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Shiraz University Press

490

ENGLISH
for the Students of

Art
Dr. Mohammad Saber Khaghaninejad

first edition
2016
Table of Contents
Unit Title Page
V
To the Teachers ………………………………………………
VII
Pronunciation Guide …………………………………………

PART 1: An Artistic Overview 1


1 What is art? ………………………………………………...…… 3
2 History of art ………………………………………………….… 15
3 Fine arts ………………………………………………………… 29
4 Forms, genres, media and style ………………………………… 41
5 Functions of art ……………………………………………….… 53
6 Value judgment ………………………………………………… 66
7 Art controversies ………………………………………..……… 79
8 The arts and the politics ………………………………………… 91

PART 2: Western Schools of Art 103


9 Romanticism ………………………………………….………… 105
10 Realism ……………………………………………………….… 117
11 Impressionism…………………………………………………… 129
12 Post-Impressionism …………………………………………..… 142
13 Expressionism ……………………………………………...…… 154
14 Fauvism ………………………………………………………… 168
15 Cubism ………………………………………………………..… 180
16 Dadaism ………………………………………………………… 193
17 Futurism ………………………………………………………… 206

III
18 Abstract Expressionism ………………………………………… 219
19 Pop arts ……………………………………………….………… 230
20 Minimalism ……………………………………………...…… 243

PART 3: Eastern Art 255


21 Eastern Art ………………………………………………..…… 257
22 Islamic Art ……………………………………………..……… 270
23 Iranian Art (1) ………………………………………………… 282
24 Iranian Art (2) ………………………………………………… 296

Index …………………………………….……………………………… 310


Bibliography ……………..………………….………………………… 314
Appendix ……..………………….………………..………….………… 317

IV
To the Teachers

The present book is basically designed to enhance the reading comprehension


ability of “art studies” students through their technical reading passages. Each
lesson includes the following sections:

Pre-reading
This section is aimed at familiarizing the students with the pronunciation and
meaning of the new lexical items employed in the lesson and eliminating their
phonetic problems through individual as well as choral practice in the classroom.
Here, an attempt has been made to present difficult terms and expressions,
especially those which help understanding the text. It is to be noted that teachers
can use good sentences and examples of their own to reinforce the perception of
each term for their students.

The reading passage


Here the main text of the lesson is presented to the students. Teachers are kindly
requested to attract the students’ attention to the focal points of the passage either
through very simple explanations in English or by posing a few pre-reading
questions about the content of the text and listing them on the board to help
students construct appropriate schemata. Naturally, in the case of complicated
terms or texts, a brief explanation in Persian would be quite in order.

Exercises
This section contains comprehension, vocabulary and word derivatives test items.
It is aimed at encouraging the students to expand their lexical awareness through
a more developed enquiry. It is expected that the subject of each exercise be first
explained to the students perhaps by doing an example. After performing each

V
exercise, additional information can be presented by asking students if they have
any further knowledge about each topic or term. Finally, the part for finding
word equivalents in the text is there to deepen the basic concept of the text and to
lead to students toward primary steps in constructing personal, specialized
dictionaries.

References
In the end, the references from which the reading passages are derived have been
provided. For each text preparation at least some five or six valid sources have
been delved.
Ultimately, it should be admitted that this book is not devoid of possible
inadequacies, and thus, I expect my dear colleagues to let me know about their
amending reformative views and recommendation.

Mohammad Saber Khaghaninejad, Ph. D


Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics
Shiraz University, Iran

VI
Pronunciation Guide Vowels and diphthongs

Vowels and diphthongs


1 i: as in see / siː/ 11 eɪ as in ate /eɪ t/
2 i as in happy /hæ pi/ 12 ī as in icon /īkən/
3 I as in sit /sIt/ 13 ɪ ə as in ear /ɪ ə (r)/
4 e as in ten /ten/ 14 ou as in outline /ˈ outˌ līn/
5 æ as in cat /kæ t/ 15 əʊ as in pose /ˈ pəʊ z/
6 a: as in arm /ɑ ː m/ 17 eɪ as in say /seɪ /
7 ɔː as in force /fɔ ː (r)s/ 18 ɔɪ as in boy /bɔ ɪ /
8 u as in put /put/ 20 juː as in university /ˈ juː nɪ vəː (r)siti/
9 u: as in too /tu:/
10 ə as in blur /blər/

Consonants
1 p as in pen /pen/ 13 s as in so /su:/
2 b as in bad /bæd/ 14 z as in zoo /zu:/
3 t as in tea /ti:/ 15 ʃ as in shoe /ʃ u:/
4 d as in did /dId/ 16 ʒ as in vision /viʒ en/
5 k as in kept /kept/ 17 h as in hat /hæt/
6 g as in got /gʌ t/ 18 m as in man /mæn/
7 ʧ as in chain /ʧ eɪ n/ 19 n as in no /nəʊ /
8 j as in jam /jæm/ 20 ŋ as in sing /Siŋ/
9 f as in fell /fel/ 21 l as in leg /leg/
10 v as in van /væn/ 22 r as in red /red/
11 Ɵ as in Think /Ɵ ink/ 23 j as in yes /jes/
12 ð as in That /ðæt/ 24 w as in war /wa:r/
25 dʒ As in subject /səbˈdʒekt/

Stress

1 / ˈ/ primary stress as in subject /səbˈ dʒekt/


2 /ˌ / secondary stress as in advent /ædˌvent/

International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), 1999

VII
VIII
Part 1

An Artistic Overview
In the first part of the book some artistic concepts are presented. To be
exact, the readers are provided with various definitions of art, its history
and social functions, its relationship with politics and some controversies
in addition to a few interrelated concepts such as, form, genre, style and
value judgment. Students are expected
 To read the given passages and get familiar with the approved
descriptions of the provided artistic themes and then
 Perform the following reading comprehension exercises which are
designed in diverse formats of true/false, multiple-choice, open,
matching and cloze test items.
 They are also supposed to learn the lexical items whose perceptions
are required for the passages’ understanding. These items are
introduced and exemplifies in the vocabulary list of each chapter.
Lesson 1

What is Art?

Before you read


Warm-up questions
What is art in your opinion? Is art necessary for human’s life? Who is
called an artist? What kind of art do you like best? Who is your favorite
artist?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
………………… ……………… ……………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
4 English for the students of art

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Applied art  Decorative art
 Medieval art  Architecture
 Folk art  Theories of art

Part Ι. Reading

What is art?

[1] There are many definitions of art, rising and falling in popularity at
different points in human history. The loosest definition of ‘art’ today is
the creation of a thing, not by nature itself, but by the will of a person or
group. It can be visual, meant to be seen; it can be music or poetry, meant
to be heard; it can be a novel to read, a play to watch or a dance to take
part in; it can be buildings or clothing; digital or virtual; it can be the
disciplined training of plants or animals. So broad is the possible
definition of ‘art’ that some say one can make an art out of living life
itself. This definition, however, is not complete, because it includes many
things people do and objects created that we do not consider art. So, what
separates a painting from a carburetor? Here again, people try to make a
distinction through over-simplification: ‘art’ is anything made, lacking
Lesson one 5

useful purpose. This is also a fallacy, as ‘art’ also serves many purposes,
crucial to society. In more familiar terms, ‘art’ is usually defined as that
was made in order to express feelings, communicate information, make a
philosophical point, entertain someone, or beautify one's surroundings.
[2] ‘Art’ is a diverse range of human activities and the products of those
activities; visual arts include the creation of images or objects including
painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, and other visual media.
Architecture is often included as one of the visual arts. Music, theatre,
film, dance, and other performing arts, as well as literature, and other
media such as interactive media are included in a broader definition of
‘art’. Until the 17th century, ‘art’ referred to any skill or mastery and was
not differentiated from crafts or sciences, but in modern usage, the ‘fine
arts’, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, are distinguished from
acquired skills in general, and the decorative or applied arts. ‘Art’ has
been characterized in terms of mimesis, expression, communication of
emotion, or other values. During the Romantic period, ‘art’ came to be
seen as a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with religion
and science. Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and
has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of human
agency and creation through imaginative or technical skill.
[3] By a broad definition of ‘art’, artistic works have existed for almost as
long as humankind, from early pre-historic art to contemporary art;
however, some theories restrict the concept to modern Western societies.
The first and broadest sense of “art” is the one that has remained closest to
the older Latin meaning, which roughly translates to ‘skill’ or ‘craft’.
However, there are many other colloquial uses of the word, all with some
relation to its etymology.
6 English for the students of art

A sculpture of John Chrysostom, New York City

[4] In medieval philosophy, John Chrysostom held that “the name of art
should be applied to those only which contribute towards and produce
necessities of life”. Thomas Aquinas, when treating the adornment of
women, gives an ethical justification as “in the case of an art directed to the
production of goods which men cannot use without sin, it follows that the
workmen sin in making such things, as directly affording others an occasion
of sin; for instance, if a man were to make idols or anything pertaining to
idolatrous worship. But in the case of an art the products of which may be
employed by man either for a good or for an evil use, such as swords,
arrows, and the like, the practice of such an art is not sinful. These alone
should be called arts”. Aquinas held that art is nothing else than “the right
reason about certain works to be made,” and that it is commendable, not for
the will with which a craftsman does a work, “but for the quality of the
work. Art, therefore, properly speaking, is an operative habit.” Aristotle and
Aquinas distinguish it from the related habit of prudence. The second and
Lesson one 7

more recent sense of the word art is as an abbreviation for creative art or
fine art and emerged in the early 17th century.
[5] Throughout time, ‘art’ has not always been made by individual artists, or
even by people who would dare to identify themselves as artists. Some of
the most ancient and profound art is ‘folk art’, created by anonymous people
under unknown circumstances. Folk art may be religious in nature - perhaps
even an attempt to create a magical object. It may have been made by
itinerant or untrained artists. It may not have been considered art at all at the
time of its creation. ‘Art’ as we know it today is a fairly modern concept. In
the twenty-first century, the question “what is art?” has been debated for so
long that, in terms of creating an art survey text, Marcel Duchamp's
inclusive definition of ‘art’ seems to be reasonable, “Art is whatever an
artist says it is”.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Adornment (n.) /əˈdɔːnm(ə)nt/
A decoration of color or interest that is added to relieve plainness.
Wealth and children are an adornment of the life of this world.

Colloquial (adj.) /kəˈləʊkwɪəl/


(Of language) Used in ordinary conversation; not formal or literary.
They do not use a formal language but very colloquial words.

Constitute (v.) /ˈkɒnstɪtjuːt/


Be (a part) of a whole; (of people or things) Combine to form (a whole).
Fifteen Members of the association shall constitute a committee to sole
the financial problems.
8 English for the students of art

Contemporary (adj.) /kənˈtempˌreri:/


Living or occurring at the same time.
Mark Twain is one of the greatest contemporary novelists.

Differentiate (v.) /ˌdɪfəˈrɛnʃɪeɪt/


Recognize or ascertain what makes (someone or something) different;
Identify differences between (two or more things or people).
When the twins go out, they differentiate themselves by dressing differently.

Dispute (v.) /dispˈyjuːt/


Argue about (something); discuss heatedly.
Last year, a dispute over the overtime pay led to a ban.

Etymology (n.) /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/


The study of the origin of words and the way in which their meanings
have been changed throughout history.
This book describes the etymology of words.

Idol (n.) /ˈīdl/


An image or representation of a god used as an object of worship.
Before Islam, people worshipped idols in Arabian peninsula.

Justification (n.) /dʒʌstɪfɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)n/


Something (such as a fact or circumstance) that shows an action to be
reasonable or necessary.
Lesson one 9

A similar justification was used by another politician last year.

Medieval (adj.) /ˌmɛdɪˈiːv(ə)l/


Of or relating to the Middle Ages.
Medieval ages were the days of poverty and misery for the Europeans.

Mimesis (n.) /məˈmi:sis/


Representation or imitation of the real world in art and literature.
His artistic works are the mimesis of the nature on canvas.

Necessity (n.) /nɪˈsɛsɪti/


The fact of being required or indispensable.
It is a necessity to study hard if you want to pass the course.

Paramount (adj.) /ˈpærəmaunt/


(1) More important than anything else. (2) Supreme.
However the freedom of others is always of paramount importance.

Prudence (n.) /ˈpru:dns/


Discretion in practical affairs.
Is this a time to show prudence or seek justice?

Restrict (v.) /riˈstrikt/


Put a limit on; control; Deprive (someone or something) of freedom of
movement or action.
10 English for the students of art

For being creative, do not restrict your imagination.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- What is your personal definition of ‘art’?


2- What was the definition of ‘art’ in Medieval Ages?
3- How did the definition of ‘art’ differ after the 17th century?
4- What did Aquinas believe about ‘art’?
5- Did Aristotle and Aquinas have similar definitions for ‘art’?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. Architecture cannot be considered as one of the visual arts.

……. 2. Until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and
was not differentiated from crafts or sciences.
……. 3. Artistic works have existed for almost as long as human history.
……. 4. Aquinas believed that artists are sinners.
……. 5. Folk art is created by famous people in different historical periods.
……. 6. Today, there is a clear definition for “art” among the scholars.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.

1- Which of the following statements is a better description of ‘art’?


Lesson one 11

A) ‘Art’ is the created thing by humans not by nature itself.


B) One can make an ‘art’ by living life itself.
C) ‘Art’ is anything made, lacking useful purpose.
D) ‘Ar t’ is made in order to express feelings, communicate
information, make a philosophical point, entertain someone, or
beautify one's surroundings.

2- Which one of the followings cannot be considered as ‘art’?


A) architecture B) Music
C) A natural landscape D) poetry

3- Aquinas was against …………….. ‘art.


A) beautiful B) sinful
C) visual D) natural

4- Artistic works have existed ……………..


A) for almost as long as humankind.
B) from the Medieval ages.
C) from 17th century.
D) as long as Christianity.

5- What was the purpose of this passage?


A) It tried to introduce ‘art’.
B) It described the history of ‘art’.
C) It focused on definitions of ‘art’.
D) All of the above
12 English for the students of art

D. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 probable (para.1) ……………………..


2 contain (para.1) …………………….
3 various (para.2) …………………….
4 important (para.2) …………………….
5 nearly (para.3) ……………………..
6 nameless (para.4) ……………………..
7 traveling (para.4) ……………………..
8 decoration (para.5) ……………………..
9 sure (para.5) …………………….
10 differentiate (para.5) ……………………..

E. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 fallacy (……) a. informal, conversational
2 magical (……) b. to be related to, relevant
3 colloquial (……) c. thoughtful
4 pertain (……) d. erroneous belief, myth
5 ancient (……) e. environment
6 profound (……) f. agency
7 surroundings (……) g. antique
h. supernatural
Lesson one 13

F. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


differentiation differentiate differential differentially
justification justify justifiable justifiably
restriction restrict restrictive restrictively
constitution constitute constitutional

1- Due to some financial ………….., I cannot help you more than that.
2- She speaks so ………….. that no one can reject her viewpoints. She is
a good lawyer.
3- Having a strong body ………….. he had no trouble climbing the
mountain.
4- Before being employed here, it isnecessary to make a …………..
between full-time jobs and part-time jobs.
5- This is not an acceptable ………….. ! You have been absent for three
days and missed two of your midterm exams.

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

Few modern scholars have been more divided than Plato and Aristotle on
the question …... (1)….. the importance of art, with Aristotle strongly
supporting art in general and Plato generally being …...(2)….. to its
relative importance. Socrates also said that poetry is inspired by the
14 English for the students of art

muses, and is accordingly not rational. With …..(3)….. to the literary and
musical arts, Aristotle called poetry, tragedy, comedy and music to be
imitative art; for example, music imitates rhythm and harmony, .….(4)…..
dance imitates rhythm alone, and poetry the language. Comedy, for
instance, is a dramatic …..(5)…… of men worse than average, whereas
tragedy imitates men slightly better than average.

1. A) containing B) concerning C) comparing D) contrasting


2. A) opposed B) proposed C) posed D) composed
3. A) look B) consideration C) concern D) regards
4. A) where B) whereas C) as D) when
5. A) illustration B) production C) imitation D) explanation

References
Bayley, J. (1986). What is Art? New York: Chelsea House.
Maude, A. (1901). What is Art? An Introduction. London: Grant Richards
publications.
Noyes, G. (1918). Tolstoy. London: Duffield.

Simmons, E. (1973). What is Art? London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.


Tolstoy, Leo (1897). What is Art? London: Penguin.
Lesson 2

History of Art

Before you read


Warm-up questions
What is the oldest art? Which civilizations have been more influential in
the art’s development? What do you know about the oldest Iranian
(Persian) Art? Traditional or modern art, which one do you prefer?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
………………… ……………… ……………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
16 English for the students of art

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Civilization  Iconography
 Cave paintings  Calligraphy
 Biblical art  Modernism

Part Ι. Reading

History of Art

[1] The history of ‘art’ is a multi-disciplinary science, seeking an objective


examination of ‘art’ throughout time, classifying cultures, establishing
periodizations and observing the distinctive and influential characteristics
of ‘art’. The study of the history of art was initially developed in the
Renaissance, with its limited scope on the artistic production of western
civilization. However, as time has passed, it has imposed a broader view
of artistic history, seeking a comprehensive overview of all the
civilizations and analysis of their artistic production in terms of their own
cultural values (cultural relativism), and not just western art history.
[2] Sculptures, cave paintings, rock paintings and petro-glyphs dating to
roughly 40,000 years ago have been found, but the precise meaning of
such art is often disputed because so little is known about the cultures that
Lesson two 17

produced them. The oldest art objects in the world—a series of tiny,
drilled snail shells about 75,000 years old—were discovered in a South
African cave. Containers that may have been used to hold paints have
been found dating as far back as 100,000 years.

A painting in a South African cave belonging to 40,000 years ago

[3] Many great traditions in art have a foundation in the art of one of the
great ancient civilizations: Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, India,
China, Ancient Greece, Rome, as well as Inca and Maya. Each of these
centers of early civilization developed a unique and characteristic style in
its art. Because of the size and duration of these civilizations, more of their
art works have survived and more of their influence has been transmitted
to other cultures and later times. Some also have provided the first records
of how artists worked. In Byzantine and Medieval art of the Western
Middle Ages, much art focused on the expression of Biblical and religious
truths, and used styles that showed the higher glory of a heavenly world,
such as the use of gold in the background of paintings, or glass in mosaics
or windows, which also presented figures in idealized, patterned forms.
Nevertheless a classical realist tradition persisted in small Byzantine
works, and realism steadily grew in the art of Catholic Europe.
18 English for the students of art

Renaissance art had a greatly increased emphasis on the realistic depiction


of the material world, and the place of humans in it, reflected in the
corporeality of the human body.
[4] In the east, Islamic art's rejection of iconography led to emphasis on
geometric patterns, calligraphy, and architecture. In further east, religion
dominated artistic styles and forms too. India and Tibet saw emphasis on
painted sculptures and dance, while religious painting borrowed many
conventions from sculpture and tended to bright contrasting colors with
emphasis on outlines. China saw the flourishing of many art forms: bronze
work, pottery, poetry, calligraphy, music, painting, drama, fiction, etc.
Chinese styles vary greatly from era to era and each one is traditionally
named after the ruling dynasty. So, for example, Tang Dynasty paintings
are monochromatic and sparse, emphasizing idealized landscapes, but
Ming Dynasty paintings are busy and colorful, and focus on telling stories
via setting and composition.

The stylized signature of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire in

Arabic calligraphy. It reads Mahmud Khan son of Abdulhamid is

forever victorious.
Lesson two 19

[5] The western ‘Age of Enlightenment’ in the 18th century saw artistic
depictions of physical and rational certainties of the clockwork universe,
as well as politically revolutionary visions of a post-monarchist world,
such as Blake's portrayal of Newton as a divine geometer, or David's
propagandistic paintings. This led to Romantic rejections of this in favor
of pictures of the emotional side and individuality of humans, exemplified
in the novels of Goethe. The late 19th century then saw a host of artistic
movements, such as Symbolism and impressionism among others.
[6] The history of twentieth century art is a narrative of endless possibilities
and the search for new standards, each being torn down in succession by the
next. Thus, the parameters of Impressionism, Expressionism, Cubism,
Surrealism, etc. cannot be maintained very much beyond the time of their
invention. Increasing global interaction during this time saw an equivalent
influence of other cultures into western art, such as Pablo Picasso being
influenced by African sculpture. West has had huge impacts on Eastern art
in the 19th and 20th centuries, with originally western ideas like
Communism and Post-Modernism exerting a powerful influence on artistic
styles. Modernism, the idealistic search for truth, gave way in the latter half
of the 20th century to a realization of its unattainability. Relativism was
accepted as an unavoidable truth, which led to the period of contemporary
art and post-modern criticism, where cultures of the world and of history are
seen as changing forms, which can be appreciated and drawn from only
with irony. Furthermore the separation of cultures is increasingly blurred
and some argue it is now more appropriate to think in terms of a global
culture, rather than regional cultures.
20 English for the students of art

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Appreciate (v.) /əˈpriːʃɪeɪt/
Recognize the full worth of; be grateful for (something).
We really appreciate your contribution.

Blur (v.) /blər/


Make or become unclear or less distinct.
The drops on your glasses blurred your vision.

Calligraphy (n.) /kəˈlɪɡrəfi/


The art of producing decorative handwriting or lettering with a pen or
brush.
The stage floor was carpeted with large open books whose white pages
were covered with bold calligraphy.

Convention (n.) /kənˈvɛnʃ(ə)n/


(1) A way in which something is usually done, esp. within a particular
area or activity. (2) An agreement between countries covering particular
matters, especially one less formal than a treaty.
There is a UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Expression (n.) /ɪkˈsprɛʃ(ə)n/


The process of making known one's thoughts or feelings.
This was the new expression of the church.
Lesson two 21

Flourish (v.) /ˈflʌrɪʃ/


(Of a person, animal, or other organisms) Grow or develop in a healthy or
vigorous way.
It is possible to flourish during hard economic situation.

Global (adj.) /ˈɡləʊb(ə)l/


Of or relating to the whole world; worldwide.
She won global acclaim for her last book.

Glory (n.) /ˈɡlɔːri/


High renown or honor won by notable achievements.
These are the glory days of public satisfaction.

Impact (n.) /ˈɪmpækt/


The action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.
This has a devastating impact on your health.

Invention (n.) /ɪnˈvɛnʃ(ə)n/


(1) The action of inventing something, typically a process or device. (2)
Creative ability.
The invention of wheel highly influenced the human's life.

Propagandistic (adj.) /ˈprepəgændistik/


propagandist: of or relating to or characterized by propaganda.
Forget these propagandistic declarations. Reality is something else.
22 English for the students of art

Relativism (n.) /ˈrelətəvizəm/


The doctrine that knowledge, truth, and morality exist in relation to
culture, society, or historical context, and are not absolute.
The term ' moral relativism ' is understood in a variety of ways.

Revolutionary (adj.) /rɛvəˈluːʃ(ə)n(ə)ri/


(1) Engaged in or promoting political revolution. (2) A person who works
for or engages in political revolution.
The company cannot adapt to such a revolutionary change.

Sparse (adj.) /spa:rs/


Thinly dispersed or scattered.
The trees became sparse in winter.

Steadily (adv.) /ˈstedi:li/


(1) At a steady rate or pace. (2) Firmly fixed, supported, or balanced; not
shaking or moving.
He developed an abscess in the ear which steadily worsened.

Succession (n.) /səkˈsɛʃ(ə)n/


A number of people or things sharing a specified characteristic and
following one after the other.
I have put the books I read in the alphabetical succession.

Survive (v.) /sərˈvīv/


Continue to live or exist, esp. in spite of danger or hardship.
Lesson two 23

She could never survive the years of suspense.

Transmit (v.) /tranzˈmit/


Cause (something) to pass on from one place to another.
Affected men can transmit the virus.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- Where has the oldest human’s artwork been found?


2- Where were the art-centers of the pre-historic time?
3- Why are medieval artworks inspired by the Bible?
4- What do you know about different Chinese styles of art?
5- How did artworks change after the renaissance?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. The study of the history of art was initially developed before
the Renaissance
……. 2. The first signs of human artistic activity date back to 100,000
years.
……. 3. All art works of ancient civilizations have survived and their
influences have been transmitted to other cultures.
……. 4. Chinese art styles vary greatly from era to era and each one is
traditionally named for its symbolic features.
24 English for the students of art

……. 5. Impressionism was an artistic movement in Europe dating


back to late 19th century.
……. 6. Relativism was accepted as an unavoidable truth during the
postmodern era.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.
1- Renaissance artworks have greatly emphasized …………….
A) The realistic depiction of the material world.
B) The human’s position in the world.
C) The corporeality of the human body.
D) All of the above.

2- Which one of the followings has not been the focus of Islamic art?
A) iconography B) calligraphy
C) geometry D) architecture

3- What was the foundation of modern/post-modern criticism?


A) Communism B) Relativism
C) Cubism D) Globalization

4- The study of the history of art was initially developed …………….


A) in Middle Ages. B) from the renaissance.
C) from 19th century. D) in Age of Enlightenment.

5- Why have most of the art works of ancient civilizations been


survived?
Lesson two 25

A) Because of their political power


B) Because of their good quality
C) Because of their originality
D) Because of their size and duration

D. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 complete (para.1) ……………………..


2 find out (para.2) …………………….
3 basis (para.3) …………………….
4 divine (para.3) …………………….
5 grow, increase (para.4) ……………………..
6 family (para.4) ……………………..
7 picture, depiction (para.5) ……………………..
8 universal (para.6) ……………………..
9 story (para.6) …………………….
10 equal, alike (para.6) ……………………..

E. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 objective (……) a. sketch, plan
2 tiny (……) b. theater
3 corporeal (……) c. sequence, order
26 English for the students of art

4 outline (……) d. very small


5 drama (……) e. current, present-day
6 succession (……) f. real, based on facts
7 contemporary (……) g. blur
h. bodily

F. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


appreciation appreciate appreciable/
appreciative
expression express expressive expressively
glory glorify glorious gloriously
revolution revolutionize revolutionary

1- If you want to ………….. your disappointing life, you should have a


reasonable goal in your mind and a practical program in your hand.
2- The letter you have written has a good English ………….. It seems
that your English is very good.
3- One should read a lot of books if he wants to know about …………..
civilization of Iran.
4- As a(n) ………….. person, she has very deeply-rooted beliefs.
5- I would ………….. if you let me know the exam’s date.
Lesson two 27

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

The history of art is the history of any activity or product made by humans
in a visual form for aesthetical or communicative purposes, ……(1)…..
ideas, emotions or, in general, a worldview. Over time visual art has been
classified in diverse ways, from the medieval ……(2)…… between liberal
arts and mechanical arts, to the modern distinction between fine arts and
applied arts, or to the many contemporary definitions, which define art as
a manifestation of human’s ..….(3)…... Today, art enjoys a wide network
of study; the 20th century has seen the proliferation of institutions,
foundations, art museums and galleries, in both the public and …..(4)…..
sectors, dedicated to the analysis and cataloging of works of art as well as
exhibitions aimed at a mainstream…..(5)……..

1. A) destroying B) opening C) expressing D) fastening


2. A) distinction B) composition C) location D) description
3. A) creativity B) ability C) responsibility D) validity
4. A) personal B) governmental C) local D) private
5. A) artists B) people C) audience D) students

References
Adams, L. (2007). Art across Time. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Gombrich, E. H. (1990). The Story of Art. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall,

Honour, H., and Fleming, J. (1999). The Visual Arts: A History. New York:
Henry N. Abrams.
28 English for the students of art

Margueron, J. (2002). La literatura sumeria. Los mesopotámicos. Madrid:


Cátedra.
Thomas, N. (1995). World of Art. New York: Thames and Hudson.
Lesson 3

Fine Arts

Before you read


Warm-up questions
What are some arts ‘fine’ and some are not? What is the most needed
characteristic of a ‘fine’ artist? Can you name some of the examples of
‘fine’ art? Are ‘fine’ arts the same as the modern arts?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ………….…… ……………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ……………… ………………… …………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
30 English for the students of art

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Fine arts  Poetry
 creativity  emotional judgment
 Self-expression  Audience senses

Part Ι. Reading

Fine Arts

[1] ‘Fine art’, from the 17th century on, has meant art forms developed
primarily for aesthetics, distinguishing them from applied arts that also have
to serve some practical function. Traditionally speaking, the five main ‘fine
arts’ were painting, sculpture, architecture, music and poetry, with minor
arts including theater and dance. Today, the ‘fine arts’ commonly include
additional forms, including film, photography and calligraphy. Calligraphy
is a type of visual art. It is often called the art of fancy lettering. A
contemporary definition of calligraphic practice is “the art of giving form to
signs in an expressive, harmonious and skillful manner”. Modern
calligraphy ranges from functional hand-lettered inscriptions and designs to
fine art pieces where the abstract expression of the handwritten mark may or
may not compromise the legibility of the letters.
Lesson three 31

Abbasid Kufic calligraphy, "unknown artist" (8-9th century)

[2] ‘Fine art’ means that a skill is being used to express the artist’s
creativity, or to engage the audience’s aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw
the audience towards consideration of the finer things. The word art can
refer to several things: a study of creative skill, a process of using the
creative skill, a product of the creative skill, or the audience's experience
with the creative skill. Art is something that stimulates an individual's
thoughts, emotions, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. Artworks can be
explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or
objects. Although the application of scientific knowledge to derive a new
scientific theory involves skill and results in the “creation” of something
new, this represents science only and is not categorized as art.
32 English for the students of art

20th-century Rhwandan bottle.

[3] Often, if the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people
will consider it a craft instead of art. Likewise, if the skill is being used in
a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art
instead of ‘fine art’. On the other hand, crafts and design are sometimes
considered applied art. Some art followers have argued that the difference
between ‘fine art’ and applied art has more to do with value judgments
made about the art than any clear definitional difference. However, even
‘fine art’ often has goals beyond pure creativity and self-expression. The
purpose of works of art may be to communicate ideas politically,
spiritually, or philosophically and to create a sense of beauty or to
generate strong emotions.
[4] The nature of art has been described by philosopher Wollheim as “one
of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture”. Art has
been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of
emotions and ideas, a means for exploring and appreciating formal
Lesson three 33

elements for their own sake, and as mimesis or representation. Art as


mimesis has deep roots in the philosophy of Aristotle. Tolstoy identified
art as a use of indirect means to communicate from one person to another.
Croce and Collingwood advanced the idealist view that art expresses
emotions, and that the work of art therefore essentially exists in the mind
of the creator.
[5] The theory of art has its roots in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, and
was developed in the early twentieth century by Roger Fry and Clive Bell.
More recently, thinkers influenced by Martin Heidegger have interpreted
art as the means by which a community develops for itself a medium for
self-expression and interpretation. George Dickie has offered an
institutional theory of art that defines a work of art as any artifact upon
which a qualified person or persons acting on behalf of the social
institution commonly referred to as “the art world” has conferred “the
status of candidate for appreciation”.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Aesthetic (adj.) /iːsˈθɛtɪk,ɛs-/
Concerned with beauty or the appreciation of beauty.
Maybe it is the time to start paying more attention to the aesthetic values
of things.

