all your properties. For this reason, the method of analysis made in the longitudinal blocks is reiterated,
allowing us to define approximately the year in which the consolidation of the campus block begins.
This time, two building permits are compared, which unlike the previous one, are located in the same
block, and represent each one, a side of it. The first one, located in Eliécer Parada street, shows that it is allowed
to be built in 1965; and the second one, located on Chile-Spain street, shows that it is allowed to be built in
1969.
With the comparison of these permits, plus those of the longitudinal blocks, it is possible to deduce that
the total division of the perimeter of the block occurs in the same way and simultaneously to the detachment
and batching of the detached blocks. The fact that in both cases, the dates on which the permits are granted
oscillate between the same years, reveals that, along with the detachment and subdivision of the longitudinal
blocks, the consolidation of the Oriente campus begins.

74 31
ASSIGNMENT

Conclusion: Alternative plan proposes to start from acquiring lands of the College of Sacred Hearts, in order to obtain
After analyzing historically the fragmentation of the farm, mainly through the process of urbanization an east-west ‘the pragmatic axis’ in the orthogonal relationship with the ‘historical-representative axis‘ (there is
and building; it is possible to determine the various operations that gradually shape the urban morphology of still only one entrance in the perimeter block of almost 1km ). Thus displacing the interventions in front of the
this sector. facade, which is being protected by being as a historic conservation building, inside the block. In other words,
generating a project intervention on the campus scale. It is not about proposing the design of a building, nor the
Returning to the initial questions, when you begin to develop a farm, the way to subdivide the land is
design of a part of the city, but intervening on an intermediate scale between both instances.
varied, either by sharing inheritance or purchase. The properties that emerge from these subdivisions are those
that are then urbanized independent of each other. Example of this is the mesh of square blocks that give shape
to the San José population, which at the moment of reaching the limit with the congregation’s land, are executed
in a triangular manner, evidencing the clash between two different properties that are urbanized differently. . Case inspiration:
Although, depending on each owner the strategy they decide to use to develop these lands, there is a logic
that can be identified applicable to the majority. That is, the land will be divided in such a way as to obtain a
Interview (Ramon Lópes, dean faculty of arts):
greater quantity of lots, which will then be sold to build houses. The form that the set of blocks acquires will
be subject to the mentioned logic, where the limits are determined by the extension of the property they come
from. However, it could be said that the Oriente Campus block is the only one within the neighborhood that Lack of convergence, missing a center, still a cell - cloistral structure.
responds to a different logic. By assigning the land to a service use from the beginning, the size of the block Live of art and the artist formation, the red campus - had neutralizing forces at the time of the coup,
is subject to the initial size of the school. For this reason, it is possible to explain the vast extent of this in activities drawing attention to your own existence.
comparison to the rest. Until the 80s it did not have a fence.
In conclusion, although the morphology that each sector of the farm acquired was directly linked to the It is not a campus, because it is fragmented by preventing meeting the critical mass of men, there is no
way in which each owner decided to divide it. It was the use that was intended from the beginning to these, space for more than 90 people while there is a real need to gather more than 600 people
which determined the form, or rather the resignation, of the blocks that were generated there.
Critical view of multifunctional events room capability of meeting the requirements.
A future desire is to see campus as not a cloister.

Interview (with Luis Prato, director of the school of arts):

We are facing an important change for the academy - the professors as an artists can create - as their own
activity, like the scientists in their research, will be finally considered as work.
Creation, how infra structural program promotes this change? How to facilitate cultural change?
Importance of Academy and Chilean society. Develop workshops and provide services for teachers that would
motivate their stay.
Faculty of Arts is nominated as one of the best academies in a world, but there is still no space for graduate
and doctoral degrees.

From personal field explorations, various interviews it became bit more clear that it is important to see
the campus as a system of values of natural identity, offering opportunities for human use. Foreseeing organic
growth of the campus, as to say ‘listening to what the building says’, creating semi transparent articulating
boarders with the semi-public spaces, generating the active membrane with society. Continue the idea of ideal
city, garden city, energetic independent city. Generate work places under the shade of trees, pergolas - inviting
being outside, being healthy - taking advantage of the possibility of a pleasant climate and enjoy any time
whether it is leisure, study, creation or cultivation.

1935. View of Campus Oriente


Source: Marcos Bravo Archive

32 73
CORRIDOR AS A PLACE THE START OF THE INTERNMENT OF ÑUÑOA OF THE SS.CC.

