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Higher Tier 5-7 Test

1 a Fibre and starch are made from the same chemicals but provide different parts of a balanced diet.

i What type of nutrient or food substance is starch?


[1 mark]

Exploring Science edition 109 © Pearson Education Limited 2008


ii What is formed by the digestion of starch?
[1 mark]

b Not all the substances that we eat or drink are good for our bodies. Name one substance that
we can drink, which may be harmful.

[1 mark]

c The product of digestion of starch is used in respiration, which occurs in the cells of our bodies.
i Write the word equation for the respiration reaction that occurs in our cells to release energy.

+ +

Exploring Science edition 110 © Pearson Education Limited 2008


[2 marks]

2 Anne was investigating the animals that lived in a wood. She collected
all the dead leaves in 0.5 m2 of the wood and put them in a Tullgren funnel.
The light on the funnel makes the animals move away from it, and they fall
into the beaker.

Imran decided to use a pitfall trap for his sampling.


The pitfall trap is a pot buried in the ground, and small animals fall into it
as they walk around.
Higher Tier 5-7 Test

Ann counted the animals in the beaker. Here are her results.

Name of animal Number


armadillo mite 52
earthworm 1
hunting mite 14
spider 2
beetle 1

Imran got a different collection of animals in his trap.


a Which method would you use if you only wanted to identify the animals in a wood that were nocturnal
(only move around at night)? Explain your answer.

[1 mark]

b i Armadillo mites eat leaves. Use the information in the table to draw a food chain below showing
the two types of mites, leaves and the beetle.

[1 mark]

ii Explain why you have put the animals in this order. Use the word ‘energy’ in your answer.

[1 mark]

iii In the space below draw out a pyramid of numbers for your food chain.

[1 mark]
Higher Tier 5-7 Test

c The wood being investigated has a total area of 150 m2.


Look at Anne’s results, and calculate how many armadillo mites you would expect to find in the whole
wood.

[1 mark]

d Imran counts the armadillo mites in his sample, and calculates that there would only be 50
of them in the wood. Why do you think Imran’s sample gives a different answer for the total number of
armadillo mites?

[1 mark]

e If the animals in a pitfall trap are not counted quickly, the results may not be accurate. Explain why not.

[1 mark]
3 Some disinfectants are supposed to be mixed with
water before they are used. Helen investigated the most
cost – effective dilution for a type of household
disinfectant.
She used Petri dishes with agar jelly in them. The jelly was
covered with bacteria. She soaked discs of paper in
different dilutions of disinfectant and put the discs
onto the jelly.
Helen sealed the dishes and left them for a week. This is what the dishes looked like at the end of a
week.
Higher Tier 5-7 Test

These are the dilutions that Helen used.

Disc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Volume of disinfectant (cm )3
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Volume of water (cm3) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

a Helen thinks that the result for disc 3 is wrong, and she must have dipped the paper
disc in the wrong mixture.
Explain why Helen does not think that this is a reliable result.

[1 mark]

b i Based on Helen’s results, and ignoring result 3, how should this disinfectant be diluted when it is
used?

[1 mark]

ii Explain your answer.

[1 mark]

iii Why should you not use a stronger mixture than the one you recommend?

[1 mark]

c Why did Helen seal the dishes?

[1 mark]
Higher Tier 5-7 Test

The label on the bottle of disinfectant says that it can be used for kitchen worktops and bathroom surfaces, and
for cleaning toilets and drains.

d How could you test the disinfectant to find out if it is effective for all the suggested uses?
Explain what you would do, why you would do it, and how you would make sure you collect enough
data.

[3 marks]

4 Joe tested some rocks to see how porous they were.


Joe found the mass of each rock, then put it into some water. He left the rocks in the water for ten minutes,
then he took them out and dried them with a paper towel before he found the
mass again.
He then put the rocks back into water for another ten minutes before finding their masses again.

The table shows his results.

Rock Dry mass (g) Wet mass Wet mass Mass of


after 10 after 20 water (g)
minutes (g) minutes (g)
A 20.4 20.4 20.4 20.4
B 23.2 25.1 25.1 25.1
C 19.8 20.7 20.9 20.9
D 24.9 25.8 25.8 25.8

a i Why did Joe put the rocks back into water for another ten minutes?