Applied (adj.) /əˈplīd/


(Of a subject or type of study) Put to practical use as opposed to being
theoretical.
Instead of mere theories have a look at the applied aspects.
34 English for the students of art

Commercial (adj.) /kəˈməːʃ(ə)l/


(1) Concerned with or engaged in commerce. (2) Making or intended to
make a profit.
As an accountant, do you have enough commercial experience?

Confer (v.) /kənˈfər/


Grant or bestow (a title, degree, benefit, or right).
This book does not confer as much knowledge as expected.

Elusive (adj.) /iˈlu:siv/


(1) Difficult to find, catch, or achieve. (2) Difficult to remember or recall.
As lawyers are aware, reasonableness is an elusive concept.

Explicitly (adv.) /ikˈsplisitli/


(1) Stated clearly and in detail, leaving no room for confusion or doubt.
(2) In an explicit manner.
The country was founded on explicitly communist principles.

Generate (v.) /ˈdʒɛnəreɪt/


Cause (something, esp. an emotion or situation) to arise or come about;
Produce (energy, esp. electricity).
This old machine cannot generate electricity.
Lesson three 35

0Institution (n.) /ɪnstɪˈtjuːʃ(ə)n/


A society or organization founded for a religious, educational, social, or
similar purpose; an organization providing residential care for people with
special needs.
Democracy destroyed the institution of slavery.

Medium (n.) /ˈmiːdɪəm/


An agency or means of doing something.
The revolution was controlled by the medium of the press.

Stimulate (v.) /ˈstɪmjʊleɪt/


Raise levels of physiological or nervous activity in (the body or any
biological system); Encourage interest or activity in (a person or animal).
As a good teacher you should stimulate creativity.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- What are the main traditional ‘fine arts’?


2- What is the difference between skill and art?
3- How did Tolstoy identify ‘fine art’?
4- Can be commercial art considered as ‘fine art’?
5- How did Martin Heidegger describe ‘art’?
36 English for the students of art

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. Traditionally speaking, there are five main “fine arts” in the
world of art.
……. 2. Fine art expresses the artist's creativity and neglects the
audience's aesthetic sensibilities.
……. 3. Fine art often has goals beyond pure creativity and self-
expression.
……. 4 Tolstoy identified that art expresses emotions, and that the
work of art essentially exists in the mind of the creator.
……. 5. Heidegger has considered art as a medium for the self-
expression of a community.
……. 6. According to the author “art” and “fine art” hare synonymous.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.
1- The reading passage was generally about …………….
A) description of ‘fine arts’.
B) disagreements of philosophers about ‘fine arts’.
C) different types of ‘fine arts’.
D) fine arts’ in different countries.

2- What is the art of fancy lettering called?


A) painting B) calligraphy
C) geometry D) petro-glyph
Lesson three 37

3- Art as mimesis has deep roots in the philosophy of …………….


A) Heidegger. B) Kant.
C) Wollheim. D) Aristotle.

4- When have ‘applied’ and ‘fine’ arts been separated?


A) during Middle Ages B) after the renaissance
th
C) from 17 century D) in 20th century

5- What is the tone of the reading passage?


A) Technical and academic B) Serious and informative
C) Silly and humorous D) Critical and ironic

D. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 realistic (para.1) ……………………..


2 addressees (para.2) …………………….
3 classify (para.2) …………………….
4 similarly (para.3) …………………….
5 further than (para.3) ……………………..
6 investigate (para.4) ……………………..
7 basically, really (para.4) ……………………..
8 vehicle (para.5) ……………………..
9 admiration (para.5) …………………….
10 work of art (para.5) ……………………..
38 English for the students of art

E. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 harmonious (……) a. highly developed
2 theory (……) b. lately
3 mimesis (……) c. condition
4 advanced (……) d. scientific guess
5 recently (……) e. rhythmical
6 interpretation (……) f. imitation
7 statue (……) g. sculpture
h. explanation

F. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


application apply applied
elude elusion elusive elusively
generation/generator generate generative
stimulation stimulate stimulative

1. The suspect continues to ………. the police.


Lesson three 39

2. She studies ………. linguistics and works on how language can be


manipulated in order to convince the audience.
3. Becoming rich turn out to be a(n) ………. when he found out about
his father’s will.
4. The younger ………. are very blissful due to the new life standards.
5. This is a very ………… Soil. Your trees would become strong healthy
and fruitful.

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

Fine arts film is a term that encompasses …..(1)……pictures and the field
of film as a fine art form. A fine arts movie theater is usually a building
for viewing such movies. Films are produced by …..(2)….. images from
the world with cameras, or by creating images using animation
……(3)……or special effects. Films are cultural artifacts created by
specific cultures, which reflect those …..(4)….., and, in turn, affect them.
Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular
entertainment and a powerful method for educating citizens. The visual
elements of cinema give motion pictures a …..(5)….. power of
communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions
by using the subtitles that translate the dialogue.

1. A) motive B) motion C) mute D) model


2. A) using B) composing C) sending D) recording
3. A) techniques B) ability C) responsibility D) validity
4. A) personal B) cultures C) local D) private
40 English for the students of art

5. A) artists B) people C) universal D) students

References
Caffin, C. H. (1901). Photography as a fine art; the achievements and
possibilities of photographic art in America. New York: Doubleday.

Hegel, G. W. F. (1998). Aesthetics: lectures on fine art. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hegel, G. W. F., and Bosanquet, B. (1905). The introduction to Hegel's


Philosophy of fine art. London: Paul publications.
Neville, H. (1875). The stage: its past and present in relation to fine art. London:
R. Bentley and Son.

Rossetti, W. M. (1867). Fine art, chiefly contemporary: notices re-printed, with


revisions. London: Macmillan.

Torrey, J. (1874). A theory of fine art. New York: Scribner, Armstrong, and Co.
Lesson 4

Forms, genres, media and style

Before you read


Warm-up questions
What do you know about an artwork’s style and form? How are artworks
put into different genres? Which one is more important for interpreting an
artwork: form or content? Is it possible to classify traditional artworks into
different genres?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ……………… ………………… …………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
42 English for the students of art

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Genre  Medium (media)
 Style  Pointillism
 Form/content  Archeology

Part Ι. Reading

Forms, genres, media and style

[1] The creative arts are often divided into more specific categories, each
related to its technique, or medium, such as decorative arts, plastic arts,
performing arts, or literature. Unlike scientific fields, art is one of the few
subjects which is academically organized according to technique. An
artistic medium is the substance or material the artistic work is made from,
and may also refer to the technique used. For example, paint is a medium
used in painting, and paper is a medium used in drawing.
[2] An art form is the specific shape, or quality an artistic expression takes.
The media used often influence the form. For example, the form of a
sculpture must exist in space in three dimensions, and respond to gravity.
The constraints and limitations of a particular medium are thus called its
Lesson four 43

formal qualities. To give another example, the formal qualities of painting


are the canvas texture, color, and brush texture. The formal qualities of
video games are non-linearity, interactivity and virtual presence. The form
of a particular work of art is determined by the formal qualities of the
media, and is not related to the intentions of the artist or the reactions of
the audience in any way whatsoever as these properties are related to
content rather than form.
[3] A genre is a set of conventions and styles within a particular medium.
For instance, well recognized genres in film are western, horror and
romantic comedy. A particular work of art may bend or combine genres but
each genre has a recognizable group of conventions and clichés. Genre is
the term for any category of literature or other forms of art or entertainment,
e.g. music, whether written or spoken, audio or visual, based on some set of
stylistic criteria. Genres are formed by conventions that change over time as
new genres are invented and the use of old ones is discontinued. Often,
works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these
conventions.
[4] Genre began as an absolute classification system for ancient Greek
literature. Poetry, prose and performance had a specific and calculated
style that related to the theme of the story. Speech patterns for comedy
would not be appropriate for tragedy, and even actors were restricted to
their genre under the assumption that a type of person could tell one type
of story best.
[5] In later periods genres proliferated and developed in response to
changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a dynamic tool to help
the public make sense out of unpredictable art. Because art is often a
response to a social state, in that people write, sing and dance about what
44 English for the students of art

they know about, the use of genre as a tool must be able to adapt to
changing meanings.
[6] The style of an artwork, artist, or movement is the distinctive method and
form followed by the respective art. A particular style may have specific
cultural meanings. For example, Roy Lichtenstein is known a painter
associated with the American Pop art movement of the 1960s, despite his
use of dots. Lichtenstein used evenly spaced dots as a style to question the
‘high’ art of painting with the ‘low’ art of comics, thus commenting on class
distinctions in culture. Pointillism, a technique in late Impressionism
(1880s) developed especially by the artist Georges Seurat, employs dots to
create variation in color and depth in an attempt to approximate the way
people really see color. Both artists use dots, but the particular style and
technique relate to the artistic movement adopted by each artist.
[7] In the visual arts, style is a “distinctive manner which permits the
grouping of works into related categories” or “any distinctive, and therefore
recognizable, way in which an act is performed or an artifact made or ought
to be performed and made.” It refers to the visual appearance of a work of
art that relates it to other works by the same artist or one from the same
period, training, location, art movement or archaeological culture; “the
notion of style has long been the art historian's principal mode of classifying
works of art. By style he selects and shapes the history of art".
[8] Style is often divided into the general style of a period, country or
cultural group, group of artists or art movement, and the individual style of
the artist within that group style. Divisions within both types of styles are
often made, such as between ‘early’, ‘middle’ or ‘late’. In some artists,
such as Picasso for example, these divisions may be marked and easy to
see but in others they are more subtle. Style is seen as usually dynamic, in
most periods always changing by a gradual process, though the speed of
Lesson four 45

this varies greatly, between the very slow development in style typical of
pre-historic art or ancient Egyptian art to the rapid changes in modern art
styles. Style often develops in a series of jumps, with relatively sudden
changes followed by periods of slower development.
[9] These are all ways of beginning to define a work of art, to narrow it
down. The decision to cast a sculpture in bronze, for instance, inevitably
affects its meaning; the work becomes something different from how it
might be if it had been cast in gold or plastic or chocolate, even if
everything else about the artwork remains the same. Next, you might
examine how the materials in each artwork have become an arrangement
of shapes, colors, textures, and lines. These, in turn, are organized into
various patterns and compositional structures. In your interpretation, you
would comment on how salient features of the form contribute to the
overall meaning of the finished artwork, although, the meaning of most
artworks is not discussed in terms of materials, techniques, and forms.
Most interpretations also include a discussion of the ideas and feelings the
artwork engenders.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Affect (v.) /əˈfɛkt/
(1) Have an effect on; make a difference to. (2) touch the feelings of
(someone); move emotionally.
The data was analyzed to determine the extent to which health can affect
mental behavior.

Approximate (v.) /əˈpraksəmit/


Come close or be similar to something in quality, nature, or quantity.
46 English for the students of art

Important Note: All sizes are approximate measurements only.

Cast (v.) /kæst/


Throw (something) forcefully in a specified direction.
It is up to you to cast a critical eye.

Constraint (n.) /kənˈstreɪnt/


A limitation or restriction.
This constraint makes the project harder to progress.

Dimension (n.) /dɪˈmɛnʃ(ə)n/


An aspect or feature of a situation, problem, or thing.
Reading comprehension is only one dimension of language learning.

Gravity (n.) /ˈgræviti:/


The force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any
other physical body having mass.
Newton discovered the earth's gravity in 17th century.

Inevitably (adv.) /inˈevitəbli:/


(1) In such a manner as could not be otherwise. (2) as is certain to
happen; unavoidably.
Inevitably there will be some students who do not like English exams.
Lesson four 47

Respective (adj.) /riˈspektiv/


Belonging or relating separately to each of two or more people or things.
When I finish the project I would receive the respective money.

Salient (adj.) /ˈseɪlɪənt/


Most noticeable or important.
This can provide salient problems with immediate feedbacks.

Texture (n.) /ˈtɛkstʃə(r)/


The feel, appearance, or consistency of a surface or a substance.
Its richness of texture justifies its price.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- What is the definition of an artistic ‘medium’?


2- How is the ‘form’ of a particular art work determined?
3- How ‘style’ is defined in visual arts?
4- How is it possible to classify the artworks based on their ‘styles’?
5- What does genre mean?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.
48 English for the students of art

…..... 1. Like other scientific fields, art is academically organized


according to technique.
……. 2. An art form is the specific shape, or quality an artistic
expression takes.
……. 3. An artistic style refers to the visual appearance of a work that
relates it to other works by the same artist.
……. 4. Medium is usually a dynamic process and changes gradually in
different periods.
……. 5. Genre is a dynamic tool to help the public make sense out of
unpredictable art.
……. 5. Form features of an artwork contribute to the overall meaning
of that artwork.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.
1- The artistic …………. contribute to the overall meaning of the artwork.
A) materials B) forms
C) styles D) media

2- An artistic …………. is the substance or material the art work is made


from.
A) genre B) medium
C) style D) form

3- Cultural values of a society are highly related to the …………. of an


artwork.
Lesson four 49

A) style B) genre
C) medium D) form

4- The form of a particular work of art is determined by the formal


qualities of the media, and is not related to ………….
A) reactions of the audience.
B) genre of the artwork.
C) medium of the artwork.
D) content of the artwork.

5- ‘It’ in the fourth line of paragraph 7 refers to ………….


A) style.
B) visual art.
C) same artist.
D) visual appearance of an art work.

D. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 in line with (para.1) ……………………..


2 limit (para.2) …………………….
3 therefore (para.2) …………………….
4 type, kind (para.3) …………………….
5 create (para.3) ……………………..
6 imagination/guess (para.4) ……………………..
7 adjust (para.5) ……………………..
50 English for the students of art

8 use/utilize (para.6) ……………………..


9 fast/speedy (para.8) …………………….
10 remarkable/note (para.9) ……………………..

E. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 organize (……) a. amusement
2 particular (……) b. idea, concept
3 horror (……) c. connect, relate
4 entertainment (……) d. special
5 proliferate (……) e. approximation
6 notion (……) f. fright
7 associate (……) g. grow, produce
h. put in order, arrange

F. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


approximation approximate approximate approximately
inevitability inevitable inevitably
Lesson four 51

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


salience salient saliently
respect respective respectively

1. Every day, my friend and I go to school together but after the school
we take our …………. ways home.
2. The weather changes are …………. in different seasons of the year.
3. It is …………. to know that if you want a success in future you
should try as best as your ability.
4. …………., it is 10 p.m. and I am a little bit late.
5. Ali and Ahmad are brothers and they study physics and math,
………….

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

In literature, genre has been known as a clear taxonomy. This taxonomy


implies a concept of …..(1)…… or that an idea will be stable forever. The
earliest recorded systems of genre in western history can be …..(2)….. back
to Plato and Aristotle. Gérard Genette, a French literary theorist described
Plato as creating three imitational genres: dramatic dialogue, pure narrative
and epic (a mixture of dialogue and narrative). Lyric poetry, the fourth and
final type of Greek literature, was …..(3)…… by Plato as a non-mimetic
mode. Aristotle later …..(4)….. Plato's system by eliminating the pure
narrative and distinguishing by two additional criteria: the object to be
imitated and the medium of ……(5)…… such as words, gestures or verse.
52 English for the students of art

1. A) sequence B) certainty C) containment D) contempt


2. A) traced B) looked C) dated D) found
3. A) created B) concluded C) included D) excluded
4. A) made B) revised C) studied D) destroyed
5. A) depiction B) description C) presentation D) explanation

References
Dana, A. and Margaret, I. (2003). Art and Thought. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
De Zegher, C. (1996). Inside the Visible. MIT Press.
Hatcher, E. (1999). Art as Culture: An Introduction to the Anthropology of Art.

Holly, M. A. and Moxey, K. (2002). Art History and Aesthetics of Visual Arts.
New Haven: Yale University Press.

Shiner, L. (2003). The Invention of Art: A Cultural History. Chicago: University


of Chicago Press.
Lesson 5

Functions of art

Before you read


Warm-up questions
What can art do in society? What is the most important of function of art?
Which one is more important: individual functions or social functions of
art? Can an artist be a politician?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ………………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
54 English for the students of art

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Functions of art  Symbols
 Imagination  Entertainment
 Rituals  Propaganda

Part Ι. Reading

Functions of art

[1] Art has had a great number of different functions throughout its history,
making its purpose difficult to abstract or quantify to any single concept.
This does not imply that the purpose of art is ‘vague’, but that it has had
many unique, different reasons for being created. Some of these functions
of art are provided in the following outline.

Non-motivated functions of art


[2] The non-motivated purposes of art are those that are integral to being
human, transcend the individual, or do not fulfill a specific external
purpose. In this sense, art, as creativity, is something humans must do by
their very nature.
Lesson five 55

1. Basic human instinct for harmony, balance, rhythm. Art at this level is
not an action or an object, but an internal appreciation of balance and
harmony (beauty), and therefore an aspect of being human.
2. Experience of the mysterious. Art provides a way to experience one's
self in relation to the universe. This experience may often come
unmotivated, as one appreciates art, music or poetry. “The most
beautiful thing we can experience is the mysteries. It is the source of all
true art and science” Albert Einstein.
3. Expression of the imagination. Art provides a means to express the
imagination in ways that are not tied to the formality of spoken or
written language. Unlike words, which come in sequences and each of
which have a definite meaning, art provides a range of forms, symbols
and ideas with meanings that are malleable.
4. Ritualistic and symbolic functions. In many cultures, art is used in
rituals, performances and dances as a decoration or symbol. While
these often have no specific (motivated) purpose, anthropologists know
that they often serve a purpose at the level of meaning within a
particular culture. This meaning is not furnished by any one individual,
but is often the result of many generations of change, and of a
cosmological relationship within the culture.

Motivated functions of art


[3] Motivated purposes of art refer to intentional, conscious actions on the
part of the artists or creator. These may be to bring about political change,
to comment on an aspect of society, to convey a specific emotion or mood,
to address personal psychology, to illustrate another discipline, to sell a
product, or simply as a form of communication.
56 English for the students of art

1. Communication. Art, at its simplest, is a form of communication. As


most forms of communication have an intent or goal directed toward
another individual, this is a motivated purpose. Emotions, moods and
feelings are also communicated through art.
2. Art as entertainment. Art may seek to bring about a particular emotion
or mood, for the purpose of relaxing or entertaining the viewer. This is
often the function of the art industries of motion pictures and video
games.
3. The Avante-Garde Art for political change. One of the defining
functions of early twentieth century art has been to use visual images to
bring about political change. Art movements that had this goal—
Surrealism, Russian Constructivism, and Abstract Expressionism.
4. Art for psychological and healing purposes. Art is also used by art
therapists, psychotherapists and clinical psychologists as art therapy.
The end product is not the principal goal in this case, but rather a
process of healing, through creative acts, is sought. The resultant piece
of artwork may also offer insight into the troubles experienced by the
subject and may suggest suitable approaches to be used in more
conventional forms of psychiatric therapy.
5. Art for propaganda, or commercialism. Art is often utilized as a form
of propaganda, and thus can be used to subtly influence popular
conceptions or mood. In a similar way, art that tries to sell a product
also influences mood and emotion. In both cases, the purpose of art
here is to subtly manipulate the viewer into a particular emotional or
psychological response toward a particular idea or object.
[4] The functions of art described above are not mutually exclusive, as many
of them may overlap. For example, art for the purpose of entertainment may
also seek to sell a product, i.e. the movie or video game.
Lesson five 57

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Abstract (v.) /æbˈstrækt/
(1) Consider (something) theoretically or separately from something else.
(2) Summarize.
Send me the abstract of the article.

Anthropologist (n.) /ˈænθrəˈpa:lədʒist/


A social scientist who specializes in anthropology which is the study
mankind.
As an anthropologist, you should understand the situations better.

Cosmologic (adj.) /kazˈmalədʒic/


Pertaining to the branch of astronomy dealing with the origin and history
and structure and dynamics of the universe, universal.
I cannot do anything, it is a cosmological issue.

Furnish (v.) /ˈfəːnɪʃ/


(1) Supply someone with (something). (2) Give (something) to someone.
He promised to furnish the house before the Christmas, but he did not.

Heal (v.) /hi:l/


(Of a person or treatment) Cause (a wound, injury, or person) to become
sound or healthy again.
Revenge does not heal you, be patient.
58 English for the students of art

Illustrate (v.) /ˈɪləstreɪt/


Explain or make (something) clear by using examples, charts, pictures, etc.
She illustrated educational opportunities available for the woman.

Malleable (adj.) /ˈmalɪəb(ə)l/


(1) Able to be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without
breaking or cracking. (2) Easily influenced.
Uranium A white malleable metal which is softer than steel.

Manipulate (v.) /məˈnɪpjʊleɪt/


(1) Alter, edit, change. (2) Handle or control (a tool, mechanism, etc.),
typically in a skillful manner.
You did not lie but manipulate the truth.

Outline (n.) /ˈaʊtlʌɪn/


A line or set of lines enclosing or indicating the shape of an object in a
sketch or diagram.
Before using the colors, see the outline closely.

Propaganda (n.) /prɒpəˈɡændə/


Information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote
or publicize a particular political cause or point of view.
We are bombarded with propaganda on ' healthy ' eating for the heart.
Lesson five 59

Psychiatry (adj.) /sīˈkīətri/


The study and treatment of mental illness, emotional disturbance, and
abnormal behavior.
She is studying psychiatry not psychology.

Resultant (n.) /riˈzəltnt/


Occurring or produced as a result or consequence of something.
No one is guilty; this is the resultant of your own behavior.

Ritual (n.) /ˈrɪtʃʊəl/


A religious or solemn ceremony consisting of a series of actions performed
according to a prescribed order.
Do not play with your cell phone, you are in a mourning ritual!

Sequence (n.) /ˈsikuwəns/


(1) A particular order in which related events, movements, or things
follow each other. (2) A set of related events, movements, or things that
follow each other in a particular order.
If you want to reach to your dream, you should follow this sequence: study
hard, finish your education and find a prestigious job.

Throughout (prep.) /θruːˈaʊt/


(1) All the way through. (2) During.
He became innocent throughout the story.
60 English for the students of art

Utilize (v.) /ˈjuːtɪlʌɪz/


Make practical and effective use of.
If you want to utilize this machine you should have enough skill.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- Name some of the motivated functions of art?


2- Should any artwork have a function?
3- Do you think the motivated functions decrease the artistic value of
artworks?
4- Name some of the non-motivated functions of art?
5- Which one do you appreciate more; the motivated art or the non-
motivated art?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. The purpose of art is not vague, but it has many unique reasons
for being created.
……. 2. “Expression of the imagination” is one of the motivated
functions of art.
……. 3. Art provides a range of forms, symbols and ideas with malleable
meanings unlike words.
……. 4. Almost all the functions of art are motivated.
Lesson five 61

……. 5. Art is used by art therapists, psychotherapists and clinical


psychologists as a healing instrument.
……. 6. Art, illegally manipulate the viewer’s emotional or psychological
response toward a particular idea or object.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.
1- The non-motivated art is……………
A) that is integral to being human.
B) transcends the individual.
C) does not fulfill a specific external purpose.
D) All of the above

2- All of the followings are the instances of ‘art for political change
except ………
A) Surrealism. B) Constructivism.
C) Abstract Expressionism. D) Cubism.

3- Motion pictures and video games industries employ art as


…………..
A) harmony. B) entertainment.
C) communication. D) mysteries.

4- “Art provides a range of forms, symbols and ideas with meanings


that are malleable”. This sentence is in line with …………..
A) Experience of the mysterious.
62 English for the students of art

B) Art as entertainment.
C) Expression of imagination.
D) Human instinct for harmony.

5- The purpose of art for propaganda is to………………


A) Manipulate the viewer’s emotions.
B) Convince the viewer.
C) Make the viewer happy.
D) Make some money for the viewer.

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


illustration illustrate illustrative illustratively
manipulation manipulate manipulative manipulatively
propaganda propagandistic propagandistically
sequence sequential sequentially

1. He is a good teacher and tries to ……………. what he teaches with


the aid of tables and diagrams.
2. In order to prove what you say, there are some …………….
techniques of discussion.
3. In order to be accepted for M.A., one should have a logical program
and follow it …………….
4. These ……………. shows do not make me change my mind about
western policies of human-rights.
Lesson five 63

5. The chronological ……………. gives the book an element of


structure

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 to mean indirectly (para.1) ……………………..


2 perform, do (para.2) …………………….
3 exact, clear (para.2) …………………….
4 ceremony (para.2) …………………….
5 cause (para.3) ……………………..
6 vision, idea (para.3) ……………………..
7 usual (para.3) ……………………..
8 in the direction of (para.3) ……………………..
9 limited, private (para.4) …………………….
10 bidirectional (para.4) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 vague (……) a. transmit
2 unique (……) b. on purpose
3 convey (……) c. treatment, cure
4 seek (……) d. psychology
64 English for the students of art

5 intentional (……) e. unclear, blurred


6 instinct (……) f. single, sole
7 therapy (……) g. look for, search
i. natural feeling

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

Art serves many different functions, which are typically divided into
personal, physical and social functions. Art benefits individuals and groups
in a …..(1)….. of different ways depending on the interplay between the
individuals and the art and the type of artwork itself. Some artworks have
physical functions; for example, some early groups in human …..(2)…..
decorated and designed their weapons and tools ….(3)….. Because the
artwork is imposed directly onto a physical object with a specific function,
these pieces of art have physical functions. Another form of artwork with a
physical function is the …..(4)…. and design of buildings and other
structures. Social functions are some of the most common functions of art.
These types of artwork are intended to convey some sort of message, often
of a religious or political ….(5)….. Personal functions are difficult to
characterize. Because art can mean different things to different people based
on their personal life history and experiences, these personal functions vary
greatly. Two different people may receive vastly different personal
functions from the same piece of artwork.
Lesson five 65

1. A) variety B) certainty C) diversity D) conformity


2. A) geography B) knowledge C) history D) time
3. A) naturally B) artistically C) artificially D) carefully
4. A) poetry B) music C) theater D) architecture
5. A) manifesto B) intonation C) art D) nature

References
Briant, A. and Pollock, G. (2010). Digital and Other Virtualities: Renegotiating
the image. London and NY: I.B.Tauris.
Jung, C. (1978). Man and His Symbols. London: Pan Books.

Stiles, K. and Selz, P. (1986). Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art.


Berkeley: University of California Press.

Wollheim, R. (1968). Art and its Objects: An introduction to aesthetics. New


York: Harper & Row.
Lesson 6

Value judgment

Before you read


Warm-up questions
How is it possible to determine the price of an artwork? Which factors
should be considered for an artwork’s evaluation? Who can determine the
real value of an artwork? Are the older artworks more valuable than the
modern ones?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ………..……… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
Lesson six 67

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Value judgment  Art dealer
 Artwork’s price  Auction
 Art’s market  Art collections

Part Ι. Reading

Value judgment

[1] The word ‘art’ is also used to apply judgments of value; it is this use of the
word as a measure of high quality and high value that gives the term its
flavor of subjectivity. Making judgments of value requires a basis for
criticism. Though perception is always colored by experience, and is
necessarily subjective, it is commonly understood that what is not
somehow aesthetically satisfying cannot be art.
[2] However, ‘good’ art is not always or even regularly aesthetically
appealing to a majority of viewers. In other words, an artist's prime
motivation need not be the pursuit of the aesthetic. Also, art often depicts
terrible images made for social, moral, or thought-provoking reasons. For
example, Francisco Goya's painting depicting the Spanish shootings of
68 English for the students of art

3rd of May 1808 is a graphic depiction of a firing squad executing several


pleading civilians. Yet at the same time, the horrific imagery demonstrates
Goya's keen artistic ability in composition and execution and produces
fitting social and political outrage. Thus, the debate continues as to what
mode of aesthetic satisfaction, if any, is required to define ‘art’.
[3] The assumption of new values or the rebellion against accepted notions
of what is aesthetically superior need not occur concurrently with a
complete abandonment of the pursuit of what is aesthetically appealing.
Countless schools have proposed their own ways to define quality, yet
they all seem to agree in at least one point; once their aesthetic choices are
accepted, the value of the work of art is determined by its capacity to
transcend the limits of its chosen medium to strike some universal chord
by the rarity of the skill of the artist.
[4] ‘Art’ is often intended to appeal to and connect with human emotion. It
can arouse aesthetic or moral feelings, and can be understood as a way of
communicating these feelings. Artists express something so that their
audience is aroused to some extent, but they do not have to do so
consciously. ‘Art’ may be considered an exploration of the human
condition; that is, what it is to be human.
[5] Art valuation, an art-specific subset of financial valuation, is the process
of estimating the potential market value of works of art and as such is more
of a financial rather than an aesthetic concern, however, subjective views of
cultural value play a part as well. Art valuation involves comparing data
from multiple sources such as art auction houses, private and corporate
collectors, curators, art dealer activities, gallery owners, experienced
consultants, and specialized market analysts to arrive at a value. Art
valuation is accomplished not only for collection, investment, divestment,
Lesson six 69

and financing purposes, but as part of estate valuations, for charitable


contributions, for tax planning, insurance, and loan collateral purposes.

An art dealer

[6] As stated there are several ways to get a valuation on art. The easiest is
to find out whether or not your art is by a ‘registered’ artist. This means
by an artist who has sold at auction, gallery or is showing in a museum,
whether dead or still living. If it is by a registered artist, you can find
values for other works by the same artist and do comparisons. This is the
simplified way, and not always accurate. Another way is to take it to a
local museum, and have their art experts, who frequently do appraisals,
look at the work, they would have the books that list every artist who has
ever sold a painting (almost) and could tell you more about your work,
they may or may not charge for this work and you would need to call
70 English for the students of art

ahead to make an appointment. Another way is to take it to a large auction


house, one with a trustworthy reputation, check that part out first, and get
an appraisal, frequently these are free if you are going to sell the work,
other times they charge a percentage of the valuation, and sometimes it is
a flat fee. Check with the auction house first and establish price for the
evaluation. Those are the most frequently used ways of getting a value on
a piece of art.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Abandonment (n.) /əˈbandənm(ə)nt/
(1) The act of giving something up. (2) Leaving somewhere.
In this slow-moving river port, signs of abandonment are everywhere.