For the design of this construction


the services of the architects Juan Lyon
Otaegui and Luis Azócar are contracted, in
charge of projecting the general plan for the
establishment of the new convent and school,
in addition to the dependencies of the boarding
school that they tried to install in the middle
of these extensions - Until then-rural. The style
chosen by these two architects was the Neo-
Thomistic, which could have been influenced
both by the design of Juan Lyon’s own title or
by the architectural language possessed by the
College of the French Fathers in the Alameda
- Almirante Barroso - which place would be
a reference that should have been taken into
consideration, given that the new construction
would be the female and modern version of that
establishment.
From the reading of the plans of the
original design, we can see the layout of a
building formed by 8 courtyards that divide
Location for the convent and school of the french nuns.
Source maps of Santiago of 1918 of the IGM and assume different functions within the
plant. Circulations are maintained through
In 1841, the order of the SS.CC. decides to found a corridors around said courtyards. This type of
convent in Santiago, settling in Santa Rosa street, Acequia cloister, very common in convent buildings,
Larga street - current 10 de Julio avenue. They started their is a composition system centered on the void
work 6 religious who in August of that year opened a free and surrounded by a full, where the courtyards
school for poor girls. In September, and raising the number work as structural computers of the whole
to 20 sisters, a pensioner was created. But on December and the full that encloses them, has a certain
9, 1924, there was a fire in that convent that devastated programmatic freedom and welcomes the flows.
all the facilities and that would leave the congregation The architects then deliver a plant that “consists
without a physical place to continue carrying out their work. of a regulated system of four vertical axes and
This sinister devastated all the facilities, except for a few four horizontal axes. The four horizontal
classrooms where, on a temporary basis, they continued to axes have equivalent measures, while in the
teach. This unfortunate fact, would be the one that would vertical system the average axis is reduced to
cause the need to build a new convent and school. Mother accommodate the width of the temple, leaving
Isabelle Garnier, would be the superior in charge of carrying it with free facades “.
out this work5. She, who would assume in 1925, would see The temple is the most important element
in the eastern sector of Santiago a favorable place for the of the whole, inserted in the center of the
installation of the new establishment, given that in the composition and where the central axes of the
ruins of Santa Rosa it would be impossible to build what she building are intercepted. It is accessed through
had in mind. After studying some alternatives of location, the patio-atrium that is crossing the entry hall,
the congregation finally acquired an estate in the San José which gives it greater solemnity. The project
farm in Ñuñoa, whose limits were as follows: “To the south completely closes the perimeters, without
along Simón Bolívar Avenue, to the east ran a road called Lo leaving any open courtyard. Because the type
Cerda, which was north with the Los Bellotos farm owned of cloister used in the project, certain spaces
by Mrs. Carmen García de Guzmán ... The land was closed that were required to complement the facilities
to the west with a project to extend the “Chile and Spain” had to be attached as auctions to the central
and Holland “Avenues”. The acquisition was made for an axes. These correspond to the dependencies
amount of $ 1,325,528 pesos at the time.
72 33
ORIENTE (EAST) - PONIENTE (WEST) REAR PLACES -
POTENTAL OPORTUNITY
that would accommodate the pantries of the kitchen to the south-east, the pool to the northeast and a large
auditorium to the north-west.
As for the programmatic distribution, it is evident the existence of a north-south axis, which crosses the
middle of the temple, dividing the east of the building for the dependencies of the convent and the west for the
school and boarding school. On the first floor are placed all the more public spaces, which should be used during
the day, such as classrooms, dining rooms, auditorium, gym, church offices, community offices and services
(kitchen and laundry). In the second level you will find the most private spaces, used mainly for the bedrooms
and bathrooms of both religious and students, in addition to the library.
Once the land was purchased by the religious in 1927, construction work would begin. In 1929, according
to plans consulted, it is observed that the construction did not correspond to the original design but to a part
of it. This is due to the fact that, in the initial plans of the 1926 project, there are areas - which are in the past
- that were not included in the contract. Of the eight courtyards, only 6 were built. The non-built enclosures
correspond to the auctions of the central axes (auditorium, swimming pool and kitchen pantries), the L volumes
that formed the north and east corners and closed those courtyards, and the bodies of a floor that closed the
courtyards that faced the main façade.
The construction would take several years to complete. In the technical specifications of a subsequent
extension, the materiality is described as follows: the foundations were made of reinforced concrete, like the
second floor slabs, the arches and pillars; the walls would be reinforced solid brick masonry, with chains, pillars
West Orient
and reinforced concrete lintels; and the roof would use oak pellín and smooth galvanized iron for the roof. Possibility of building instead of minor importance thus generating two new places, besides preserving the existing esplanade.
In March of 1930 the first students would enter the school. By that date some units of the convent and
boarding school would have been enabled. Pavilions and patios would be gradually delivered. After 1935 the
temple would be completed and the work would be completed.
From said construction, the following references were made:
“Located in a beautiful plain at the foot of the Cordillera, and comprising an area of 14 hectares, the
establishment operates in vast premises that consult all modern developments, and meet exceptional conditions of
hygiene and health. It is complemented by extensive patios planted with trees, tennis courts, spacious gardens and
forests, all that can contribute to the health and well-being of the educated. The School also has a large gymnasium
with all the equipment and instruments of the case, and a beautiful swimming pool. The students of the Upper
Courses sleep in individual pieces, with the proper water and light installations. The other bedrooms are vast,
perfectly ventilated and in the best hygienic conditions. Everyone has their respective installation of hot or cold baths
next to them. “
In the mid-30’s, the sector where the school is located begins to experience urban consolidation processes.
West - trash between building and mediator with SS.CC. Oriente - current parking, HVAC
For the year 1932 the Diagonal Oriente is designed, from Plaza Italia to Irarrázaval Avenue, passing through
Plaza de Septiembre of the town of San José. This diagonal would only be consolidated until 1954, extending
to Ossa Avenue, and in which a 45% design is used, in order to create beautiful perspectives of some notable
existing buildings at that time.
In the same period, two blocks south of the school site are urbanized and plotted, which are limited
by Santa Clara, Simón Bolívar, Chile-España, Avenida Holanda and Camino Lo Cerda, with a trapezoidal
morphology resulting from the terrain. remaining between the population of San José and the land of the
Congregation of the SSCC.
To divide these two blocks, the Regina Pacis Street is designed, which ends at the main entrance to the
school. This street “produces a perspective that ends in the school monumentalizing the building, enhancing
the main entrance”. This intervention highlights the construction and valorizes the land for the location of
residential neighborhoods.
In 1939, the President of the Republic of Chile, Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, made a gift to the religious
of a swimming pool, which would be installed in the same place that had been planned in 1926. In the 40’s, West - trash between building and mediator with SS.CC college - view of the Oriente - estacionamiento actual
the school would need new enclosures to house more students, so new pavilions would be built. In 1946 the 2nd floor
construction of pavilion XVI began and in 1948 an annex and laundry would be built in the north-east corner.
34 71
College of the religious of the ss. DC. Boarding school Ñuñoa. First floor. Source: Cadastre Office, I. Municipality of Providencia

Current college of SS CC is on the west side of the building, alternative proposal is to unite the block and have perimeter as a socially active membrane, with
semi-public spaces
Site:
The actual plan in three fazes should complete the building by raking palm trees to put parking lots under
the floor, my proposal is to share the parking lots in two parts and put them partly east and west of campus.
Master plan:
It is possible the organic and systematic growth of the campus, in parts, articulating the semipublic
spaces with the private and intimate, continuing with the idea of ideal city as campus and city garden as urban
articulator with the democratic places. Alternative plane propose to grow by stages, unlike the current plan -
start from buying the SS.CC. land in the first stage, which is said to be already looking to move for a bigger
space
Program:
It is perfectly understandable that in today’s world university needs to generate income, this is why it
has many lease spaces in the program, with certain services to the neighborhood. The question is referred to
the program: Will the current development plan of the Campus Oriente work? The proposed program will
not negatively influence the young artists? I propose more spaces for workshops, solving the problems, such as
theater classes on the second floor of the library, in addition to the more public program - “east extension” to
put on the bridges of the façade
Performance:
Campus Oriente could provided work places under the shade of trees, pergolas - promote being outside,
live healthy life- to take advantage of the possibility of good weather. The thermal mass under the shade. College of the religious of the ss. DC. Boarding school Ñuñoa. Second floor. Source: Cadastre Office, I. Municipality of Providencia

70 35
CRITICISM OF THE CURRENT PLAN

College of the religious of the ss. DC. Boarding school ñuñoa. Main facade
Source: Rozas Krause, Valentina.

School of religious of the SS.CC. boarding school of Ñuñoa. Court entrance and longitudinal central nave.
Source: Rozas Krause, Valentina.

Plan Diagonal Oriente - Karl Brunner 1929

36 69
REQUEST AND STRATEGIES

Plant of the original project of the school-convent and extensions


until the 40’s. (In red you can see what would be built between
1927-1936 (in red what was initially built, in orange the building of
pavilion XVI in 1946, in yellow the extension of 1948 and in green
is the recent fi nished arts faculty building.)

7 key aspects required to ensure that future projects are healthy, thrift y and efficient in energy resources
1.Volume compact, without irregular shapes, both in plant and in elevations.
2. Contemplate thermal insulation in the envelope, to prevent overheating caused by the solar rays of the epochs of heat and reduce the cooling of exposed faces
in the cold period, with solutions better than the minimum required by standards valid for homes in the same area.
3 Control solar access in hot weather, through external solar protections, especially north and west facades.
4.The Controlled natural ventilation to the interior should be promoted, either natural (opening windows) or forcefully (through extractors).
5.The reinforced concrete of the building structure is a plentiful thermal mass that allows to reduce the impact of the heat in the interior in the hot season. In
the cold this mass allows to accumulate part of the sun’s energy, which will keep an average temperature and part of the auxiliary heating energy will also be
trapped (do not count on wood floors or carpets: ceramics, stones or polished concrete are preferred, to allow the indicated). Th is is accompanied by allowing
the opening of Windows in summer and close them in winter.
Axes and temple, in original project - convent-school division.
6.It must contemplate wide bays (17 to 20mts with free interior heights no less than 2.7mts free) in plant for favor natural light, without excess heat, and all
Source: Rozas Krause, Valentina.
interiors are light tones to increase light re-diff usion in the interiors.
7.-Artificial climate system is through high efficiency, sizable, fast response and minimum maintenance On the other hand, all artificial lighting must be
achieved by low consumption equipment.
For these projects Juan Lyon would be hired again. Although it conserved the original volumetric conception,
the design in plant was not the same, probably by the change of program.
A series of circumstances cause the great educational complex to become a heavy burden for the religious.
Gradually the big block in which the school was inserted began to subdivide. The north-east area, destined for
crops, was divided in the early 60’s, creating the streets Munita Quiroga and Sagrado Corazón. Then most of
the perimeter of the block was biled, leaving the large group enclosed by houses, except in its main façade. In
this way the establishment would be surrounded and integrated to the city that had already been consolidated.
At the beginning of the 70s, “the work of the sisters in that great place of Ñuñoa is questioned. Political
rumors speak of occupation by students in vacant places. The possibility arises of the Catholic University for
whom this building is good, that all want to continue in the Church. The school of Ñuñoa is going to become
the Campus Oriente of the Catholic University and the School of the Sacred Hearts will occupy the premises
of the side in Chile-Spain street, with adaptations “

