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 1.

INTRODUCTION TO APPLIED LINGUISTICS Video Lesson 1 Linguistics vs Applied

LinguisticsMgs. Nina Nesterenko

 2. Linguistics is a comparatively new science, or new,at least, in the form it has taken in
recent years. It’s a scientific study of language. Its goal isdescribe the varieties of
languages and explainthe unconscious knowledge all speakers have of their language

 3. Linguistics – the study oflanguage in general or of someparticular language or

languages It is the science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology,
syntax, and semantics It is the study of the structure, development, changes, etc, of a
particular language and its relationship to other languages

 4. Linguistics is subdivided into: applied historical

 5. field of study that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language related
problems Applied Linguistics describes theIt can be applied to all language, andaspects
of language use. teaches how it is It deals with mother, foreign, learned and usedsecond
language acquisition


 7. A.L. extends into such practical application fields as as: Clinical Linguistics (analysis
and treatment of language disorders) Language Acquisition ( L1 and L2) Teaching and
Learning Foreign Languages (developing foreign language teaching methods)Educational
Linguistics (the useof the mother tongue in school)

 8. Lexicography ( theory and practice in organizing dictionaries; methods and techniques

for creating dictionaries Computational Linguistics (the use of computers in language
analysis and use) Machine Translation ASR –Automatic( computerized translation )
Speech Recognition

 9. Language assessment(to measure studentlearning of languages, todetermine what a

studentknows and/or can do andhow well instruction isproceeding ). Forensic Linguistics
(the application of linguistic knowledge, methods and insights to the context of law,
language, crime investigation, trial, experts, court, evidence, law, jurislinguistique )

 10. Data Mining – (the process of processinglarge volumes of data usually stored in
adatabase and searching for patterns andrelationships within that data. It is
automaticextraction and processing of data )Language pedagogy (theory of
developingteaching methods ) Psycholinguistics (the study of the psychological factors
that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce speech , relationship
between language and human behavior)
 11. Internet linguistics ( It studies new language styles and forms that have arisen under
the influence of the Internet and Short Message Service (SMS)Sociolinguistics
Neurolinguistics (describes(study of the link the application of linguisticbetween
language theories to the classification andand society) analysis of acquired disorders of
language or speech in patients with brain damage ) Language interpretation (facilitating
of oral or sign language communication between users of different languages)

 12. Corpus linguistics(the study of language as expressed in samples (corpora) or "real

world" text ; it is approach to deriving a set of abstract rules by which a natural language
is governed or else relates to another language) Text Analysis ( written Language Control
/ discourse) Dialectology (study of linguisticLanguage, dialect, variations inculture, and
language and is basedpragmatics primarily on geographic( cultural aspects distribution
;in language divergence of two localteaching in dialects from aintercultural common
ancestor andcommunication ) synchronic variation )

 13. Education Sociology(teaching, learning, (the scientific study ofacquisition, human

social behaviorassessment and the study of society) Applied Linguistics Linguistics
Psychology(The study of the (the science of mindnature, structure, and and behavior,
andvariation of language, Anthropology ( the scientific study the application ofincluding
phonetics, of the origin and such knowledge ofphonology,morphology and the behavior
of man, various spheres ofstudy of human including the human activity, suchspeech,
language physical, social, and as education,form, language cultural development health,
occupationalmeaning , and of societies and and employmentlanguage in context services
cultures ).

 14. Difference between Linguistics and Applied LinguisticsLinguistics is a science that

studies languages and has some subfields:PHONETICS - it deals with the sounds of
language, how they are producedPHONOLOGY – it deals with how the sounds are
organizedMORPHOLOGY – it deals with how sounds are put together to form words, and
everything related to word formationSYNTAX – it deals with how sentences are
formedSEMANTICS – it deals with the meaning of words, sentences, and
textsPRAGMATICS –studies how people comprehend and produce a communicative act or
speech act in a concrete speech situation

 15. Applied linguistics can be applied to all aspectsof language use.It deals with mother,
foreign, second languageacquisition.It examined the relationship between languageand
such areas as law, communication, media,social and educational psychology
andeducation in general.Domain of applied linguistics – approaches totext, language,
literacy, research, languageteaching and learning and translation.
background in linguistics is essential for language teachers, translators, speech-language pathologists,
audiologists, and many other language professionals.
Applied Linguistics:
 Examines the structure of language and its role in communication
 Explores how children acquire language
 Studies how the skills of second-language speakers develop
 Investigates how the social or cultural environment interacts with language
Why Applied Linguistics at Brock?
 Develop a strong foundation in the structure of language and its role in communication
 Gain practical knowledge through clinical observations

Central to the field of applied linguistics today includes topics such as language for special
purposes (e.g. language and communication problems related to aviation, language
disorders, law, medicine, science), language policy and planning, and language and literacy

*1. For example, following the adoption of English as the working language for all
international flight communication by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO),
some applied linguists concerned themselves with understanding the kinds of linguistic
problems that occur when pilots or flight engineers from varying backgrounds
communicate using a nonnative language and how to better train them to communicate in
English more effectively.

