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s laalia. i. s a laalia. i.
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s s aslaalia. i. www.TrbTnpsc.com saslaalia. i. s a
s laalia.
. P.Padaada . P. adaada
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XI -Chemistry Important Questions
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s l a
1.sDefine
a a lia. i . N : Relative atomic s aslaa ia. i
lmass. . N
s aslaalia. i . N
s a
s laa lia. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada ww .P. Pada ada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada
w
ww Relative w
watomic
w mass = ww www www
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t
i .N
2. Distinguish . etet Between oxidation
N i .N . etet and reduction. i.N.N
N etet i .N . etet
N ia.N
a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laa l a i a laal
ss ss adsas ss ss
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
Oxidation . P. adaReduction
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
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i) Addition of oxygen Removal of oxygen
t N e te t N e te t N etet N etet
s a la
i
ala . i . N ii) Removal
s
of
a laala .
hydrogen
i i . N Addition
s a
of
la
i
ala . i . N
hydrogen
s a laalai . i . N
s a laalia.N
s as s s s
. P. adaada
P iii) Loss
. P. P
daadelectrons
aof Gain
. P. adaof
P
adaelectrons
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
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t N etetequivalent mass iof N eantetelement, compound N tet
eor N tet
ecombines
s a
s
a
lalai .
Gram
i . N
s as
a
lala . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N ion is the mass
s a
s
athat
lala i . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaada or displaces.P1.008
P . adaadag hydrogen or 8.Pg.P
P
daada or 35.5 g chlorine.
aoxygen . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
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4. What do t you understand by tthe term mole?
t N e e t N e et N etet N etet
s a
s laa ia. i . N
lOne mole is the amount s aslaa ia. i . N
l of substance of asasystem, s laalia. i . N
which contains s a
s l
asaa ia.
l anyi . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada
w
ww elementary w
ww particles as there w w
wwatoms in 12g of carbon
are w
ww– 12 www
ww ww w ww ww
t 5. What i .N . eisteLimiting
N t agent? i.N . etet
N i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N ia.N
a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laa l a i a laal
ss ss ss sas ss
. P. adaada The reactant.Pthat
P . adaadisa completely consumed.
P . P. adaada The reactant limits
P . P. adaad
P the further . P. adaada
P
ww
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ww w w
reaction from taking place. w w w w w w
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
l
6.sWhat
a a
i . i . N
ala is Excess agent? s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalai . i . N
s a laalia.N
s s s s s
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww wwother than the limiting ww reagent which arewin wexcess are called the ww
wwww
ww The reactant ww ww ww
ww ww ww ww
t excess etet reagents. etet etet etet
a
lalai . N
i . N a
lalai . N
i . N a
lalai . N
i . N a
lala i . N
i . N laalia.N
s a
s s as s a
s s a
s s a
s
. P. adaa7.
P daWhat are combination . P. adaada reaction? .P.P
P adaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww wwww ww ww wwww wwww
ww Redoxwreaction w in which twowsubstances w combine towform w a single compound. ww
t N tet
eare N etet N etet N etet
8. What
s a
s laalia. i . N decomposition
s aslaalia. . N
reactions?
i
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laa lia. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada Redox reactions .wP.P adaad a
in which a compound .wP.P
ada
adabreaks down intoww P.P
.two
ada
adaor more .wP.P adaada
w
ww www ww w ww www
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components.
t
i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N ia.N
a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laa l a i a laal
9.ssWhat are ss
Disproportionation reaction (Auto ss redox reactions). ss ss
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww w reactions, the same wwcompound can undergo ww both oxidation and ww
wwww
ww In somewredox ww ww ww
ww ww ww ww
reduction.
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a lala
a
i . i . N
s a laalia.N
s s s s s
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
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t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lala i . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaahttps://www.trbtnpsc.com/2018/06/latest-plus-one-11th-study-materials-tamil-medium-english-medium-new-syllabus-based.html
P da . P. adaada
P . P.Padaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww ww ww ww ww
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s s a
s laalia. i. www.TrbTnpsc.com saslaalia. i. s a
s laalia.
. P.Padaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
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ww 10. What dowyou w stand by the term ww oxidation number?ww ww
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s laalia.
It i .
isN defined as the s l a ia.
imaginary
as a l i . N charge left on
s a
s laa i
the
l a. i . N
atom when all other
s a
s laalia. i
atom. N of the s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada
w
ww compound www
have been removed in
www
their usual oxidation w
states
ww that are assigned www
ww ww ww ww ww
t according etet to set of rules.i.N.N etet etet etet
l a ia. N
i . N l a a i l a ia.Ni . N l a ia.Ni . N l a ia.N
a a l a a l a a l a a l a a l
. P P dsasDefine: Avogadro
adaa11. . P P
sas
adaadnumber. . P adaada
P
ss
. P adaada
P
ss
. P P
ss
adaada
ww
ww . wwww . wwww . wwww . wwww .
ww The total ww number of entities present ww in one mole of any ww substance is equal w tow
t N etetx 1023. N etet N etet N etet
s a la
i
ala .
6.022
i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
. P P dasWhich quantum
adaa12. . P P
adas
adanumber reveal. . P adaada
P
Information
s
about the . P P
shape,
s
adaadaenergy, . P adaada
P
s
ww
ww . wwww . wwww . wwww . wwww .
ww w w
orientation and size of orbitals? w w w w w w
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N Shape s as
a i . i
lalaEnergy. N
s s
a
lalai .
Orientation
a i . N Size
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaada
P l . P. adaada
P N . P. adaada M
P . P. adaadNa
P . P. adaada
P
ww
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ww 13. How many ww orbitals are possible ww for n = 4? ww ww
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s laalia. i . N n = 4, l = 0, s1,
asl a
2,
a lia.