68 37
PROJECTS - THE CREATION OF CAMPUS ORIENTE ACCESSABILITY AND SECURITY NORMATIVES
Source: Historical study campus oriente - Center of cultural heritage, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Suggested dimensions from Guía de Consulta Accesibilidad Universal
- Ciudad Accesible

MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM MEASURES


The minimum and maximum measures correspond to the necessary
and comfortable space for any person to circulate and freely use the
space.
The Arrival Of The UC To The East:
Width:
It will be in 1971 when “the rector Fernando Castillo Velasco proposes the purchase of the property to • Average width of a wheelchair: 70 cm.
solve the problem of physical space of the university. The Diagonal Oriente Campus had to group all areas of • Minimum width of passage in door or aisle: 80 cm.
Social and Human Sciences “. With the transfer of these careers it would be solved, for some time, “the problem Length:
of overcrowding that the collapsed Casa Central was living, while the San Joaquín campus was being enabled”. • Chair length: 120 cm.
• Length of the chair with companion: 180 cm.
The university modified the existing distributions so that the property was useful to the university
requirements. On the first floor the offices of teachers and administrators were installed, and in the second level Height:
• Height of the person sitting on a chair: 130 cm.
the classrooms were located -that would be used flexibly to allow a greater performance of the built surface. • Height of a child: 130 cm approx.
• Free height of obstacles: 210 cm.
• Footrest height: 14 to 20 cm.
INTERVENTIONS AND PROPOSED PROJECTS FOR CAMPUS ORIENTE SINCE 1975 • Footrest width: 42 to 47 cm.
• Horizontal range: maximum 40 cm.
• Vertical range of reach: 40 to 120 cm from the ground level.

The plan of Prado-Valdés: The viewing heights for children and adults in wheelchairs range
between 100 and 110 cm.
Although it was acquired to decongest Casa Central, in a couple of years, the new Oriente Campus
would suffer the problems of overcrowding, due to the transfer of a large number of careers. Within this new If a space is used for the circulation of a chair
context, the architects José Prado and Cristián Valdés, would present in May 1975 a preliminary draft of the wheels, it serves for everyone. Therefore, the universal measure to
design is the surface that it occupies: 80 x 120 cm.
Regulatory Plan for the Oriente Campus. The objective of the proposal developed by said architects would be to
“transform this school building into a true University Campus”. Although this proposal was not carried out, it
is interesting to know the diagnosis they deduce and the guidelines that are formulated. Regarding its diagnosis,
the architects argued that the large number of students was not compatible with the capacity that the old school
had, which had to be occupied by about 1000 people, because for 1975, an estimated number of 750031 people
is calculated They had to use an existing two-story building.
The original design of the building is inadequate for the intensity of use that was being given to it. The
composition of the building becomes very rigid in itself, which limits future expansion. “The central location and
the closed character of the building constitute a barrier to the development of university life, visually isolating
the life of the central courtyards and partially blocking traffic in a convergence zone.” They also add that the
location of the library at the end of the central area makes access difficult and that “its internal distribution does
not fit the needs of a university library”.
To accommodate this large number of students, “it is proposed to open the circulation to the outside of
the existing building (currently closed) through the entrances, incorporating new built areas and free areas,
thus obtaining an expansion and greater use of the surface of the Campus “. Two actions are proposed for the
property: The first one “proposes to consolidate the rectangular shape of the building through volumes that
incorporate their circulation with corridors”. This would be achieved through two pavilions that would close
the courtyards that face the main façade and a third one located to the north with the courts, which would
be suspended on pillars to maintain visual continuity with the exterior; The second aimed to create a large
university space, which would unite the two central courtyards by opening the walls of the church generating
a large living area at ground level and the new chapel as well as exhibition halls and conferences on the second
level. .
For programs that have a certain autonomy and greater scope they decide to install them abroad, in a
respectful way with respect to the property. Three precincts were proposed: An isolated library, at the center of
the south-east façade and with easy accessibility; a gymnasium and sports area in the far north, and a volume for
the Instituto Fílmico on the eastern edge of the original building, near the proposed library.

38 67
Situation of the Campus Oriente (1975). In Yellow The Proposed Proposal. (1- Classrooms, 2- Library, 3- Gymnastics And 4- Philmy Center)
Source: Rozas Krauze, Valentina.

The observed phenomenon allows us to conclude primarily that the renewal


destined to economic activities has not yet manifested itself strongly in the
sector occupied by them, without prejudice to this the municipal investment
in social services in the same area has been consistent. For this reason, the
foreseeable dynamic is a dynamic to reinforce the central role of the El
Aguilucho axis, which would be used to locate a mix of housing equipment.

With the purpose of identifying centrality in the Campus Oriente


Interior view of the area of living, plant of the second level and cut of the proposal for the space of the church, where the central patios are intended to open.
environment and according to accessibility parameters, a network has been
Source: Prado, José; Valdés, Cristián.
built consisting of roads that have functional continuity, these roads have
been classified hierarchically according to the hierarchy granted by the PRCP
2007, namely collectors, expedited and neighborhood, assigning a score
according to hierarchy. The consideration of the hierarchy and the length
of the sections that converge to the different nodes allowed the hierarchy of
these to be classified into five categories as shown in the image.

66 39
MAPPING

The implementation of attics:


The preliminary draft presented by Prado and Valdés, would not be considered. However, the problem
of overcrowding was increasing, so they had to take quick action. It was decided to create attics in most of
the pavilions, allowing to increase the amount of square meters in a considerable way, without assuming large
costs or new constructions. It would be during the seventies and eighties where these constructions will be
undertaken. The almost double height of the floors and a section of the narrow bay facilitated the absorption
of these structures.
The first floor of the original building had approximately 5567 m2, and when this was intervened “with
#
the loft, the surface occupied by 1879 m2 is increased, representing an extra 33% over the original living space
of this floor (excluding Church and Chapel)”. These structures were inserted in much of the first floor and in
some sectors of the second, where the height allowed it. #

4
#

Legend
educacion
PRMS_Vial_84
# <all other values>
equipamiento_cultural
<all other values>
TIPO
CENTRO CULTURAL
GALERIA DE ARTE
MUSEO
TEATRO
TEATRO Y SALA DE CONCIERTO
Mancha_Urbana
Comunas
<all other values>
NOM_COM
Providencia

Meters
0 1.400 2.800 5.600

Map of educational and cultural places.


Location of the mezzanines, to 2007.
Source: Avila Ubilla, Felipe.

A review of the environment identifies a renewal process that


intensifies certain activities such as housing through the construction
of new buildings.

Section of the nave


Source: Ávila Ubilla, Felipe.
Boarder of two municipalities Ñuñoa and Providencia - plan of construction height
by floors.