Appealing (adj.) /əˈpi:liŋ/


Attractive or interesting.
Both sweet and sour cherries are appealing choices for the home garden.

Arouse (v.) /əˈrouz/


(1) Evoke or awaken (a feeling, emotion, or response). (2) Excite or
provoke (someone) to anger or strong emotions.
It would, however, arouse considerable opposition in the company.

Assumption (n.) /əˈsʌm(p)ʃ(ə)n/


A thing that is accepted as true or as certain to happen, without proof.
It's an assumption, in other words, that's unrealistic enough to be
considered somewhat bizarre.
Lesson six 71

Countless (n.) /ˈkountləs/


(1) Too many to be counted. (2) Very many.
This stadium cannot accommodate these countless spectators.

Criticism (n.) /ˈkritəsizəm/


The analysis and judgment of a literary or artistic work.
To be a popular manager you should consider the employees' criticisms.

Exploration (n.) /ɛkspləˈreɪʃ(ə)n/


The action of traveling in or through an unfamiliar area in order to learn
about it; thorough analysis of a subject or theme.
Each year, NASA spends a lot of money for space explorations.

Outrage (n.) /ˈaʊtreɪdʒ/


An extremely strong reaction of anger or shock.
The government reacted to this suggestion with predictable outrage.

Plead (v.) /pli:d/


(1) Make an emotional appeal. (2) Present and argue for (a position),
especially in court or in another public context.
It's possible to plead academic freedom and say that it's a legitimate
question.

Prime (n.) /prīm/


(1) Of first importance. (2) Main.
72 English for the students of art

The prime minister has introduced his cabinet.

Propose (v.) /prəˈpəʊz/


Put forward (an idea or plan) for consideration or discussion by others.
Researchers proposed a mathematical model of death rate..

Pursuit (n.) /pərˈsu:t/


The action of following or pursuing someone or something.
One of the chief elements of the value of human life is freedom in the
pursuit of happiness.

Rarity (n.) /ˈre(ə)riti:/


The state or quality of being rare.
The research project is stopped due to the rarity of data.

Repulsive (adj.) /riˈpəlsiv/


Arousing intense distaste or disgust.
What is this repulsive smell? Maybe a mouse is dead somewhere.

Squad (n.) /skwa:d/


A small number of soldiers assembled for drill or assigned to some special task.
He was dead before standing in front of the fire squad.
Lesson six 73

Subjectivity (n.) /səbˈdʒektiviti/


Judgment based on individual personal impressions and feelings and
opinions rather than external facts.
For being fairing the discussion, you should put your subjectivity aside.

Transcend (v.) /trænˈsend/


Be or go beyond the range or limits of (something abstract, typically a
conceptual field or division).
Religious rituals would transcend our souls.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- Why is the judging of artistic works subjective?


2- What do different schools of art have in common for judging the
value of art?
3- Who can evaluate the value of artworks?
4- What is the best way of judging an artwork in your opinion?
5-Why does making judgment of value require a basis for criticism?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. Value judgments are inevitably subjective.

……. 2. It is usually believed that what is aesthetically satisfying can be


74 English for the students of art

considered as art.
……. 3. The rarity of the artist’s skill is a key parameter for judging
about the artworks.
……. 4. Cultural values play important roles in artistic valuation.
……. 5. Art valuation is accomplished only for collection, investment,
divestment, and financing purposes.
……. 6. Judging the value of artworks is usually free of charge.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.
1- ‘Art valuation’ is …………….
A) an art-specific subset.
B) discussing the artwork subjectively.
C) the process of estimating the potential market value of works of art
D) selling the artwork.

2- ‘Appraisal’ in paragraph 6 is closest in meaning to …………….


A) appreciation. B) estimation.
C) description. D) explanation.

3- ‘Its’ in the first paragraph refers to …………….


A) Value judgment. B) art.
C) subjectivity. D) word.

4- What is the message of the reading passage?


A) Everyone can judge an artwork.
B) Value judgment is accurate.
Lesson six 75

C Value judgment is necessary .


D) Value judgment has different ways.

5- Judging the artworks of a ‘registered’ artist is …………….


A) the easiest type of value judgment.
B) always accurate.
C the most difficult if not impossible.
D) completely objective.

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


assumption assume assumptive
subjectivity subjective subjectively
outrage outrage outrageous outrageously
repulse repulse repulsive repulsively

1- The inspector’s ……………. about death was not probable but


possible.
2- This is absolutely …………….! You do not consider the facts
3- Please go and find another roommate! I cannot tolerate your
……………. behaviors any more.
4- He is very extravagant. Last night, he spends an ……………. amount
of money on entertainment.
5- She is not very kind to her husband and usually ……………. his
advances.
76 English for the students of art

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:
1 analysis (para.1) ……………………..
2 attractive (para.2) …………………….
3 discuss, argue (para.2) …………………….
4 higher, better (para.3) …………………….
5 leaving behind (para.3) ……………………..
6 very many (para.5) ……………………..
7 exact, correct (para.6) ……………………..
8 honest, reliable (para.6) ……………………..
9 normally (para.6) …………………….
10 cost, charge (para.6) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.
column Ι column ΙΙ
1 basis (……) a. picture
2 majority (……) b. generous, helpful
3 depiction (……) c. judgment
4 universal (……) d. record, list
5 charitable (……) e. foundation, root
6 appraisal (……) f. worldwide, global
7 register (……) g. rarity
h. mainstream
Lesson six 77

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

A value judgment is a judgment of the rightness or wrongness of


something or someone, or of the usefulness of something or someone,
based on a comparison or other relativity. As a …..(1)….., a value
judgment can refer to a judgment based upon a particular set of values or
on a particular value system. Most commonly the ….(2)….. value
judgment refers to an individual's ….(3)…... Of course, the individual's
opinion is formed to a degree by their belief system, and the culture to
which they belong. So a natural extension of the term value judgment is to
include declarations seen one way from one value system, but which may
be seen ….(4)….. from another. A value judgment formed within a
specific value system may be narrow, and may be subject to …..(5)….. in
a wider audience.

1. A) organization B) description C) generalization D) explanation


2. A) term B) mode C) system D) time
3. A) thought B) emotion C) feeling D) opinion
4. A) differently B) similarly C) uniquely D) constantly
5. A) agreement B) dispute C) harmony D) conformity
78 English for the students of art

References
Cushan, A. (2014). Investigation into Facts and Values: Groundwork for a
theory of moral conflict resolution. Ondwelle: Melbourne.

Scriven, M. (1974). "Exact role of value judgments in science". In Kenneth F.


Schaffner, Robert Sonné Cohen, eds. Proceedings of the 1972 Biennial
Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association. (p. 237). Springer.

Scriven, M. (1974). Philosophy of Science Association PSA: Boston studies in the


philosophy of science. Boston: Dordrecht

Shrader-Frechette, K. (1995). The case of Yucca Mountain: Science, politics and


social practice. Dordrecht/New York: Springer.

Swainson, B. and Soukhanov, A. H. (2000). Encarta Book of Quotations.


Macmillan.
Lesson 7

Art controversies

Before you read


Warm-up questions
Is art a controversial issue? Are artistic controversies related to politics?
Do different social classes have different interpretations for artworks?
What is the role of religion in interpreting artworks?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ……………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
…………….… ……………… ……………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………
80 English for the students of art

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Controversy  Anti-art
 Aniconism  Capitalism
 Originality  Bourgeois ideology

Part Ι. Reading

Art controversies

[1] In determining what you believe ‘art’ is, you first need to understand a bit
about art controversies throughout history. There are many ethical issues
that arise in determining what is or is not art. Not only that, but you need to
read about what art critics have to say about art today: Does government
have a right to judge the artworks? Does today's art reflect society's morals?
etc.. As time has moved on and contemporary art has moved with it,
controversy has somehow always managed to keep up. Going back to the
beginning of art historical study cases can be found of both individual artists
and groups who have rocked the artistic with their innovative contributions
to the art of the day. The 20th century was no exception.
[2] Art has long been controversial, that is to say disliked by some viewers,
for a wide variety of reasons, though most pre-modern controversies are
Lesson seven 81

dimly recorded, or completely lost to a modern view. ‘Aniconism’ is a


general dislike of either all figurative images, or often just religious ones,
and has been a thread in many major religions. It has been a crucial factor
in the history of Islamic art, where depictions of ‘Muhammad’ remain
especially controversial. Much art has been disliked purely because it
depicted or otherwise stood for unpopular rulers, parties or other groups.
[3] Artistic conventions have often been conservative and taken very seriously
by art critics. The iconographic content of art could cause controversy, as
with late medieval depictions of the new motif of the Swoon of the Virgin in
scenes of the Crucifixion of Jesus. The Last Judgment by Michelangelo was
controversial for various reasons, including breaches of decorum through
nudity and the Apollo-like pose of Christ.
[4] The content of much formal art through history was dictated by the
patron or commissioner rather than just the artist, but with the advent of
‘Romanticism’, and economic changes in the production of art, the artists'
vision became the usual determinant of the content of his art, increasing
the incidence of controversies, though often reducing their significance.
Strong incentives for perceived originality and publicity also encouraged
artists to generate controversy.
[5] The gradual abandonment of ‘Naturalism and the depiction of realistic
representations of the visual appearance of subjects in the 19th and 20th
centuries led to a controversy lasting for over a century. In the twentieth
century, Pablo Picasso's Guernica (1937) used cubist techniques with
monochromatic oils, to depict the harrowing consequences of a
contemporary bombing of a small, ancient Basque town. Andres Serrano's
Piss Christ (1989) is a photograph of a crucifix, sacred to the Christian
religion and representing Christ's sacrifice and final suffering, submerged
82 English for the students of art

in a glass of the artist's own urine. The resulting uproar led to comments in
the United States Senate about public funding of the arts.
[6] Anti-art is a loosely-used term applied to an array of concepts and
attitudes that reject prior definitions of art and question art in general. Anti-
art tends to conduct this questioning and rejection from the vantage point of
art. The term is associated with the Dada movement and is generally
accepted as attributable to Marcel Duchamp pre-World War I around 1914,
when he began to use found objects as art. It was used to describe
revolutionary forms of art.

"Le rire" (1887) by Eugène Bataille.

[7] Anti-art is also a tendency in the theoretical understanding of art and


‘Fine Art’. The philosopher Roger Taylor puts forward that art is a
bourgeois ideology that has its origins with capitalism in Art, an Enemy of
Lesson seven 83

the People. Holding a strong anti-essentialist position he stated also that


art has not always existed and is not universal but peculiar to Europe.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Advent (n.) /ˈædvent/
The arrival of a notable person, thing, or event.
By the advent of 20th century, human life became modernized.

Aniconism (n.) /ənika:nizəm/


The practice or belief in avoiding or shunning images of divine beings,
prophets or other respected religious figures.
Aniconism is a considerable issue in Islamic movies.

Consequence (n.) /ˈkansikuwəns/


A result or effect of an action or condition.
If you break the law you should wait for its consequences.

Conservative (adj.) /kənˈsərvətiv/


Holding to traditional attitudes and values and cautious about change or
innovation, typically in politics or religion.
He is one of the greatest figures of conservative party.

Crucifix (n.) /ˈkru:səfiks/


A representation of a cross with a figure of Jesus Christ on it.
He wears a silver crucifix, a symbol of newly acquired beliefs.
84 English for the students of art

Decorum (n.) /diˈka:rəm/


Behavior in keeping with good taste and propriety.
The way you handle the problem is an index of the quality, wisdom and
decorum.

Dimly (adv.) /ˈdimli/


(1) In a dim indistinct manner. (2) (Of a light, color, or illuminated object)
not shining brightly or clearly.
Yet many college instructors are dimly familiar with the course books.

Fund (v.) /fənd/


Provide with money for a particular purpose.
Now there will be more money to fund the fight against the enemies.

Harrowing (adj.) /ˈhærouiŋ/


Extremely distressing, agonizing.
The work was challenging, even harrowing at times, but the rewards were
ample.

Incentive (n.) /inˈsentiv/


A thing that motivates or encourages one to do something.
Explain your incentive for frightening your teacher.

Nudity (n.) /ˈnu:dəti:/


(1) The state or fact of being naked. (2) Bareness.
Lesson seven 85

I do not recommend this movie due to the nudity it carries.

Submerge (v.) /səbˈməːdʒ/


Descend below the surface of an area of water.
They do not want to be submerged in bitter memories.

Uproar (n.) /ˈʌprɔː (r)/


A public expression of protest or outrage.
This declaration has provoked uproar in every corner of the country.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- What does ‘aniconism’ mean?


2- What is the reading passage generally about?
3- Why has ‘art’ been always controversial?
4- What did ‘anti-art’ try to do?
5- Do you agree with Taylor that “art is a bourgeois ideology that has
its origins with capitalism”?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. The art of 20th century was not controversial unlike the classic art.

……. 2. Aniconism is a crucial factor in the history of Islamic art.


86 English for the students of art

……. 3. All artworks have been controversial because it depicted or


otherwise stood for unpopular rulers, parties or other groups
through the history.
……. 4. The content of much formal art through history was dictated
by the patron or commissioner.
……. 5. Romanticism encouraged artists to generate controversy.
……. 6. Anti-art is against bourgeois ideology.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.

1- Art controversy has remarkably increased during ‘Romanticism’ due


to …………….
A) the economic changes in the production of art.
B) artists' vision.
C) artist’s originality and publicity of the artworks.
D) All of the above.

2- ‘It’ in the first paragraph of the text refers to …………….


A) art. B) controversy.
C) time. D) movement.

3- ‘Uproar’ in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to …………….


A) happiness. B) chaos.
C) fight. D) agreement.

3- Much art has been disliked because …………….


A) it has been expensive.
Lesson seven 87

B) it has been controversial.


C) it depicted unpopular rulers and parties.
D) all the artworks has been popular.

4- The Last Judgment by Michelangelo was controversial for …………


A) including breaches of decorum.
B) nudity of Christ.
C) the Apollo-like pose of Christ.
D) All of the above.

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


consequence consequent consequently
conservation conserve conservative conservatively
harrow harrowing harrowingly
nudity nude nudely

1. You had to be more careful! These are the ……………… of you have
done.
2. Reformists and ……………… are two great political parties of the
country.
3. During the previous year, you have worked very hard. ………………,
you have enough money to pay your university tuition.
4. Unfortunately, some western directors try to attract the audience
through ……………… of the actors.
88 English for the students of art

5. I have lost all my money, my cell phone and the keys. I cannot forgot
that ……………… experience.

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 moral (para.1) ……………………..


2 new, original (para.1) …………………….
3 stand for (para.2) …………………….
4 vaguely (para.2) …………………….
5 supporter (para.4) ……………………..
6 arrival (para.4) ……………………..
7 motivation, reason (para.4) ……………………..
8 outcome, result (para.5) ……………………..
9 earlier, former (para.6) …………………….
10 philosophy (para.7) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.
column Ι column ΙΙ
1 controversy (……) a. sink, soak
2 unpopular (……) b. collection, group
3 submerge (……) c. decorum
4 array (……) d. unusual
5 peculiar (……) e. disagreement
Lesson seven 89

6 bareness (……) f. nudity


7 propriety (……) g. out of favor
h. Patron

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

What makes a painting controversial? People would say something that


attacks our religious ….(1)….. can be controversial; some would argue,
anything that contains nude matter is controversial. Well, nothing of this is
wrong because people have different …..(2)…. related to such matters.
And paintings often become controversial when it goes against these
commonly accepted norms. Matters also ….(3)…. the time and era we are
living in. Then there is the painting style; art is a subjective assessment,
with different opinions from art critics and general viewers. An artist who
has an unusual style of painting can also …..(4)…. controversy in the art
world, arguing if the works created by that artist should be considered a
piece of art or not. So you see, people are so ….(5)…. with such matters
that there again can be controversy in deciding whether a painting is
controversial or not.

1. A) words B) concepts C) forms D) media

2. A) norms B) modes C) terms D) models

3. A) look for B) shut down C) stand out D) depend on

4. A) create B) find C) built D) pass

5. A) disappointed B) complicated C) formed D) puzzled


90 English for the students of art

References
Dubin, S. C. (1992). Arresting Images: Impolitic Art and Uncivil Actions.
England: Routledge Press.

Hospers, J. (1996). Introductory Readings in Aesthetics. England: Macmillan


Publishing Company.

Tator, C. (1998). Challenging Racism in the Arts: Case Studies of Controversy


and Conflict. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Walker, J. A. (1999). Art and Outrage: Provocation, Controversy, and the Visual
Arts. NewYork: Pluto Press.

Walter, K. (1996). The Secret Museum: Pornography in Modern Culture.


University of California Press.
Lesson 8

Arts and politics

Before you read


Warm-up questions
Are art and politics related to one another? How can art help the
governments to control the society? Are political artworks valuable like
other artworks? Can an artist be a politician or the other way around?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ………………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
92 English for the students of art

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Cold war  Political movement
 Anti-war art  Political campaigns
 Steryotyping  Political cinema

Part Ι. Reading

Arts and Politics

[1] Considering Groys, “art has its own power in the world, and is as much a
force in the power play of global politics today”, it should be mentioned
that for such a politically-intractable phenomenon, the greatest artists and
social critics believe that “art is useful as a tool for political change”.
There are, nevertheless, examples where artists employ art in the service
of political change.
[2] The connection between music and politics, particularly political
expression in music, has been seen in many cultures. Although music
influences political movements and rituals, it is not clear how or even if,
general audiences relate music on a political level. Time has shown how
music can be used in anti-establishment or protest themes, including anti-
Lesson eight 93

war songs, although pro-establishment ideas are also used, for example in
national anthems, patriotic songs, and political campaigns.
[3] A range of contemporary classical composers of socialist or Marxist
sympathies have attempted in often quite radically different ways to relate
their politics to their works. Primary amongst those from the earlier 20th
century are Kurt Weill and Hanns Eisler, both of whom moved away from
atonal idioms that had become prominent in their time, feeling these to
alienate audiences, towards music and music-theatre that had roots in
popular music (for example cabaret songs), though with sophisticated
harmonies that reflected their musical background.
[4] Racist music or white power music is music associated with and
promoting neo-Nazism and white supremacy ideologies. Although
musicologists point out that many, if not most early cultures had songs to
promote themselves and denigrate any perceived enemies, the origins of
Racist music is tied to the early 1970s.
[5] Political Cinema in the narrow sense of the term refers to political films
which do not hide their political stance. This does not mean that they are
necessarily pure propaganda. The difference to other films is not that they
are political but how they show it. Political cinema is a cinema which
portrays current or historical events or social conditions in a partisan way
in order to inform or to agitate the spectator. Political cinema exists in
different forms such as documentaries, feature films, or even animated and
experimental films. Form has always been an important concern for
political film makers. While some, like pioneering Lionel Rogosin, argued
that radical films, in order to liberate the imagination of the spectator, have
to break not only with the content but also with the form of cinema, the
falsely reassuring clichés, stereotypes and conventions of film making.
94 English for the students of art

[6] In the history of theatre, there is long tradition of performances


addressing issues of current events and central to society itself,
encouraging consciousness and social change. The political satire
performed by the comic poets at the theatres had considerable influence on
public opinion in the Athenian democracy. Shakespeare is an author of
political theatre according to some academic scholars, who observe that
his history examined the machinations of personal drives and passions
determining political activity and that many of the tragedies such as King
Lear and Macbeth dramatize political leadership as human beings driven
by the lust for power; in later centuries, political theatre has sometimes
taken a different form. Sometimes associated with cabaret and folk theatre,
it has offered itself as a theatre “of, by, and for the people”. In this guise,
political theatre has developed within the civil societies under oppressive
governments as a means of actual underground communication and the
spreading of critical thought.
[7] A new form of political theatre emerged in the twentieth century with
feminist authors like Elfriede Jelinek or Caryl Churchill, who often make
use of the non-realistic techniques. During the 1960s and 1970s, new
theatres emerged addressing women's issues. These theatres went beyond
producing feminist plays, but also sought to give women opportunities and
work experience in all areas of theatrical production which had heretofore
been dominated by men. In addition to playwright, producers, and actors,
there were opportunities for women electricians, set designers, musical
director, stage managers, etc.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Alienate (v.) /ˈeɪlɪəneɪt/
Cause (someone) to feel isolated or unfamiliar.
Lesson eight 95

They urge us to break down the barriers that alienate us from nature.

Arena (n.) /əˈri:nə/


(1) A level area surrounded by seats for spectators, in which public events
are held. (2) a place or scene of activity, debate, or conflict.
He fell down in the skating arena and broke his leg.

Atonal (adj.) /eɪˈtəʊn(ə)l/


(1) Not written in any key or mode. (2) Not harmonious.
He loved listening to atonal jazz, and though it drove her crazy.

Denigrate (v.) /ˈdɛnɪɡreɪt/


Criticize unfairly, disparage.
It is more fashionable to denigrate than praise the media these days.

Guise (n.) /gīz/


An external form, appearance, or manner of presentation, typically
concealing the true nature of something.
Reality came under the guise of the economy.

Heretofore (prep.) /hɪətʊˈfɔː(r)/


Before now.
What heretofore was private is now published for all.
96 English for the students of art

Intractable (adj.) /inˈtræktəbəl/


Hard to control or deal with.
It was a careful simplification of an intractable problem.

Liberate (v.) /ˈlɪbəreɪt/


Free (a country, city, or people) from enemy occupation.
We have a responsibility to work together in the coming months to solve
these problems and liberate our economy.

Machination (n.) /ˌmæʃɪˈneɪʃn/


A crafty and involved plot to achieve your (usually sinister) ends.
Be honest and forget machination for reaching to your goal.

Patriotic (adj.) /pætrɪˈɒtɪk/


Having or expressing devotion to and vigorous support for one's country.
To be a good soldier one should feel patriotic.

Pertain (v.) /pəˈ(r)teɪn/


Belong to something as a part, appendage, or accessory.
Does this pertain specifically to this case?

Pioneering (adj.) /pʌɪəˈnɪərɪŋ/


Involving new ideas or methods.
His fame rests on his pioneering work on the wood.
Lesson eight 97

Satire (n.) /ˈsætīr/


The use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize
people's stupidity or vices.
His novel contains a biting satire on the social classification.

Supremacy (n.) /suˈpreməsi:/


The state or condition of being superior to all others in authority, power,
or status.
For economic supremacy firstly one must attain military supremacy.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- Are all the artworks political necessarily?


2- Should art be at the service of politics or vice versa?
3- How do you see the ‘political art’?
4- Which type of art do you think to be more political?
5- Have political artworks been successful in creating political change?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. Music is the most political art.


……. 2. White power music is music associated with equality of
different races and nationalities.
98 English for the students of art

……. 3. Political cinema is a cinema which portrays current or historical


events or social conditions in order to agitate the spectators.
……. 4. Radical films break not only with the content but also with the
form of cinema.
……. 5. ‘Feminist' theatre emerged in the twentieth century.
……. 6. ‘Feminism’ was a political philosophy caused by artworks.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.
1- Shakespeare has been ……………..
A) a political author of theater.
B) a actor of political theater.
C) an author of political theatre.
D) A director of political theater.

2- ‘Supremacy’ in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to …………….


A) expression. B) superiority.
C) certainty. D) controversy.

3- ‘Racist music’ dates back to…………….


A) 1960s. B) 1970s.
C) 1980s . D) 1990s.

4- A new form of political theatre emerged in the twentieth century


with …………….
A) communist leaders. B) racist actors.
C) feminist authors. D) realist authors.
Lesson eight 99

5- The overall tone of the reading passage is …………….


A) academic and technical.
B) informative and serious.
C) light and silly.
D) critical and bitter.

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


alienation alienate alienating
denigration denigrate denigrating
patriot patriotic patriotically
satire satiric/satirical satirically

1- After his wife death, he suffers from many psychological problems


and has ………….. all his friends.
2- No one can forget his ………….. attempts during the war.
3- Every ………….. does have an important point to make.
4- He quitted the job due to the ………….. words of his boss.
5- She is too polite to criticize openly, instead she tries to imply
…………..

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 however, but (para.1) ……………………..


100 English for the students of art

2 complain (para.2) …………………….


3 movement (para.2) …………………….
4 known, famous (para.3) …………………….
5 indicate, mention (para.4) ……………………..
6 inevitably (para.5) ……………………..
7 excite, stir up (para.5) ……………………..
8 drastic, essential (para.5) ……………………..
9 cruel, unfair (para.6) …………………….
10 appear, come up (para.7) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 isolate (……) a. foolish
2 vigorous (……) b. secretive
3 stupid (……) c. free
4 authority (……) d. noticeable
5 liberate (……) e. energetic, powerful
6 considerable (……) f. power
7 underground (……) g. favorable
h. separate
Lesson eight 101

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

George Orwell wrote the book Animal farm from November 1943 to
February 1944, when the wartime union with the Soviet Union was at its
height and Stalin was ….(1)…. highly by the British people, a
circumstance that Orwell hated. It was ….(2)…. rejected by a number of
British and American publishers, including one of Orwell's own, Victor
Gollancz. Its publication was thus ….(3)…., though it became a great
commercial success when it did finally appear. Time magazine chose the
book as one of the 100 best English-language ….(4)….. It also featured at
number 31 on the Modern Library List of Best 20th-Century Novels. It
….(5)…. a Retrospective Hugo Award in 1996, and is also included in the
Great Books of the Western World selection.

1. A) known B) helped C) regarded D) noticed


2. A) normally B) ultimately C) finally D) initially
3. A) delayed B) started C) finished D) fastened
4. A) poems B) novels C) stories D) fictions
5. A) sold B) found C) lost D) won

References
Esche, C., and Bradley, W. (2007). Art and Social Change: A Critical Reader.
London: Tate Publishing Co.
Groys, B. (2008). Art Power. Cambridge: MIT Press.
102 English for the students of art

Hoffman, F. (2003). Survey of American Popular Music . Sam Houston State


University Press.
Silver, L. (1993). Art in History. New York: Abbeville Press.
Van Gelder, L. (2002). Footlights: Indoor Activity. New York Times Company.
Part 2

Western Schools of Art


In the second part of the book twelve most credited schools of art are
presented. In this presentation the chronological order is observed; in this
way a survey of art schools, their developments, their formation
philosophies and their contributions to the human’s self-expression would
be discernible. This familiarity seems to be a crucial necessity for the
students of ‘Art studies’. Accordingly, the artistic schools are described
one by one from ‘Romanticism’ to ‘Minimalism’ through twelve reading
passages. Similar to the previous part of the book students are expected
 To read the given passages and get familiar with the truthful
descriptions of each school of art and then
 Perform the following reading comprehension exercises which are
designed in diverse formats of true/false, multiple-choice, open,
matching and cloze test items.
 They are also supposed to learn the lexical items whose perceptions
are required for the passages’ understanding. These items are
introduced and exemplifies in the vocabulary list of each chapter.
Lesson 9

Romanticism

Before you read


Warm-up questions
How was ‘Romantic’ movement formed and how was it collapsed? What
is the most important element of ‘Romantic’ artworks? Can you name
some of the forerunners of ‘Romanticism’ in literature, painting and
architecture?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
106 English for the students of art

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Overflow of feelings  Industrial revolution
 Political message  Artificiality
 Age of Enlightenment  Neoclassicism

Part Ι. Reading

Romanticism

[1] Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an
artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe
toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the
approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Partly a reaction to the Industrial
Revolution, it was also a revolt against aristocratic social and political
norms of the ‘Age of Enlightenment’ and a reaction against the scientific
rationalization of nature.
[2] Defining the nature of Romanticism may be approached from the
starting point of the primary importance of the free expression of the
feelings of the artist. The importance the Romantics placed on
untrammeled feeling is summed up in the remark of the German painter
Lesson nine 107

Caspar David Friedrich that “the artist's feeling is his law”. To William
Wordsworth, poetry should be “the spontaneous overflow of powerful
feelings”. In order to truly express these feelings, the content of the art
must come from the imagination of the artist, with as little interference as
possible from ‘artificial’ rules dictating what a work should contain.
Coleridge was not alone in believing that natural laws govern these
matters in which imagination has the key role at least for a creative artist.

CASPER FEREDRICH (1774-1840) _ Wonders above the sea of the fog

[3] In the visual arts, ‘Romanticism’ first showed itself in landscape


painting, where from as early as the 1760s British artists began to turn to
wilder landscapes. Friedrich and Turner were born less than a year apart
in 1774 and 1775 respectively and were to take German and English
landscape painting to their extremes of Romanticism.
[4] The arrival of Romanticism in French art was delayed by the strong
hold of Neoclassicism on the academies, but from the Napoleonic period
108 English for the students of art

it became increasingly popular, initially in the form of history paintings


propagandizing for the new regime, of which Girodet's Receiving the
Ghosts of the French Heroes was the earliest. Girodet's old teacher David
was puzzled and disappointed by his pupil's direction, saying, “Either
Girodet is mad or I no longer know anything of the art of painting.” A new
generation of the French school developed personal Romantic styles,
though still concentrating on history painting with a political message.

ANNE-LOUISE GIRODET (1767-1824) _ Receiving the Ghosts of

the French Heroes

[5] Francisco Goya is today generally regarded as the greatest painter of the
Romantic period, “the last great painter in whose art thought and
observation were balanced and combined to form a faultless unity”. But
the extent to which he was a Romantic is a complex question; in Spain
there was still a struggle to introduce the values of the Enlightenment, in
Lesson nine 109

which Goya saw himself as a participant. The demonic and anti-rational


monsters thrown up by his imagination are only superficially similar to
those of the Gothic fantasies of northern Europe, and in many ways he
remained wedded to the classicism and realism of his training, as well as
looking forward to the ‘Realism’ of the later 19th century. But he, more
than any other artist of the period, exemplified the Romantic values of the
expression of the artist's feelings and his personal imaginative world. He
also shared with many of the Romantic painters a more freely handling of
paint, emphasized in the new prominence of the brushstroke which tended
to be repressed in neoclassicism under a self-effacing finish.
[6] One of Romanticism's key ideas and most enduring legacies is the
assertion of nationalism, which became a central theme of Romantic art
and its political philosophy. From the earliest parts of the movement, with
their focus on development of national languages and folklore, and the
importance of local customs and traditions, to the movements which
would re-draw the map of Europe and lead to calls for self-determination
of nationalities, it was one of the key concepts of ‘Romanticism’.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Dictate (v.) /ˈdikˌteɪt/
(1) Lay down authoritatively. (2) Prescribe.
Don't dictate your personal beliefs to your students.