3 i . N
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada For w .wP.P adaada having 4s, sp, sd,
sub-shell .wP.P
daada
asf .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada
w
ww ww www www www
ww ww ′4s′ orbital = 1 ww ww ww
t
i .N . etet
N ′4p′ orbital i .=N . e
3e
N
tt
i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N ia.N
a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal
ss adsas = 5 ss ss ss
. P. adaada
P .′4d′
P. adaorbital
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
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ww ww ′4f′ orbital = 7 ww ww ww
t N etet Total i.N 16 etetorbital N etet N etet
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laala i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
. P P dasState: Aufbau.Pprinciple.
adaa14. adaada
P
s
. P adaada
P
s
. P adaada
P
s
. P adaada
P
s
ww
ww . wwww . wwww . wwww . wwww .
ww w w w w
In the ground state of the atoms, the orbitals are filled in the order of their
w w w w
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s
a ia. i . N
lalincreasing energies. s as
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww 15. State: Heisenberg
ww wwww uncertaintywprinciple.wwww wwww wwww
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t ‘It eisteimpossible
t to accurately etet determine bothi.the tet
eposition as well as theetet
l a ia. N
i . N l a ia. N
i . N l a a N
i . N laalia.Ni.N laalia.N
s a
s a l s as a l s a
s a l s a
s s a
s
.wP.P adaada momentum .of P. P
ada
aadamicroscopic particle
. P. P
daada
asimultaneously. ∆x..P ∆p
. ada≥ada
P . P. adaada
P
w
ww w
www w
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16. What tis Zeeman effect?
t
i .N . e et
N i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N ia.N
a laal a
The
i splitting of a l
spectralaal a ilines in a magnetic a laal a
field.
i a laal a i a laal
ss ss ss ss ss
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww 17. State : Hund’s
ww wwww rule of maximum wwwmultiplicity.
w wwww wwww
ww ww ww ww ww
t N etet pairing in the idegenerate
Electron N etet orbitals does N etettake place until all
not N etet
the
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
s adas one electronaeach. daadas s s
. P. adaada available orbitals
P . P. adacontains
P . P. P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
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t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s as
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lala i . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaahttps://www.trbtnpsc.com/2018/06/latest-plus-one-11th-study-materials-tamil-medium-english-medium-new-syllabus-based.html
P da . P. adaada
P . P.Padaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww ww ww ww ww
s a
s laalia. i. s a laalia. i.
www.Padasalai.Net
s s a
s laalia. i. www.TrbTnpsc.com saslaalia. i. s a
s laalia.
. P.Padaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww ww ww ww ww wwww wwww
ww 18. Define: w w
Modern periodic law.ww ww ww
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s laalia. i
“The . N physical and s l a i
chemical
a
s a l a. i . N properties of sthe
a
s laalia. i . N
elements are periodics a
s laa ia. i .
functions
l N of s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada adaada
.wPnumbers”
. P .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada
w
ww their atomic
ww w ww w www www
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t 19. Whatetare is electronic ions? eteGive example. etet etet
l alia.Ni . Net l alia.Ni . N t
l alia.Ni . N l alia.Ni . N l alia.N
ssa a a a
adsas number of electrons ssa a a
sas a ssa a
. P. adaada Ions having.P
P
the
. adasame
P . P. adaada but different nuclear
P . P. adaadcharge.
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww w www ww ww wwww wwww
ww Eg- Nw3-w ,O 2- ww ww ww
t N etis
et effective nuclear N etet (Z*) N etet N etet
20. What
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
charge
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
s adas adas daadas s
. P. adaada The net nuclear
P . P. adacharge
P experienced . P. adavalence
P
by electrons . P
in. athe
P outermost shell. . P. adaada
P
ww
ww ww ww ww ww wwww wwww
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tet Zeff = Z – S t t
t N e N ee N etet N etet
s
21. a
s
a i . i . N
lala : Electronegativity.
Define s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww “The relative ww ww tendency of a bonded ww ww atom in a molecule www
towattract the sharedww wwww
ww ww ww ww
t etet pair towards itself”.
electron
N N etet N etet N etet
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaa22.
da Define ionisation .wP.P
ada
adaenthalpy. .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada
w
ww ww w ww w www w
ww ww ww ww www
The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely boundw
t
i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N i N . etet
N
.neutral i .N . etet
N ia.N
a laal a i
electron from the l a
valence
a a l a i shell of the isolated
a laal a i gaseous atom
a laal a
in i its ground a laal
ss ss ss ss ss
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P -1 . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww state. It isw
w wexpressed
w in kJ mol worwwin eV.
w wwww wwww
ww ww ww ww ww
t 23. Why N tet
ehalogens act as oxidizing N etet agents? N etet N etet
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
s adas electro negative as with high negative as s
. P. adaada 1. Halogens.Pare
P . adahighly
P . P. adaadand
P . P. adaadelectron
P
gain
. P. adaada
P
ww
ww ww ww ww ww wwww wwww
ww ww
enthalpies. ww ww ww
t N etet N etettendency to gaini.an N tet
eelectron. N eteas
t
s a
s
a
lalai .
2. i . N
Therefore, they
s
have
a
s
a
lalai . i .
highN
s a
s
a
lala i . N Hence
s a
s
they
a
lalai . i . N
act
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaada
P strong . P.
oxidizingadaadaagents.