40 65
It was within the Program of Reconditioning of Rooms of Classes UC where it was sought to regularize
the group of rooms that owned the Campus East, to face of better way the great number of students that
housed this campus. For this, a report was presented in October 1981 with all the modifications that should be
implemented in these areas.
The rooms were grouped by letters (A, G, N, R, V) and assigned a color. The survey of the rooms was
carried out in addition to the cadastre of the constituent elements of each one of the enclosures (door, windows,
type of floor, furniture, among others).
Zoning Plan Orient campus regulatory plan (80’s):
In the decade of the 80’s, the Physical Space Commission commissioned the Direction of Projects and
Investigations of the Faculty of Architecture and Fine Arts -of then- the elaboration of a Plan of Physical
Development for the Campus East. The study proposed “defining the growth and development potential of
the Campus with respect to a coherent occupation of available and projected physical space”. The idea was to
create an instrument that would serve as a guide for future interventions. Regarding the diagnosis made of the
campus, the following was concluded:
The campus would have to be understood as a great whole, formed by the property and the land
surrounding it.
The central building should not be considered as a monument but as a building of good architecture
that could be susceptible to modifications and new constructions. “You can not lose the enormous capacity of
growth that in general the building and land allow, in such a way to achieve a maximization in the use of the
land and the building”.
The potential of the building was its mesh structure, which allowed “the organic growth of the building
in relation to its surroundings”.
The body of the building was compact and hard, lacking connections between the interior of the building
Green Areas and the exterior.
The building had to meet the requirements of that time, so it would have to adapt to the growth that the
campus needed to experience to more comfortably accommodate academic activities.
The plan proposed 5 types of actions to be carried out: new constructions, relocation of activities,
remodeling, recovery of corridors and restructuring of scales, courtyards and halls. Likewise, the project defined
that the means to eliminate the compactness of the property is extending the circulation to the outside, thus
generating new growth axes.
The proposals made in the Plan are described below:
Conformation access courtyard: it was proposed to create an access hall with characteristics of a square
that would accommodate university activities and be “a transitional space between the city and the interior of
the Campus”. The construction of bodies A, B, C and D was considered.
Incorporation area-park after the building: This proposal sought to consolidate the sports area and
form two new open green courtyards. The construction of pavilions E, F and G is proposed; in addition to the
construction of a large library that would complete the north-south central axis.
Construction of a new service area: to “consolidate the character of the Service Area of the southern area,
by building a set of volumes in relation to the circulation grid of the main building”. Pavilions I, J and K would
Historical And
Monumental Buildings
be used to locate administrative support programs. The largest volume (L) corresponds to a gym. In the central
And Sites, Special Zones area the parking lots for teachers and / or students should be reorganized.
Consolidate a central area of common campus activities: in the central longitudinal axis of the building.
This would be carried out with the conformation of the transversal axis through the connection of the Courtyard
of the Virgin and the Courtyard of the Casino through the Chapel, which would imply the remodeling of this
one.

64 41
LOCAL REGULATIONS

Stages of development of the proposal.


Source: Projects and Research Directorate.

https://www.google.cl/search?q
=white&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=
univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjGkP2nr-
7JAhWGipAKHQsgBwMQsAQIIg&bi
w=1536&bih=791

Between 2 municipalities, though applying regulations of Municipality of Providencia, still the ones from Ñuñoa are considered.

Access courtyard, consolidation of the park, the new library, service area and gym.
Source: Projects and Research Directorate.

42 63
GENERAL ORDINANCE OF URBAN PLANNING AND
CONSTRUCTIONS
Order of the faculties around patios: the idea was to concentrate the common careers around these and
N.B.
Aclarifying some of project key-words are intentionaly left without tranlsation. thus generate places with a greater identity.
Contest for the transfer of the art school to the east campus:
ORDENANZA GENERAL DE URBANISMO Y CONSTRUCCIONES While Pedro Murtinho was dean of the Faculty of Architecture and Fine Arts, he would manage the
creation of a “Faculty of the Arts of Representation”, intending to unite in a single location the Institutes of
Titulo 1 Disposiciones generales. Music and Theater with the School of Arts. For that, he would decide to move the School of Arts, which was
Capitulo 1 Normas de competencia y defi niciones:
“Alteración”: cualquier supresión o adición que afecte a un elemento de la estructura o de las fachadas de un edificio y las obras de restauración, rehabilitación
located in Lo Contador, to Campus Oriente. For this purpose, a contest was called in 1987.
o remodelación de edificaciones. Said assignment would be “to design a building to house the administrative and teaching facilities of the
“Ampliación”: aumentos de superficie edificada que se construyen con posterioridad a la recepción defi nitiva de las obras.
“Edifi caciones con destinos complementarios al área verde”: construcciones complementarias a la recreación que no generan metros cuadrados construidos, tales School of Arts, closing the current Patio del Casino (...) It was a building of 1600 m2 distributed in the levels
como pérgolas, miradores, juegos infantiles y obras de paisajismo, así como otro tipo de construcciones de carácter transitorio, tales como quioscos. that were necessary, but respecting the architecture own Campus East “.
“Patio”: superficie desprovista de toda construcción situada dentro de una propiedad y destinada al uso de sus ocupantes.
The contest was won by CONTRAPROPUESTA ARQUITECTOS, composed by Pilar García, Juan
TITULO 4: DE LA ARQUITECTURA CAPITULO 5 José Ugarte, Wren Strabucchi and Patricia Valenzuela, who proposed a four-level building, which did not
CAPITULO 5 completely close the patio but instead created an opening -to the side of the library- towards the exterior gardens.
LOCALES ESCOLARES Y HOGARES ESTUDIANTILES The winning team had to develop the complete project for its construction. This did not vary significantly with
respect to the initial proposal. Being ready the project and about to begin the construction stops the transfer of
Artículo 4.5.1. Todo edificio que se construya para local escolar u hogar estudiantil, como asimismo, los edificios que en el futuro se destinen a dichos usos, the School of Arts to Campus East.
deberán cumplir con las disposiciones contenidas tanto en la Ley General de Urbanismo y Construcciones como en lapresente Ordenanza y, en especial, con
las normas del presente Capítulo, las que prevalecerán sobre las de carácter general de esta Ordenanza, cuando ambas estén referidas a una misma materia. Sin Conditioning study for teaching classrooms (1990):
perjuicio de lo anterior, los establecimientos educacionales que optaren a las subvenciones que otorga el D.L.N°3.476, de 1980, deberán además, cumplir con
los requisitos establecidos en dicho cuerpo legal o en sus reglamentos, siendo de responsabilidad del Ministerio de Educación Pública verificar su cumplimiento.
As in 1981, in October 1990 a new report would be presented with the state in which the classrooms of
Campus Oriente were located. The study seeks to register these premises to later generate a series of arrangements,
CAPITULO 2.1. in order to deliver the current standard classrooms at that time.
NORMAS GENERALES SOBRE EL BNUP
If you compare the 1981 map with the one from 1990, you can see how some rooms have been eliminated,
ART. 2.1.01. BNUP o Bien Nacional de Uso Público. probably due to the gradual transfer of careers to other campuses. The construction of new rooms, modification
Para efectos de la presente OL, el Bien Nacional de Uso Público, en adelante BNUP, estará destinado a la circulación y esparcimiento entre otros usos. De of the existing ones and proposition of schedules that optimize their use, were some of the improvements
acuerdo a lo señalado en el Art. 2.1.30. de la OGUC, el BNUP se constituye en el Tipo de Uso de Suelo “Espacio Público”, quedando conformado por las vías y
áreas verdes públicas que se señalan en los Capítulos 2.2. y 2.3. de esta OL, incluido el espacio aéreo y subsuelo correspondiente.
proposed.
Project for the reorganization of the Campus Oriente (1999):
ART. 3.3.08. Vialidad mínima en propiedades iguales o mayores a una hectárea. Los proyectos de subdivisión, condominios de copropiedad inmobiliaria,
nuevas urbanizaciones o construcciones superiores a 1 hectárea, deberán proveer de un mínimo de 100 m lineales de calles por cada hectárea de terreno, de un
ancho mínimo de 12,00 m entre líneas de cierro, cedidas como Bien Nacional de Uso Público o entregadas en servidumbre al libre tránsito, según corresponda.