Enduring (adj.) /ɪnˈdjuːrɪŋ/


Continuing or long-lasting.
Perhaps the most enduring legacy of the British is the cuisine.
110 English for the students of art

Fantasy (n.) /ˈfæntəsi:/


The faculty or activity of imagining things which are impossible or
improbable.
Consider the realities of your situation; what you are saying is just a
fantasy.

Faultless (adj.) /ˈfɔːltləs/


Free from defect or error.
Look at this faultless exam paper!

Gothic (adj.) /ˈgaƟik/


Of or relating to an architectural style prevalent in western Europe from
the 12th through the 15th century and characterized by pointed arches and
the impression of verticality.
The panel is gothic arched in shape about 4feet tall and 12 feet wide.

Originate (v.) /əˈrɪdʒɪneɪt/


(1) Create or initiate something. (2) Have a specified beginning.
In order to originate new methods of teaching you should be creative and
tolerant.

Overflow (n.) /əʊvəˈfləʊ/


The excess or surplus not able to be accommodated by an available space.
Heavy rain can make a pond quickly overflow or be flooded out.
Lesson nine 111

Peak (n.) /pi:k/


(1) The pointed top of a mountain. (2) The pointed top of a mountain.
He is the best teacher of ours and stands at the peak of knowledge!

Prominence (n.) /ˈpramənəns/


The fact or condition of standing out from something by physically
projecting or being particularly noticeable.
Why has it gained such prominence over the last year?

Repress (v.) /riˈpres/


(1) Subdue (someone or something) by force. (2) Restrain, prevent, or
inhibit (the expression or development of something).
As a teacher you should not repress your passionate feelings about
children.

Struggle (n.) /ˈstrəgəl/


A forceful or violent effort to get free of restraint or resist attack.
The struggle is not officially approved by the court.

Trammel (v.) /ˈtræməl/


Deprive of freedom of action.
My father trammeled me by his non-stop orders.
112 English for the students of art

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- Which historical events have paved the way for ‘Romanticism’ to


advent?
2- What is the most important characteristic of ‘Romantic’ artworks?
3- How is ‘Romanticism’ different from other schools of art?
4- Who has been the greatest artist of ‘Romantic’ period?
5- How are ‘Romanticism’ and ‘Nationalism’ related?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. Romanticism was a reaction against the scientific


rationalization of nature.
……. 2. Romantics expressed their feelings with the aid of their
imagination.
……. 3. Romanticism was welcome in France.
……. 4. Goya is wrongly regarded as the greatest painter of the
Romantic period today.
……. 5. Romanticism's key legacy was nationalism.
……. 6. ‘Nationalism’ paved the way for the advent of ‘Romanticism’.
Lesson nine 113

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.

1- “Romanticism’ was a revolt against …………….


A) aristocratic social and political norms of the ‘Age of Enlightenment’.
B) ‘Industrial revolution’.
C) the scientific rationalization of nature.
D) All of the above.

2- ‘It’ in paragraph 6 refers to …………….


A) Romanticism. B) Nationalism.
C) Folk literature. D) movement.

3- “Poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings.” This


sentence belongs to…………….
A) Goya . B) Coleridge.
B) Fredriech. D) Wordsworth.

4- What was the gist of ‘Romanticism’?


A) Free expression of the feelings
B) Appreciating the nature
C) Depicting the realities of the society
D) Disagreement with artistic conventions

5- The arrival of ‘Romanticism’ in French was delayed because …………


A) of the Napoleonic period.
B) of the ‘Industrial revolution’.
C) the conservative academies.
D) of the ‘Age of Enlightenment’.
114 English for the students of art

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


dictation dictate dictator
fantasy fantasize fantastic fantastically
repression repress repressive repressively
duration endure enduring enduring

1- I have my own emotions, logic and reasons. I do not let you


……………. what you want to me.
2- You have a good job, a good family and a lot of money. What a
………….. life!
3- Teenagers are eager to escape the ………………. home environments.
4- My boss is a …………… who makes everyone work overtime.
5- He is ……………….. when he explains his plans for his own
company.

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 the highest point (para.1) ……………………..


2 justification (para.1) …………………….
3 summarize (para.2) …………………….
4 minimally (para.2) …………………….
5 more and more (para.4) ……………………..
Lesson nine 115

6 focus (para.4) ……………………..


7 perfect (para.5) ……………………..
8 highlight, stress (para.5) ……………………..
9 fame, distinction (para.5) …………………….
10 tradition, habit (para.6) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 defect (……) a. government
2 struggle (……) b. trammel
3 spontaneous (……) c. join, support
4 regime (……) d. topic, subject
5 share (……) e. natural, unplanned
6 wed (……) f. fault
7 theme (……) g. fight
h. divide

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

Not essential to Romanticism, but so widespread as to be normative, was a


strong …..(1)…. and interest in the importance of nature. However, this is
116 English for the students of art

particularly in the effect of nature upon the artist when he is …..(2)….. by


it, preferably alone. In contrast to the social art of the Enlightenment,
Romantics were …..(3)….. of the human world, and tended to believe that
a close connection with nature was mentally and morally healthy.
Romantic art …..(4)…. its audiences with what was intended to be felt as
the personal voice of the artist. …..(5)….., in literature, much of romantic
poetry invited the reader to identify the protagonists with the poets
themselves.

1. A) notice B) goal C) belief D) thought


2. A) surrounded B) faced C) started D) connected
3. A) local B) loyal C) trustworthy D) distrustful
4. A) addressed B) opened C) focused D) helped
5. A) however B) finally C) So D) generally

References
Berlin, I. (1990). The Crooked Timber of Humanity: Chapters in the History of
Ideas. London: John Murray.
Bowra, C. M. (1949). The Romantic Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cunningham, A., and Jardine, N. (1990). Romanticism and the Sciences.


Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ferber, M. (2010). Romanticism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford and New


York: Oxford University Press.

Novotny, F. (1971). Painting and Sculpture in Europe, 1780–1880. England:


Yale University Press.
Lesson 10

Realism

Before you read


Warm-up questions
What is the dominant motive of ‘Realism’? Was it a reaction against
‘Romanticism’? How did ‘Realism’ announced its existence for the first
time? Was it a popular artistic movement?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ……..………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
118 English for the students of art

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Reality of life  Objectivity
 Leonardo da Vinci  Naturalism
 Working class  Art for everyone

Part Ι. Reading

Realism

[1] ‘Realism’ in the arts may be generally defined as the attempt to represent
subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic
conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements. In its most
specific sense, ‘Realism’ was an artistic movement that began in France in
the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution. Realists rejected ‘Romanticism’,
which had dominated French literature and art since the late 18th century.
‘Realism’ revolted against the exotic subject matter and exaggerated
emotionalism and drama of the Romantic Movement. Instead it sought to
portray real and typical contemporary people and situations with truth and
accuracy, and not avoiding unpleasant or sordid aspects of life. Realist
works depicted people of all classes in situations that arise in ordinary life.
The popularity of such ‘realistic’ works grew with the introduction of
Lesson ten 119

photography — a new visual source that created a desire for people to


produce representations which look “objectively real.”
[2] In general, ‘Realists’ depicted everyday subjects and situations in
contemporary settings, and attempted to depict individuals of all social
classes in a similar manner. Classical idealism and Romantic
emotionalism and drama were avoided equally, and often sordid or untidy
elements of subjects were not omitted. ‘Social realism’ emphasizes the
depiction of the working class, and treating them with the same
seriousness as other classes in art. As an art movement Realism was a
reaction in the mid 19th century against what was seen as the artificiality
of Romanticism, led by Courbet in France. It spread across Europe and
was influential for the rest of the century and beyond, but as it became
adopted into the mainstream of painting it becomes less common and
useful as a term to define an artistic style.

GUSTAVE COURBET (1819-1877) _ Stone-Breakers


120 English for the students of art

[3] The development of increasingly accurate representation of the visual


appearances of things has a long history in art. It includes elements such as
the accurate depiction of the anatomy of humans and animals, of
perspective and effects of distance, and of detailed effects of light and
color. As well as accuracy in shape, light and color, Realist paintings show
an unscientific but effective knowledge of representing distant objects
smaller than closer ones, and representing regular geometric forms such as
the roof and walls of a room with perspective. The depiction of ordinary,
everyday subjects in art also has a long history, though it was often
squeezed into the edges of compositions, or shown at a smaller scale. This
was partly because art was expensive, and usually commissioned for
specific religious, political or personal reasons, that allowed only a
relatively small amount of space or effort to be devoted to such scenes.
[4 Renaissance theorists opened a debate, which was to last several
centuries, as to the correct balance between drawing art from the
observation of nature and from idealized forms. All admitted the
importance of the natural, but many believed it should be idealized to
various degrees to include only the beautiful. Leonardo da Vinci was one
who championed the pure study of nature, and wished to depict the whole
range of individual varieties of forms in the human figure and other things.
[5] In the 19th century ‘Naturalism’ or the ‘Naturalist school’ was
somewhat artificially erected as a term representing a breakaway sub-
movement of Realism, that attempted (not wholly successfully) to
distinguish itself from its parent by its avoidance of politics and social
issues, and liked to proclaim a quasi-scientific basis, playing on the sense
of "naturalist" as a student of Natural history. The originator of the term
was the French art critic Jules-Antoine Castagnary, who in 1863
announced that, “the naturalist school declares that art is the expression of
life under all phases and on all levels, and that its sole aim is to reproduce
Lesson ten 121

nature by carrying it to its maximum power and intensity; it is truth


balanced with science”. Emile Zola adopted the term with a similar
scientific emphasis for his aims in the novel. Much Naturalist painting
covered a similar range of subject matter as that of Impressionism, but
using tighter, more traditional brushwork styles, and in landscapes often
with more gloomy weather.

FRANCOIS RAFFAELLI (1850-1919) VASILY PEROV (1833-1882) _ The drowned

_Outskirts of Paris

[6] Broadly defined as “the faithful representation of reality”, ‘Realism’ as


a movement in literature was based on ‘objective reality’, and focused on
showing quotidian activities and life, primarily among the middle or lower
class society, without romantic idealization or dramatization. It may be
regarded as the general attempt to depict subjects as they are considered to
exist in third person objective reality, without embellishment or
interpretation and ‘in accordance with secular, empirical rules.’
122 English for the students of art

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Champion (v.) /ˈʧæmpIən/
(1) Support the cause of (2) Defend.
Maradona championed Argentina in World cup 1986.

Declare (v.) / diˈkle(ə)r/


Say something in a solemn and emphatic manner.
To be selected as the president, he declared his economic goals in detail.

Embellish (v.) / emˈbeliʃ/


(1) Make (something) more attractive by the addition of decorative details
or features. (2) Make (a statement or story) more interesting or
entertaining by adding extra details, especially ones that are not true.
She embellished her message with respectable words.

Exotic (adj.) / igˈzatik/


Originating in or characteristic of a distant foreign country.
If you go to Africa you would see many exotic cultures.

Implausible (adj.) /imˈplɔːzəbəl/


Not seeming reasonable or probable; failing to convince; not believable.
You cannot justify your absence with these implausible excuses.
Lesson ten 123

Mainstream (n.) /ˈmeɪnˌstri:m/


The ideas, attitudes, or activities that are regarded as normal or
conventional; the dominant trend in opinion, fashion, or the arts.
Our protest reflects mainstream distaste at a long military occupation.

Quotidian (adj.) /kwɒˈtɪdɪən/


Of or occurring every day; daily.
I am tired of the quotidian exercise of cleaning the refrigerator.

Secular (adj.) /ˈsekjələr/


Denoting attitudes, activities, or other things that have no religious or
spiritual basis.
Keeping your religious faith is a great advantage in this secular world of
capitalism.

Sole (adj.) /səʊl/


One and only.
Be sure that the sole reason was money.

Sordid (adj.) /ˈsɔːrdid/


Arousing moral distaste and contempt.
It is strange to think that such sordid motives might affect the company's
policy.
124 English for the students of art

Squeeze (v.) /skwi:z/


(1) Firmly press (something soft or yielding), typically with one's fingers.
(2) Manage to get into or through a narrow or restricted space.
The hard economic situations squeezed my family.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- How are ‘Realism’ and ‘Naturalism’ different?


2- Did ‘Realism’ have similar effects in different countries?
3- Why did ‘Realist’ paintings try to depict the sordid aspects of life?
4- Where did ‘Realism’ originate from?
5- Is it possible to call “realism” an objective school of art? Can an
artwork be totally objective?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. Realism revolted against the exotic subject matter and


portrayed exaggerated emotionalism.
……. 2. The popularity of Realism grew with the introduction of
photography.
……. 3. In Realism usually sordid or untidy elements of subjects were
omitted because they devalued the art work.
……. 4. Courbet is the founder of Realism.
……. 5. Naturalism declares that art is the expression of life under all
Lesson ten 125

phases and its aim is to reproduce emotions by its maximum


power and intensity.
……. 6. ‘Realism’ like other schools of art originated from France.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.
1- ‘Realism’ revolted against …………….
A) the exotic subject matter.
B) exaggerated emotionalism.
C) the drama of the Romantic Movement.
D) All of the above.

2- The popularity of ‘realistic’ artworks grew with the introduction of


…………….
A) industry. B) radio.
C) photography. D) technology.

3- Realism’ was …………….


A) secular and objective. B) secular and subjective.
C) empirical and subjective. D) religious and empirical.

4- ‘Naturalism’ is famous for …………….


A) its avoidance of politics and social issues.
B) Its quasi-scientific basis.
C) playing on the sense of Natural history.
D) All of the above.
126 English for the students of art

5- ‘This’ in paragraph 3 refers to …………….


A) the expense of artworks.
B) the depiction of ordinary, everyday subjects.
C) the edge of compositions.
D) ‘Realism’.

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


declaration declare declarative declaratively
secularization secularize secular secularly
embellishment embellish
commission commission commissioner

1- She was introduced to all the members of the ………………...


2- After the Renaissance a(n) ……………. happened in Europe.
3- According to the party’s ……………. no one can nominate for the
next election.
4- On his birthday, flowers ……………. the tables everywhere in her
house.
5- This was a very ……………. speech. I hope you have found the
answers of your questions.

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:
Lesson ten 127

1 keep away from (para.1) ……………………..


2 dirty (para.2) …………………….
3 body structure (para.3) …………………….
4 press (para.3) …………………….
5 discuss, argue (para.4) ……………………..
6 differentiate (para.5) ……………………..
7 declare publically (para.5) ……………………..
8 generally (para.6) ……………………..
9 everyday (para.6) …………………….
10 scientific, experimental (para.6) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 convince (……) a. unusual, odd
2 contempt (……) b. size
3 exotic (……) c. hatred, scorn
4 factual (……) d. persuade
5 scale (……) e. founder, initiator
6 originator (……) f. redolence
7 dramatization (……) g. objective
h. story-telling
128 English for the students of art

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

A recurring trend in Christian art was "realism" that emphasized the


….(1)….. of religious figures, above all Christ and his physical ….(2)….
in his Passion. Following trends in the related literature, this was
developed in the Late Middle Ages, where some painted wooden
sculptures portrayed Christ covered in wounds and ….(3)….., with the
intention of stimulating the viewer to meditate on the suffering that Christ
had …...(4)….. on his behalf. These were especially found in Germany
and Central Europe. After fading into the Renaissance, …..(5)……works
re-appeared, especially in Spanish sculpture.

1. A) divinity B) humanity C) certainty D) curiosity


2. A) sufferings B) happiness C) problems D) habits
3. A) tears B) water C) wine D) blood
4. A) addressed B) watched C) seen D) undergone
5. A) identical B) religious C) similar D) spiritual

References
Baron, C. and Engel, M. (2010). Realism/Anti-Realism in 20th-Century
Literature. NL: Rodopi.

Morris, P. (2003). Realism. London: Routledge.

Needham, G. (2013). Naturalism. Oxford University Pres.


Watt, I. (1957). The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson and
Fielding. Berkeley: University of California Press.
West, S. (1996). The Bullfinch Guide to Art. UK: Bloomsbury Publishing Inc.
Lesson 11

Impressionism

Before you read


Warm-up questions
What do you know about Impressionism? What are the crucial factors in an
Impressionist painting? Can you name some of the renowned Impressionist
artists? How did Impressionism show itself for the first time?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ……………… ………………… …………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
130 English for the students of art

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Impressionism  Color theory
 Nature’s role  Japanese painting
 Conservation of the Académie  Painting outside

Part Ι. Reading

Impressionism

[1] Impressionism is the name given to a style of painting in France at the end
of the 19th century. The Impressionist artists were not a formal group but
more a collective of artists seeking recognition for their innovative
techniques and approach to using color in art. Many artists contributed to
the first exhibition of Impressionist painting in 1874. Claude Monet
(1840-1926), Pierre Auguste Renoir (1841-1919), Camille Pissarro
(1831-1903), Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Alfred Sisley (1839-99) and
Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) were the main
figures who formed the core of Impressionism.
Lesson eleven 131

CLAUDE MONET (1840-1926)

[2] Impressionism explored contemporary developments in color theory


which led to a more exact analysis of the effects of color and light in
nature. The Impressionists abandoned the conventional idea that the
shadow of an object was made up from its color with some brown or black
added. Instead, they enriched their colors with the idea that the shadow of
an object is broken up with dashes of its complementary color. For
example, in an Impressionist painting the shadow on an orange may have
some strokes of blue painted into it to increase its vitality.
[3] Impressionism sought to capture the atmosphere of a particular time of
day or the effects of different weather conditions on the landscape. In order
to capture such fleeting effects Impressionist artists had to work quickly.
They applied their paint in brightly colored strokes which meant sacrificing
much of the outline and detail of their subject. Their painting technique put
them at odds with the conservative Académie of the French artistic
establishment who valued subtle color and precise detail which was
carefully crafted with great skill in the artist's studio. What the Académie
132 English for the students of art

failed to appreciate was the freshness of Impressionist color and the energy
of their brushwork which revealed a spontaneity that had only previously
been valued in the sketches of the old masters. However, the public grew to
love the vitality of the impressionist technique and in time Impressionism
grew to become the most popular movement in the history of art.
[4] The bold designs of Japanese paintings, popular in France at the time,
were another influence on impressionism. Their asymmetrical arrangements,
contrasting large areas of flat color with patches of intricate pattern, offered a
compositional format that the Impressionists could use to develop their ideas
about color. Sometimes, even the most avant-garde artists need the security of
knowing that the path they have chosen to follow has some roots in tradition.
The compositions of the Ukiyo-e masters such as Hokusai and Hiroshige
offered the Impressionists this confidence, albeit from another culture.

ANDO HIROSHIGE (1797-1858)

[5] Impressionism was the first movement where artists embraced painting
‘en plein air’ (painting outside). This was partially due to the introduction
Lesson eleven 133

of paint in tubes which, for the first time, enabled artists to carry all their
studio equipment around in a case. They also found it necessary to paint
outdoors because they were committed to observing the effects of light on
color in nature. Consequently landscapes, both in the town and
countryside, became their most natural and influential subject and is what
we immediately associate with Impressionism today.
[6] Still life was not a popular subject matter in Impressionism, mainly
because it was not a ‘plein air’ subject suited to capturing the atmospheric
qualities of light and color. However there are a few outstanding examples
such as Renoir's 'Fruit of the Midi' whose fruit and vegetables are carefully
chosen to create a range of prismatic colors that span the ‘Impressionist’
spectrum.
[7] Impressionism was the first movement in the canon of modern art and
had a massive effect on the development of art in the 20th century. Like
most revolutionary styles ‘Impressionism’ was gradually absorbed into the
mainstream and its limitations became frustrating to the succeeding
generation. Artists such as Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Paul
Gauguin and Georges Seurat, although steeped in the traditions of
Impressionism, pushed the boundaries of the style in different creative
directions and in doing so laid the foundations of art in the 20th century.
For historical convenience these artists have been labeled as ‘Post-
Impressionists’ but, apart from their ‘Impressionist’ influence, they do not
have much in common. Van Gogh pushed art towards ‘Expressionism’,
Cézanne towards ‘Cubism’, and Gauguin and Seurat towards ‘Fauvism’
and ‘Divisionism’.
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Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Embrace (v.) /ɪmˈbreɪs/
(1) Hold (someone) closely in one's arms, esp. as a sign of affection. (2)
Accept or support (a belief, theory, or change) willingly and enthusiastically.
We should all embrace that concept.

Enrich (v.) /ɪnˈrɪtʃ/


(1) Improve or enhance the quality or value of. (2) Make (someone)
wealthy or wealthier.
The intrinsic motivation of academic education is to enrich one's life-
awareness.

Fleeting (adj.) /ˈfliːtɪŋ/


Lasting for a very short time.
Fleeting glances conveying warmth cannot sustain the relationship.

Frustrating (Adj.) /frʌˈstreɪtiŋ/


(1) Preventing (a plan or attempted action) from progressing, succeeding,
or being fulfilled. (2) something that causes (someone) to feel upset or
annoyed, typically as a result of being unable to change or achieve
something.
The initial attempts to defend her were frustrating.

Innovative (adj.) /ˈinnvetiv/


(1) (Of a product, idea, etc.) Something that features or brings about new
methods, advances and developments. (2) Original.
Lesson eleven 135

Wow that was a great innovative idea you have given to the boss.

Intricate (adj.) /ˈintrikit/


Very complicated or detailed.
These intricate paintings contain a mystical concept.

Prismatic (adj.) /ˈprizmætik/


Of, relating to, or having the form of a prism or prisms.
It is a large piece of bone, prismatic in form and slightly curved in length.

Recognition (n.) /rɛkəɡˈnɪʃ(ə)n/


(1) The action or process of recognizing or being recognized, in particular. (2)
Identification of a thing or person from previous encounters or knowledge.
(3) Acknowledgment of something's existence, validity, or legality.
Their first task is vital to gain diplomatic recognition.

Spectrum (n.) /ˈspektrəm/


(1) A band of colors, as seen in a rainbow, produced by separation of the
components of light by their different degrees of refraction. (2) Used to
classify something, or suggest that it can be classified, in terms of its
position on a scale between two extremes.
This is something true across the ideological spectrum.

Steep (v.) /sti:p/


Soak (food or tea) in water or other liquid so as to extract its flavor or to
soften it.
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It has been a steep learning curve.

Vitality (n.) /vʌɪˈtalɪti/


(1) The state of being strong and active, energy. (2) The power giving
continuance of life, present in all living things.
This document has lost its vitality due to the new confessions of the
prisoner.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- Why is ‘Impressionism’ the most popular school of art?


2- What do you know about the impressionistic technique of painting?
3- How did Japanese paintings affect ‘Impressionism’?
4- What was the favorite subject matter for impressionist?
5- Can you name some of the forerunners of ‘Impressionism’?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. The Impressionist artists were a formal group in 19th century


in France.
……. 2. The Impressionists abandoned the conventional idea that the
shadow of an object was made up from its color with some
brown or black added.
……. 3. Académie of the France supported the impressionist
Lesson eleven 137

technique of capturing the fleeting effect of light on nature.


……. 4. Asymmetrical arrangements of Japanese paintings were an
influential effect on impressionism.
……. 5. Gauguin and Seurat laid the foundations of art in the 20th
century.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.
1- ‘Impressionism’ has largely focused on …………….
A) self-expression of the artist.
B) the objective depiction of the subject matter.
C) the exact analysis of the effects of color and light in nature.
D) emotionalism.

2- ‘It’ in paragraph 6 refers to …………….


A) subject matter. B) Still life.
C) Impressionism’. D) ‘plein air’.

3- What was the most common subject matter for ‘Impressionist’


paintings?
A) landscapes B) Still life
C) Sordid aspects of life D) Biblical themes

4- What the Académie failed to appreciate was …………….


A) the freshness of ‘Impressionist’ color.
B) the energy of ‘Impressionism’.
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C) the spontaneity of ‘Impressionism’.


D) all of the above.

5- Introduction of paint in tubes caused the ‘Impressionist’ to embrace


…………….
A) painting outside the studio.
B) painting in the studio.
C) painting quickly.
D) painting with bright colors.

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


frustration frustrate frustrating frustratingly
innovation innovate innovative innovatively
vitality vitalize vital vitally
enrichment enrich

1- Iran does not suspend the uranium …………. under any


circumstances.
2- Definitely, the boss will accept your …………. design.
3- I really like the professor but to tell the truth his class is very
………….
4- Listen to me! This is …………. important.
5- Plants lose their …………. when lacking enough water and sunshine.
Lesson eleven 139

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 show, fair (para.1) ……………………..


2 shade (para.2) …………………….
3 momentary (para.3) …………………….
4 complicated (para.4) …………………….
5 safety (para.4) ……………………..
6 somewhat, partly (para.5) ……………………..
7 instantly, right away (para.5) ……………………..
8 following, subsequent (para.7) ……………………..
9 ease, comfort (para.7) …………………….
10 huge, very big (para.7) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 embrace (……) a. central part
2 enthusiastically (……) b. distinct, opposite
3 core (……) c. catch, record
4 contrasting (……) d. excitedly
5 due to (……) e. growth, expansion
6 capture (……) f. hold closely
7 development (……) g. subjectivity
h. revolution
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G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

Radicals in their time, early Impressionists …. (1)….. the rules of


academic painting. They constructed their pictures from freely brushed
colors. They also painted realistic scenes of modern life, and often painted
…..(2)….. Previously, still life and portraits as well as landscapes were
usually painted in a …..(3)…... The Impressionists found that they could
capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting ‘en
plein air’. They portrayed overall visual effects instead of ….(4)….., and
used short "broken" brushstrokes of mixed and unmixed color — not
blended smoothly or shaded, as was customary — to …..(5)….. an effect
of intense color vibration.

1. A) changed B) supported C) accepted D) violated


2. A) outdoors B) indoors C) mountains D) families
3. A) house B) studio C) room D) hall
4. A) concepts B) generalities C) realities D) details
5. A) fail B) achieve C) send D) pass

References
Bomford, D. Kirby, J. Leighton, J. Roy, A. and White, R. (1990). Impressionism.
London: National Gallery.

Denvir, B. (1990). The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of Impressionism.


London: Thames and Hudson.
Lesson eleven 141

Distel, A. Hoog, M. and Moffett, C. S. (1974). Impressionism; a centenary


exhibition, the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: Metropolitan
Museum of Art.

Jensen, R. (1994). Marketing modernism in fin-de-siècle Europe. Princeton:


Princeton University Press.

Moskowitz, I. and Sérullaz, M. (1962). French Impressionists: A Selection of


Drawings of the French 19th Century. Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and
Company.

Rewald, J. (1973). The History of Impressionism . New York: The Museum of


Modern Art.
Lesson 12

Post-Impressionism

Before you read


Warm-up questions
Who was the initiator of Post-impressionism? What are the differences
between crucial Impressionism and Post-impressionism? Was Post-
impressionism as credited as Impressionism?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ……………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
Lesson twelve 143

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Impressionism’s limitations  Color’s expressive power
 Documentary illustration  Spiritual vision
 Exaggeration  Informal movement

Part Ι. Reading

Post-Impressionism

[1] ‘Post-impressionism’ was not a formal movement or style. The Post-


impressionists were a few independent artists at the end of the 19th
century who rebelled against the limitations of ‘Impressionism’. They
developed a range of personal styles that focused on the emotional,
structural, symbolic and spiritual elements that they felt were missing
from ‘Impressionism’. Their combined contributions formed the artistic
roots of modern art for the next eighty years.
[2] The Yellow Christ is a classic example of Post-impressionist painting
style. It depicts some traditional Breton women praying at a roadside but it
is not a documentary illustration of the scene; it is an attempt to portray
the spiritual vision that they experience in their prayer. In this painting
Gauguin was inspired by the naive simplicity of a wooden 17th century
144 English for the students of art

crucifix that he saw in a church and he used its primitive form and
autumnal yellow color as a key to the work. He then simplified his
drawing, boldly outlines his shapes and exaggerates his color to magnify
the heightened emotion of the women's meditation.

PAUL GAUGUIN (1848-1903)

[3] Vincent Van Gogh embraced the vivid color of ‘Impressionism’ but
discarded any Impressionist ideas about the careful analysis and effects of
color and light in nature. This was far too scientific an approach for this
temperamental Dutchman whose instincts were tuned to the expressive
power of color. When ‘Impressionism’ was filtered through the heightened
perception of Van Gogh's vision, the results pushed art towards
‘Expressionism’, an exploration of the spiritual and emotional side of art.
[4] Georges Seurat's frustration with the limitations of ‘Impressionism’,
particularly its lack of accurate line and detail, drove him to develop the
technique of ‘Pointillism’ or as it was otherwise called, Neo-
Lesson twelve 145

Impressionism. This was a more scientific approach to the mixture of


color which was applied in small dots of paint that blended optically when
viewed from a distance.

GEORGES SEURAT (1859-1891)

[5] One often sees works by Seurat that look more like ‘Impressionism’
than ‘Pointillism’. This is because he painted his sketches outside using an
Impressionistic technique to quickly capture the fleeting effects of natural
light and color. He would then take these preparatory sketches back to his
studio and rework them using his more methodical Pointillist technique.
This allowed him to take a more considered and classical approach to
composition, using sharper lines and more clearly defined shapes while
still retaining the vitality of Impressionist light and color. In sum, the
analytical method of Seurat's ‘Pointillism’ influenced those artists who
146 English for the students of art

adopted more calculated approach to painting, particularly in the


development of abstract art.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Blend (v.) /blend/
Mix (a substance) with another substance so that they combine together as
a mass.
Simply blend a teaspoon of salt into the pot of stew.

Discard (v.) /disˈka:rd/


Get rid of (someone or something) as no longer useful or desirable.
Every crisis makes us discard our traditional way of looking at things.

Exaggerate (v.) /ɪɡˈzædʒəreɪt/


Represent (something) as being larger, greater, better, or worse than it
really is.
It is tempting to exaggerate or embellish while narrating.

Heighten (v.) /ˈhītn/


(1) Make (something) higher. (2) Make or become more intense.
At the moment, the country is trying to find a way to heighten the
educational level.

Magnify (v.) /ˈmægnəfī/


Make (something) appear larger than it is, esp. with a lens or microscope.
Lesson twelve 147

Conventional microscopes use lenses to magnify tiny things.

Primitive (adj.) /ˈprimətiv/


(1) Relating to, denoting, or preserving an early stage in the evolutionary
or historical development of something. (2) Not developed or derived
from anything else.
It was unquestionably primitive and certainly barbaric.

Retain (v.) /rɪˈteɪn/


(1) Continue to have (something). (2) To keep the possession of. (3) To
keep in one's memory.
Put the container in a plastic bag to retain humidity.

Spiritual (adj.) /ˈspɪrɪtʃʊəl/


(1) Of, relating to, or affecting the human spirit or soul as opposed to
material or physical things. (2) Of or relating to religion or religious belief.
Instead of worldly aspects consider the spiritual ones.