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
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24. Explain
t N etet the Diagonal relationships. N etet N etet N etet
s a
s laa ia. i . N
l1. The similarity insasproperties laalia. i . N
existing b/ws a
s laa
the
ia. i . N
l diagonally placed s a
s laalia.
elements
i . N
is s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada
w
ww w
wwdiagonal relationship ww w www www
ww ww
called ww ww ww
t
i .N . etet
N Ex: Li
i .N . etet Be
N i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N ia.N
a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal
ss ss ss ss ss
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada Na
P Mg .P.P adaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
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25. What is periodicity?
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a la
i .
alThe
a i . N
repetition of s l
physical
a a
i . i . N
ala and chemical properties s a la
i
ala . i . N
at regular s a l
intervals
a
i . i . N
ala is called as s a laalia.N
s s s s s
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww periodicity. ww ww ww ww wwww wwww
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t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lala i . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaahttps://www.trbtnpsc.com/2018/06/latest-plus-one-11th-study-materials-tamil-medium-english-medium-new-syllabus-based.html
P da . P. adaada
P . P.Padaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww ww ww ww ww
s a
s laalia. i. s a laalia. i.
www.Padasalai.Net
s s aslaalia. i. www.TrbTnpsc.com saslaalia. i. s a
s laalia.
. P.Padaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
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ww
ww 26. State: Mendeleev’s ww periodic law. ww ww ww
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s laali .
a
Thei . N properties of the
s a
s laa ia. i
elements
l . N can be l a
represented
s as a lia. i . N as periodic l
functions
s a
s aa ia. i . N
l of their s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada
w
ww atomic w
weights.
ww www ww w w
ww
ww ww ww ww ww
t 27. State:eteNewland’s Law of octaves. etet etet etet
l ali .N
a i . N t l alia.Ni . N l a lia.Ni . N l alia.Ni . N l alia.N
ssa a a a
adsasarranged in the order ssa a a
sas a ssa a
. P. adaada When elements
P . P. adaare
P . P. adaadaof increasing atomic
P . P. adaadweights
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww wwww ww
welement
w ww
wofw ww
ww
ww ww
The properties of every eighth ww are similar to ww the properties of the ww
t N eteelement.
t N etet N etet N etet
s a la
i
ala .
first
i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laala i . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
. P P dasWhat is Mosley’s
adaa28. . P P das
adaaequation? Explain . P P
daadas
athe terms in it. . P adaada
P
s
. P adaada
P
s
ww
ww . wwww . wwww . ww ww . ww
ww .
ww ww ww ww ww
t √ e= tet ( − ) , v= frequency e tet of the x-rays emitted e tet by the elements.Netet
. N
laaliaai& . N .
iai.N N . N . N laalia. i.N laalia.N
s a
s b = constants s a
s
andlaalhave same values s a
fors liaithe
laaall elements. s a
s s a
s
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww wwww w ww
w ww ww ww
ww
ww 29. Do you think ww that heavy water ww can be used for drinking ww purposes? ww
t N eteitt is non toxic andi.non N eteradioactive.
t N etet HN eO.tetIt
s a
s laaliYes,
.
a i . N
s a
s laal a i . N It isachemically
s asla lia. i . N the same as
s a
s laalia. i .2N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada won’t make.Pyou . adaadsick
P
a and it won’t make
. P. adaadyou
P
a glow.
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
w
ww w
www w
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www
ww ww ww ww ww
30. What is water gas shift reaction?
t
i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N ia.N
a laal a i !/#$ a laal a i a laa l a i a laal a i a laal
ss sas2 + H2 ss ss ss
. P. adaada CO + H2O %&&'
P . P. adaadCO
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww wwww wwww ww ww ww
ww
ww ww 400°) ww ww ww
t N etare
et isotopes? Write N tet
ethe N eoftethydrogen N etet
31.aWhat
s la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N names of isotopes
s a laala i . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
s s s s s
. P. adaada Atoms of the
P . P. adaadaelement having.Psame
P
same . adaadaatomic number but
P . P. P aada
addifferent mass . P. adaada
P
ww
ww wwww wwww ww ww ww
ww
ww ww ww 1 2 3
ww ww
number tet are called isotopes. teEg:
t 1H , 1H , 1H .NN
t N e N e etet N etet
s
32. a
s
a i . i . N
lala the uses of heavy
Give s a
s
a i
la .
lawater.i . N
s as
a
lala i i .
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww 1. It iswused wwwwas moderator in nuclear wwww reactors. ww ww ww
ww
ww w ww ww ww
t 2. N eteist used as a tracer ito
It N etet organic reaction
study N tet
emechanisms and mechanism N etet of
s a
s laali .
a i . N
s a
s laal a. i . N
s aslaa lia. i . N
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada . adaada
metabolic.Preactions.
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
w
ww w
www w
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www
ww ww ww ww ww
3. It is also used as a coolant in nuclear reactors.
t
i . N . etet
N i . N . etet
N i . N . etet
N i . N . etet
N ia.N
33. a l a
How
a l a i do you convert a l a
para
a l a i hydrogen into l
ortho
a aa l a i hydrogen? a laal a i a laal
ss ss ss ss ss
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww 1. By treatmentwwww with catalysts like wwwwPt or Fe. ww ww ww
ww
ww ww ww ww ww
t 2.NBy etetpassing an electric N etet
discharge. N etet N etet
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laala i . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
s das or more. .PP s s s
. P. adaada 3. By heating
P . P. atodaa
P
800°C
. adaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww wwww wwww ww ww ww
ww
ww 4. By mixingww with paramagnetic ww molecules like O2, w w
NO, NO2 ww
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s as
a
lala i . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaahttps://www.trbtnpsc.com/2018/06/latest-plus-one-11th-study-materials-tamil-medium-english-medium-new-syllabus-based.html
P da . P. adaada
P . P.Padaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww ww ww ww ww
s a
s laalia. i. s a laalia. i.
www.Padasalai.Net
s s a
s laalia. i. www.TrbTnpsc.com saslaalia. i. s a
s laalia.