CAPITULO 8.1.
NORMAS SOBRE ESTACIONAMIENTOS

Tipo: E Q U I P A M I E N T O , Clase: EDUCACION, Conjunto de Actividades Específicas: 4 , ZONA (según Art 7.1.2.1. del PRMS): 1 c/ 10 als + 15%; adic.
visitas; mín 20; BICICLETAS: min 20

CAPITULO 7
TEATROS Y OTROS LOCALES DE REUNIONES
Artículo 4.7.1. Los edificios destinados a teatros, salas de audiciones musicales y salas de exhibiciones cinematográficas, comprendidas todas ellas bajo la
denominación genérica de teatros y otras salas destinadas a reuniones públicas, deben cumplir los requisitos siguientes:

Los locales con cabida mayor de 500 y menor de 1.000 personas deben tener un acceso principal directamente a una calle y, además, uno de sus costados, con
acceso directo a calle por medio de un espacio libre o patio de un ancho no menor de 2,60 m siempre que los muros colindantes de este patio o espacio libre sean
asísmicos y con resistencia a la acción del fuego correspondiente a lo menos a la clase F-60, según la norma NCh 935/1, o la que la reemplace. Podrá aceptarse
el acceso a una sola calle cuando el eje principal de la sala de espectáculos sea paralelo a aquélla y ninguna localidad (asiento de una sala de espectáculos) diste
más de 25 m de la puerta de salida a dicha calle.

Los anchos fijados para los patios, pasillos y otros espacios libres se medirán entre paramentos de columnas u otros elementos salientes de la construcción.

Artículo 4.7.5.
Los teatros que no tengan su sala principal en primer piso deberán cumplir los requisitos siguientes:
1. El edificio debe construirse en su totalidad de las clases A o B de la presente Ordenanza. 2. Los vestíbulos, pasadizos y escaleras que conduzcan a las salas de
espectáculos y demás destinadas al público deben ser independientes de los locales situados en primer piso. 3. No podrán consultarse recintos bajo o encima
del ocupado por la sala del teatro, que puedan destinarse a depósito o para la venta de productos o materiales inflamables, o que puedan originar incendios. 4.
Las escaleras que den acceso a los recintos del piso principal del teatro serán de tramos rectos separados por descansos y tendrán un ancho no inferior a 2 m. No
habrá más de 16 gradas por tramo y la altura de éstas no será mayor de 0,16 m y el ancho no inferior a 0,30 m, debiendo mantenerse la condición: 2 h + a = 0,62
m si se adoptaren cifras distintas de esos límites.
Circulations proposed outside and inside the campus.
Source: Rozas Krause, Valentina.

62 43
BUILDING MATERIALS AND DETAILS

Location of the winning project and court. Modifications of the church as campus center and proposed court.
Source: Own elaboration from the general plant of the Oriente Campus and digitalized plans by Source: Palmer, Monserrat. Reordering project of the Campus Oriente. Plate pg-05 and pg-06
Benjamín Martínez.

Towards the end of the 90s, the Campus Oriente situation continued to change. The overcrowding of the
first years was leaving aside the product of the transfer of several careers to other headquarters of the University.
The property had initially been acquired as a transit campus, while the San Joaquin Campus was consolidated.
The “transfer of the School of Arts to the East Campus and the formation, (when joining with the Institute of
Music and the School of Theater) of a new Faculty, would amend the decision to sell the Campus”
In 1999, the architect Montserrat Palmer would be responsible for a project to reorder the campus. From
his diagnosis, two aspects of the original project stand out - in his opinion - that were not resolved, “both acting
negatively on its use as a university”.
The first corresponded to the system of courtyards that had been disrupted by the location of the church
in the center of the composition. This had a clear justification in the original conception of the building as a
convent and religious college, but which-unfortunately in the current situation-produced “the forgetting of
the most important piece in the overall plan of the building, both by its dimensions and its significance “,
Which transformed it into an impediment to an adequate university activity. The installation of the church
in the “central courtyard” altered the design of the north-south circulations, not allowing a complete linear
continuity, but changing “in a kind of horse jump in chess”. The second question was related to the inaccuracy
of the east-west axis and how the circulations around the central courtyards were boarded up by the casino of
that time.
The main actions proposed were:
The permeability of the building made its immediate environment and between the different patios to
allow greater fluidity between the different open spaces. The church as it is located in the center of the complex Reinforced concrete structure, burn clay bricks, ceramic tiles for covering, ceramic and metal sheet roof covering. One can
and by the size of its dimensions, would be proposed as the heart of the campus. For this it would be inevitable to observe that building had successfully resisted all the earthquakes, though a weathering signs are also present, leaving salt
stains from concrete.
carry out some interventions. The proposed actions are: openings of the double southern walls and demolition
44 61
CAMPUS VEGETATION

Front garden Palm Trees

Park north of the campus

Systems of axes - courtyards and corridors


Source: Palmer, Monserrat.

Two views of the temple courtyard

Permeability between spaces


Source: Palmer, Monserrat.

60 45
FLORA OF CAMPUS

of the enclosures that are added to form a covered atrium and improve lateral circulation; opening of two new
accesses on the east and west; create in the nave of the church an auditorium that allows to host activities or
artistic manifestations, for which it would need to place an acoustic sky; and to constitute a smaller space, in
the presbytery, for a new chapel with a circular floor plan with sliding doors that would allow opening to the
central nave.
The university should acquire a set of properties on the perimeter of the campus to improve access from
the east and south, generating in the east area parking for teachers, students or attendees to events that could be
performed. Finally it is proposed to build the missing pavilions of the original design and zoning the campus,
locating the Faculty of Arts in the 3 patios of the east, in the central part would be common equipment and the
church, and in the west other programs and the casino.
Project center of the arts (2006):
Campus Oriente is currently shaping up as the headquarters of the university dedicated to the Arts. This
is how in 2006 the architect Teodoro Fernández was commissioned to develop a blueprint to create a Center for
the Arts on that campus. He was asked to insert a music room, a theater and a blackbox room on the south axis
of the building. “While the blackbox is submerged under the courtyard of access to the temple, the other two
rooms are level and burst into the courtyards of the main facade.”
In the project report, it is justified as follows: “The original project was never completed, leaving the
southern front unfinished towards Avenida Diagonal Oriente. (...) The project proposes a new façade that
combines the old and the new building in an open front, closing the courtyards in the form of transparent
halles within which the rooms or theaters are arranged “

Fernández, Teodoro - plan and cross section of the project


Source: Rozas Krause, Valentina.

Fuente: Francisca Pimentel

46 59
PLACE
Eucalipto rosa Roble pellín Pino oregón nacional
Eucalyptus rose Oak pellín National Oregon Pine
Eucalyptus grandis Nothofagus obliqua Pseudotsuga menziesii

