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Types of learning approach

The types of machine learning algorithms differ in their approach, the type of data they input and output, and
the type of task or problem that they are intended to solve.
Supervised and semi-supervised learning
Supervised learning is an algorithm to predict the output of a new input based on known pairs (input, outcome).
This data pair is also called (data, label), i.e (data, label). Supervised learning is the most popular group in
Machine Learning algorithms.
Supervised learning algorithms include classification and regression.
Classification
A problem is called classification if labels of input data are divided into a finite number of groups. For example,
Gmail determines whether an email is spam or not; Creditors determine if a customer is able to pay off the
debt.
Regression
If the label is not divided into groups, it has any numerical value within a range. For example: a house with x
m2, it has y bedrooms and is z meters from the city center. How much will it cost?
The goal is to learn from examples using a similarity function that measures how similar or related two objects
are. It has applications in ranking, recommendation systems, visual identity tracking, face verification, and
speaker verification.
Unsupervised learning
In this algorithm, we do not know the outcome or label but only the input data. The unsupervised learning
algorithm will rely on the data structure to perform a certain task, such as grouping (clustering) or dimension
reduction to enable storage and calculation.
A mathematical way, Unsupervised learning is when we only have data on X without knowing the
corresponding Y label.
These algorithms are called Unsupervised learning because unlike Supervised learning, we do not know the
correct answer for each input data.
Unsupervised learning problems are further divided into two categories:
Clustering
A problem of grouping all X data into small groups based on the relationship between the data in each group.
For example, grouping customers based on shopping tendency. This is like giving a child lots of puzzle pieces
with different shapes and colors, for example triangles, squares, circles with blue and red, then asking them to
divide them into groups. Although it is not possible for children to know which pieces corresponding to which
picture or color, it is still possible to classify puzzle pieces by color or shape.
Association
It is a problem when we want to discover a rule based on a lot of given data.
For example, male customers who buy clothes often tend to buy more watches or belts; Spider Man
moviegoers tend to see more Bat Man movies, based on that, creating a customer (Recommendation System)
that promotes shopping needs.
Semi-Supervised Learning
The problems when we have a large amount of X data but only a part of them is labeled as Semi-Supervised
Learning. The problems of this group lie between the two groups mentioned above.
A typical example of this group is only a part of a photo or text labeled (for example, a photo of a person,
animal or scientific or political text) and most other photos / texts unlabeled are collected from the internet.
In fact, many Machine Learning problems belong to this group because collecting data with labels is very time
consuming and has a high cost. Many types of data even require a number of specialist to be labeled (medical
images, for example).
In contrast, unlabeled data can be collected at low cost from the internet.
Reinforcement learning
Reinforcement learning are problems that help a system to automatically determine context-based behavior
to achieve maximum benefit (maximizing the performance).
Currently, Reinforcement learning is mainly applied to Game Theory (Game Theory), algorithms need to
determine the next move to achieve the highest score.