. P.Padaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww wwww ww ww ww
ww 34. An the cube
ww at 0°* is placed in w
ww w
some liquid water at w
ww
w0°*, the ice cube sinks-
wwww
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s
why?
laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada At 0°), ice .cubes P. adaadsinks
P
a
in liquid .
waterP. P
ada
adaat 0°) because of . P
the. P aada density and .P.P
adlesser adaada
w
ww w
www w
www w
www w
www
ww greaterwvolume w of water. ww ww ww
t 35. Write i .N . etethe
N t three type of covalent
i .N . etet hydrides. i.N.N
N etet i .N . etet
N ia.N
a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal
ss ss ss ss ss
. P. adaada 1. Electron .precise
P P. adaadahydrides. eg. CH
P . P.4ad
P aada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww wwww wwww wwww wwww
ww 2. Electron ww deficient hydrides. ww eg. B2H6 ww ww
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a la
i
ala .
3. i . N
Electron rich hydrides.
s a la
i
ala . i . Neg. NH 3
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
. P P das
adaa36. . P P
s
adaada reactions of .Deuterium. P adaada
P
s
. P adaada
P
s
. P adaada
P
s
ww
ww . Explain the
wwww .
exchange wwww . wwww . wwww .
ww ww ww ww ww
t Deuterium
e tet can replace reversibly e tet hydrogen in compounds e tet either partially e teor
t
a
lalai . N
i . N a
lalai . N
i . N a
lalai . N
i . N a
lalai . N
i . N laalia.N
s a
s s a
s s a
s s a
s s a
s
. P. adaadacompletely depending
P . P. adaadaupon the reaction
P . P. P
daada
aconditions. CH4 + 2Da
. P.
2d
P
→adaCD4 + 2H2
a . P. adaada
P
ww
ww wwww wwww wwww wwww
ww 37. Mentionwthe w uses of Deuterium. ww ww ww
t .N ete t .N
tet
estudy N tet
echemical N etet
s
•laliIt
a
s a a i isN
. used as tracers inlalthe
s a
s a
ia i . N of mechanism
s a
s laalia. of
i . N reactions.
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada • High speed .deuterons P. adaada are used in Artificial
P . P. adaada radioactivity..P.P
P adaada . P. adaada
P
w
ww w
www w
www w
www w
www
ww ww ww ww ww
t • It’seoxide tet (D2O) is usedNasetmoderator et in nuclear ereactor tet to slow down the etespeed
t
l a ia. N
i . N l a ia. i . N l a ia. N
i . N l a ia. N
i . N l a ia.N
ssa a l ssa a l ssa a l ssa a l ssa a l
. P. adaada of fast moving
P . P. ad
P
neutrons.
aada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww wwww wwww wwww wwww
ww 38. How dow w
you explain the metallic ww hydrides to be useful ww for hydrogen storage? ww
t .aN etet N etet is absorbed asi.H-atoms. N etet N etet
s
•laliIn
a a i . N
metallic hydrides,la
s a a l a.
hydrogen
i i . N
s a laala i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
s as as adas s
. P. adaada • This property
P . P. aofdaadadsorption
P of . P
hydrogen. adaadon
P transition .
metalsP. adasuch
P as Pd, Pt can . P. adaada
P
ww
ww wwww wwww wwww wwww
ww ww ww ww ww
accommodate
tet a very large tvolume of hydrogen. t t
t N e N e e t N ee N etet
s a

s
a i . i . N
a property has shigh
lalThis a
s
a i . i . N
lalapotential for hydrogen s a
s
a i . i . N
lalastorage and as a source s a
s
a i . i . N
lala of energy. s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww ww
whydrides
w wwww wwww wwww
ww • Metallic ww on heating w w
decompose. ww ww
t N etet the structure iof N ete2Ot and H O
2 2+ ai.N
etet N etet
39. Compare
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laal a. i . N
H
s a
s la l a i . N
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada Structure of H.P2.P aOdaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
w
ww w
www w
www w
www w
www
ww • In water, ww oxygen is ‘sp’ hybridized. ww ww ww
t •laiDue .N . etetot stronger lone pair
N i .N . N
tet
erepulsions than bond i .N . etetrepulsions, the HOH
N
pair i .N . etebond
N t
ia.N
a a l a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal
ss adsas 109.5° to 104.5° ss ss ss
. P. adaada angle decreases
P . P. adafrom
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww w ww wwww wwww wwww
ww Structureww ofwH2 O ww ww ww
t • It.N.isN ete t
highly polar molecule. N etet N etet N etet
s a la
i
ala i
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a lala
a
i . i . N
s a laalia.N
s as s s s
. P. adaada • It has non-planar
P . P. adaadstructure.
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww ww value of H2 O2 w ww that all the fourww ww in H2O2 do notwlie w
wwww • Dipolemoment ww ww ww w
suggest wwatoms wwww
t in aetplane.
et etet etet etet
a
lalai . N
i . N a
lalai . N
i . N a
lala i . N
i . N a
lalai . N
i . N laalia.N
s a
s s a
s s a
s s a
s s a
s
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P da . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww ww ww ww ww
s a
s laalia. i. s a laalia. i.
www.Padasalai.Net
s s a
s laalia. i. www.TrbTnpsc.com saslaalia. i. s a
s laalia.