Habitat: Australia The oak pellín (Nothofagus obliqua), also known as Habitat: australia
Height: 40 m coyán, 2 hualle, pellín, oak of Neuquén or oak; It is a Height: 40 m
Diameter: 1.20 m deciduous tree that inhabits the temperate forests of Diameter: 1.20 m
Density: 0.78 Chile and Argentina. It grows from 33 to 43 ° South Density: 0.78
Color: Pink brown latitude, 3 in Chile from the V to X region, and in Color: pinkish pink
Uses: Carpentry, parquets, moldings, agglomerates, Argentina only in the western fringe of Neuquén. Uses: carpentry, parquets, moldings, agglomerates,
canoes, cellulose. Canoes, cellulose.
Characteristics:
The wood of E. randis, has numerous uses and The sapwood is whitish- yellowish, little resistant Uses: construction of buildings, interior fi nishes,
applications, due to its physical and mechanical to weathering, the heartwood is reddish, called doors, windows, bridges, stakes for mines, boxes
properties. “pellin”. The adult specimens with the plywood and containers, cooperage, boats and boats,
It has uses as diverse as sawing, paper, moldings, are the most valuable for the reddish wood, hard, furniture, plates and plywood. It can also be used
furniture, energy, etc. In addition to its properties, heavy, resistant to the weather. It has some tannic in glued laminated wood for structural elements.
E. Grandis has biological advantages due to its substances, constituting a very durable and rot
rapid growth, which allows for short shift s of 10 proof heartwood, of unquestionable solidity, easy to
to 14 years. Th is allows a continuous supply to the work but difficult to dry, since it arches and cracks,
industry. slow, soft processes and preferably with steam must
Its use as round wood of almost any diameter makes be applied to neutralize different drying tensions.
it have comparative advantages over other species
grown in the region that can not be used in this way. Applications:
The heat treatment consists of subjecting the The wood has good characteristics of resistance
eucalyptus wood to very high temperatures and durability, being used in the construction of
(between 180 and 220ºC), by means of a process bridges, poles, sleepers, plates, exteriors, etc. It
in which no chemical product is used, so that the presents a high economic interest in the sawmill
resulting product is completely recyclable. By industry. It is used in buildings exposed to weather
submitting the wood to such high temperatures, and humidity, hydraulic constructions, aerial line
the molecular structure of the same is modified and poles, pillars and bridge planks, etc., being essential
gains in properties highly valued in outdoor woods, to remove the bark and sapwood, which is easily
such as hardness, durability, minor alteration by attacked by microorganisms. The heartwood can
moisture and resistance against fungi. not be impregnated with preservative liquids. It is
also used in carpentry and joinery, sports articles, Santiago has a Mediterranean climate, mayor precipitation fall during winter time, while summers are hot and dry.
boat frames.
Topography and Landscape:
The geological units that make up the Maipo-Mapocho basin (quadrant between the 33º20’ S and 33º40
S parallels and between the 70º20’W and 70º50’W meridians), within which the Providencia commune is
located, originated two or three million years. As a result of a volcanic activity associated with large movements
of the earth’s crust: the mountains rose to reach their current state and the intermediate depression sank
separating, in this way, the mountain ranges of the Andes and the Coast.
The current conformation of the relief of Santiago (including the communal territory) has been modeled
in the Quaternary, where enormous volumes of water were produced from the Andean mountain range that
gave rise to alluvial flows of mud flows, which advanced towards depression intermediate (Börgel, 1966). This
basin originated as a consequence of tectonic phenomena combined with erosion processes, and has been fi lled
by fundamental fluvial and fluvioglacial sediments from the hydrographic pits of the Maipo and Mapocho
rivers.
The Providencia Commune is inserted in the tectonic pit of the “Santiago basin”. From the
geomorphological point of view, the commune is characterized by covering two large units of relief: on the
one hand, the intermediate depression, and on the other, the cord of the San Cristóbal hill. The area of the
intermediate depression in which the greater part of the territory of the commune is located is entirely within
the sediments of the Mapocho River cone.
The Units of soil, within the classification of foundational soils that make up this territory of the
commune are of three types:
In its great majority (apart from the exceptions indicated below) the foundation soils of the territory of the
commune, including Barrio Bellavista, correspond to the unit called 2 Qrm, Mapocho River, unit constituted
by bolones of up to 80 cm, accompanied by sandy gravel, silty gravel and clayey gravel, silty sand, silt and clays.
These soils, according to the USCS classification, would be GW-GP-GM-GC, which is considered excellent
foundation material, with good stability for slopes.
Revestimiento de tablillas de madera
58 47
Reinforced concrete Structural glass - Sonyx photovoltaic glass Adoquines

The constructive technique of reinforced concrete


consists in the use of reinforced concrete with bars
or steel meshes, called reinforcements. It can also
be assembled with fibers, such as plastic fibers,
fiberglass, steel fibers or combinations of steel bars
with fibers depending on the requirements to which
it will be subjected.

Expanded polystyrene
Lo Contador UC

Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is a foamed plastic


Steel material, derived from polystyrene and used in the
container and construction sector.

Use and end of life


Expanded polystyrene is 100% reusable to form
Plaza de blocks of the same material and is also recyclable
Armas
(centro
historico)
to make raw materials for other kinds of products.
In addition, since it has a high calorific value and
does not contain gases from the group of CFCs, it
Campus Oriente UC
Casa Central UC
can be incinerated safely in energy recovery plants.
It is not desirable to pour it into landfi lls since this
material is not easily degradable.Depending on
the characteristics (mainly size and shape) of an
expanded polystyrene object and the surrounding
environment, degradation can take from a few
months to more than 500 years. A cup of expanded
polystyrene, exposed to solar energy, wind, rain,
etc. It will degrade in a short time. While a similar
glass that is buried in a sanitary landfi ll will take
much longer, 50 years on average. The recycling
symbol corresponding to polystyrene is the triangle
with the number 6 and the initials PS. The main
Stone Serena color method for recycling polystyrene has been used
for decades and consists of mechanically breaking
Natural stone, also called serene, pebbled stone, its the material and then mixing it with new material
diameter ranges from 5.0 to 10.0 mm approximately to form EPS blocks that can contain up to 50%
ideal for decorating gardens, vases, etc. for its range recycled material. There are currently other
of colors ranging from white, yellow, reddish, blue, technologies for recycling such as mechanical
etc. The colors are intensified by being moistened disinfection that involves applying mechanical and
thermal energy to the foamed to convert them into
compact particles that can be transported more
Campus San Juaquin UC easily. Methods for dissolving the foams in special
solvents are also studied to facilitate their transport
and reprocessing.

