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Johannah Morata BS Arch / Block 4 - I


Communicative Competence (Canale & Swain, 1980)

Communicative competence “refers to the tacit knowledge and the ability to use
language effectively” (Nordquist, 2018). The article by Canale and Swain, "Theoretical Bases of
Communicative Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing" (Applied Linguistics,
1980) identified four components needed to communicate:

- grammatical/linguistic – words and rules; knowing the conventions of grammar and

vocabulary, morphology, orthography, phonetics, phonology, semantics and syntax.
- sociolinguistic – appropriateness; using and responding to language properly depending
on the setting, the topic and the relationships among the people communicating.
- discourse – cohesion and coherence; constructing and organizing oral or written texts by
means of speaking, writing, listening or reading to create conversations, make written
pieces of literature, understand text, etc.
- strategic – use of communication strategies; identifying and solving communication
problems when encountered i.e. keeping the communication channel open when
external factors (like noise) hinder communication.

“Learning a language is not just about learning to comprehend the grammatical rules and
its meaning, but also the ability to use and to apply it in real-life situations. Communicative
competence, although may be defined differently by different perspectives, has a bearing on the
way a person reacts and responds to the communication of others which is reflected in the style
of communication” (Richmond and McCroskey, 1985).
Intercultural Communication

Intercultural communication is the communication between cultures. It is the verbal and

non-verbal interaction of individuals from different cultural backgrounds. Intercultural
communication needed not only knowledge and skills but also understanding and empathy
since these individuals have difficulty in interacting between other individuals of different
cultures—language barriers, cultural diversity and ethnocentrism are the difficulties that may
lead to miscommunication. In order to communicate across cultures, there are some tips useful
as starting point:

1. Demonstrate your willingness to meet others at least halfway by learning a few phrases
in their language.
2. Talk to people who know the culture about common traps and problems.
3. Adapt your behavior, and don’t always expect others to adapt to you.
4. Check your understanding and that of others.
5. Don’t be afraid to apologize.
6. Use local television to learn about behavioral issues and norms.
7. Reflect on your experience.

Critical Thinking (Bloom, 1956; Paul & Elder, 2001)

It is the ability to analyze something based on facts to form judgement. In 1965, Bloom
categorize levels of reasoning skills into six parts now called as “Bloom’s Taxonomy”:

- knowledge – facts, information and data acquired

- comprehension – understanding and interpreting facts and
- application – use the information they have learned in solving
- analysis – breaking information into parts to look for
evidences and proofs
- synthesis – generalizing thoughts by reasoning,
theories or predictions
- evaluation – assessing information for validity and coming to a conclusion
Critical thinking is also the mode of thinking in which the thinker improves the quality of
his or her thinking. In 2001, Paul and Elder formed a framework about critical thinking called
“Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Framework” which has three components:

- elements of thoughts - "parts" or elements of thinking

- intellectual standards - used to determine the quality of reasoning
- intellectual traits - the result from the consistent and disciplined application of the
intellectual standards to the elements of thought

To better understand the three components, here’s a model for the Paul-Elder Framework:

A good critical thinker knows how to separate facts from opinions, how to examine an
issue from all sides, how to make rational inferences and how to withhold personal judgment or
biases. In order to be a critical thinker, one must be able to:

1. Raise vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely
2. Gather and assess relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively
3. Come to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria
and standards;
4. Think open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing,
as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences; and
5. Communicate effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems.


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Nordquist, R. (2018, January 08). Why Communicative Competence Is Key to Social

Acceptance. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-communicative-

Nur'ain Balqis, Haladin & Ibrahim, Noor & Rajab, Azizah. (2013). Assertiveness Among
Undergraduates in a Malaysian Public University: Implications Towards Improved
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Intercultural Communication Skills. (n.d.). Retrieved from


Muscato, C. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://study.com/academy/lesson/intercultural-


Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Framework. (n.d.). Retrieved from


To Analyze Thinking We Must Identify and Question its Elemental Structures. (n.d.). Retrieved
from https://www.criticalthinking.org/ctmodel/logic-model1.htm

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Critical Thinking Skills. (n. d.). Retrieved from