. P.Padaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww wwww wwww wwww ww
ww
ww 40. What iswmeant w by Hard water? ww ww ww
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s s l a ia. i . N
•alIt contains high amounts
a s aslaa ia. i . N
l of mineral ions.sasal l a ia. i . N
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
w
ww • Presence www
ofwsoluble metal cations ww as Mg, Ca, A/
wwsuch w
wwMn salts in the form
wand w w
wwof
ww ww ww ww ww
t
i . etet
bicarbonate,
.N N chloride and
i .N . N
tet
esulphate in water makes
i .N . etehard
N t water.
i .N . etet
N ia.N
a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal
. P P dsasHow temporary
adaa41. . P P
ss
aada
adhardness can be removed
. P P
ss
adaada by Clark’s method? . P adaada
P
ss
. P P
ss
adaada
ww
ww . wwww . wwww . wwww . ww
ww .
ww In thiswmethod w calculated amount ww of lime is added toww hard water containingwthe w
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a la
i
magnesium
ala . i . N and calcium,
s a la
i
and
ala . i . Nthe resulting carbonates
s a la
i
ala . i . N and hydroxides
s a la
i
can . i . N
ala filtered
be
s a laalia.N
s s s s s
. P. adaadaoff.
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww wwww wwww wwww ww
ww
ww ww ww ww ww
t 42. Whatetist permanent hardness e tetof water? Explain ehow
tet it is removed? Netet
N e N N
s a
s
.
laaliai. N
s as
.
laaliai. N
s a
s
.
laaliai. N
s a
s laalia. i.N s a
s laalia.N
adaada MCl2 + Na2.CO 3a→ MCO3 + 2NaCl, adMSO + Na2CO3 → MCO
. P. P P. ad
P ada . P. P aada 4 . P. adaada3 + Na2SO4 .P.P
P adaada
ww
ww wwww wwww wwww ww
ww
ww 43. How exhausted ww ww
zeolites can replenished? ww ww
t N eteexhausted,
t N etet can be regenerated N etet by treating withi.aqueous N etet
s a
s laalia.
Thei . N zeolite
s aslaalia. i N
materials
.
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laal a i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaadasodium chloride. adaadaminerals caught.P.inP
.wP.Hard
P
ada
adathe zeolite are P
released
. . P
ada
adaand they get . P. adaada
P
w
ww www w
www w
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replenished tet with sodium ions. tet M – Z + 2 NaCl N → tNa – Z + MCl2
t
i N
. i.N e i N
. i.N e i . i.N e e t
i .N . etet
N ia.N
a laal a a laal a a laal a a laal a i a laal
s sWhat is Hydrogen
44. ss
bond? ss ss ss
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww The polarized ww hydrogen atom isww ww to form a weak electrostatic ww ww
wwww wwww ww able wwww interaction ww ww
t with another
N etet electronegative N etet present in the vicinity.
atom
N etet This interaction N isetecalled
N t
s a laalia. i . N
s a laalia. i . N
s a laalia. i . N
s a laalia. i .
s a laalia.N
s s s s s
. P. adaadaas a hydrogen bond.
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww www wwww www ww
ww
ww 45. Why H2wOw2wis stored in plasticwbottles? w Give reason.www ww
t H N eOte2tis not stored in glass N etecontainer,
t becausei.N iti.N tet
edissolves the alkali imetals N etet from
laalia.N
i . 2.N i . . N . . N
a a
lala i a a
lala i a a
lala a a
lala i a
s s s s s s s s s s
. P. adaada the glass, which
P . P. adaada the disproprtionation
catalyzes
P . P. adaada reaction. For.Pthis
P . adaadreason
P
a H2O2 is .P.P adaada
ww
ww wwww wwww wwww ww
ww
ww ww ww ww ww
stored un plastic bottles. H2O2 → H2O + ½ O2
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
46.
s a
s laal
Whatia. i . N
is Intramolecular s aslaa ia. i . N
l hydrogen bond?sasal l a ia. i . N
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada Intramolecular .wP.P aada
adhydrogen bonds are adaadawhich occur within
.wPthose
. P .wP.P
ada
adaone single .wP.P adaada
w
ww www www www w
ww
ww ww ww ww ww
moleculet tthis occurs between two functional groups within a molecule.
t
i . N . ee
N i . N . etet
N i . N . etet
N i .N . etet
N ia.N
a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal
s s Eg. O-nitrophenol, s ssalicyaldehyde. dadsas ss ss
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. aa
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww 47. What is intermolecular
ww wwww wwwbond?
w wwww ww
ww
ww ww hydrogen ww Give example. ww ww
t etet
Intermolecular
N hydrogen N etet occur betweeni.Ntwo
bonds etetseparate molecules. N etet
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laala i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
s aslinked to four others s daadas The shorter Padaadas
. P. adaadaEach water molecule
P . P. adaadis
P . P. adaadathrough hydrogen
P . P. abonds.
P . .P
ww
ww wwww wwww wwww ww
ww
ww ww ww ww ww
distance correspond to covalent bonds.
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s as
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lala i . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaahttps://www.trbtnpsc.com/2018/06/latest-plus-one-11th-study-materials-tamil-medium-english-medium-new-syllabus-based.html
P da . P. adaada
P . P.Padaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww ww ww ww ww
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. P.Padaada . P. adaada
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P . P. adaada
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ww
ww wwww wwww ww ww wwww
ww 48. What are ww Zeolites? ww ww ww
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s l a ia. i . N
•alZeolites are hydrated s a
s laa lia.
sodiumi . N aluminiosilicatess aslaa ia. i . N
l with a general formula. s aslaalia. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
w
ww • Hardness www
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zeolites. w
www
ww ww ww ww ww
t 49. How
i .N . eistepermanent
N t hardness
i .N . eteof
N t water removed.Nby
i . eteZeolite
N t method. NN
i
t
. i. e et ia.N
a laal a i a laa l a i a laal a i a laal a a laal
ss ss adsas adsas structure in adaadsas
. P. adaada Zeolites are.P
P . adaada sodium alumino
hydrated
P . P. adasilicates.