Temperamental (adj.) /ˈtemp(ə)rəmentl/


(1) (Of a person) liable to unreasonable changes of mood. (2) Of or
relating to a person's temperament.
Due to his temperamental nature, he was named ' Tempi '.

Tune (v.) /tyu:n/


(1) Adjust (a musical instrument) to the correct or uniform pitch. (2)
Adjust (a radio or television) to the frequency of the required signal.
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Tune the violin before the concert.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- How are ‘Impressionism’ and ‘Post-impressionism’ different?


2- What was missing in ‘Impressionism’ based on ‘Post-impressionist’
point of view?
3- What is ‘Pointillism’?
4- Which one has been more influential in development of ‘Post-impressions’:
Seurat or Van Gogh?
5- Which one do you like better, ‘Impressionism’ or ‘Post-impressionism’?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.
…..... 1. Post-impressionists were a few dependent artists in the 19th
century who rebelled against ‘Impressionism’.
……. 2. Post-impressionists focused on the emotional, structural,
symbolic and spiritual elements of painting.
……. 3. Van Gogh embraced any Impressionist ideas about the
careful analysis and effects of color and light in nature.
……. 4. Seurat's frustration with the loss of accurate lines and details
of ‘Impressionism’ drove him to develop the technique of
‘Pointillism’.
……. 5. Seurat’s ‘Pointillism’ was a scientific approach in
Lesson twelve 149

comparison with the painting conventions of that day.


……. 6. ‘Impressionism’ was much more limited than ‘Post-
impressionism’.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.
1- Vincent Van Gogh discarded …………….
A) emotionalism in painting.
B) focusing on the details of subject matters.
C) impressionist ideas about the careful analysis of color and light in
nature.
D) self-expression in painting.

2- ‘It’ in paragraph 4 refers to …………….


A) ‘Impressionism’. B) frustration.
C) Pointillism’. D) limitation.

3- ‘Preparatory’ in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to …………….


A) ‘satisfactory. B) finally.
C) introductory. D) auditory.

4- The Post-impressionists were …………….


A) a few independent artists.
B) formal, famous artists.
C) many experienced artists
D) some unknown artists.
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5- ‘Post-impressionism’ …………….
A) lasted for just a few years.
B) resulted in other schools to advent.
C) was very popular in its age.
D) was the result of ‘Impressionism’.

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


exaggeration exaggerate exaggerative exaggeratedly
height heighten high/heightened highly
spirit/spirituality spiritual spiritually
magnification magnify magnific magnifically

1. Stop it! Why are you …………. a very trivial situation like this?
2. Yesterday, the boss delivered a speech about the financial problems
but his words …………. the tension.
3. She plays an unimportant role of this episode but she tries to
………………. her own role in the press.
4. He is a divine man and focuses on …………. values.
5. I …………. recommend you to watch that movie. It is fantastic.

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 revolt, rise up (para.1) ……………………..


Lesson twelve 151

2 figurative (para.1) …………………….


3 motivate, arouse (para.2) …………………….
4 plainness (para.2) …………………….
5 thought, reflection (para.2) ……………………..
6 reject (para.3) ……………………..
7 combination (para.4) ……………………..
8 introductory, initial (para.5) ……………………..
9 permit (para.5) …………………….
10 estimate (para.5) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 desirable (……) a. irrational, unfair
2 unreasonable (……) b. absent
3 adjust (……) c. perception
4 missing (……) d. keep, hold
5 heightened (……) e. set, regulate
6 understanding (……) f. superior, elevated
7 retain (……) g. blend
h. wanted, pleasing
152 English for the students of art

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

Post-Impressionism is a term best used within Rewald's …..(1)…… in a


strictly historical manner, concentrating on French art between 1886 and
1914, and re-considering the altered positions of …..(2)….. painters like
Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Auguste Renoir, and others — as well as
all new brands at the turn of the century. The …..(3)….. of war, in August
of 1914, indicated probably far more than the beginning of a World War_
they signal a major break in European cultural history, too. Along with
general art history information given about ‘Post-Impressionism’ works,
there are many museums that offer additional history, …..(4)…… and
gallery works, both online and in house, that can help viewers understand
a deeper meaning of ‘Post-Impressionism’ in ….(5)….. of ‘fine art’ and
traditional art applications.

1. A) exclusion B) constitution C) description D) definition


2. A) impressionist B) realist C) romantic D) cubist
3. A) explanation B) exhaustion C) declaration D) assertion
4. A) information B) generalities C) realities D) forms
5. A) terms B) times C) realms D) words

References
Bowness, A. (1979). Post-Impressionism. Cross-Currents in European Painting.
London: Royal Academy of Arts.
Cogniat, R. (1975). Pissarro. New York: Crown.

Gowing, L. (2005). Facts on File Encyclopedia of Art. New York: Facts on File.
Lesson twelve 153

Huyghe, R. (1973). Impressionism. New Jersey: Chartwell Books Inc.


Rewald, J. (1978). Post-Impressionism: From Van Gogh to Gauguin. London:
Secker & Warburg publications.
Lesson 13

Expressionism

Before you read


Warm-up questions
What do you think of the name of ‘Expressionism’? Was ‘Expressionism’
the continuation of ‘Impressionism’? From which country ‘Expressionism’
has originated? What are the most important characteristics of
‘Expressionism’?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ………………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
Lesson thirteen 155

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 German psyche  Self-expression
 Inward look  Melancholy
 Distorted shapes  Subjectivity

Part Ι. Reading

Expressionism

[1] 'Expressionism' is a term that embraces an early 20th century style of art,
music and literature that is charged with an emotional and spiritual vision
of the world. Expressionism is associated with Northern Europe in general
and Germany in particular. The 'Expressionist' spirit has always existed in
the German psyche.
[2] At the end of the 19th century, the 'Expressionist' spirit embodied in the
paintings of two awkward and isolated personalities – one was the
Dutchman, Vincent Van Gogh and the other a Norwegian, Edvard Munch.
While the 'Impressionists' were admiring the color and beauty of the
natural landscape, Van Gogh and Munch took a radically different
perspective. They chose to look inwards to discover a form of ‘self-
expression’ that offered them an individual voice in a world that they
156 English for the students of art

perceived as both insecure and hostile. It was this more subjective search
for a personal emotional truth that drove them on and ultimately paved the
way for the 'Expressionist' art forms of the 20th century that explored the
inner landscape of the soul.

VINCENT VAN GOGH (1853-1890)

[3] Paintings like Van Gogh’s Sunflowers (1888) opened our eyes to the
intensity of expressive color. He used color to express his feelings about a
subject, rather than to simply describe it. In a letter to his brother Theo he
explained, “instead of trying to reproduce exactly what I see before my
eyes, I use color more arbitrarily to express myself forcibly.” His
heightened vision helped to liberated color as an emotional instrument in
the repertoire of 20th century art and the vitality of his brushwork became
a key influence in the development of both the Fauves' and the
Expressionists’ painting technique.
Lesson thirteen 157

EDVARD MUNCH (1863-1944)

[4] Munch’s painting of The Scream (1893) was equally influential. It


provides us with a psychological blueprint for Expressionist art: distorted
shapes and exaggerated colors that amplify a sense of anxiety and
alienation. The Scream is Munch’s own voice crying in the wilderness, a
prophetic voice that declares the Expressionist message, fifteen years
before the term was invented. “I was walking along the road with two
friends. It was the sunset. I felt a tinge of melancholy. Suddenly the sky
became a bloody red. I stopped, leaned against the railing, dead tired. And
I looked at the flaming clouds that hung like blood and a sword over the
blue-black city. My friends walked on. I stood there, trembling with fright.
And I felt a loud, unending scream piercing nature.”
[5] Kandinsky's painting was moving away from the depiction of realistic
forms into the more spiritual realms of abstraction. Since childhood he
had studied music, playing both the piano and cello. He recognized that
158 English for the students of art

color could trigger our emotions much in the same way as music touches
our soul. This link between the visual and the aural inspired his
experiments with color as an abstract element for the subject of a
painting. The idea was reinforced by a chance experience in 1908. “I was
returning, immersed in thought from my sketching, when on opening the
studio door I was suddenly confronted by a picture of incandescent
beauty. Bewildered, I stopped and stared at it. The painting lacked all
subject, depicted no identifiable object and was entirely composed of
bright color. Finally, I approached closer and saw it for what it really
was - my own painting, standing on its side on the easel. One thing
became clear to me; objectiveness had no place in my paintings, and was
indeed harmful to them.”

WASSILY KANDINSKY (1866-1944)

[6] After the disintegration of the more formal 'Expressionist' groups in


Germany, 'Expressionism' continued to evolve in a variety of ways
through the work of individual artists like Paul Klee and Max Beckmann.
Lesson thirteen 159

The Expressionist spirit resurfaced in art across the world throughout the
20th century; Francis Bacon in Britain, the Abstract Expressionists in the
USA and eventually returning to Germany in the form of Anselm Kiefer in
the last quarter of the century.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Amplify (v.) /ˈæmplɪfʌɪ/
(1) Increase or enlarge something. (2) Increase the amplitude of (an
electrical signal or other oscillation).
What you have done can amplify happiness and comfort.

Arbitrarily (adv.) /ˈa:rbitreri:li/


(1) Randomly: in a random manner. (2) (Of power or a ruling body)
unrestrained and autocratic in the use of authority.
No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

Awkward (adj.) /ˈoukwərd/


(1) Causing difficulty, hard to do or deal with. (2) Causing or feeling
embarrassment or inconvenience.
The first moments of the meeting were awkward.

Blueprint (n.) /ˈblu:print/


A plan or other technical drawing which shows the sequence of the actions
to be done.
The full blueprint will not be released until next spring.
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Confront (v.) /kənˈfrənt/


(1) Face up to and deal with (a problem or difficult situation). (2) Meet
(someone) face to face with hostile or argumentative intent.
On the other hand, he has yet to confront a serious crisis.

Disintegration (n.) /dɪsˌɪntɪˈɡreɪʃ(ə)n/


(1) The process of losing cohesion. (2) The process of coming to pieces.
There are technical terms for this kind of disintegration.

Distort (v.) /dɪˈstɔːt/


(1) A change for the worse. (2) Pull or twist out of shape.
They distort some facts and fabricate the rest.

Easel (n.) /ˈi:zəl/


A self-supporting frame for holding an artist's work while it is being
painted or drawn.
I cannot paint these days, my easel is broken by the earthquake.

Embody (v.) /emˈbadi:/


Be an expression of or give a tangible or visible form to (an idea, quality,
or feeling).
He is meant to embody the very essence of benevolence

Hung (adj.) /həŋ/


Emotionally confused or disturbed.
Lesson thirteen 161

For half an hour, a sense of hung has dominated the class.

Incandescent (adj.) /ˈinkəndesənt/


Emitting light as a result of being heated.
The tunnel was lit by three rows of incandescent electric lamps in the roof.

Melancholy (n.) /ˈmelənkali:/


A deep, pensive, and long-lasting sadness.
I am scarcely drawing the portrait of a very melancholy man.

Pierce (v.) /pi(ə)rs/


(1) Prick (something) with a sharp instrument. (2) make a hole in (the ears,
nose, or other part of the body) so as to wear jewelry in them.
Do we need another screwdriver to pierce the aluminum plate?

Psyche (n.) /ˈsīki:/


(1) The human soul, mind, or spirit. (2) Psychology.
In the public psyche, it was impolite to do that.

Reinforce (v.) /riːɪnˈfɔːs/


Strengthen or support, esp. with additional personnel or material.
Your encouragements reinforce these behaviors.

Ultimately (adv.) /ˈəltəmitli:/


(1) As the end result of a succession or process. (2) Finally, in the end.
162 English for the students of art

Ultimately, he found the job.

Wilderness (n.) /ˈwildərnis/


(1) A neglected or abandoned area of a garden or town. (2) An
uncultivated, uninhabited, and inhospitable region.
I do not recommend buying this wilderness although it costs more than that.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- How did 'Expressionism' come into existence?


2- Who were the most influential painters of 'Expressionism'?
3- When did 'Expressionism' end? How?
4- Was 'Expressionism' the continuation of 'Impressionism'?
5- How did 'Expressionist' painters express themselves in their
artworks?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. Expressionism is charged with an emotional and spiritual


vision of the world.
……. 2. Expressionists chose to look inwards to discover a form of
“self-expression” that offered them an individual voice.
……. 3. Expressionists followed an absolutely objective approach in
their paintings.
Lesson thirteen 163

……. 4. Kandinsky's painting moved away from realism to spiritual


abstractions.
……. 5. Expressionism died in Germany and resurfaced again across
the world in the 20th century.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.

1- After the disintegration of 'Expressionism' …………….


A) it was forgotten forever.
B) it re-appeared in Europe in other forms.
C) it lost its fans.
D) the critics neglected the 'Expressionist' artworks.

2- The 'Expressionist' spirit has originated from …………….


A) ‘Impressionism’. B) German psyche.
C) European culture. D) 'Individualism'.

3- The philosophy of 'Expressionism' was to ……………. for


discovering an individual voice.
A) ‘look culturally B) look politically
C) look outwards D) look inwards look inwards

4- Who is famous for using intensive, expressive color?


A) ‘Van Gogh B) Seurat
C) Kandinsky D) Munch
164 English for the students of art

5- ‘Trigger' in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to …………….


A) activate. B) shorten.
C) finish. D) imagine.

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


amplification amplify amplified
distortion distort distorted
liberty/libration liberalize liberal/liberated liberally
melancholy melancholize melancholic

1. Let me …………………, then you would learn the problem better.


2. This is not a good mirror. It ……………….. the faces of the viewers.
3. The visitors were given the …………..… of visiting every corner of
the city.
4. There is …………….. in the wind and sorrow in the sky.
5. They treated their children too …………….

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 mind (para.1) ……………………..


2 completely (para.2) …………………….
3 propose, suggest (para.2) …………………….
4 finally (para.2) …………………….
Lesson thirteen 165

5 nervousness (para.4) ……………………..


6 shake (para.4) ……………………..
7 yell, cry (para.4) ……………………..
8 submerge (para.5) ……………………..
9 confused (para.5) …………………….
10 appear again (para.6) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 alienation (……) a. strengthen
2 pierce (……) b. power, force
3 reinforce (……) c. state, say publically
4 inhospitable (……) d. design, plan
5 intensity (……) e. separation
6 blueprint (……) f. prick
7 declare (……) g. unwelcoming
h. need

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.
166 English for the students of art

'Expressionism' was a modernist …...(1)….., initially in poetry and


painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its
typical trait is to ……(2)…… the world solely from a subjective
perspective, distorting it …..(3)….. for emotional effect in order to evoke
moods or ideas. Expressionist artists sought to express meaning or
emotional experience rather than ……(4)…… reality. The Expressionist
emphasis on individual perspective has been characterized as a …..(5)…..
to positivism and other artistic styles such as Naturalism and
Impressionism.

1. A) agitation B) constitution C) movement D) rebellion


2. A) present B) have C) include D) destroy
3. A) radically B) partially C) finally D) generally
4. A) mental B) emotional C) instructional D) physical
5. A) assertion B) activation C) reaction D) action

References
Bookbinder, J. (2006). Boston modern: figurative expressionism as alternative
modernism. Durham: University of New Hampshire Press.

Dijkstra, B. (2003). American expressionism: art and social change, 1920-1950.


New York : H.N. Abrams.

Herskovic, M. (2009). American Abstract and Figurative Expressionism: Style Is


Timely Art Is Timeless. New York: New York School Press.

Matějček, A. (1987). Expressionism: Art and Idea. New Haven: Yale University
Press.
Nietzsche, F. (1872). The Birth of Tragedy Out of The Spirit of Music. New
York: Dover publications.
Lesson thirteen 167

Schimmel, P. and Stein, J. E. (2009). The Figurative fifties: New York figurative
expressionism, The Other Tradition. California: Newport Harbor Art
Museum.
Lesson 14

Fauvism

Before you read


Warm-up questions
What do you know about ‘Fauvism’? Do colors have the power of
expressing the artist’s feelings? Who was the real initiator of this
movement? Was ‘Fauvism’ successful in breaking the conventions of art?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and

 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.


……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ………………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
Lesson fourteen 169

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Symbolic colors  Paul Gauguin
 Wild beasts  Dense colors
 Color’s power  Simplified drawing

Part Ι. Reading

Fauvism

[1] ‘Fauvism’ has its roots in the post-impressionist paintings of Paul Gauguin.
It was his use of symbolic color that pushed art towards the style of
‘Fauvism’. Gauguin proposed that color had a symbolic vocabulary which
could be used to visually translate a range of emotions. In Vision after the
Sermon where Gauguin depicts Jacob wrestling with an angel, he paints the
background a flat red to emphasize the mood and subject of the sermon:
Jacob's spiritual battle in a blood red field of combat. Gauguin believed that
color had a mystical quality that could express our feelings about a subject
rather than simply describe a scene. By breaking the established descriptive
role that color had in painting, he inspired the younger artists of his day to
experiment with new possibilities for color in art.
170 English for the students of art

PAUL GAUGUIN (1884-1903)

[2] At the start of the 20th century, two young artists, Henri Matisse and
André Derain formed the basis of a group of painters who enjoyed
painting pictures with outrageously bold colors. The group was nicknamed
‘Les Fauves’ which meant ‘wild beasts’ in French. Their title was coined
by the art critic Louis Vauxcelles who was amused by the exaggerated
color in their art.
[3] In 1905, Matisse and Derain went to stay in the port of Collioure in the
south of France and the Fauvist pictures that they painted there
revolutionized attitudes towards color in art. The sheer joy of expression
that they achieved through their liberated approach to color was a
rebellion for the art of painting. In Matisse's painting, The Open Window,
Collioure, color is used at its maximum intensity. The window frames,
clay flower pots and masts on the yachts have all been painted in a blazing
red. These are a bold complement to the range of greens that punctuate the
painting. To unify the interior/exterior relationship of space, the dense
Lesson fourteen 171

spectrum of colors used inside the room is echoed more sparingly in the
distant view through the window.

HENRI MATISSE (1869-1954)

[4] Derain manages to balance the expressive and descriptive qualities of


color in The Pool of London. He used the conflict between warm and cool
colors to express the noise and activity of this busy dockyard. An illusion
of depth in the painting is created by using stronger and warmer tones in
the foreground, which gradually become weaker and cooler towards the
background. The drawing of the image is typically simplified into shapes
and forms whose details can be conveyed by unmodified brushstrokes of
roughly the same size. This gives the painting an overall unity that you
would not expect in a composition of such conflicting colors.
172 English for the students of art

ANDRÉ DERAIN (1880-1954)

[5] ‘Fauvism’ was not a formal movement with a manifesto of rules and
regulations. It was more an instinctive coming together of artists who
wished to express themselves by using bold colors, simplified drawing and
expressive brushwork. ‘Les Fauves’ simply believed that color had a
spiritual quality which linked directly to your emotions and they loved to
use it at the highest possible pitch.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Blazing (adj.) /bleɪziŋ/
Burn fiercely or brightly.
Here we are in the blazing sunshine in the middle of the desert.

Combat (n.) / ˈkamˌbæt/


Fighting between armed forces.
As a soldier you should combat for the country or die.
Lesson fourteen 173

Conflicting (adj.) /kənˈfliktiŋ/


Having or showing confused and mutually inconsistent feelings.
For the final decisions consider all conflicting comments.

Instinctive (adj.) /inˈstiŋ(k)tiv/


(1) Relating to or prompted by instinct; apparently unconscious or
automatic. (2) (Of a person) doing or being a specified thing apparently
naturally or automatically.
It has also little control over its body and all its movements are automatic
or instinctive.

Mast (n.) /mæst/


(1) A tall upright post, spar, or other structure on a ship or boat, in sailing
vessels generally carrying a sail or sails. (2) The fruit of beech, oak,
chestnut, and other forest trees, esp. as food for pigs and wild animals.
Due to the yesterday's storm the bout's mast is broken.

Modify (v.) /ˈmadəˌfī/


Make partial or minor changes to (something), typically so as to improve
it or to make it less extreme.
Did you need to modify certain aspects of your design?

Nickname (n.) /ˈnikˌneɪm/


A familiar or humorous name given to a person or thing instead of or as
well as the real name.
He became upset because of the nickname you used to call him.
174 English for the students of art

Outrageous (adj.) /aʊtˈreɪdʒəs/


(1) Shockingly bad or excessive. (2) Very bold, unusual, and startling.
They let you enjoy their company without making outrageous demands.

Revolutionize (v.) /ˌrevəˈlu:ʃeˌnīz/


Change (something) radically or fundamentally.
You should revolutionize your life if you want to solve your problems.

Sheer (adj.) /ʃi(ə)r/


(1) Nothing other than. (2) Absolute.
He is the symbol of sheer wisdom.

Sparingly (adv.) /ˈspe(ə)riŋli/


Meagerly; to a meager degree or in a meager manner.
In future, export licenses should be granted more sparingly.

Wrestle (v.) /ˈresəl/


Take part in a fight, either as a sport or in earnest that involves grappling
with one's opponent and trying to throw him down.
She should convince him by logical arguments not by threats or physical
wrestling.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.
Lesson fourteen 175

1- What is ‘Fauvism’ famous for?


2- Who was the initiator of ‘Fauvism’?
3- Why is color used at its maximum intensity in “Fauvism’?
4- What did Gauguin believe about color?
5- Was ‘Fauvism’ a successful school of art?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.
…..... 1. Fauvism proposed that color had a symbolic vocabulary which
could visually translate a range of emotions.
……. 2. Gauguin as the father of Fauvism inspired the younger artists
to experiment with traditional possibilities for color in art.
……. 3. These artists were called Fauvist due to the exaggerated color
in their paintings.
……. 4. Fauvists rebelled against conventional painting through their
liberated approach to color.
……. 5. Unmodified brushstrokes devalued the Fauvist paintings.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.

1- What did ‘Fauvists’ propose about color?


A) It has mystical power.
B) It has symbolic vocabulary.
C) It has intensive quality of expression.
D) All of the above.
176 English for the students of art

2- ‘Fauvism’ has its roots in the paintings of …………….


A) H. Matisse. B) P. Gauguin.
C) A. Derain. D) A. Vauxcelles.

3- ‘Punctuate’ in paragraph 3 is closes in meaning with …………….


A) add the details. B) finish the work.
C) require require. D) call for.

4- What does ‘les Fauves’ mean lexically?


A) wild beast B) painters
C) animals D) artists

5- ‘It' in paragraph 5 refers to …………….


A) manifesto. B) movement.
C) rule. D) ‘Fauvism’.

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


conflict conflict conflicting
instinct instinctive instinctively
modification modify modifiable
combat combat combatable

1- I cannot convince my boss to sign this contract. It needs some


…………….
Lesson fourteen 177

2- The government needs very much money to ……………. against the


disease.
3- She is fond of Indian movies because of their emotional …………….
4- Animals usually know how to defend themselves …………….
5- The board members could not reach to a conclusion due to their
……………. views.

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 religious lecture (para.1) ……………………..


2 recognized, traditional (para.1) …………………….
3 label (para.2) …………………….
4 viewpoint, opinion (para.3) …………………….
5 revolt (para.3) ……………………..
6 unite, join (para.3) ……………………..
7 repeat (para.3) ……………………..
8 usually, normally (para.4) ……………………..
9 fantasy, dream (para.4) …………………….
10 declaration (para.5) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.
178 English for the students of art

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 sparingly (……) a. degree
2 opponent (……) b. rival
3 flat (……) c. range, band
4 coin (……) d. express, transmit
5 spectrum (……) e. weakly, thinly
6 convey (……) f. create, invent
7 pitch (……) g. stimulate
h. level, smooth

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

In 1896, Matisse, then an unknown art student, visited the artist John Peter
Russell on the island of Belle Île. Russell was an Impressionist painter;
Matisse had never ….. (1)…… seen an Impressionist work directly, and
was so ……(2)…… at the style that he left after ten days, saying, "I
couldn't stand it any more." The next year he returned as Russell's student
and ……(3)…… his earth-colored palette for bright Impressionist colors,
later stating, "Russell was my teacher, and Russell ……(4)……. color
theory to me." Russell had been a close friend of Vincent van Gogh and
gave Matisse a Van Gogh drawing …..(5)…….

1. A) finally B) recently C) normally D) previously


2. A) happy B) shocked C) blocked D) sad
3. A) abandoned B) started C) returned D) found
Lesson fourteen 179

4. A) caused B) asked C) told D) explained


5. A) style B) content C) genre D) medium

References
Collins, B. (2003). Van Gogh and Gauguin: Electric Arguments and Utopian
Dreams. West view Press.
Freeman, J. (1990). The Fauve Landscape. Abbeville Press.

Gerdts, W. H. (1997). The Color of Modernism: The American Fauves. New


York: Hollis Taggart Galleries.

Spivey, V. (2003). Fauvism: Smart history. Khan Academy publications.


Whitfield, S. (1991). Fauvism. London: Thames and Hudson.
Lesson 15

Cubism

Before you read


Warm-up questions
What do you know about Picasso? Does ‘Cubism’ have any advantages
over the ‘Realism’? Why ‘Cubism’? Was it a popular artistic movement?
How did ‘Cubism’ break the artistic conventions?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ………………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
Lesson fifteen 181

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Technological progress  Conventions of art
 Picasso  Perspective
 Photography  Space reconfiguration

Part Ι. Reading

Cubism

[1] ‘Cubism’ was a truly revolutionary style of modern art developed by


Pablo Picasso and Georges Braques. It was the first style of abstract art
which evolved at the beginning of the 20th century in response to a world
that was changing with unprecedented speed. ‘Cubism’ was an attempt by
artists to revitalize the tired traditions of western art which they believed
had run their course. The ‘Cubists’ challenged conventional forms of
representation, such as perspective, which had been the rule since the
Renaissance. Their aim was to develop a new way of seeing which
reflected the modern age.
[2] In the four decades from 1870-1910, western society witnessed more
technological progress than in the previous four centuries. During this
period, inventions such as photography, cinematography, sound recording,
182 English for the students of art

the telephone, the motor car and the airplane heralded the dawn of a new
age. The problem for artists at this time was how to reflect the modernity
of the era using the tired and trusted traditions that had served art for the
last four centuries. Photography had begun to replace painting as the tool
for documenting the age. Artists needed a more radical approach - a “new
way of seeing” that expanded the possibilities of art in the same way that
technology was extending the boundaries of communication and travel.
This new way of seeing was called ‘Cubism’ - the first abstract style of
modern art. Picasso and Braque developed their ideas on ‘Cubism’ around
1907 in Paris and their starting point was a common interest in the later
paintings of Paul Cézanne.
[3] The limitations of perspective were also seen as an obstacle to progress
by the ‘Cubists’. The fact that a picture drawn in perspective could only
work from one viewpoint restricted their options. As the image was drawn
from a fixed position, the result was frozen, like a snapshot, but the
Cubists wanted to make pictures that reached beyond the rigid geometry
of perspective. They wanted to introduce the idea of ‘relativity’ - how the
artist perceived and selected elements from the subject, fusing both their
observations and memories into the one concentrated image.
Lesson fifteen 183

GEORGES BRAQUE (1882-1963)

[4] A typical ‘Cubist’ painting depicts real people, places or objects, but
not from a fixed viewpoint. Instead it will show you many parts of the
subject at one time, viewed from different angles, and reconstructed into a
composition of planes, forms and colors. The whole idea of space is
reconfigured: the front, back and sides of the subject become
interchangeable elements in the design of the work.
[5] The ‘Cubists’ believed that the traditions of western art had become
exhausted and another remedy they applied to revitalize their work was to
draw on the expressive energy of art from other cultures, especially
African art. However, they were not interested in the true religious or
social symbolism of these cultural objects, but valued them superficially
for their expressive style. They viewed them as subversive elements that
could be used to attack and subsequently refresh the tired tradition of
western art. This inspiration to cross-reference art from different cultures
probably came from Paul Gauguin, the French ‘Post-impressionist’ artist,
whose paintings and prints were influenced by the native culture of Tahiti
and the Marquesas Islands where he spent his final years.
184 English for the students of art

PABLO PICASSO (1881-1973)

[6] ‘Cubism’ was born in France but emigrated across Europe and integrated
with the artistic consciousness of several countries. It emerged as ‘Futurism’
in Italy, ‘Vorticism’ in England, ‘Suprematism’ and ‘Constructivism’ in
Russia, and ‘Expressionism’ in Germany. It also influenced several of the
major design and architectural styles of the 20th century and prevails to this
day as mode of expression in the language of art.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Emerge (v.) /ɪˈməːdʒ/
Move out of or away from something and come into view.
After 30 years of painstaking research, some of the answers are beginning
to emerge.

Evolve (v.) /iˈvalv/


Develop gradually, esp. from a simple to a more complex form.
Failure to evolve can then lead to extinction.
Lesson fifteen 185

Exhausted (adj.) /ɪɡˈzɔːstɪd/


(1) Drained of one's physical or mental resources. (2) Very tired.
Aren't you exhausted of gossiping?

Extend (v.) /ikˈstend/


(1) Cause to cover a larger area; make longer or wider. (2) Expand in
scope, effect, or meaning.
I feel very tired. I may extend my vacation.

Herald (v.) /ˈherəld/


Be a sign that (something) is about to happen.
Clouds, too, often herald changes in the weather.

Obstacle (n.) /ˈabstəkəl/


A thing that blocks one's way or prevents or hinders progress.
Poverty is not an obstacle for education, is it?

Prevail (v.) /prɪˈveɪl/


(1) Prove more powerful than opposing forces; be victorious. (2) Be
widespread in a particular area at a particular time; be current.
Surely, justice and truth will prevail in the end.

Reconstruct (v.) /riːkənˈstrʌkt/


Build or form (something) again after it has been damaged or destroyed.
(2) Form an impression, model, or re-enactment of (a past event or thing)
from the available evidence.
186 English for the students of art

In order to reconstruct the earthquake damages, we need a great deal of


money.

Revitalize (v.) /riːˈvʌɪt(ə)lʌɪz/


(1) Imbue (something) with new life and vitality. (2) Revive.
Your precise economic comments revitalized the company.

Revolutionary (adj.) /rɛvəˈluːʃ(ə)n(ə)ri/


Engaged in or promoting political revolution.
His revolutionary moral changes confused us all.

Rigid (adj.) /ˈrɪdʒɪd/


Unable to bend or be forced out of shape; not flexible.
A rigid code of ethics was established to improve the staff's relationships.

Subversive (adj.) /səbˈvərsiv/


Seeking or intended to subvert an established system or institution.
What's really subversive is to try to change the system from within.