Crushed stone

1 km AREAS RECREATIVAS CULTURA

Location of Campus Oriente to Santiago historical center, and re-creative areas

48 57
LOCAL MATERIALS
Sandstone Basalt Clay They make the exception to this classification, two
The sandstone or psamita is a sedimentary rock Basalt is a volcanic igneous rock of dark color, Clay is a soil or sedimentary rock constituted by small sectors: The first exception is the Mapocho river box,
of detrital type, of variable color, which contains with a mafic composition in magnesium and iron aggregates of hydrated aluminum silicates, coming from the eastern boundary of the commune to the bridge
sand-sized clasts. After the shales are the most silicates and low silica content, which is one of the from the decomposition of rocks containing
common sedimentary rocks in the earth’s crust. most abundant rocks in the earth’s crust. It is also feldspar, such as granite. It presents diverse
of the Archbishop, and the lands of Pedro de Valdivia
The sandstones contain interstitial spaces between found on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as colorations according to the impurities that it Norte, west of Emeterio Larraín street Bunster, those that
their grains. In rocks of recent origin these spaces well as some meteorites. The basalts usually have contains, from the red orange to the white when
are without solid material whereas in ancient rocks
would be of the Qar classification, recent alluvial deposits;
a porphyritic texture, with phenocrysts of olivine, it is pure. Clay of the Quaternary period (400,000
they are fi lled with a matrix or with silica cement augite, plagioclase and a fi ne crystalline matrix. years), Estonia. corresponding to sandy gravels, clean sands, gravel sands and
or calcium carbonate. If the interstitial spaces are Sometimes it can be in the form of glass, called Physically it is considered a colloid, with extremely silty sands. These soils, according to the USCS classification,
not completely fi lled with precipitated minerals sideromelano, with very few crystals or without small particles and a smooth surface. The diameter
and there is a certain porosity these can be fi lled them. of the clay particles is less than 0.002 mm. In the would be SM-GW, which, from the point of view of the
with water or oil. As for the grains are composed of Th roughout history, basalt has been used as a textural fraction clay there may be non-mineral foundations, presents problems due to a high phreatic level,
quartz, feldspar or rock fragments. The sandstone is building material by various cultures, among particles, the phytoliths. Chemically it is a hydrated
used, among other uses, as a construction material them the Olmecs of Mexico, Ancient Egypt, and silicate of alumina, whose formula is: Al2O3 ·
close to the surface and lack of cohesion for slopes. They
and as a sharpening stone. Sedimentary-detritic the Rapanui people, to name a few. Nowadays, 2SiO2 · H2O. require densification works to be used as foundation soil for
type. Variable color, commonly gray, brown or red. artificial basalt fibers are used to reinforce concrete important structures. The second exception corresponds to
structures.
Despite being impermeable, its use is not advisable the box of the river, plus a strip that covers the first block, both
for certain hydraulic works due to its excessive to the north and south of the box and, from the bridge of the
fracturing. Another defect is that basalt surfaces
tend to form small white spots where the analyte Archbishop to the western limit of the commune, those that
mineral has been altered, possibly a product of solar are identified as RA, artificial fi ll. These soils do not have a
radiation.
Basalt has a coefficient of thermal expansion lower
USC classification, and correspond to the accumulation of
than granite, limestone, sandstone, quartzite, materials made by man. Because these materials have not had
marble, or slate, so it receives little damage in fi res. any control in relation to their composition, placement and
Given the low albedo of the basalts, the surfaces
of this rock tend to heat up more than others, as a degree of compaction, they become very dangerous soils for
result of solar radiation, reaching temperatures of the foundation of structures. It is recommended an analysis
almost 80 ° C in the Sahara.33 The massive basalt
(without vesicles) has a density of 2.8 to 2.9 g / of the land to be intervened and a treatment according to the
cm³ being denser than granite and marble but less results achieved.
than gabbro. In the Mohs hardness scale it has been
estimated that the basalt has a hardness that can In this way, the topography of the commune is
vary from approximately 4.8 to 6.5. constituted mainly by a flat land of alluvial origin, where
the main accidents are the Mapocho River, which crosses
the commune from east to west; the old San Carlos canal,
which limits the commune in its eastern part; and the San
Cristóbal hill, 880 meters high as the northern limit of
the commune. The average altitude of the commune is 650
meters above sea level.
Modelo: Fiscal.
Medidas: On the other hand, within the communal landscape
30x15x6cm.
of Providencia stand out: by its near presence, to the north,
the hill San Cristóbal, today Metropolitan Park and to the
east, by its distant presence, the nevada mountain range
of the Andes, which are constituted in its fundamental
landscape elements.
The hill “San Cristóbal” was baptized with the name
of the patron of the travelers when the Spaniards, penetrating
the central valley, saw this hill covered with vegetation, the
Tupahue: (place of flowers, in the Mapudungo dialect).
According to some chroniclers, the Spanish troops were
advancing along the Inca Trail (today Avda. Independencia)
and when they saw that flowery hill, they headed down a
diagonal path (now Avda. Cardenal Caro) towards this
landmark. They arrived at the foot of Cerro Blanco, where
there is one of the largest tacit stones known in the Americas
(more than thirty tacitas), which accounts for the antiquity
Earth tones
of this human settlement (about 3,000 BC). This historical
56 49
fact confirms, for our case, the guiding role of the macro Maitén Lingue Algarrobo Alerce
Maytenus boaria Persea lingue Prosopis chilensis Fitzroya cupressoides
landscape in the most diverse cultures.
Perennial Perennial Fallen Leaf Perennial
The chroniclers also narrate that the conqueror Don Height reached of 20m
Diameter of the trunk: up to 1 meter
Height reached 30 m in the south and 10 m in the
north
Height of 3 to 12 meters
Diameter of the trunk: up to 60 centimeters.
Height reached between 50 and 60 meters
Diameter of the trunk: up to 5 meters.
Pedro Valdivia was impressed by the majestic presence of High water consumption
High sun exposure
Diameter of the trunk: up to 80 centimeters Low water consumption
High sun exposure
Tree adapted to grow in poor and thin soils, in
sands volcanic or in swamps
High or medium water consumption
the snow-capped Andes and that, recognizing them as a The flowers combined with the introduced High or medium sun exposure Ornamental tree It can reach ages between 3,000 and 4,000 years.
European bees produce a delicious honey The wood is of excellent quality for: furniture, Edible fruits, whose pulp is for medicinal use. It is a National Monument, so its felling is
large reservoir of water, he would have decided to install floors, door frames, windows and buildings. Its wood is used for doors and floors, parquets, shoe prohibited (you can take advantage of dead
parts, wine hulls. specimens)
the base city of his operations, in Quillota, on the banks of Very good for outdoor use. They are used in the manufacture of tiles, poles,
blinds, doors, windows, pencils, also ornaments,
Aconcagua, or in Santiago, next to the Mapocho river, this boards, fi rst aid kits and dust covers.

last place where the capital of the Kingdom of Chile was Graphic No. 1
definitely founded. average monthly temperatures period 1956 - 1998.
Fift h station normal
Towards the east, then, it becomes visible, over the Source: Chile meteorological direction.
trees of the San Carlos canal, as a symbol of the exterior
landscape, the snowy crown of the Andes; next visually,
but distant in terms of accessibility. In the high peaks that
Guayacán
surround Santiago, indigenous altars and mummies have Porlieria chilensis
been found (such as that of El Plomo hill), which reinforces Perennial
that the sense towards the east, in Providencia, is loaded Height reached up to 4 meters
Diameter of the trunk: up to 20 centimeters
with the significance of leaving the virgin nature, encounter Low water consumption
High sun exposure
with the unknown and presence of the gods. While the sense Wood used for craft s
Medicinal properties
towards the west, towards the founding center, is loaded Culén
with the meaning of urban interior and daily hustle. Psoralea glandulosa
Fallen Leaf
Graphic No. 2 Height of up to 7 meters
maximum and minimum monthly temperatures in a normal High water consumption
Hydrology: year. High sun exposure
Medicinal properties
What has been said up to now, about the topography, Normal fi ft h station

corresponds to the geography seen as the orienting topology


or anatomy. But nature, as the Greeks conceived it, is
also a living being. She was the goddess Gaia, daughter of
Chaos (the original), mother and lover of heaven (Uranus), Arrayán
Luma Apiculata Michay
mountains (Ourea) and sea (Pontus). We must then consider Berberis darwinii
Perennial
the communal territory also from the perspective of a geo- Height reached up to 20 meters, although in most Perennial
of its distribution area grows as a very branched Height of 1.5 to 4 meters
physiology, that is, from its functioning and not only from bush, about 3-5 m in height. High water consumption
Diameter of the trunk: up to 1 meter
its anatomical structure. High water consumption
High sun exposure
Edible flowers and fruits
Low or medium sun exposure Ornamental use
At the foot of the San Cristóbal hill, today Production of forest honey. The root and bark are used to dye yellow wool
Medicinal properties
Metropolitan Park, the Mapocho river runs, which reinforces Graphic No. 3 Wood plant
precipitation med period 1956 - 1998
this northern limit, making them the constituent elements Normal fi ft h station
of the interior landscape of the Commune. The river box Source: Chilean Meteorological Office
Corcolén
also fulfi lls the important role of biological corridor where Azara serrata
the air masses penetrate from the coast and down from the Perennial
mountain range, to the interior of the basin. Height of up to 5 meters
High water consumption
Low sun exposure
The San Carlos Canal, eastern boundary and Ornamental use in gardens