P
Zeolites have
. P. adaporous
P .P.P
ww
ww wwww wwww ww ww wwww
ww w w w w
which the monovalent sodium ions are loosely held and can be exchange with w w w w
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a la
i
ala .
hardnessi . N producing divalent
s a laalai . i . Nmetal ions
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
. P P das
adaa50. . P P
s
adaadina a dark colored . P adaada
P
s
. P adaada
P
s
. P adaada
P
s
ww . Why H O is
2 w .
kept ww .bottles? ww . ww .
ww wwww
2 w ww ww ww
ww ww ww ww
t Becausee tet H2O2 decomposes e teslowly
t when exposedettot light. etet
N N N e N
s
51. a
s
a i . i . N
lalaO is liquid but Hsa
H s
S
a i . i . N
laislaa gas at room temperature. s as
a
lalai . i . N
Why? s as
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaada 2
P . P. adaada2
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww wwww wwww ww ww wwww
ww The liquid ww state of water is because ww of presence of intermolecularww H-bonding. ww
t N eteist a gas due to thei.absence N etet of inter molecular N eteH-bonding.
t N etet
s a
s laaliH
a. i2.SN
s a
s laa l a i . N
s aslaalia. i . N
s aslaalia. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaa52.
da Differentiate .Hard P. adaadawater from Soft.P.water.
P adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
w
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Hard Water
t N e tet N e tet N e teSoft
t
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etet
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ssa a Presence of Ca Mg ssaina the form of a
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ss a of soluble salts a
of
ss a
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. P. adaada
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P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
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ww
ww bicarbonate wwwwchloride and sulphate. wwww Mg. ww ww wwww
ww ww ww ww ww
t N etet nature of soap
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isN et Cleaning N etet
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s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalai . i .
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
s s adas used in soft water. s s
. P. adaada when used .inP.P
P
daadawater.
ahard . P. adawhen
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P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww wwww wwww ww ww wwww
ww w w w w
When hard water is boiled deposits When soft water is boiled, there is
w w w w
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s
a i . i . N
lalaof insoluble carbonates s a
s
a i . i . N
lalaof Mg and nosdeposition as
a
lalai . i . N of salts. saslala a i . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww Ca arewobtained.
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ww w ww ww ww
t 53. Ice N etet on water. Why?
floats N etet N etet N etet
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laa lia. i . N
s aslaalia. i . N
s aslaalia. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada Density of ice .wP.P aisdaadless
a than that of liquid
.wP.P adaadwater,
a so, it floats over
.wP.P adaadwater.
a
.wP.P adaada
w
ww www www ww w www
ww 54. Write any ww three similarities between ww Beryllium andww Aluminium? ww
t
i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N ,-i.N . etet/-
N ia.N
a laal Be
a i and Al ions have a lstrong
aa l a i tendency to form
a laal a i
complexes. Eg. BeFa laal a , i AlF . a laal
. P P dsas
adaa55. . P a
P
daadsas
. P a
P
daadsas
. P a
P
daadsas
. P a
P
daadsas
ww
ww . Give the systematic wwww . names for the wwww .
following ww ww . wwww .
ww ww ww ww ww
t i) milketet of magnesia i.N.N etet ii) lye etet iii) lime etet
l i
ala . N
i . N l ala i l i
ala . N
i . N lalai . Ni . N l alia.N
s a a
s iv) caustic potash s a
s a v) washing s as a
soda vi) soda s a
ashs a s a
s a
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww wwww wwww ww ww wwww
ww vii) trona ww ww ww ww
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lala i . i . N
s as
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
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P da . P. adaada
P . P.Padaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww ww ww ww ww
s a
s laalia. i. s a laalia. i.
www.Padasalai.Net
s s a
s laalia. i. www.TrbTnpsc.com saslaalia. i. s a
s laalia.
. P.Padaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
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P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww ww ww wwww wwww wwww
ww 1. Milk wwof magnesia - wMagnesium
w hydroxideww ww
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s laalia.
2. i . N
Lye s a
s laa lia. i
- . N Sodium s s l
hydroxide
a aalia. i . N
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada
w
ww 3. Lime ww w - w
Calcium
ww hydroxide www www
ww ww ww ww ww
t 4. Caustic
etet potash - etet Potassium hydroxide etet etet
l a ia. N
i . N l a ia. N
i . N l a ia.Ni . N l a ia.Ni . N l a ia.N
ssa a l ssa a l ssa a l ssa a l ssa a l
. P. adaada 5. Washing .soda
P P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww w www wwww wwww wwww
ww 6. Soda wwash - wSodium
w carbonate ww ww
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a la
i
ala .
7. i . N
Trona
s a laalai . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
. P P dasWrite the uses
adaa56. . P P
adas of paris. adaadas
adaPlaster
of . P P . P adaada
P
s
. P adaada
P
s
ww
ww . ww ww . wwww . wwww . wwww .
ww • It is used ww in building industrywand w plasters. ww ww
t .aN ete t N ete t N etet N etet
s
•laliIt
a
s a i isN
. used for immobilising
s a
s
a
lala i . i . N agent in bone.
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaada • It is used in.Pdentistry,
P . adaada in ornamental
P . P. P
daada
awork and for making . P. adaadaof statues.