Unprecedented (adj.) /ʌnˈprɛsɪdɛntɪd/


Never done or known before.
To our knowledge this rapid growth is unprecedented.
Lesson fifteen 187

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- Why do we call ‘Cubism’ a truly revolutionary style?


2- What did the ‘Cubists’ challenge? Why?
3- Can you discuss some of ‘Cubist’ paintings?
4- Why did ‘Cubists’ approach the African art?
5- Which art schools have been derived from ‘Cubism’?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. ‘Cubism’ was an attempt to revitalize the old traditions of


Western art which had run their course.
……. 2. In order to change the way of seeing the world, cubists
challenged the concept of perspective.
……. 3. The later paintings of Paul Cézanne were the starting point of
‘Cubism’.
……. 4. Cubists were interested in the true religious or social
symbolism of African art.
……. 5. ‘Cubism’ was a native school of French art which did not go
out of France.
……. 6. ‘Cubism’ is the result of African art.
…… 7. ‘Cubism’ was formed in Germany and immigrated to France
later.
188 English for the students of art

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.
1- ‘Cubism’ was …………….
A) a response to a world that was changing with unprecedented
speed.
B) to revitalize the tired traditions of western art.
C) to develop a new way of seeing which reflected the modern age
D) All of the above

2- ‘Cubists’ challenged the ……………. of artworks.


A) medium B) perspective
C) genre D) form

3- All of the following are the characteristics of ‘Cubism’ except …………


A) relativity
B) fixed viewpoint
C) depicting normal people
D) different angles of view

4- ‘Interchangeable’ in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to …………


A) acceptable. B) identical.
C) noticeable. D) different.

5- ‘Cubism’ is the first …………….


A) art school of 20th century.
Lesson fifteen 189

B) expressive art
C) abstract art school
D) formal art movement

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


emergence emerge emergent
evolution evolve evolutionary evolutionarily
extension extend extensive extensively
revolution revolutionize revolutionary revolutionarily

1- Instead of escaping from your problems you should …………….


your situations.
2- The truth will ……………. one day, be sure!
3- It is a very time-consuming and gradual process. Nothing would
happen …………….
4- Egypt is the country of ……………. Deserts.
5- He is very old and tired. Probably, it is his last ……………. on the
stage before the retirement.

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 exceptional, unique (para.1) ……………………..


190 English for the students of art

2 creation, innovation (para.2) …………………….


3 every 10 years (para.2) …………………….
4 barrier, blockage (para.3) …………………….
5 mix, combine (para.3) ……………………..
6 exchangeable, similar (para.4) ……………………..
7 very tired (para.5) ……………………..
8 then, after (para.5) ……………………..
9 awareness (para.6) …………………….
10 manner, means (para.6) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 prevail (……) a. mirror
2 revitalize (……) b. local, natural
3 reflect (……) c. move abroad
4 progress (……) d. sequence
5 native (……) e. put together
6 emigrate (……) f. revive
7 integrate (……) g. current, usual
h. advance,
development
Lesson fifteen 191

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

Historians have divided the history of ‘Cubism’ into phases. In one


scheme, the first phase of ‘Cubism’, known as Analytic Cubism, a phrase
…..(1)….. by Juan Gris, was both radical and influential as a short but
highly significant art movement between 1910 and 1912 in France. A
second phase, Synthetic Cubism, ….(2)….. vital until around 1919, when
the ‘Surrealist’ movement gained …..(3)…... English art historian Douglas
Cooper proposed another scheme, describing three phases of Cubism in
his book, The Cubist Epoch. According to Cooper there was ‘Early
Cubism’, (from 1906 to 1908) when the movement was initially
…..(4)….. in the studios of Picasso and Braque; the second phase being
called ‘High Cubism’, (from 1909 to 1914) during ….(5)….. Juan Gris
emerged as an important exponent and finally ‘Late Cubism’ (from 1914
to 1921) as the last phase of ‘Cubism’ as a radical avant-garde movement.

1. A) made B) caused C) coined D) created


2. A) remained B) shocked C) found D) opened
3. A) certainty B) popularity C) validity D) reliability
4. A) initiated B) asked C) made D) developed
5. A) where B) when C) which D) whom

References
Barr, A. H. (1936). Cubism and Abstract Art. New York: Museum of Modern
Art.
192 English for the students of art

Cauman, J. (2001). Inheriting Cubism: The Impact of Cubism on American Art.


New York: Hollis Taggart Galleries.

Cooper, D. (1970). The Cubist Epoch. London: Phaidon in association with the
Los Angeles County Museum of Art & the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Golding, J. (1959). Cubism: A History and an Analysis. New York: Wittenborn.
Lesson 16

Dadaism

Before you read


Warm-up questions
Was ‘Dadaism’ is popular movement of art? What does ‘Dadaism’ mean?
What are the remarkable elements of ‘Dadaism’? Did ‘Dadaism’ last for a
long time? Did ‘Dadaism’ involve just painting?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ………………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
194 English for the students of art

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Anti-bourgeois  Surrealism
 Cabaret Voltaire  Collage
 Hobbyhorse  Post-World War II optimism

Part Ι. Reading

Dadaism

[1] ‘Dada’ or ‘Dadaism’ was an art movement of the European avant-garde in


the early 20th century. Many claim ‘Dada’ began in Zurich, Switzerland in
1916, spreading to Berlin shortly thereafter. ‘Dada’ was born out of
negative reaction to the horrors of World War I. This international
movement was begun by a group of artist and poets associated with the
Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich. ‘Dada’ rejected reason and logic, prizing
nonsense, irrationality and intuition. The origin of the name ‘Dada’ is
unclear; some believe that it is a nonsensical word. Others maintain that it
originates from the Romanian artists Tristan Tzara's and Marcel Janco's
frequent use of the words da, da, meaning yes, yes in the Romanian
language. Another theory says that the name ‘Dada’ came during a
Lesson sixteen 195

meeting of the group when a paper knife stuck into a French-German


dictionary happened to point to ‘dada’, a French word for ‘hobbyhorse’.
[2] The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature, poetry, art
manifestoes, art theory, theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its
anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art
through anti-art cultural works. In addition to being anti-war, Dada was
also anti-bourgeois and had political affinities with the radicalism.
[3] A movement that proclaimed to be nothing and everything, ‘Dada’
desperately sought a fresh start, a tabula rasa for culture and humanity.
‘Dada’ arose from the depths of individuals as a testament to the
everlasting spirit of change. This spirit strove to offer a rebirth of thought
that would wash away the tears and the disillusions of millions of lost
souls and provide ground for humans to move forward, to forget the past
and re-envision society. ‘Dada’ as an art movement sought to unearth the
façade established by misconceptions brought forth by conventional
definitions.
[4] Many ‘Dadaists’ believed that the ‘reason’ and ‘logic’ of bourgeois
capitalist society had led people into war. They expressed their rejection of
that ideology in artistic expression that appeared to reject logic and
embrace chaos and irrationality. For example, George Grosz later recalled
that his ‘Dadaist’ art was intended as a protest “against this world of
mutual destruction”. A reviewer from the American Art News stated at the
time that “Dada philosophy is the sickest, most paralyzing and most
destructive thing that has ever originated from the brain of man.” Art
historians have described Dada as being, in large part, a "reaction to what
many of these artists saw as nothing more than an insane spectacle of
collective homicide."
196 English for the students of art

[5] While broad, the movement was unstable. By 1924 in Paris, ‘Dada’
was melding into ‘Surrealism’, and artists had gone on to other ideas and
movements, including ‘Surrealism’, social ‘Realism’ and other forms of
modernism. Some theorists argue that ‘Dada’ was actually the beginning
of post-modern art.
[6] By the dawn of World War II, many of the European ‘Dadaists’ had
immigrated to the United States. Some died in death camps under Adolf
Hitler who persecuted the kind of ‘Degenerate art’ that ‘Dada’
represented. The movement became less active as post-World War II
optimism led to new movements in art and literature. The ‘Dadaists’
imitated the techniques developed during the cubist movement through the
pasting of cut pieces of paper items, but extended their art to encompass
items such as transportation tickets, maps, etc. to portray aspects of life,
rather than representing objects viewed as still life.

RAOUL HAUSMANN (1886- 1971) _ Self-portrait


Lesson sixteen 197

[7] The ‘Dadaists’ used scissors and glue rather than paintbrushes and
paints to express their views of modern life through images presented by
the media. A variation on the collage technique, photomontage utilized
actual or reproductions of real photographs printed in the press.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Affinity (n.) /əˈfɪnɪti/
A spontaneous or natural liking or sympathy for someone or something.
It has a close linguistic and cultural affinity with its neighbors.

Chaos (n.) /ˈkeɪɒs/


Behavior so unpredictable as to appear random, owing to great sensitivity
to small changes in conditions.
Where is my book? I cannot find it in this chaos.

Dawn (n.) /dan/


The first appearance of light in the sky before sunrise.
This book is the dawn of my academic success.

Disillusion (n.) /ˌdɪsɪˈl(j)uːʒ(ə)n/


Disappointment resulting from the discovery that something is not as good
as one believed it to be.
When I saw the new job's situation, I totally disillusioned.

Encompass (v.) /enˈkəmpəs/


(1) Surround and have or hold within. (2) Cause (something) to take place.
198 English for the students of art

The house yard is encompassed by beautiful old trees.

Erode (v.) /ɪˈrəʊd/


(1) (Of soil, rock, or land) Be gradually worn away by such natural agents.
(2) Gradually destroy or be gradually destroyed.
Three months of struggle seriously erode our energy.

Façade (n.) /fəˈsad/


An artificial or deceptive front.
You cannot convince her by your illusive façade.

Homicide (n.) /ˈhaməsīd/


The deliberate and unlawful killing of one person by another, murder.
About 90% of homicide victims were killed with a gun.

Intend (v.) /inˈtend/


(1) Have (a course of action) as one's purpose or objective. (2) Plan.
Because of the stormy climate, they intend to cancel their trip to France.

Manifesto (n.) /mænɪˈfɛstəʊ/


A public declaration of policy and aims, esp. one issued before an election
by a political party or candidate.
Their artistic manifesto is published in the press.
Lesson sixteen 199

Meld (v.) / meld/


Blend and combine.
If you want to meld the ingredients it you should add some water to the pot.

Nonsense (n.) /ˈnansens/


Words that make no sense.
Who would believe this nonsense!

Optimism (n.) /ˈaptəmizəm/


Hopefulness and confidence about the future or the successful outcome of
something.
This article is particularly reflecting its author's optimism.

Paralyze (v.) /ˈpærəlīz/


Cause (a person or part of the body) to become partly or wholly incapable
of movement.
The sanctions cannot paralyze the economy.

Persecute (v.) /pərsəˈkyu:t/


Harass or annoy (someone) persistently.
His phone calls persecuted her during the last year.

Strive (v.) / strīv/


(1) Make great efforts to achieve or obtain something. (2) Struggle or fight
vigorously.
200 English for the students of art

He strived hard to get his Ph.D from that renowned university.

Unearth (v.) /ˈənərθ/


Discover (something hidden, lost, or kept secret) by investigation or searching.
Finally their hostile relationship is unearthed.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- How did ‘Dadaism’ come into existence?


2- How did ‘Dadaism’ propose its anti-war perspectives?
3- Why was ‘Dadaism’ against bourgeois capitalist society?
4- What do you think about this sentence; “Dada philosophy is the
sickest, most paralyzing and most destructive thing that has ever
originated from the brain of man”?
5- Why did Hitler torture the ‘Dadaist’ painters?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. ‘Dada’ was born out of negative reaction to the horrors of


World War II.
……. 2. ‘Dada’ rejected chaos and irrationality in favor of logic and
reason.
……. 3. Art historians have mentioned that ‘Dada’ reacted against an
insane collective homicide.
Lesson sixteen 201

……. 4. Dadaism was an unstable movement.


……. 5. Adolf Hitler was against "Degenerate art" that ‘Dada’
represented.
……. 6. ‘Dadaism’ was the most popular art school of the 20th century
which was collapsed by Hitler.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.

1- How did ‘Dadaism’ propose its anti-war philosophy?


A) By proclaiming its manifesto publically.
B) through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through
anti-art cultural works
C) through different exhibitions and galleries across the Europe
D) by neglecting the artistic conventions of ‘Expressionism’

2- ‘Dadaism’ was born in …………….


A) Switzerland. B) France.
C) Germany. D) America.

3- ‘Dadaism’ involved …………….


A) visual arts. B) literature.
C) theatre. D) all art works.

4- Which of the following art schools is closer to ‘Dadaism’?


202 English for the students of art

A) ‘Cubism’ B) ‘Expressionism’
C) ‘Realism’ D) ‘Impressionism’

5- ‘Portray’ in paragraph 6 is closest in meaning to …………….


A) destroy. B) express.
C) represent. D) react.

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


chaos chaotic chaotically
erosion erode erosive
intention intend intentional intentionally
paralysis paralyze paralyzing

1- The bureaucracy ……………. the entire operation.


2- The desk was a(n) ……………. of papers and unopened letters.
3- I do not forgive you. I am sure that you have done it …………….
4- After his wife’s death, a progressive ……………. of confidence in his
behavior is obvious.
5- International sanctions do not have ……………. effects on our
economy, the president said.

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:
Lesson sixteen 203

1 regular, normal (para.1) ……………………..


2 senseless, ridiculous (para.1) …………………….
3 sympathy (para.2) …………………….
4 state publically (para.3) …………………….
5 endless, unending (para.3) ……………………..
6 discover (para.3) ……………………..
7 foolish (para.4) ……………………..
8 group (para.4) ……………………..
9 include (para.6) …………………….
10 sunrise (para.6) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 facade (……) a. rebirth
2 homicide (……) b. blend
3 meld (……) c. optimism
4 strive (……) d. change
5 renaissance (……) e. wrong appearance
6 hopefulness (……) f. simplify
7 variation (……) g. attempt
h. murder
204 English for the students of art

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

Having left Germany and Romania during the Great War, the artists found
themselves in Switzerland, a country …..(1)….. for its neutrality. Inside
this space of political neutrality they decided to use abstraction to fight
a…..(2)….. the social, political, and cultural ideas of that time. The
‘Dadaists’ believed those ideas to be a byproduct of bourgeois ….(3)…..
Marcel Janco recalled, "We had lost confidence in our culture. Everything
had to be demolished. We would begin again after the tabula rasa. At the
Cabaret Voltaire we began by shocking common sense, public opinion,
education, institutions, museums, good taste, in short, the whole prevailing
order." The Cabaret closed its doors. In 1917, Tzara wrote a second
‘Dada’ ….(4)…. considered one of the most important ‘Dada’ writings,
which was ….(5)….. in 1918. Other manifestos followed.

1. A) understood B) recognized C) accompanied D) created


2. A) against B) for C) up D) away
3. A) community B) unity C) certainty D) society
4. A) article B) letter C) manifesto D) book
5. A) perished B) published C) pushed D) pulled

References
Ball, H. (1996). Flight Out Of Time. University of California Press: Berkeley and
Los Angeles.
Biro, M. (2009).The Dada Cyborg: Visions of the New Human in Weimar Berlin.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Lesson sixteen 205

Gammel, I. (2002). Baroness Elsa: Gender, Dada and Everyday Modernity.


Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Lavin, M. (1993). Cut With the Kitchen Knife: The Weimar Photomontages of
Hannah Höch. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Sanouillet, M. (2009). Dada in Paris, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Lesson 17

Futurism

Before you read


Warm-up questions
Where did ‘Futurism’ originate from? What is ‘Futurism’ famous for?
Does ‘Futurism’ have any predictions about the future? What was the
most remarkable impact of ‘Futurism’ on art?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ………………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
Lesson seventeen 207

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Intellectuals  Modernity
 Dynamic art  Fascism
 Nationalism  Divisionism

Part Ι. Reading

Futurism

[1] ‘Futurism’ was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in
the early 20th century. It emphasized and glorified themes associated with
contemporary concepts of the future, including speed, technology, youth
and violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane and the industrial
city. It was largely an Italian phenomenon, though there were parallel
movements in Russia, England and elsewhere. The ‘Futurists’ practiced in
every medium of art, including painting, sculpture, graphic design,
industrial design, interior design, urban design, theatre, film, fashion,
textiles, literature, music, architecture and even gastronomy.
[2] The founder of ‘Futurism’ was the Italian writer Filippo Tommaso
Marinetti. Marinetti launched the movement in his ‘Futurist’ Manifesto,
which he published for the first time on 5 February 1909 in La gazzetta
208 English for the students of art

dell'Emilia, an article then reproduced in the French daily newspaper Le


Figaro on 20 February 1909. Marinetti expressed a passionate loathing of
everything old, especially political and artistic tradition. “We want no part
of it, the past”, he wrote, “we the young and strong Futurists!” The
‘Futurists’ admired speed, technology, youth and violence, the car, the
airplane and the industrial city, all that represented the technological
triumph of humanity over nature, and they were passionate nationalists.
[3] The ‘Futurist’ painters were slow to develop a distinctive style and
subject matter. In 1910 and 1911 they used the techniques of
‘Divisionism’, breaking light and color down into a field of dots and
stripes, which had been originally created by Giovanni Segantini. Later,
Severini, who lived in Paris, was the first to come into contact with
‘Cubism’ and following a visit to Paris in 1911 the ‘Futurist’ painters
adopted the methods of the Cubists. ‘Cubism’ offered them a means of
analyzing energy in paintings and expressing dynamism.

UMBERTO BOCCIONI (1882-1916) _ The City Rises


Lesson seventeen 209

[4] The adoption of ‘Cubism’ determined the style of much subsequent


‘Futurist’ painting, which Boccioni and Severini in particular continued to
render in the broken colors and short brush-strokes of ‘Divisionism’. But
‘Futurist’ painting differed in both subject matter and treatment from the
quiet and static ‘Cubism’ of Picasso, Braque and Gris.
[5] Boccioni's The City Rises (1910) represents scenes of construction and
manual labor with a huge, rearing red horse in the centre foreground,
which workmen struggle to control. The work attempts to convey feelings
and sensations experienced in time, using new means of expression,
including ‘lines of force’, which were intended to convey the directional
tendencies of objects through space, ‘simultaneity’, which combined
memories, present impressions and anticipation of future events, and
‘emotional ambience’ in which the artist seeks by intuition to link
sympathies between the exterior scene and interior emotion.
[6] With the beginning of the twentieth century, Europe saw a moment of
great political, economic and social stability. That period was dominated
by a liberal discourse based on two main principles: the abolition of war
and the need for the States to establish commercial relations in order to
reduce conflict. This climate was interrupted by the birth of a new
antagonistic discourse that took shape in Italy, attacking the idea of peace
as a positive value and promoting hate and conflict as means to destroy the
vices and weariness that, according to the intellectuals supporting this
idea, characterized the new continent. The seeds of this new political and
intellectual wave were sewn by the ‘Futurist’ movement, starting with the
publication, in 1909, of its Manifesto, which clearly stated that conflict
was to be used as a means for the creation of a new artistic, social and
political project. Conflict would serve to lead to a revolution of the
consciousness that could erase the border between life and art.
210 English for the students of art

[7] The outbreak of war disguised the fact that Italian ‘Futurism’ had come
to an end. The Florence ‘Futurists’ had formally acknowledged their
withdrawal from the movement by the end of 1914. Boccioni produced
only one war picture and was killed in 1916. Severini painted some
significant war pictures in 1915but in Paris turned towards ‘Cubism’ and
post-war was associated with the ‘Return to Order’. After the war,
Marinetti revived the movement. This revival was called il secondo
Futurismo (Second Futurism) by writers in the 1960s.
[8] Many Italian ‘Futurists’ supported ‘Fascism’ in the hope of
modernizing a country divided between the industrializing north and the
rural, archaic South. Like the ‘Fascists’, the ‘Futurists’ were Italian
nationalists, radicals, admirers of violence, and were opposed to
parliamentary democracy. Marinetti founded the Futurist Political Party in
early 1918, which was absorbed into Mussolini's Fasci di combattimento
in 1919, making Marinetti one of the first members of the National
Fascist Party. The Futurists' association with ‘Fascism’ after its triumph in
1922 brought them official acceptance in Italy and the ability to carry out
important work, especially in architecture. After the Second World War,
many ‘Futurist’ artists had difficulty in their careers because of their
association with a defeated and discredited regime.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Abolition (n.) /æbəˈlɪʃ(ə)n/
The action or an act of abolishing a system, practice, or institution,
destruction.
Are you for or against the abolition of the British Monarchy?
Lesson seventeen 211

Acknowledge (v.) /əkˈnɒlɪdʒ/


Accept or admit the existence or truth of.
Please acknowledge the reception of my email.

Ambience (n.) /ˈæmbiəns/


Background noise added to a musical recording to give the impression that
it was recorded live.
The soft music created suitable ambience in the dinner time.

Antagonistic (adj.) /ænˈtægənistik/


Showing or feeling active opposition or hostility toward someone or
something.
Two mutually antagonistic philosophies were always competing to
dominate the market.

Distinctive (adj.) /disˈtiŋktiv/


Characteristic of one person or thing, and so serving to distinguish it from
others.
It is her distinctive characteristic that made her popular.

Dynamism (n.) /dīnəˈmizəm/


The quality of being characterized by vigorous activity and progress.
Changes in human society reflect the dynamism of culture.

Glorify (v.) /ˈɡlɔːrɪfʌɪ/


Give praise to (esp.) God.
212 English for the students of art

Glorify your son, that your son may also glorify you.

Outbreak (n.) /ˈaʊtbreɪk/


The sudden or violent start of something unwelcome, such as war,
disease, etc.
Some observers claim it is the worst cancer outbreak for 25 years.

Phenomenon (n.) / fəˈnamənən/


A fact or situation that is observed to exist or happen, esp. one whose
cause is in question.
The decrease of income is a relatively recent economic phenomenon.

Rear (adj.) /ri(ə)r/


(1) (Of a horse or other animal) raise itself upright on its hind legs. (2)
Bring up and care for (a child) until they are fully grown, esp. in a
particular manner or place.
The painting depicts a rearing horse in a farm.

Revival (n.) /riˈvīvəl/


(1) An instance of something becoming popular, active, or important
again. (2) An improvement in the condition or strength of something.
His book brought about the forgotten custom's revival.

Simultaneity (n.) /ˌsɪm(ə)lˈteɪnɪtɪ/


Happening or existing or done at the same time.
We lost one of the matches due to their simultaneity.
Lesson seventeen 213

Triumph (n.) /ˈtrīəmf/


A great victory or achievement.
We go forward with complete confidence in the eventual triumph of
freedom.

Vice (n.) /vīs/


Immoral or wicked behavior.
Gluttony is one of the ethical vices.

Withdrawal (n.) /wɪðˈdrɔː(ə)l/


The action of withdrawing something.
After you quit smoking, you will have some withdrawal symptoms.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- What were the interest areas of the ‘Futurists’?


2- What did Marinetti mention in the first “Futurist’ manifesto?
3- How were ‘Futurist’ and ‘Cubist’ artworks different?
4- Was the second ‘Futurism’ different from the first ‘Futurism’?
5- Why did many ‘Futurists’ support ‘Fascism’?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.
214 English for the students of art

…..... 1. Founder of ‘Futurism’ expressed a passionate loathing of


everything old, especially political and artistic tradition.
……. 2. The Futurist painters developed a distinctive style and subject
matter.
……. 3. ‘Futurism’ and Cubism are highly related.
……. 4. ‘Futurism’ died in the beginning of the twentieth century
forever.
……. 5. Like the Fascists, the Futurists were Italian nationalists,
radicals, admirers of violence, and were opposed to
parliamentary democracy.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.

1- In his manifesto Marinetti expressed …………….


A). acceptable social and political standards.
B) loathing of everything old.
C) problems with other schools of art.
D) dissatisfaction with the technology.

2- What was the focus of ‘Futurism’?


A) anti-war works B) future concepts
C) self-expression D) realities of life

3- ‘Futurism’ was born in …………….


A) Italy in 20th century. B) France in 19th century.
Lesson seventeen 215

C) Italy in 19th century. D) France in 20th century.

4- ‘Futurists’ favored ……………. techniques of painting.


A) ‘Pointillist’ B) ‘Divisionist’
C) ‘Fauvist’ D) ‘Impressionist’

5- ‘Weariness’ in paragraph 6 is closest in meaning to …………….


A) harness. B) tiredness.
C) happiness. D) sharpness.

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


revival revive revivable
simultaneity simultaneous simultaneously
triumph triumph triumphant triumphantly
dynamism dynamic dynamically

1- She rejected modernity in favor of ………………. old costumes.


2- When he won the case in the court, he made a …………….. shout.
3- The process of language learning is a(n) ……………. process.
4- Hebrew was a dead language but recently ……………… .
5- The General sent fresh forces to the battlefield to guarantee the
military …………. over the enemy.
216 English for the students of art

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:
1 equivalent (para.1) ……………………..
2 start (para.2) …………………….
3 provide, present (para.4) …………………….
4 vary (para.4) …………………….
5 feelings (para.5) ……………………..
6 expectation (para.5) ……………………..
7 strength, firmness (para.6) ……………………..
8 remove, clear (para.6) ……………………..
9 accept, admit (para.7) …………………….
10 aggression, cruelty (para.8) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.
column Ι column ΙΙ
1 abolition (……) a. sin
2 vice (……) b. disagreement
3 loath (……) c. hate
4 exterior (……) d. ancient
5 conflict (……) e. external
6 archaic (……) f. destruction
7 association (……) g. connection
h. seek
Lesson seventeen 217

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

‘Futurism’ had from the outset admired violence and was intensely
…..(1)…... The Futurist Manifesto had declared, "We will glorify war —the
world's only purity." Although it …..(2)…. much of its character and some of
its ideas to radical political movements, it was not much involved in
….(3)….. until the autumn of 1913. Then, fearing the re-election of Giolitti,
Marinetti published a political manifesto. In 1914 the ‘Futurists’ began to
campaign …..(4)…. against the Austro-Hungarian empire, which still
controlled some Italian territories. In September, Boccioni, seated in the
balcony of the Teatro dal Verme in Milan, tore up an Austrian flag and threw
it into the audience, while Marinetti waved an Italian ….(5)…... When Italy
entered the First World War in 1915, many Futurists joined the army.

1. A) realist B) polluted C) stupid D) patriotic


2. A) sent B) owed C) opened D) sold
3. A) society B) politics C) war D) art
4. A) actively B) finally C) really D) surely
5. A) rule B) emblem C) manifesto D) flag

References
Chiancone-Schneider, D. (2010). Zukunftsmusik oder Schnee von gestern?
Interdisziplinarität, Internationalität und Aktualität des Futurismus. Cologne:
Congress papers.
Coen, E. (1988). Umberto Boccioni. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
218 English for the students of art

Conversi, D. (2009). Art, Nationalism and War: Political Futurism in Italy,


Sociology Compass, (3)1, 92–117.

Gentile, E. (2003). The Struggle for Modernity: Nationalism, Futurism, and


Fascism. Praeger Publishers.
Rainey, L. (2009). Futurism: An Anthology. Yale University Press.

Rodker, J. (1927). The future of futurism. New York: E.P. Dutton & company.
Lesson 18

Abstract Expressionism

Before you read


Warm-up questions
What is ‘Abstract Expressionism’ so important for American artists? Was
‘Abstract Expressionism’ the continuation of ‘Expressionism’? What are
the most important characteristics of ‘Abstract Expressionism’?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
220 English for the students of art

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Universal acclaim  Artist’s identity
 Great depression  Imitation
 Action painting  Direct expression

Part Ι. Reading

Abstract Expressionism

[1] ‘Abstract Expressionism’ developed in the context of diverse, overlapping


sources and inspirations. Many of the young artists had made their start in
the 1930s. The ‘Great Depression’ yielded two popular art movements,
‘Regionalism’ and ‘Social Realism’, neither of which satisfied this group
of artists' desire to find a content rich with meaning and redolent of social
responsibility, yet free from explicit politics. But it was the exposure to
and assimilation of European modernism that set the stage for the most
advanced American art.
[2] The crisis of war was a key to understanding the concerns of the
‘Abstract Expressionists’. These young artists, troubled by man's dark side
and anxiously aware of human irrationality and vulnerability, wanted to
express their concerns in a new art of meaning and substance. Direct
Lesson eighteen 221

contact with European artists had been increased as a result of World War
II, which caused so many to seek refuge in the U.S.
[3] Their early works of ‘Abstract Expressionist’ feature pictographic and
biomorphic elements transformed into personal code. Jungian psychology
was compelling too, in its assertion of the collective unconscious.
Directness of expression was paramount, best achieved through lack of
premeditation.
[4] The first generation of ‘Abstract Expressionism’ flourished between
1943 and the mid 50s. The movement effectively shifted the art world's
focus from Europe (specifically Paris) to New York in the post-war years.
The paintings were seen widely in traveling exhibitions and through
publications. In the wake of ‘Abstract Expressionism’, new generations of
artists—both American and European—were profoundly marked by the
breakthroughs made by the first generation, and went on to create their
own important expressions based on, but not imitative of, those who
planned the way.
[5] In 1947, Pollock developed a radical new technique, pouring and
dripping thinned paint onto raw canvas laid on the ground (instead of
traditional methods of painting in which pigment is applied by brush to
stretched canvas positioned on an easel). The paintings were entirely
nonobjective and shocking to many viewers. De Kooning, too, was
developing his own version of a highly gestural style, alternating between
abstract work and powerful figurative images. Other colleagues, including
Krasner and Kline, were equally engaged in creating an art of dynamic
gesture in which every inch of a picture is fully charged.
[6] For ‘Abstract Expressionists’, the authenticity or value of a work lay in
its directness and immediacy of expression. A painting is meant to be a
revelation of the artist's authentic identity. The gesture, the artist's
222 English for the students of art

‘signature’, is evidence of the actual process of the work's creation. It is in


reference to this aspect of the work that critic Harold Rosenberg coined the
term ‘Action painting’ in 1952.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Anxious (adj.) /ˈæŋ(k)ʃəs/
Experiencing worry, unease, or nervousness, typically about an imminent
event or something with an uncertain outcome.
Don't be anxious about the exams; they would be easy if you study enough.

Assertion (n.) /əˈsə(r)ʃ(ə)n/


(1) The action of stating something or exercising authority confidently and
forcefully. (2) A confident and forceful statement of fact or belief.
This strong assertion caused a great uproar.

Authenticity (n.) /ɔːθɛnˈtɪsɪti/


(1) Undisputed credibility. (2) Being able to control everything.
She ignored your authenticity and told whatever she wanted.