[1 marks]
Higher Tier 5-7 Test

ii Joe got slightly different results after the second ten minutes. What does this show?

[1 mark]

iii What should Joe do next with the rocks to make sure his results are as accurate as possible?

[1 mark]

b Calculate the mass of water absorbed by each rock, and fill in the last column of the table.

[1 mark]

c Joe wants to find out how porous each type of rock is. What does he have to do with his results
before he can decide which is the most porous type of rock?

[1 mark]

Joe wanted to find out if there was a relationship between the porosity of a rock and its density. He needs to
measure the volume of each rock to work out the density.
d Describe how Joe can measure the volume of each piece of rock.

[2 marks]
Higher Tier 5-7 Test

e i When Joe has worked out the density of each piece of rock, what can he do with his results
to find out if there is a relationship?

[1 mark]

ii What will he see if there is a relationship?

[1 mark]

5 Fran and Carol want to see if adding salt to water changes the boiling
point of the water. They use this apparatus (right).
The graph shows their results.

Fran and Carol are talking about their experiment.

a How could Fran and Carol get more accurate results if they did their experiment again?
[1 mark]
Higher Tier 5-7 Test

b Look at Fran’s comment. What does this tell you about the accuracy of the last point on the
graph? (The result for 5 g salt.)

[1 mark]

c Fran wants to try the experiment with different masses of salt, so she can plot more points on
the graph.
Suggest three different masses of salt she could use, and explain why you chose them.

[2 marks]

d Use the results from the experiment to work out the solubility of salt at 100 °C.
Show your working, and include units with your answer.

[2 marks]

6 Matt is using this apparatus for an investigation.


The three rods are all made of different materials. There
is a drawing pin stuck to the end of each rod with a blob
of wax.

Matt heats the ends of the rods with a Bunsen burner, and
times how long it takes for the pins to fall off.
Higher Tier 5-7 Test

a i How should Matt show his results? Tick one box.

pie chart line graph bar chart scatter graph

ii Explain why you chose this way of displaying the results.

[1 mark]

Sue says it would be easier for Matt to do the experiment if he heats the three rods separately. Matt says his
experiment is more accurate if he heats them all at once, as shown in the diagram above.
b What is one advantage of heating all the rods at once?

[1 mark]
Sue did a similar experiment, but she used this
apparatus. She repeated the experiment three times, once
with each type of rod.
c Suggest the advantage of doing the experiment this way.
[1 mark]

This graph shows Sue’s results.


Higher Tier 5-7 Test

d Sue tested a copper rod, a glass rod and an iron rod. Sue found out from a textbook that copper is a
better conductor of heat than iron.

i Which number represents the copper rod?

ii Explain why you chose this line.

[1 mark]

e Suggest why Sue’s results for Rods 1, 2 and 3 do not all lie on straight lines.

[1 mark]

f What is the advantage of drawing a line of best fit through each set of results?

[1 mark]

g Suggest why the results for Rod 1 bend away above the graph line for the pins that are further from the
source of heat.

h Do you think that Sue has enough evidence to say which of these three materials is the best
conductor of heat? Explain your answer.

[1 mark]
Higher Tier 5-7 Test

7 Reema was investigating the different sounds that a stretched string can make. She was using a sonometer to
make the sounds, and an oscilloscope to measure them.
She was investigating the effect of the length of the string on the frequency of the sound.

a Suggest one other question that Reema could investigate using this apparatus.

[1 mark]

b This diagram shows the oscilloscope after the string has made a sound.

What frequency is the sound wave?

[1 mark]

c Reema does not have a way to control the loudness of the sound she makes. Will this affect her results?
Explain your answer.

[1 mark]

d Reema could have used a guitar instead of the sonometer for her investigation.
Suggest one reason why it is better to use the sonometer.
Higher Tier 5-7 Test

Reema plotted two different graphs to show her results.

Here are some of the conclusions that Reema could draw from these graphs:

A The frequency of the sound is proportional to the length of the string.


B The frequency of the sound is inversely proportional to the length of the string.
C The frequency of the sound goes down when the length increases.
D The frequency of the sound goes up when the length increases.

e i What does ‘proportional’ mean?

[1 mark]

ii What does ‘inversely proportional’ mean?

[1 mark]

f Why is it difficult to draw the same conclusions from the two graphs?

[1 mark]