P
casts . P. adaada
P
ww
ww ww ww wwww wwww wwww
ww ww ww ww ww
t 57. Howeis tetplaster of paris prepared etet ? etet etet
l a ia. N
i . N l a ia. N
i . N l a ia. N
i . N l a ia. N
i . N laalia.N
s a
s a lHemihydrate of calcium s a
s a l sulphate is called s a
s a l
plaster paris. It is s a
s
obtained a l when s a
s
.wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada
w
ww w
ww 4 2H2O, is heatedww w w
tow393 K. www www
ww gypsum,wCaSO w ww ww
t 2CaSO
i .N . ete4t. 2H2 O → 2CaSO
N i .N 4N
. e.teHt 2 O + 2H2 O i.N.N etet i .N . etet
N ia.N
a laal a i a laa l a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal
. P P dsasGive the uses.P
adaa58. of P
daadsas
aGypsum. . P P
ss
adaada . P P
ss
adaada . P P
ss
adaada
ww
ww . ww ww . wwww . wwww . wwww .
ww ww ww ww ww
• Gypsum tet is used in making tedrywalls or plaster boards.
t N e N e t N etet N etet
s a
• la
ia. i .
alAnother N
s a la
i . i . N
alaof gypsum is the production s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
s important s
use s of plaster of s
Paris. s
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww ww
wisw wwww and orthopedic casts. wwww wwww
ww • Gypsum ww used in making surgical ww ww ww
t N etis
et sodalime? N etet N etet N etet
59. What
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lala i . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaada The mixture.Pof
P . P
ada
adaquick lime (CaO) and
. P. P aada hydroxide. .P.P
adsodium adaada . P. adaada
P
ww
ww ww ww wwww wwww wwww
ww ww ww ww ww
60. What is slaked lime?
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s laa ia. i . N
lCalcium hydroxidesas–aCa(OH) l a lia. i . N
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
adaada adaada adaada adaada adaada
2

w .wP.P w . P. P w . P. P w . P. P w . P. P
wwww 61. What iswMilk wwwof lime?
w ww www wwwww wwwww
t
i
A.N . etet
suspension
N of slaked.N
i
lime
. etetin water is known
N i .N as
. eteMilk
N t of lime.
i .N . etet
N ia.N
a laal a i a laa l a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal
. P P dsasWrite the uses
adaa62. . P P
adsas lime (or) Calcium
adaQuick
of . P P
ss
adaada oxide. . P P
ss
adaada . P P
ss
adaada
ww
ww . ww ww . wwww . wwww . wwww .
ww w w
• To manufacture cement, mortar and glass. w w w w w w
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s •
a la
i
alIn
a. i . N
the manufacture s of
a la
i
a . i
alsodium . N carbonate. s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a lala
a
i . i . N
s a laalia.N
s s s s s
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww • In the w ww
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ww w ww ww
t • As N tet
edrying agent. N etet N etet N etet
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lala i . i . N
s a
s
a
lala i . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaahttps://www.trbtnpsc.com/2018/06/latest-plus-one-11th-study-materials-tamil-medium-english-medium-new-syllabus-based.html
P da . P. adaada
P . P.Padaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww ww ww ww ww
s a
s laalia. i. s a laalia. i.
www.Padasalai.Net
s s a
s laalia. i. www.TrbTnpsc.com saslaalia. i. s a
s laalia.
. P.Padaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww
ww ww ww wwww wwww wwww
ww 63. State – Le ww – Chatelier principle. ww ww ww
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s laalia.
“Ifi . N
a system at l
equilibrium
s a
s aalia. i . N is disturbed, then
s a
s laalia.
the i . N
system shifts l
itself
s a
s aalia.
in i .aN
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada
w
ww direction that
ww wnullifies the effect ofwww
that disturbance”. www www
ww ww ww ww ww
t 64. Stateelaw t of Mass action.Netet etet etet
l alia.Ni . Net l alia. i.N l alia.Ni . N l alia.Ni . N l alia.N
ssa a a a
adsasrate of a chemical a a
adsas at a given temperature a a
s s is directly dadsas a a
. P. adaada “At any instant,
P . P. adathe
P . P. adareaction
P . P. adaada
P .P.P aa
wwww w ww
w w ww
w w ww
w wwww
ww proportional ww to the product of the wwactive masses of thewreactants w at that instant”. ww
t N etet how will you predict N etetthe direction ofi.aN.equilibrium etet N etet
s a la
i
65. Explain
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laala i N reactions.
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
s s s daadas s
. P. adaada By knowing.Pthe
P . adaa
P Qdavalue, we can . P
predict
. adaada
P the direction of . P
the. areaction
P by . P. adaada
P
wwww ww ww wwww wwww ww
ww
ww ww ww ww ww
comparing tet it with Kc.
t N e N etet N etet N etet
s a

s
a i
lalIf . i . N
a Q = K , - equilibrium s a
s
a i . i .
lala state. N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaada
P
c
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
wwww ww
wc,w wwww wwww ww
ww
ww • If Q >wKw - reverse direction wi.e. w formation of reactants. ww ww
t N ete<t Kc, - forward direction N etet i.e. formation ofi.N etet N etet
s
•laiIf
a
s a l a. i .QN
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laal a i . N
products
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaa66.
da What is Homogeneous .wP.P adaada equilibrium.P?.P daada an example. Padaada
aGive . . P . P. adaada
P
www ww w w
www w
www w
www
ww ww
In a homogenous equilibrium, ww all the reactants and products ww are in the same ww
t
i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N ia.N
a aa
phase.