Breakthrough (n.) /ˈbreɪkθruː/


(1) A significant and dramatic overcoming of a perceived obstacle,
allowing the completion of a process. (2) An instance of achieving success
in a particular sphere or activity.
After all these problems, the passing score was a real breakthrough.
Lesson eighteen 223

Compel (v.) /kəmˈpel/


Force or oblige (someone) to do something.
She has a free will; do not compel her to marry him.

Drip (v.) /drip/


Let fall or be so wet as to shed small drops of liquid.
This nasal drip is the best known drug for your ailment.

Flourish (v.) /ˈflʌrɪʃ/


(Of a person, animal) Grow or develop in a healthy or vigorous way.
Love is not a plant which will flourish naturally in human's soil; it must
be watered from above.

Irrationality (n.) /irraˈənæliti/


The state of being irrational, lacking powers of understanding.
Her behaviors are the real examples of absolute irrationality.

Pigment (n.) /ˈpigmənt/


The natural coloring matter of animal or plant tissue.
The color of skin depends mainly on melanin, which is a brownish
pigment produced in outer layer of skin.

Premeditation (n.) /ˌpriːmɛdɪˈteɪʃn/


Planning or plotting in advance of acting.
My behaviors were natural, spontaneous, requiring no premeditations.
224 English for the students of art

Redolent (adj.) /ˈredlənt/


(1) Strongly reminiscent or suggestive of (something). (2) Fragrant or
sweet-smelling.
His office was redolent of Brazilian coffee.

Vulnerability (n.) /ˈvəln(ə)rəbəliti/


(1) The state of being vulnerable or exposed. (2) The state of being
susceptible to physical or emotional attack or harm.
I am acutely aware of the vulnerability of my back.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- How did ‘Abstract Expressionism’ form in 1930s?


2- What is the difference between ‘Expressionism’ and ‘Abstract
Expressionism’?
3- Why did ‘Abstract Expressionism’ shift the art world's focus from
Paris to New York?
4- What is ‘Action painting’?
5- How were early works of ‘Abstract Expressionist’ painters?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.
Lesson eighteen 225

…..... 1. The Great depression and European modernism yielded


Abstract Expressionism in America.
……. 2. Abstract Expressionists were purely political artists.
……. 3. Abstract Expressionists troubled by man's dark side wanted to
express their concerns.
……. 4. Jungian psychology played an important role in formation of
Abstract Expressionism.
……. 5. The second generation of Abstract Expressionists went on to
create their own important expressions imitating the first
generation.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.

1- As the most advanced American art school, ‘Abstract Expressionism’


was …………….
A) against ‘Social Realism’ and ‘Regionalism’.
B) followed just by American artists.
C) a new way of expressing anti-bourgeois perspectives.
D) in favor of social responsibility.

2- ‘Abstract Expressionism’ was in its peak in …………….


A) 1910s. B) 1920s.
C) 1930s . D) 1940s.

3- ‘Code’ in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to …………….


226 English for the students of art

A) language. B) mode.
C) model. D) art.

4- All of the followings are the helpful factors for flourishing ‘Abstract
Expressionism’ except …………….
A) anti-war considerations.
B) immediacy of expression.
C) direct contact with European artists.
D) the period of ‘Great depression’.

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


anxiety anxious anxiously
assertion assert assertive assertively
authenticity authenticate authentic authentically
(ir)rationality (ir)rationize (ir)rational (ir)rationally

1- I spent a(n) ……………. night waiting for the test results


2- When you have not seen the documents, you cannot judge so
…………….
3- The teacher ……………. me to correct the quiz papers
4- Many people still ……………. luxury purchases as life investments.
5- The boss ……………. that the salary would not be raised this year
due to economic problems of the company
Lesson eighteen 227

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 various (para.1) ……………………..


2 duty, task (para.1) …………………….
3 disaster, big problem (para.2) …………………….
4 weakness (para.2) …………………….
5 forceful, undeniable (para.3) ……………………..
6 change, alter (para.3) ……………………..
7 center, heart (para.4) ……………………..
8 deeply (para.4) ……………………..
9 advance, success (para.4) …………………….
10 active, lively (para.5) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 redolent (……) a. contact
2 satisfy (……) b. widen, extend
3 exposure (……) c. wisdom
4 rationality (……) d. edition
5 stretch (……) e. personality
6 version (……) f. fragrant
7 identity (……) g. biomorphic
h. please, convince
228 English for the students of art

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

During World War II modernist artists, writers, and poets, as well as


important collectors and dealers, …..(1)…. from Europe for safe refuge to
the United States. Many of those who did not flee perished. Among the
artists and collectors who …..(2)…. in New York during the war were
Hans Namuth, Yves Tanguy and Kay Sage. A few artists, notably Pablo
Picasso, Henri Matisse and Pierre Bonnard remained in France and …..
(3)….. The post-war period left the capitals of Europe in upheaval with an
urgency to economically and physically …..(4)….. and to politically
regroup. In Paris, formerly the center of European culture and capital of
the art world, the climate for art was a …..(5)….. and New York replaced
Paris as the new center of the art world.

1. A) found B) went C) escaped D) turned


2. A) arrived B) remained C) closed D) set
3. A) revived B) survived C) evolved D) revolved
4. A) review B) rewrite C) return D) rebuild
5. A) surprise B) disaster C) disease D) deformity

References
Anfam, D. (1990). Abstract Expressionism. New York & London: Thames &
Hudson.

Belgrad, D. (2009). The Culture of Spontaneity. Improvisation and the Arts in


Postwar America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lesson eighteen 229

Craven, D. (1999). Abstract expressionism as cultural critique: dissent during


the McCarthy period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Guilbaut, S. (1983). How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
Herskovic, M. (2000). New York School Abstract Expressionists Artists Choice
by Artists. New York: New York School Press.

Herskovic, M. (2009). American Abstract and Figurative Expressionism: Style Is


Timely Art Is Timeless. New York: New York School Press.
Lesson 19

Pop Art

Before you read


Warm-up questions
Is ‘Pop art’ specialized for the youth only? Is there any capitalist
motivation underneath the ‘Pop art’? Where are the origins of ‘Pop art’?
What is ‘Pop art’ famous for? Can you name some ‘Pop’ artist in our
country?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
Lesson nineteen 231

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Optimism  Commercial art
 Mass-culture  Architectural scale
 The media  Globalization

Part Ι. Reading

Pop Art

[1] ‘Pop Art’ was the art of popular culture. It was the visual art movement that
characterized a sense of optimism during the 1950's and 1960's. It coincided
with the globalization of pop music and youth culture, personified by Elvis
and the Beatles. ‘Pop Art’ was brash, young and fun and hostile to the
artistic establishment. It included different styles of painting and sculpture
from various countries, but what they all had in common was an interest in
mass-media, mass-production and mass-culture.
[2] The word ‘Pop’ was coined in 1954, by the British art critic Lawrence
Alloway, to describe a new type of art that was inspired by the imagery of
popular culture. Alloway, alongside the artists Richard Hamilton and
Eduardo Paolozzi, was among the founding members of the Independent
232 English for the students of art

Group, a collective of artists, architects, and writers who explored radical


approaches to contemporary visual culture during their meetings in London
between 1952 and 1955. They became the forerunners to British ‘Pop art’.
[3] Some young British artists viewed the seductive imagery of American
popular culture and its consumerist lifestyle with a romantic sense of irony
and a little bit of envy. They saw America as being the land of the free -
free from the crippling conventions and a more inclusive, youthful culture
that embraced the social influence of mass-media and mass-production.
‘Pop Art’ became their mode of expression in this search for change. The
‘Dadaists’ had created irrational combinations of random images to
provoke a reaction from the establishment of their day. British ‘Pop’
artists adopted a similar visual technique but focused their attention on the
mass imagery of popular culture which they waved as a challenge.
[4] ‘Pop art’ in America evolved in a slightly differently way to its British
counterpart. American ‘Pop Art’ was both a development of and a reaction
against ‘Abstract Expressionist’ painting. ‘Abstract Expressionism’ was
the first American art movement to achieve global acclaim but, by the
mid-1950's, many felt it had become too introspective and elitist.
American ‘Pop Art’ evolved as an attempt to reverse this trend by
reintroducing the image as a structural device in painting, to pull art back
from the obscurity into the real world again. Around 1955, two remarkable
artists emerged who would lay the foundations of a bridge between
‘Abstract Expressionism’ and ‘Pop Art’. They were Jasper Johns and
Robert Rauschenberg, the forerunners of American ‘Pop Art’.
Lesson nineteen 233

JASPER JOHNS (1930-….)

[5] If there was one artist who personified ‘Pop Art’ it was Andy Warhol. He
originally worked as a ‘commercial artist’ and his subject matter was
derived from the imagery of mass-culture: advertising, comics, newspapers,
TV and the movies. Warhol embodied the spirit of American popular
culture and elevated its imagery to the status of museum art. He used
second-hand images of celebrities and consumer products which he
believed had an intrinsic banality that made them more interesting. He felt
that they had been stripped of their meaning and emotional presence
through their mass-exposure.
234 English for the students of art

ANDY WARHOL (1928-1987)

[6] Claes Oldenburg was the ‘Pop’ Artist who gravitated towards sculpture
more than any of his contemporaries. At the start of 1960's he was
involved in various ‘Happenings’; spontaneous, improvised, artistic events
where the experience of the participants was more important than an end
product. Oldenburg's work is full of humorous irony and contradiction: on
one hand he makes hard objects like a bathroom sink out soft sagging
vinyl, while on the other he makes soft objects like a cheeseburger out of
hard painted plaster. He also subverts the relative size of objects by taking
small items like the spoon and cherry above and recreating them on an
architectural scale.
Lesson nineteen 235

CLAES OLDENBURG (1922-…..)

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Austerity (n.) /ɒˈstɛrɪti/
Extreme plainness and simplicity of style or appearance.
The war-time's austerity was bitter but memorable.

Brash (adj.) /bræʃ/


(1) Self-assertive in a rude, noisy, or overbearing way. (2) Strong,
energetic, or irreverent.
The science community uses brash approaches to discredit superstitions.

Celebrity (n.) /səˈlebrəti/


A famous person.
Each country's celebrities are usually rich.
236 English for the students of art

Coincide (v.) /ˌkəʊɪnˈsʌɪd/


Occur at or during the same time.
When heavy winds coincide with high tides, it becomes impossible for the
fishing bouts to go to the sea.

Cripple (adj.) /ˈkripəl/


(1) Cause (someone) to become unable to move or walk properly. (2)
Paralyze.
There will be an attempt to severely cripple this emerging new market to
protect the existing one.

Elevate (v.) /ˈɛlɪveɪt/


Raise or lift (something) up to a higher position.
Thanks for trying to inform and elevate the public's awareness.

Envy (n.) /ˈenvi/


A feeling of discontented or resentful longing aroused by someone else's
possessions, qualities, or luck.
The tensions between the sisters, who envy each other's lives, has lasted
for nine now.

Forerunner (n.) /ˈfɔːrʌnər/


A person or thing that precedes the coming or development of someone or
something else.
His design was the forerunner of the majority of present-day telescopes.
Lesson nineteen 237

Gravitate (v.) /ˈɡrævɪteɪt/


Move toward or be attracted to a place, person, or thing.
We gravitate toward people who share our view of the world.

Introspective (adj.) /intrəˈspektiv/


Given to examining own sensory and perceptual experiences.
Music at that time was contemplative and introspective.

Obscurity (n.) /əbˈskju:riti/


The quality of being difficult to understand.
Now our understanding of this civilization is threatened with obscurity.

Personify (v.) /pərˈsanəfī/


Represent (a quality or concept) by a figure in human form.
In his poem, he personified the autumn.

Sag (adj.) /sæg/


(1) Sink or subside gradually under weight or pressure or through lack of
strength. (2) Decline to a lower level, usually temporarily.
The bed did not sag after such a long time.

Seductive (adj.) / siˈdəktiv/


Tempting and attractive; enticing.
There is also a very seductive look in her face.
238 English for the students of art

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- How do you define mass-culture?


2- Who were the forerunners to British ‘Pop art’?
3- How were British and American ‘Pop art’ different?
4- How did Warhol personify ‘Pop Art’?
5- Is ‘Pop art’ popular these days?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.
…..... ‘Pop art’ as a movement for intellectuals characterized a sense
of optimism during the 1950's and 1960's.
……. 2. Like other schools of art ‘Pop art’ initiated in France.
……. 3. Richard Hamilton and Eduardo Paolozzi were the forerunners
of ‘Pop art’ in America.
……. 4. American ‘Pop Art’ evolved as an attempt to reintroduce the
image as a structural device in painting.
……. 5. ‘Pop art’ as an instrument can be employed in commerce.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.

1- All of the following statements are true about ‘Pop art’ except
…………….
Lesson nineteen 239

A) ‘Pop Art’ was brash, young and fun.


B) ‘Pop art’ focused on the mass imagery of popular culture.
C) ‘Pop art’ was a new way of expressing anti-bourgeois perspectives.
D) ‘Pop art’ was hostile to the artistic establishment.

2- ‘Pop Art’ characterized a sense of ……………. during the 1950's


and 1960's.
A) optimism B) pessimism
C) capitalism D) secularism

3- ‘Status’ in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to …………….


A) time. B) degree.
C) condition. D) requirement.

4- American ‘Pop Art’ was both a development of and a reaction against


…………….
A) ‘Impressionism’. B) ‘Cubism’.
C) ‘Post-impressionism’. D) ‘Abstract Expressionism’.

5- Oldenburg's works are famous for …………….


A) their humorous irony and contradiction.
B) their novelty and expressive power.
C) their ‘Expressionist’ style.
D) their consumerist style.
240 English for the students of art

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


coincidence coincide coincident coincidently
envy envy envious enviously
personification personify
seduction seduce seductive seductively

1. What does this statue …………….?


2. Famine was ……………. with serious economic problems last year.
3. Do not shout your good scores. Others may be ……………. of your
success.
4. Finally, his ……………. suggestion made him sign the contract.
5. ……………. is one of literary ornamentations which Hafez used a lot
in his poetry.

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 unfriendly (para.1) ……………………..


2 next to, beside (para.2) …………………….
3 severity, shortage (para.3) …………………….
4 satire (para.3) …………………….
5 paralyzing (para.3) ……………………..
6 thoughtful (para.4) ……………………..
7 attain, get (para.4) ……………………..
Lesson nineteen 241

8 ordinariness, dullness (para.5) ……………………..


9 paradox (para.6) …………………….
10 observer, audience (para.6) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 elevate (……) a. comic
2 sag (……) b. description
3 imagery (……) c. motivate
4 forerunner (……) d. raise
5 provoke (……) e. noticeable
6 remarkable (……) f. vulnerable
7 humorous (……) g. pioneer
(……) h. sink
G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

‘Pop art’ employs aspects of mass-culture, such as advertising, comic books


and mundane cultural objects. It is widely …..(1)….. as a reaction to the
then-dominant ideas of ‘Abstract Expressionism’, as well as an expansion
….(2)….. them. And due to its utilization of found objects and images it is
similar to ‘Dada’. ‘Pop art’ is aimed to employ images of popular as
opposed to ….(3)….. culture in art, emphasizing the banal elements of any
242 English for the students of art

given culture, most often …..(4)….. the use of irony. ‘Pop art’ often takes
as its imagery ….(5)….. is currently in use in advertising. Product labeling
and logos figure prominently in the imagery chosen by ‘Pop’ artists, like in
the Campbell's Soup Cans labels, by Andy Warhol.

1. A) personified B) presented C) found D) interpreted


2. A) upon B) out C) up D) from
3. A) elitist B) humanist C) capitalist D) Cubist
4. A) as B) from C) through D) upon
5. A) whom B) which C) where D) when

References
Francis, M. and l Foster, H. (2010). Pop. London and New York: Phaidon.

Hapgood, S. (1994), Neo-Dada: Redefining Art, 1958-62. New York: Universe


Books.
Harrison, S. (2001). Pop Art and the Origins of Post-Modernism. Cambridge
University Press.
Haskell, B. (1984). BLAM! The Explosion of Pop, Minimalism and Performance
1958-1964. New York:. Norton & Company, Inc.

Lippard, L. R. (1966). Pop Art, with contributions by Lawrence Alloway, Nancy


Marmer, Nicolas Calas. New York: Frederick Praeger,

Livingstone, M. (1990). Pop Art: A Continuing History, New York: Harry N.


Abrams Inc.
Lesson 20

Minimalism

Before you read


Warm-up questions
Why is it called ‘Minimalism’? Where has ‘Minimalism’ come from? Is it
a universal movement or a localized, American movement? What is
specific about ‘Minimalism’?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ………………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
244 English for the students of art

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Objectivity versus subjectivity  Immediacy of response
 Simplicity  Kasimir Malevich
 Electronic songs  ABC art

Part Ι. Reading

Minimalism

[1] ‘Minimalism’ is a chiefly American movement in the visual arts and


music originating in New York City in the late 1960s and characterized by
extreme simplicity of form and a literal, objective approach. ‘Minimal’ art,
also called ‘ABC art’, is the culmination of reductionist tendencies in
modern art that first surfaced in the 1913 composition by the Russian
painter Kasimir Malevich of a black square on a white ground.
Lesson Twenty 245

KASIMIR MALOVICH (1879-1935)_ Black Square

[2] The ‘minimalists’, who believed that ‘Action painting’ was too
personal and insubstantial, adopted the point of view that a work of art
should not refer to anything other than itself. For that reason they
attempted to rid their works of any extra-visual association. Use of the
hard edge, the simple form, and the linear rather than painterly approach
was intended to emphasize two-dimensionality and to allow the viewer an
immediate, purely visual response.

TONY SMITH (1912-1980) _ Free Ride


246 English for the students of art

[3] ‘Minimal’ sculpture is composed of extremely simple, monumental


geometric forms made of fiberglass, plastic, sheet metal, or aluminum,
either left raw or solidly painted with bright industrial colors. Like the
painters, ‘Minimalist’ sculptors attempted to make their works totally
objective, unexpressive, and non-referential.
[4] In both music and the visual arts, ‘Minimalism’ was an attempt to
explore the essential elements of an art form. In ‘Minimalist’ visual arts,
the personal, gestural elements were stripped away in order to reveal the
objective, purely visual elements of painting and sculpture. In
‘Minimalist’ music, the traditional forms were rejected in favor of
explorations of timbre and rhythm — musical elements largely unfamiliar
to western listeners.
[5] ‘Minimalist’ music was reacting against the complex, intellectually
sophisticated style of modern music; several composers began to compose
in a simple, literal style, thereby creating an extremely simple, plain and
accessible music. La Monte Young, for example, composed a number of
electronic songs in which he generated very few pitches. Like Young,
Morton Feldman tried to eliminate variation. His musical pieces explored
innovative instrumental timbres through a slowly paced succession of
unrelated, soft sounds.
[6] This movement was heavily criticized by modernist formalist art critics
and historians. Some critics thought ‘Minimal art’ represented a
misunderstanding of the modern framework of painting and sculpture as
defined by critic Clement Greenberg, arguably the dominant American
critic of painting in 1960s. The most notable critic of ‘Minimalism’ was
produced by Michael Fried, a formalist critic, who declared that the
‘Minimal’ work of art, particularly ‘Minimal’ sculpture, was based on an
engagement with physicality of the spectator.
Lesson Twenty 247

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Chiefly (adv.) /ˈtʃiːfli/
(1) For the most part, mostly, above all. (2) Mainly.
Your success is chiefly due to your persistence.

Culmination (n.) /kʌlmɪˈneɪʃ(ə)n/


The highest or climactic point of something, esp. as attained after a long
time.
It was the culmination of a tragic personal journey.

Eliminate (v.) /ɪˈlɪmɪneɪt/


Completely remove or get rid of (something).
In order to concentrate, eliminate the noise sources at home.

Insubstantial (adj.) /ɪnsəbˈstænʃ(ə)l/


(1) Lacking strength and solidity. (2) Not solid or real; imaginary.
This might seem like a fairly insubstantial part of the book.

Monument (n.) /ˈmanjəmənt/


A statue, building, or other structure erected to commemorate a famous or
notable person or event.
They built a golden monument to glorify his braveries.
248 English for the students of art

Painterly (adv.) /ˈpeɪntəli/


(1) Of or appropriate to a painter; artistic. (2) (Of a painting or its style)
characterized by qualities of color, stroke, and texture rather than of line.
As a hairdresser, she works with a painterly skill.

Sophisticated (adj.) /səˈfɪstɪkeɪtɪd/


(1) (Of a person or their thoughts, reactions, and understanding) Aware of
and able to interpret complex issues; subtle. (2) Having, revealing, or
proceeding from a great deal of worldly experience and knowledge of
fashion and culture.
It is very difficult to know him; he is very sophisticated and mysterious.

Succession (n.) /səkˈsɛʃ(ə)n/


A number of people or things sharing a specified characteristic and
following one after the other.
I have put the books I should read in a succession in my book shelf.

Sustain (v.) /səˈsteɪn/


Strengthen or support physically or mentally.
I need my father's help to sustain my life these days.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- What s a ‘Minimalist’ art?


2- Why is ‘Minimalism’ called “ABC’ art?
Lesson Twenty 249

3- What are the characteristics ‘Minimal’ art?


4- Describe ‘Minimalist’ music. How is it different from ‘Traditional
music’?
5- Who was the most notable critic of ‘Minimalism’?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. ABC art is the culmination of reductionist tendencies in


modern art.
……. 2. Minimalists attempted to add extra-visual associations as
much as possible to their works.
……. 3. Minimalism intended to emphasize multi-dimensionality and
asked for the viewers’ reflection.
……. 4. In minimalist music, the traditional forms were rejected in
favor of timbre and rhythm which was familiar to western
listeners.
……. 5. New York is the real house for minimalism.
……. 6. ‘Minimalism’ had no critics.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.

1- ‘Minimalism’ is characterized by …………….


A) its subjective, expressive style.
B) extreme simplicity of form and a literal, objective approach.
250 English for the students of art

C) deep considerations of self-expression.


D) its extra-visual associations.

2- What was the essence of ‘Minimalism’?


A) complicated designs B) imaginary forms
C) youthful culture D) reductionist tendencies

3- ‘Minimalism’ was heavily criticized by …………….


A) capitalists. B) realists.
C) modernists. D) Cubists.

4- ‘Minimal’ sculpture is composed of …………….


A) detailed, complicated forms.
B) technological, expressive forms.
C) expressive and non-referential geometric forms.
D) simple, monumental geometric forms.

5- ‘Accessible’ in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to …………….


A) contradiction . B) novelty.
C) at risk. D) at hand.

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.
Lesson Twenty 251

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


elimination eliminate eliminatory
sophistication sophisticate sophisticated
sustainment sustain sustainable sustainably
culmination culminate

1- The meeting ……………. in a tearful embrace.


2- Alas! She is going to retire in a year or two. She is the most
……………. I have ever had.
3- You are very impolite. I cannot ……………. the discussion.
4- The president promised to ……………. homelessness in two years.
5- In order to have a(n) ……………. economic growth, a country should
develop internal industry.

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 accurate (para.1) ……………………..


2 inclination (para.1) …………………….
3 private (para.2) …………………….
4 free, liberate (para.2) …………………….
5 sequential (para.2) ……………………..
6 instant (para.2) ……………………..
7 entirely, wholly (para.3) ……………………..
8 show (para.4) ……………………..
9 just, only (para.4) …………………….
10 musician, author (para.5) ……………………..
252 English for the students of art

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 minimalism (……) a. intellectual
2 commemorate (……) b. available
3 response (……) c. method
4 scholar, thinker (……) d. speed
5 accessible (……) e. interior
6 pace (……) f. honor
7 approach (……) g. reductionism
h. reaction

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.
The Japanese ‘Minimalist’ architect, Tadao Ando conveys the Japanese
traditional ……(1)…… and his own perception of nature in his works. His
design concepts are pure geometry and nature. He …..(2)…… uses
concrete or natural wood and basic structural form to achieve austerity and
rays of light in space. He also sets up dialogue between the site and nature
to …..(3)….. relationship and order with the buildings. Ando’s works and
the translation of Japanese aesthetic principles are highly influential on
Japanese architecture. Another Japanese ‘Minimalist’ architect, Kazuyo
Sejima, produces iconic Japanese ‘Minimalist’ buildings. ……(4)……
Lesson Twenty 253

with creating and influencing a particular genre of Japanese ‘Minimalism’;


intelligent designs …..(5)….. use white color, thin construction sections
and transparent elements to create the phenomenal building type often
associated with ‘Minimalism’.

1. A) theory B) spirit C) skill D) religion


2. A) surely B) radically C) normally D) finally
3. A) test B) find C) cause D) create
4. A) Credited B) Edited C) Elevated D) Caused
5. A) whom B) which C) where D) when

References
Asencio Cerver, F. (1997). The Architecture of Minimalism. New York: Arco;
Hearst Books international.
Bertoni, F. (2002). Minimalist Architecture, Basel, Boston, and Berlin: Birkhäuser.

Espartaco, C. (1989). Eduardo Sanguinetti: The Experience of Limits. Buenos


Aires: Ediciones de Arte Gaglianone.

Nyman, M. (1968). Minimal Music. The Spectator 221, 518–19.


Pawson, J. (1996). Minimum. London: Phaidon Press Limited.
Quim, R. (2005). Minimalist Interiors. New York: Collins Design.

Yuriko, S. (2007). The Moral Dimension of Japanese Aesthetics. The Journal of


Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 65(1). 85–97.
 
Part 3

Eastern Art
In the third part of the book a brief description of eastern art has been
offered. Indeed, the major art centers of east such as Buddhist art, Chinese
art, Indian art, Japanese art and Korean art in addition to the Islamic have
been portrayed in this part. Moreover, a survey of Iranian art as one of the
most determining art hubs of the east is provided as the concluding lessons
of the book.
 To read the given passages and get familiar with the approved
descriptions of the provided artistic themes and then
 Perform the following reading comprehension exercises which are
designed in diverse formats of true/false, multiple-choice, open,
matching and cloze test items.
 They are also supposed to learn the lexical items whose perceptions
are required for the passages’ understanding. These items are
introduced and exemplifies in the vocabulary list of each chapter.
Lesson 21

Eastern Art

Before you read


Warm-up questions
What do you know about ‘Eastern art? How are ‘Eastern art’ and ‘Western
art’ different? Why is it necessary to get familiar with ‘Eastern art’? Is it
true to say that ‘Eastern art’ is more archaic than the ‘Western art’?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ………………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
258 English for the students of art

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Buddhism  Rangoli
 Indian art  Sand-painting
 Mandala  Chinese art

Part Ι. Reading

Eastern Art

[1] The history of ‘Eastern art’ includes a vast range of influences from
various cultures and religions. Developments in ‘Eastern art’ are
historically parallel to those in ‘Western art’ a few centuries earlier.
Buddhist art, Chinese art, Indian art, Japanese art and Korean art each
had significant influence on ‘Western art’ and vice versa.

Buddhist art
[2] Buddhist art originated in the Indian subcontinent in the centuries
following the life of the historical Gautama Buddha in the 6th to 5th
century B.C. before evolving through its contact with other cultures and its
diffusion through the rest of Asia and the world. Buddhist art traveled with
believers, adapted, and evolved in each new host country. It developed to
Lesson Twenty one 259

the north through Central Asia and into Eastern Asia to form the Northern
branch of Buddhist art, and to the east as far as Southeast Asia to form its
Southern branch. In India, Buddhist art flourished and even influenced the
development of Hindu art, until Buddhism nearly disappeared in India
around the 10th century A.D. Mandala (Sanskrit equivalent for circle) is
undoubtedly the most noticeable symbol of Buddhist art. It is a spiritual
and ritual symbol in Indian religions, representing the universe. The basic
form of most mandalas is a square with four gates containing a circle with
a center point employed for focusing the attention of prayers in sacred
places and a meditation tool.

A mandala

[3] Its symbolic nature can help one to access progressively deeper levels
of the unconscious, ultimately assisting the meditator to experience a
mystical sense of unity from which the cosmos in all its manifold forms
arises. The psychoanalyst Carl Jung saw the mandala as “a representation
of the center of the unconscious self,” and believed his paintings of
mandalas enabled him to identify emotional disorders and to work on
wholeness in personality.
260 English for the students of art

Chinese art
[4] Chinese art has varied throughout its ancient history, divided into periods
by the ruling dynasties of China and changing technology. Different forms
of art have been influenced by great philosophers, teachers, religious
figures and even political leaders. Chinese art encompasses fine arts, folk
arts and performance arts. In the Song Dynasty, poetry was marked by a
lyric poetry known as Ci which expressed feelings of desire, often as a
third person viewer. Also in the Song dynasty, paintings of more subtle
expression of landscapes appeared, with blurred outlines and mountain
contours which conveyed distance through an impressionistic treatment of
natural phenomena. It was during this period that in painting, emphasis
was placed on spiritual rather than emotional elements, as in the previous
period. Kungu, the oldest form of Chinese opera developed during the
Song Dynasty. In the Yuan dynasty, painting by the Chinese painter Zhao
Mengfu greatly influenced later Chinese landscape painting. Yuan dynasty
opera became the national Chinese opera which continues today as
Cantonese opera.

Indian art
[5] Indian art can be classified into specific periods, each reflecting certain
religious, political and cultural developments. The earliest examples are
the petro-glyphs found in Bhimbetka dating back to 5500 B.C. Later
examples include the carved pillars of Ellora, Maharashtra state. Indian art
can be classified into five periods of: Hinduism and Buddhism ancient
period (3500 B.C.), Islamic dominance (712–1757), The colonial period
(1757–1947), Independence and the postcolonial period (after1947) and
Modern and Post-modern art.
Lesson Twenty one 261

[6] One of the most popular art forms in India is called Rangoli. It is a
form of sand-painting decoration that uses finely ground white powder and
colors, and is used commonly outside homes in India.

A Rangoli in Chennai

[7] The visual arts (sculpture, painting and architecture) are tightly
interrelated with the non-visual arts. According to Vatsyayan, "Classical
Indian architecture, sculpture, painting, literature, music and dancing
evolved their own rules conditioned by their respective media, but they
shared with one another the underlying spiritual beliefs of the Indian
religio-philosophic mind”. Insight into the unique qualities of Indian art is
best achieved through an understanding of the philosophical thought, the
broad cultural history, social, religious and political background of the
artworks.

Japanese art
[8] Japanese art and architecture is works of art produced in Japan from the
beginnings of human habitation there, sometime in the 10th millennium
B.C. to the present. Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and
media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink
262 English for the students of art

painting on silk and paper, and a myriad of other types of works of art;
from ancient times until the contemporary 21st century. Ukiyo, meaning
"floating world", refers to the impetuous young culture that bloomed in the
urban centers. It is an ironic allusion to the term "Sorrowful World" the
earthly death and rebirth from which Buddhists sought release. The art
form rose to great popularity in the metropolitan culture during the second
half of the 17th century, originating with the single-color works of
Hishikawa Moronobu in the 1670s.