2. Some applied linguists are concerned with helping planners and legislators in countries
develop and implement a language policy (e.g. planners are working in South Africa to
specify and to further develop roles in education and government not only for English and
Afrikaans but also for the other nine indigenous languages) or in helping groups develop
scripts, materials, and literacy programs for previously unwritten languages (e.g. for many
of the 850+ indigenous languages of Papua New Guinea).

3. Other applied linguists have been concerned with developing the most effective
programs possible to help adult newcomers to the United States or other countries, many
of whom have limited if any prior education, develop literacy in the languages which they
will need for survival and for occupational purposes

What is applied linguistics? What do applied linguists do?

Though the term "applied linguistics" has traditionally been associated with the scientific study of such areas as
TESOL, TEFL, TESL, language teaching and learning, applied linguists do a variety of things: The basic idea is, as
the definition implies, to contribute to the real-world issues. Some of the questions that applied linguists ask

-How can languages best be learnt and taught?

-What social factors affect language learning?
-How can technology be used to contribute to the effectiveness of language teaching/learning?
-What are the related problems associated with language disorders? How can these be prevented?
The advantages of learning Applied Linguistics

“Applied Linguistic (AL) is typically concerned with achieving an end, with improving existing language
related-operations, and with solving language related-problem”. (Grade & Kaphan, 1992, p.17). It is one
of the most necessary courses for students who wish to be an effective Second Language Teacher
because the course aims both to identify issues in linguistics and to solve its problem. In semester two,
there are a lot of significant courses in the book such as meanings of language, pragmatics in discourse
analysis and describing individual and society bilingualism. Among them, there are a few useful lessons,
the meanings of language and pragmatics discourse analysis which I would like to share to all the next

Learning the meanings of language is very useful for me as a future-second language lecturer. The book
in-depth explains how morpheme, word, phrase and sentence produce meanings in the language. It
enables me to get the correct meanings in a sentence based on its morphemes, words and structure. In
addition, it helps me not to confuse or misunderstand the meanings of the words regarding to “–nyms”
words relation. To illustrate, tale and tail are different words but it is pronounced identically and if I
didn’t learn it in advanced I would infer the meaning in wrong way.

Knowing the pragmatics, how the linguistic knowledge and situational context influent the
interpretation of the meaning in discourse, is really helpful for me. Because the interpretation of the
meaning of the words differs from one situation to another, it is a good chance for me to know how to
interpret the meaning base on the context provided. In addition, the study of maxims of conversation is
really beneficial. It gives me an ideal thought of how to produce good or smooth conversation
depending on four maxims of the conversation, the maxim of quantity, the maxim of relevant, the
maxim of manner and the maxim of quality. All of these maxims are helpful for the speakers to make the
conversation go smoothly.

However, I have encounters a few challenges in learning AL. The initial difficulty is about the concept of
the course. Most of the concepts in AL require readers to have broad knowledge or comprehension skill
to understand it. Thematic roles, for instance, is quite

tough for me to get the actual meaning. I can’t simplify its definition in an easy way to understand even
though I have read the books for several times. I still blur how it applies in real world. Furthermore,
there are so many difficult terms in this book which requires me to check in advanced otherwise I will
not able to understand the lesson or I will not be able to follow the lecturer’s explanation. Finally, it is
about the presentation assigned by the lecturer. We are asked to read the journal or research papers for
our presentation. It is quite hard for us because we are not familiar with research paper or journal. Also,
the length of the paper is quite long (consists of 40 to 60 pages). How can we find the main point to
present in class if we are not thoroughly understood that research papers.

In order to deal with those problems occurring in learning AL, I have a few suggestions to deal with the
problems. I would like to suggest to editors of AL 401 and 402 AL to produce the book which is not so
beyond their understanding or knowledge otherwise they will not be able to follow or learn from the
teachers. Besides, I would recommend the next generation students to read book before class and if
possible they should manage time to read other materials related to Applied Linguistic in advanced in
order that they will have some ideas to share, discuss and ask the doubtful parts to the lecturer. Finally,
it is a good idea if they can possess AL dictionary, since it will help them a lot to easily understand the

Learning AL provides inexpensive knowledge for us as the second language teachers for better-teaching
career in the future. The course enables them to find out the problem in linguistics as well as the
solution to deal with it. As a result, we will be able to find an ideal methods and techniques to teach the
students in more effective and efficient means if we can absorb the knowledge from AL course.