l l a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal
ss ss ss ss ss
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
wwww 67. What is Heterogeneous ww ww equilibrium? wwww Give at example. wwww ww
ww
ww ww ww ww ww
t If the etetreactants and products etetare present in different etet phases. etet
l i
ala . N
i . N l i
ala . N
i . N l i
ala . N
i . N l i
ala . N
i . N l alia.N
s a a s a a s a a s a a s a a
. P P dasDefine : Reaction
adaa68. . P P
as
adaadquotient(Q). . P adaada
P
s
. P adaada
P
s
. P adaada
P
s
wwww . ww ww . wwww . ww
wof . ww
ww .
ww ww
At non-equilibrium conditionwthe w ratio of the products ww w active masses of ww
t N eteproducts
t N eterespective
t N etet coefficients in ithe N tet
ebalanced
s
reaction
a
s
a
lalai . i . N raised
s a
s
to
a
lalai . the
i . N stoichiometric
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lala . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaada chemical equation
P . P. adatoadathat of the reactants.
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
wwww ww ww wwww wwww ww
ww
ww ww ww ww ww
69. How ist Acid rain formed? Explain t its effect.
t N e e t N e e t N etet N etet
s a
s laa ia. i . N
lAcid rain consistssof a
s laa ia. i . N
l 2 and NO2. Theysare
SO a
s laa ia. i . N
lconverted into sulphuric s a
s laa ia. i . N
l acid and s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada
www nitric acidww ww w
respectively by the reaction w
ww with oxygen andww www
water. w
ww
ww ww ww
t
i2SO
.N . ete
N t
2 + O2 + 2H2O → i2H .N . e
N
tet 4
2SO 4NO2 + Oi.2N +N
.
tet 2O →4HNO3 Netet
e2H ia. i.N ia.N
a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal a laal
. P P dsasWhat is Green
adaa70. . P P
daadsas
achemistry? . P adaada
P
ss
. P P
ss
adaada . P P
ss
adaada
wwww . ww ww . wwww . wwww . ww
ww .
ww ww ww ww ww
Efforts to control environmental pollution resulted in development of science for
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a l i
ala .
synthesis
a i . N of chemicals s a l i
ala .
favorable
a i . N to environment. s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a lala
a
i . i . N
s a laalia.N
s s s s s
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
wwww Greenwchemistryww ww means science wwwwenvironmentally favorable
of wwww chemical ww
ww
ww w ww ww ww
t synthesis.
N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lala i . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaahttps://www.trbtnpsc.com/2018/06/latest-plus-one-11th-study-materials-tamil-medium-english-medium-new-syllabus-based.html
P da . P. adaada
P . P.Padaada . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww ww ww ww ww
s a
s laalia. i. s a laalia. i.
www.Padasalai.Net
s s a
s laalia. i. www.TrbTnpsc.com saslaalia. i. s a
s laalia.
. P.Padaada . P. adaada
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P
ww
ww wwww wwww wwww wwww
ww 71. How is bleaching ww powder prepared? ww ww ww
t N etet N etet N etet N etet
s a
s laalia. i
Milk . N of lime reacts s l
with
a
s aalia. i . N
chlorine to form s l a ia. i
hypochlorite
a
s a l . N it is calleds a
s l a ia.
bleaching
a l i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada
w
ww powder. www www www www
ww ww ww ww ww
t 72. Whatetis salking of lime? etet etet etet
l alia.Ni . Net l alia.Ni . N l alia.Ni . N l alia.Ni . N l alia.N
ssa a ssa a a a
adsas of water breaks a a
saslump of lime. dadsas a a
. P. adaada The process.Pof
P . P aadaaddition of limited
adthe . P. adaamount
P . P. adaadthe
P .P.P aa
wwww w ww
w w ww
w w ww
w w ww
w
ww Is called slaking ww of lime and thewproduct w is slaked lime.wwCaO + H2O Ca(OH)w 2 w
t N etet the term “Retrograde N etet solubility”. i.N.N etet N etet
s a la
i
73. Explain
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laala i
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laalia.N
s s daadas daadas s
. P. adaada Unlike other.P.salts,
P adaadagypsum becomes
P . P. aless
P soluble in water . P
as
. athe
P temperature . P. adaada
P
wwww wwww wwww wwww wwww
ww ww ww ww ww
increases. tet This is known asNretrograde tet solubility, which tet is a distinguishing
t N e e N e N etet
s a a
lalai . i .
characteristic
s
N
of s
gypsum. a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
ww 74. What is Gypsum ww plaster? Givewits w use. ww ww
wwww wwww wwww ww ww ww ww
t • iGypsum N etet is heated to about N ete300°F
t to produce iplaster N etet of paris, which iis N etet
also
s a
s laal a. i . N
s a
s laalia. i . N
s a
s laal a. i . N
s a
s laal a. i . N
s a
s laalia.N
.wP.P adaada known as Gypsum .wP.P adaadaplaster. .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada .wP.P adaada
www www www www www
ww ww ww ww ww
• It is used as a sculpting material.
t
i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N i .N . etet
N ia.N
75. a laal
What a i is Desert rose? a laal a i a laal a i a laal a i a laal
ss ss ss ss ss
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
wwww Gypsum ww
wcrystals
w are sometimes wwww in a form that resembles
occur wwww the referredwthe wwww
ww ww ww ww w
t petals N eofteta flower. This type N eofteformation
t is referred N etto
et as Desert rose. i.N etet
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a la
i
ala . i . N
s a laala i . N
s a laalia.N
s s s s s
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
wwww wwww wwww wwww wwww
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tet ************* EFt FtORT NEVER DIESt *************
t N e N ee N e et N etet
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s
a
lalai . i . N
s a
s laalia.N
. P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P . P. adaada
P
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