important element in the landscape of the commune, owes


its name to what would have been built during the reign of
Carlos III (successor of Fernando V !, 1716 - 1788), and to
whom there are numerous urban reforms and the promotion
of agriculture, industry and commerce. Some chroniclers
believe that in this place there would have been irrigation Graphic No. 5
works from the time of the Inca domination. This water relative humidity of the air, period 1971 - 1998
course with wooded shores also reinforces the natural Fift h station normal
Source: Chilean Meteorological Office
characteristic of the eastern edge of the commune.
50 55
Espino Patagua Belloto del norte Canelo The San Carlos Canal, an artificial channel that moves water from the Maipo River to the Mapocho
Acacia caven Crinodendron patagua Beilschmiedia miersii Drimys winteri
Perennial
River, inaugurates, early in the history of the country, a system of water transfer, from the channels and
Fallen Leaf Perennial Perennial
Height reached of 6m Height reached of 10m Height reached of 25m Height reached of 30m hydrographic pits of the south of the territory to the channels and basins Hydrographic of the north. In a period
Diameter of the trunk: maximum 50 Diameter of the trunk: 1 meter Diameter of the trunk: up to 80 Diameter of the trunk: up to 1 meter of our political history, a great project was conceived on a national scale, the Unity Channel, for the transfer of
centimeters approximately. High consumption of centimeters High water consumption
Low water consumption water. Low sun exposure (can survive High water consumption Low sun exposure water from the upper courses of the rivers to the south, to the lower courses of the rivers north. The systematic
High sun exposure the sun or half shade as long as there is Low sun exposure Mapuche symbol of peace repetition of this operation, throughout the country, will allow water to be poured from the rainy south to the
Grow thorns enough water) Resistant to winds and dry seasons Wood used in construction, furniture
Used for your hardwood Important in production of honey Ornamental use and for the manufacture of musical
desert north, regulating the climate and preventing the advance of the desert.
Use of wood for furniture In danger of extinction instruments Within the commune, thanks to the Mapocho river and the San Carlos Canal, from the high altitudes
Declared a Natural Monument in Medicinal properties
1995 of the territory (to the north and east), it is possible to irrigate the vegetation by gravity (through an important
network of channels). Avenues, parks and squares. The tree, public and private, has been recognized since the
origin of Providence as a heritage that must be preserved, which would be enormously difficult without the
precious water resource and without this happy gravitational system. Water is the essential element of plant and
animal life.
The parks or tree-lined avenues that have been generated over time, both in the north-south and east-
west directions, will then acquire different significance and will be reinforced as computing elements, due to
the presence -in their perspectives- of those two original components of the natural landscape, already named:
Cerro San Cristóbal and the Cordillera de los Andes.

Weather:
Two positive features of the current communal environment have their support in the canal system that,
detaching from the Mapocho River and the San Carlos Canal, irrigate by gravity avenues and parks. The first
is the purification of the air, which keeps Providencia among the less polluted communes of the metropolis.
The second refers to the existence of a wide variety of wild birds (turtles, sparrows, thrushes, thrushes,
hummingbirds, parrots, etc.) that nest in this vegetation and can be observed commonly in gardens and green
areas. The interaction between this hydrography, this vegetation and this fauna is part of an ecological heritage
chain of Providencia
The climate present in the commune is framed in the Mediterranean type with prolonged dry season
and with rainy winter (Csb). The average annual temperature of the Santiago weather station indicates that it is
13.9º C, with the average of the warmest month (January) being 22.1º C and that of the coldest month (July)
of 7.7º C. From this, it shows the existence of a moderate thermal behavior that can be seen reflected in Graph
Nº 1, following:
The thermal oscillation, for the maximum daily temperatures is of 15ºC, with ends in January and July
and for the minimum daily temperatures it is of 13ºC to 4ºC, where the highest minimum corresponds to the
months of the summer season and the lowest temperatures They are the months of July and August.
The daily fluctuations of temperature, as shown in graph No. 2, below, decrease in the months of June
and July, while the months of January and February the difference between the maximum and minimum
temperature is approximately 17º C.
A very important condition, due to the location of the commune within the Mapcho basin, is the increase
in temperature caused by the “heat island” effect of the center of the city. This phenomenon occurs in densely
populated areas where the pressure from the use of the soil and the high density of building, especially in
continuous height, causes the heat to “enclose”, because these buildings prevent the circulation of the winds
that disperse and moderate the temperature.
With regard to rainfall, they are concentrated between May and August with a total of 78.3% of the
total, a concentration that can be recognized in Graph No. 3 below, and they are practically absent in the
summer months; the total water fall in a “normal year” reaches approximately 360 mm. However, an important
characteristic of rainfall has to do with its irregularity, because one year it can be very rainy, and the next year
very dry, a situation that when repeated for several years can be very negative, resulting in serious problems
arising from a long period of drought or due to several years of excessive rainfall. This “capricious” precipitation
54 51
FLORA LOCAL
Peumo Boldo Quillay Majuelo
Cryptocarya Alba Peumus boldus Quillaja saponaria Crataegus monogyna
Perennial Perennial Perennial Fallen Leaf
Height reached of 20m Height reached of 20m Height reached of 15m Height reached of 5m
Diameter of the trunk: 1 meter Diameter of the trunk: 1 meter Diameter of the trunk: 1 meter Suitable for all types of soil
approximately approximately approximately High or medium sun exposure
High water consumption Low water consumption Low water consumption Medicinal properties
South exposure High exposition to the sun High sun exposure Edible fruits
Aromatic leaves Aromatic leaves Medicinal properties
Used for its hardwood Used for its hardwood Used by the Mapuches as a detergent
Graphic No. 4 Medicinal properties (bark)
Annual rainfall Use of wood for furniture
Normal fi ft h station 1960-1998
Source: Chilean Meteorological Office

behavior has to do directly with its distribution throughout the year, because sometimes they fall behind too
much or at other times, they get ahead of themselves. The rainwater must also be incorporated into this systemic
vision of the functioning of nature. Rain has always been considered a fundamental element of the water cycle.
However, due to their bad management, today they are only associated with negative events, such as flooding,
flooding and damage to the general property.
By an attitude proper to our rationalist thinking, inherited from the industrial era, we intend to control
the rainwater by tubing and conducing it to the natural channels by unitary collectors (mixed with the sewage)
or by specialized collectors (separated from the sewage); at high costs and with large idle periods of service. A
physiological perspective of the anaturaleza indicates us the existence of so-called soft solutions, which propose
to take advantage of the precipitation, to then lead them to the irrigation channels or infi ltrate them through
deep absorbent wells towards the water tables.
The behavior of the relative humidity of the air in the day varies according to the hours, the maximum
percentages of humidity appear in the morning, at 8:00, in the afternoon; at 2:00 p.m. generally lower values
are presented in 30% and in the night; at 20:00 the humidity increases again, between afternoon and night the
values increase according to the time of year, in summer the difference is less than 10% and in winter it increases
to more than 18%. The behavior in the year of rainfall, as shown in graph No. 5 below, has a lower relative
humidity in the summer period of up to 60% at 08:00 hrs., While the months of June and July, in the coldest
months and with the highest precipitation, humidity is around 98% at 08:00 hrs.
Regarding the winds, it can be affirmed that there is no large-scale air flow, due to the presence of
prevailing anticyclonic conditions in the Metropolitan Region and the existing high building, so that the
commune’s ventilation is reduced to a system of breezes that are generated very locally. In this sense, the main
mechanism of ventilation is given by the effect of “breeze valley - mountain”: during the day, due to the heating
of the commune (valley) in east direction (mountain range) and North (hill); and, during the night the opposite
phenomenon occurs, that is, due to the cooling of the surface (mainly of the highest parts), a downward air
current is produced that comes from the East and North in the South direction, that is, towards the center of
the commune.
It is important to note that this effect “valley-mountain breeze” during the winter is very weak due to
the lower availability of solar radiation, which causes almost no air circulation within the commune, with the
consequent problem derived from environmental pollution.
The direction of the winds, also varies depending on the season of the year, thus in winter the predominance
of an air flow from the East is observed during the night until about noon and in the afternoon there is a flow
with the Southwest direction; in summer the Southwest flow changes direction towards the South.

Sun - Irradiation:
Santiago is presented with 1843 kWh / m2 year, but also presents some problems associated with UV,
and holes in the ozone layer. If you can take advantage of solar energy, and also think about the safe spaces of
direct solar irradiation, or think about where the first sun will come to heat the environments prior to your
occupation.
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