HISHIKAWA MORONOBU (1618-1694)_ Beauty looking back

[9] The origins of painting in Japan date well back into Japan's prehistoric
period. Simple figures and geometric designs can be found on Jomon
period pottery and Yayoi period (300 B.C-300 A.D). Ancient Japanese
sculpture was mostly derived from the idol worship in Buddhism or
animistic rites of Shinto deity. In particular, sculpture among all the arts
came to be most firmly centered around Buddhism. Gilded bronze and
wood were used as the most common materials for sculpture on those
Lesson Twenty one 263

days. Traditional sculpture – except for miniaturized works – had largely


disappeared because of the loss of patronage by Buddhist temples.

Korean art
[10] Korean art is noted for its traditions in pottery, music, calligraphy,
painting, sculpture, and other genres, often marked by the use of bold
color, natural forms, precise shape and scale, and surface decoration.
While there are clear and distinguishing differences between three
independent cultures, there are significant and historical similarities and
interactions between the arts of Korea, China and Japan. Because of
Korea’s position between China and Japan, Korea was seen as a mere
conduit of Chinese culture to Japan. However, recent scholars have begun
to acknowledge Korea’s own unique art, culture and important role in not
only transmitting Chinese culture but assimilating it and creating a unique
culture of its own. Throughout the history of Korean painting, there has
been a constant separation of monochromatic works of black brushwork
on paper or silk and the colorful folk art or ritual arts, tomb paintings, and
festival arts which had extensive use of color.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Diffusion (n.) /dɪˈfjuːʒ(ə)n/
The spreading of something widely.
This century is the time of rapid diffusion of ideas and technology.

Habitation (n.) /hæbɪˈteɪʃ(ə)n/


(1) The fact of living in a particular place. (2) A house or home.
He built his habitation close to the river.
264 English for the students of art

Host (n.)/(v.) /həʊst/


A person or thing that receives or entertains other people as guests.
Canada was asked to host a Commonwealth conference in Ottawa.

Manifold (adj.) /ˈmænɪfəʊld/


Many and various, having many layers or dimensions.
The implications of this decision were manifold.

Millennium (n.) /mɪˈlɛnɪəm/


A period of a thousand years, especially when calculated from the
traditional date of Christ’s birth.
Silver first came into use on a substantial scale during the 3rd millennium BC.

Myriad (n.) /ˈmɪrɪəd/


A countless or extremely great number of people or things.
Myriads of insects danced around the light above my head

Patronage (n.) /ˈpætr(ə)nɪdʒ/


(1) The support given by a patron. (2) The power to control appointments.
The arts could no longer depend on private patronage.

Transmit (v.) /trænzˈmɪt/


(1) Cause (something) to pass on from one person or place to another. (2)
Broadcast or send out (an electrical signal or a radio or television program).
Knowledge is transmitted from teacher to pupil.
Lesson Twenty one 265

Undoubtedly (adv.) /ʌnˈdaʊtɪdli/


Without doubt; certainly.
They are undoubtedly guilty

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- Where did the Buddhist art originate from?


2- What is a mandala?
3- What are the key features of ‘Eastern art’?
4- How is Indian art classified?
5- Is Korean art as rich as Japanese or/and Chinese art?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. Developments in ‘Eastern art’ are exactly similar to those in


‘Western art’.
……. 2. One of the most popular art forms in India is called Rangoli.
……. 3. Indian artworks shared with one another the underlying
spiritual beliefs of the Indian religio-philosophic mind.
……. 4. Korean art is more archaic than the Japanese art.
……. 5. Traditional sculpture is still popular in Japan.
……. 6. In the history of Chinese art poetry existed in the Song dynasty
period for the first time.
266 English for the students of art

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.

1- Buddhist art appeared …………….


A) in the 5th and 6th centuries A.D.
B) in the 5th and 6th centuries B. C.
C) in Japan for the first time.
D) in China for the first time.

2- Chinese art encompasses all the following except …………….


A) performing arts. B) folk arts.
C) A minimal art. D) fine arts.

3- “Mandala” has a ……………. origin


A) Sanskrit B) Japanese
C) Hindu D) Buddhist

4- Which one of the following arts has an older reputation?


A) Indian art B) Buddhist art
C) Chinese art D) Japanese art

5- “Constant” in paragraph 10 is closest in meaning to …………….


A) continuous. B) receptive.
C) extensive. D) curious.
Lesson Twenty one 267

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


habitation/habitat habitant
patronage patronize patron
transmission transmit transmittable
doubt doubt doubtable undoubtedly

1- He built a modest …………… near the lake.


2- I can study without thinking to life costs due to my father’s ………. .
3- Government is trying to stop the disease …………. .
4- I ………….. that she will accept his proposal of marriage.
5- As an ecologist he studies the marine …………… .

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:
1 use (para.2) ……………………..
2 completeness (para.3) …………………….
3 scenery (para.4) …………………….
4 adornment (para.6) …………………….
5 firmly (para.7) ……………………..
6 big city (para.8) ……………………..
7 flourish (para.8) ……………………..
8 unthoughtful (para.8) ……………………..
268 English for the students of art

9 distinctive (para.10) …………………….


10 ceremony (para.10) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 evolve (……) a. counterpart
2 equivalent (……) b. holy place
3 manifold (……) c. home
4 temple (……) d. certainly
5 festival (……) e. develop
6 habitation (……) f. honor
7 undoubtedly (……) g. many
(……) h. party

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

Cambodian art and the culture of Cambodia has had a rich and varied
history dating back many centuries and has been ……(1)…… influenced
by India. In turn, Cambodia greatly influenced Thailand, Laos and vice
versa. Throughout Cambodia's long history, a major source of …..(2)……
was from religion. Throughout nearly two millenniums the Cambodians
developed a unique Khmer belief from Indian religions of Buddhism and
Lesson Twenty one 269

Hinduism. Indian culture and civilization, including its language and arts
reached mainland Southeast Asia around the 1st century B.C. It is
generally …..(3)….. that merchants brought Indian customs and culture to
ports along the gulf of Thailand and the Pacific while ……(4)…… with
China. Beginning in the mid-20th century, a tradition of modern art began
in Cambodia, though in the later 20th century both traditional and modern
arts ……(5)……. for several reasons, including the killing of artists by the
Khmer Rouge. The country has experienced a recent artistic revival due to
increased support from governments, NGOs, and foreign tourists.

1. A) artistically B) spiritually C) heavily D) heavily


2. A) inspiration B) explanation C) investigation D) investigation
3. A) reached B) found C) caused D) caused
4. A) travelling B) trading C) going D) going
5. A) stopped B) died C) declined D) declined

Reference
Covarrubias, Mi. (1937). Island of Bali: Cassel. Oxford University Press.
Eiseman, F. and Fisher, M. (1988). Woodcarving of Bali. Periplus publications.

Geertz, H. (1994). Images of Power: Balinese Paintings Made for Gregory


Bateson and Margaret Mead. University of Hawaii Press.
McKay, A. (2003). The History of Tibet. Routledge.
Ngoc, H. (2000). Modern Painting: Tracing the Roots. University of Hawaii Press.
Lesson 22

Islamic Art

Before you read


Warm-up questions
What do you know about ‘Islamic art’? Can a religion (like Islam) bring
about artistic forms? Are ‘Christian art’ or ‘Jewish art’ comparable to
‘Islamic art’? what are the key features of ‘Islamic art’?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ………………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
Lesson Twenty two 271

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Arabesque  Human portrayal
 Islamic art  Pottery
 Idolatry  tiling

Part Ι. Reading

Islamic Art

[1] ‘Islamic art’ encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century
onwards by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or
ruled by culturally Islamic populations. It is thus a very difficult art to
define because it covers many lands and various peoples over some 1400
years; it is not art specifically of a religion, or of a time, or of a place, or of
a single medium like painting. ‘Islamic art’ is not at all restricted to
religious art, but includes all the art forms of the rich and varied cultures
of Islamic societies as well. It frequently includes secular elements and
elements that are frowned upon, if not forbidden, by some Islamic
theologians.
[2] Figurative painting may cover religious scenes, but normally in secular
contexts such as the walls of palaces or illuminated books of poetry. The
272 English for the students of art

calligraphy and decoration of Qu'ran is an important aspect, but other


‘Islamic art’ forms such as glass mosque lamps, tiling, woodwork and
carpets usually have the Islamic motifs usually with accompanying
religious inscriptions.

Tiling at Friday Mosque of Herat, Afghanistan

[3] The influence of the Sassanian art of pre-Islamic Persia was of


paramount significance and Chinese influences had a formative effect on
Islamic painting, pottery, and textiles. There are repeating elements in
Islamic art, such as the use of geometrical floral or vegetal designs in a
repetition known as the arabesque. The arabesque in ‘Islamic art’ is often
used to symbolize the transcendent, indivisible and infinite nature of God.
Mistakes in repetitions may be intentionally introduced as a show of
humility by artists who believe only God can produce perfection, although
this theory is disputed.
Lesson Twenty two 273

Complex Arabesque at the Agra Fort _ Mughal Empire

[4] Typically not entirely, ‘Islamic art’ has focused on the depiction of
patterns and calligraphy, rather than on figures, because it is feared by many
Muslims that the depiction of the human form is idolatry and thereby a sin
against God which is forbidden in the Qur'an. Human portrayals can be
found in all eras of ‘Islamic art’, above all in the more private form of
miniatures, where their absence is rare. Small decorative figures of animals
and humans, especially if they are hunting the animals, are found in many
media from many periods, but portraits were slow to develop.
274 English for the students of art

Scene from the Khamsa of Nizami, Persia, 1539–1543

[5] From the 15th century, remained Islamic courts began to fall, as the
Ottoman Empire, and later the Safavids; this had an effect on ‘Islamic art’
which was usually strongly led by the patronage of the court. From at least
the 18th century onwards, elite ‘Islamic art’ was increasingly influenced
by European styles, and in the applied arts largely adopted western styles
in the late 18th or early 19th centuries. Many industries with very long
histories, such as pottery in Iran largely closed, while others like brass-
works became generally frozen in style, with much of their production
going to tourists or exported as oriental exotics.
[6] The carpet industry has remained large, but mostly uses designs that
originated before 1700, and competes with machine-made imitations both
locally and around the world. Arts and crafts with a broader social base,
like tiling, have often survived better. Islamic countries have developed
modern and contemporary art works, but the degree to which these should
be grouped in a special category as ‘Islamic art’ is questionable, although
Lesson Twenty two 275

many artists deal with Islam-related themes, and use traditional elements
such as calligraphy. Especially in the oil-rich parts of the Islamic world,
modern architecture and interior decoration made use of motifs and
elements drawn from the heritage of ‘Islamic art’.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Frown (n.)/(v.) /fraʊn/
A facial expression or look characterized by a furrowing of one's brows.
He gave me a frown of disapproval.

Heritage (n.) /ˈhɛrɪtɪdʒ/


Property that is or may be inherited; an inheritance.
They had stolen his grandfather's heritage.

Idolatry (n.) /ʌɪˈdɒlətri/


(1) The worship of idols. (2) Extreme admiration, love, or reverence for
something or someone.
We must not allow our idolatry of art to obscure issues of political
significance.

Infinite (adj.) /ˈɪnfɪnɪt/


Limitless or endless in space, extent, or size; impossible to measure or
calculate.
Your destiny is a sign the infinite mercy of God.
276 English for the students of art

Inscription (n.) /ɪnˈskrɪpʃ(ə)n/


A thing inscribed, as on a monument or in a book.
Memorable utterances should be inscribed on durable materials to stay
forever.

Motif (n.) /məʊˈtiːf/


A dominant or recurring idea in an artistic work.
Superstition is the recurring motif in the book.

Portrayal (n.) /pɔːˈtreɪəl/


A depiction of someone or something in a work of art or literature; a picture.
His novel presented a realistic portrayal of war.

Territory (n.) /ˈtɛrɪt(ə)ri/


An area of land under the jurisdiction of a ruler or state.
The government was prepared to give up the nuclear weapons on its territory.

Transcendent (adj.) /tranˈsɛnd(ə)nt/


Beyond or above the range of normal or physical human experience.
It was a search for a transcendent level of knowledge.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.
Lesson Twenty two 277

1- Do we see figurative painting in ‘Islamic art’?


2- Did Qur’an have any effect on ‘Islamic art’ up to now?
3- Are there any secular elements in Islamic artworks?
4- Why do we see a downfall in Islamic art from the 15th century
onward?
5- Describe the role of Sassanid dynasty on the Islamic art’s
development.

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. ‘Islamic art’ is just restricted to religious art.


……. 2. Chinese art had formative effects on Islamic painting.
……. 3. Hunting the animals are found in many of Islamic paintings
from many periods.
……. 4. From the 15th century ‘Islamic art’ started to develop faster.
……. 5. Islamic countries have developed modern and contemporary
art works.
……. 6. In the oil-rich parts of the Islamic world art has had more
audience and media of presentation.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.
278 English for the students of art

1- It is very difficult to define ‘Islamic art’ because …………..


A). there are not acceptable standards for defining ‘Islamic art’.
B). Islam is against art in general.
C). it covers many lands and various peoples over some 1400 years.
D). it has been mixed with ‘Western art’ very much.

2- Which one of the following is a more common artwork in Islamic


countries?
A) portraits B) brass-works
C) calligraphy D) sculpture

3- “It” in paragraph 1 refers to …………..


A) religious art. B) society.
C) ‘Islamic art’. D) secular element.

4- ‘Islamic art’ was usually led by …………..


A) the support of the rich. B) the intellectuals.
C) ordinary people. D) the patronage of the court.

5- ‘Arabesque” is the use of …………..


A) calligraphy in tiling. B) gold in sculpture.
C) geometrical floral designs. D) animals in painting.

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.
Lesson Twenty two 279

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


idolatry idolize idolatrous idolatrously
inscription inscribe inscriptive inscriptively
portrait portray
transcendence transcendent(al) transcendentally

1- Many teenagers have ………….. this singer.


2- The lovers ………….. their names on the tree surface.
3- This diagram ………….. the company’s financial problems.
4- She ………….. our expectations. She is amazing!
5- Nearly all the prophets tried to eradicate …………..

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:
1 specially (para.1) ……………………..
2 not allowed (para.1) …………………….
3 represent (para.3) …………………….
4 purposely (para.3) …………………….
5 endless (para.3) ……………………..
6 unusual (para.4) ……………………..
7 inheritance (para.6) ……………………..
8 up to date (para.6) ……………………..
9 stay alive (para.6) …………………….
10 internal (para.6) ……………………..
280 English for the students of art

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 restrict (……) a. noticeable
2 thereby (……) b. thus
3 worldly (……) c. limit
4 paramount (……) d. quarrel
5 dispute (……) e. group
6 category (……) f. doubtful
7 questionable (……) g. many
(……) h. secular

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

The Abbasid dynasty (750 - 1258 A.D.) witnessed the movement of the
capital from Damascus to Baghdad, and then from Baghdad to Samarra.
The …..(1)…..to Baghdad influenced politics, culture, and art. Art
historian Robert Hillenbrand (1999) likens the movement to the
foundation of an "Islamic Rome", because the meeting of Eastern
influences from Iranian, Chinese, and Indian sources created a new
…..(2)….. for ‘Islamic art’. Though the common perception of Abbasid
artistic production focuses largely on pottery, the greatest development of
the Abbasid period was in textiles. Government-run workshops known as
Lesson Twenty two 281

tiraz produced silks …..(3)….. the name of the monarch, allowing for
aristocrats to demonstrate their ……(4)….. to the ruler. Calligraphy also
began to be used in surface decoration on pottery during this period.
……(5)……. Qur'ans gained attention, letter-forms now more complex
and stylized to the point of slowing down the recognition of the words
themselves.

1. A) change B) alternation C) shift D) performance


2. A) paradigm B) technique C) plan D) design
3. A) reaching B) finding C) causing D) bearing
4. A) unity B) loyalty C) royalty D) quality
5. A) Printed B) Written C) Illuminated D) Painted

References
Blair, S., Bloom, J. M. (2003). The Mirage of Islamic Art: Reflections on the
Study of an Unwieldy Field. The Art Bulletin 85 (1), 152–184.

Bloom J. M. & Blair S. S. (2009). Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and


Architecture. New York: Oxford University Press.
Henderson, J. McLoughlin, S. D. and McPhail, D. S. (2004). Radical changes in
Islamic glass technology: evidence for conservatism and experimentation with
new glass recipes from early and middle Islamic Raqqa, Syria. Archaeometry
46 (3), 439–68.
Marilyn J., Ettinghausen, R. and Grabar, O. (2001). Islamic Art and Architecture.
Yale University Press,
Lesson 23

Iranian Art (Ι)

Before you read


Warm-up questions
What do you know about ‘Iranian art’? What are the common motifs of
‘Iranian art’? What are the most common art forms in Iran? Has ‘Islamic
art’ influenced the ‘Iranian art’ or vice versa? Which one of ‘Iranian art’
forms is your favorite?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
Lesson Twenty three 283

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Rug-weaving  Arthur Pope
 Iranian art  Pre-Islamic art
 Coffee house painting  Iranian calligraphy

Part Ι. Reading

Iranian Art (Ι)

[1] ‘Iranian art’ has one of the richest art heritages in the world history and
encompasses many disciplines including architecture, painting, weaving
pottery, calligraphy, metal-working and masonry. In the following the
well-known Iranian visual arts are described briefly.

Rug-weaving
[2] The art of rug weaving in has its roots in the culture and customs of its
people and their instinctive feelings. Weavers mix elegant patterns with a
myriad of colors. The Iranian carpet is similar to the Iranian garden, full of
flowers, birds, and beasts. The colors are usually made from wild flowers.
The fabric is often washed to soften the texture, giving it a unique quality.
284 English for the students of art

Depending on where the rug is made, patterns and designs vary. And some
rugs, such as Gabbeh, and Gelim have a variations in their textures and
number of knots as well. Out of about 2 million Iranians who work in the
trade, 1.2 million are weavers producing the largest amount of hand-
woven artistic carpets in the world, exported more than 517 million dollars
each year.

Painting
[3] Caves in Iran's Lorestan province exhibit painted imagery of animals and
hunting scenes. Some such as those in Fars Province and Sialk are at least
5,000 years old. Painting in Iran is thought to have reached a climax
during the Tamerlane era when outstanding masters such as Kamaleddin
Behzad gave birth to a new style of painting. Paintings of the Qajar period
are a combination of European influences and Safavid miniature schools
of painting such as those introduced by Reza Abbasi. Masters such as
Kamal-ol-molk, further pushed forward the European influence in Iran. It
was during the Qajar era when "Coffee House painting" emerged.
Subjects of this style were often religious in nature depicting scenes from
Shia epics and the like.
Lesson Twenty three 285

Portrait of Fath Ali Shah Qajar, 1815. Brooklyn Museum

Calligraphy
[4] Will Durant said, “Ancient Iranians with an alphabet of 36 letters, used
skins and pen to write, instead of ear then memorize”. Such was the
creativity spent on the art of writing. The significance of the art of
calligraphy in works of pottery, metallic vessels, and historic buildings is
such that they are deemed lacking without the adorning decorative
calligraphy. Illuminations, and especially the Quran and works such as the
“Shahnameh”, “Divan-e-Hafez”, “Golestan” and “Boostan” are recognized
as highly invaluable because of their delicate calligraphy. Vast quantities
of these are scattered and preserved in museums and private collections
worldwide, such as the Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg and
Washington's Freer Gallery of Art among many others.
286 English for the students of art

MIR EMAD (1556-1615)_ The Chalipa panel

Architecture
[5] Iranian architecture or Persian architecture dates back to at least 5,000
B.C. with characteristic examples distributed over a vast area from Turkey
and Iraq to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Persian buildings vary from peasant
huts to tea houses and garden, pavilions to "some of the most majestic
structures the world has ever seen". In addition to historic gates, palaces,
and mosques, the rapid growth of cities such as the capital, Tehran has
brought about a new construction styles. Iranian architecture displays great
variety, both structural and aesthetic, from a variety of traditions and
experience. Without sudden innovations, and despite the repeated
invasions and cultural shocks, it has achieved “an individuality distinct
from that of other Muslim countries”. Its paramount virtues are "a marked
feeling for form and scale; structural inventiveness, especially in vault and
dome construction; a genius for decoration with a freedom and success not
rivaled in any other architecture”.
Lesson Twenty three 287

The Eram Garden in Shiraz is an 18th-century building and a

legacy of the Zand Dynasty.

[6] Traditionally, the motif of Iranian architecture has been its cosmic
symbolism “by which man is brought into communication and
participation with the powers of heaven”. This theme has not only given
unity and continuity to the architecture of Persia, but has been a primary
source of its emotional character as well. According to Persian historian
and archaeologist Arthur Pope, the supreme ‘Iranian art’, in the proper
meaning of the word, has always been its architecture. The supremacy of
architecture applies to both pre-and post-Islamic periods.

Khatam-kari
[7] In the 18th and 19th centuries, katahm declined, before being stimulated
under the reign of Reza Shah, with the creation of craft schools in Tehran,
Isfahan, and Shiraz. "Khatam" means "incrustation", and hence, "Khatam-
kari" means “incrustation work”. This craft consists in the production of
incrustation patterns (generally star shaped), with thin sticks of wood,
brass (for golden parts) and camel bones (white parts). Ivory, gold or
silver can also be used for collection objects. Sticks are assembled in
288 English for the students of art

triangular beams, themselves assembled and glued in a strict order to


create a cylinder. These cylinders are cut into shorter cylinders, and then
compressed and dried between two wooden plates, before being sliced in 1
mm wide tranches. These sections are ready to be plated and glued on the
object to be decorated. The tranche can also be softened through heating in
order to wrap around objects. Many objects can be decorated in this
fashion, such as jewellery/decorative boxes, chessboards, pipes, desks,
frames or some musical instruments.

Box painted and decorated with Khatam, Shiraz, Iran

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Delicate (adj.) /ˈdɛlɪkət/
Very fine in texture or structure; easily broken or damaged; fragile.
What a delicate weather! Let’s go home on foot.
Lesson Twenty three 289

Epic (n.) /ˈɛpɪk/


A long poem, typically one derived from ancient oral tradition, narrating
the deeds and adventures of heroic or legendary figures or the past history
of a nation.
Finally, he finished his epic journey around the world.

Incrustation (n.) /ˌɪnkrʌˈsteɪʃ(ə)n/


The action of encrusting or state of being encrusted; a crust or hard
coating on the surface of something.
The cave sides are white with incrustations of salt.

Invaluable (adj.) /ɪnˈvæljʊ(ə)b(ə)l/


Extremely useful; indispensable.
As the company’s investor he is an invaluable member of the organization

Knot (n.)/(v.) /nɒt/


A fastening made by looping a piece of string, rope, or something similar
on itself and tightening it.
She brushed through her knotted hair.

Masonry (n.) /ˈmeɪs(ə)nri/


Stonework; carving the stone to make statues or to make an inscription.
No cracks were found on the finished masonry’s surface.
290 English for the students of art

Pavilion (n.) /pəˈvɪljən/


A summer house or other decorative building used as a shelter in a park or
large garden.
In order to build a pavilion, you need to work hard for at least 10 days.

Supreme (adj.) /suːˈpriːm/


(1) Highest in rank or authority. (2) Very great or the greatest.
The Supreme Court believed that the agitation should be stopped at any cost.

Tranche (adj.) /trɑːnʃ/


A portion of something, especially money.
They released the first tranche of the loan.

Vault (n.) /vɔːlt/


A roof in the form of an arch or a series of arches, typical of churches and
other large, formal buildings.
This church is the best example of Gothic vault.

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- Which one has been more effective on the Iranian art’s development?
Safavid or Qajar dynasties.
2- Is khatam-kari a unique ‘Iranian art’? Do we have such a thing
elsewhere?
Lesson Twenty three 291

3- What is “Coffee House painting”?


4- What is the main motif of Iranian architecture?
5- Is it possible to consider ‘Iranian art’ distinct from ‘Islamic art’?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. ‘Iranian art’ has one of the richest art heritages in the world
history.
……. 2. The art of rug weaving in has its roots in the Islamic culture.
……. 3. Iran is producing the largest amount of hand-woven artistic
carpets in the world.
……. 4. Iranian architecture displays a great unity, both structural and
aesthetic.
……. 5. According to Arthur Pope, the supreme ‘Iranian art’has
always been its painting.
……. 6. Ivory, gold or silver can be used for khatam-kari.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.

1- The Iranian carpet is similar to the Iranian ………….., full of


flowers and birds.
A) paintings B) tiles
C) gardens D) miniatures
292 English for the students of art

2- Painting in Iran is reached to its climax during the …………..


A) Safavid era. B) Sassanid era.
C) Qajar dynasty. D) Tamerlane era.

3- “It” in paragraph 5 refers to …………..


A) shock. B) architecture.
C) ‘Iranian art’. D) invasion.

4- Traditionally, the motif of Iranian architecture has been …………..


A) a cosmic symbolism.
B) floral and vegetal designs.
C) natural geometry.
D) the orders of the court.

5- All of the following can be used in Khatam-kari except …………..


A) wood . B) diamond.
C) camel bone. D) ivory.

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


delicacy delicate delicately
supremacy supreme
knot knot knotted
value value (in)valuable valuably
Lesson Twenty three 293

1- She has a beautiful ………….. hair.


2- Thank you for the ………….. assistance you had.
3- The ………….. leader asked for unity of the people.
4- His mom ………….. touched his hand and asked him to eat.
5- How many ………….. does this carpet have?

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 differences (para.2) ……………………..


2 highest point (para.2) …………………….
3 huge, broad (para.4) …………………….
4 quick (para.5) …………………….
5 creativity (para.5) ……………………..
6 farmer (para.5) ……………………..
7 paradise (para.6) ……………………..
8 encourage (para.7) ……………………..
9 skill (para.7) …………………….
10 gather (para.7) ……………………..

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.
294 English for the students of art

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 include (……) a. construction
2 onward (……) b. glue
3 deem (……) c. stonework
4 building (……) d. achieve
5 get (……) e. group
6 stick (……) f. contain
7 masonry (……) g. forward
(……) h. believe

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

The Shah Mosque was built between 1612 and 1630 under the …..(1)….
of the architects Muhibb al-Din Ali Kula and Ustad Ali Akbar Isfahani. Its
dimensions are 140 meters by 130, equaling a surface area of 18,000
square meters, about the size of three football …..(2)…... The plan is
however much more orthodox than that of the mosque of Sheikh Luffallah:
the mosque is rigorously …..(3)….., with four iwans and the minarets
rising in front of the prayer room. The plan of the building, like its décor,
demonstrates a grand coherence. The veneer of ceramic covers all the
surface of the walls, but the back of the iwans is often neglected in
……(4)….. of the façade. The dominant color is blue, almost giving a
sense of ……(5)…… to the ensemble.
Lesson Twenty three 295

1. A) control B) charge C) direction D) advice


2. A) fields B) courts C) gyms D) pools
3. A) realistic B) harmonic C) systematic D) symmetric
4. A) order B) favor C) regard D) purpose
5. A) isolation B) unity C) pride D) honor

References
Assari, A. Mahesh, T. M. (2011). Demographic comparative in heritage texture
of Isfahan city. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning. 4 (8), 463–470.
Bogle, E. C. (1989). Islam: Origin and Belief. University of Texas Press.
Canby, S. (2002). The Golden age of Persian art, British Museum Press.
Chapin Metz, H. (1989). Iran, a Country study. University of Michigan
Lesson 24

Iranian Art (ΙΙ)

Before you read


Warm-up questions
What do you know about Iranian handcrafts’? How do you know Iranian
music? How are Iranian cinema and western cinema different? Is theater
nessacry for the society? Why? Have you ever seen Kheime-shab bazi up
to now?

Skimming the text


Read the text’s title (headings and subheadings) and
 Write some of the text’s keywords in the following blanks.
……………… ……………… ………………… ………………

 Write the names of some important people and places given in the
reading passage.
……………… ………………… ………………… ………………

 Read the first sentences of each paragraph. What do you think the
reading is probably about?
………………………………………………………………………………
Lesson Twenty four 297

………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………

Group work
Discuss the following terms in groups and compare your answers with
your partners.
 Naqqali  Siah bazi
 Kheime-shab bazi  Iranian cinema
 The taste of Cherry  Iranian symphony

Part Ι. Reading

Iranian Art (ΙΙ)

[1] In the previous lesson Iranian visual arts, their history and evolution
process have been tapped on. As a complement this lesson provided an
elaboration on Iranian performing arts such as music, cinema and theater.

Iranian Music
[2] Iranian music, as evidenced by the archaeological records of Elam, the
most ancient culture in southwestern Iran, dates back thousands of years.
There is a distinction between the science of music, or musicology, which,
as a branch of mathematics has always been held in high regards in Iran;
as opposed to music performance which has had an uneasy and often
acrimonious relationship with the religious authorities and, in times of
298 English for the students of art

religious revival, with the society as a whole. In ancient Iran musicians


held socially respectable positions. The history of musical performance in
Sassanid Iran is however better documented than earlier periods. This is
especially more evident in the context of Zoroastrian ritual. By the time of
Khosrow II the Sassanid royal court was the host of prominent musicians
such as Ramtin, Bamshad, Nakisa, Azad, Sarkash, and Barbad. Among
these survived names, Barbad has been named as remarkably high skilled.
He has been credited to have given an organization of musical system
consisting of seven "Royal modes" named Xosrovani, thirty derived
modes named lahn, and 360 melodies named dastan.
[3] Persian symphonic music has a long history. In fact opera originated
from Persia much before its emergence in Europe. Iranians traditionally
performed Tazeeieh, which in many respects resembles the European
Opera. The first serious pieces of Persian symphonic music have been
composed by Aminollah Hossein, Parviz Mahmoud and then Houshang
Ostovar.
[4] The concept of folk music is directly linked with that of the classical
music. However, improvisation plays a minor role as folk tunes are
characterized by relatively clear-cut melodic and rhythmic properties. The
function of each folk melody determines its mood. The varying aesthetic
requirements of wedding songs, lullabies, love songs, harvest songs, dance
pieces, etc., are met with transparent and appropriate simplicity. The
majority of the classical instruments are too elaborate and difficult for the
folk musicians. Instead, there are literally dozens of musical instruments
of various sorts found among the rural people. In fact, each region of the
country can boast instruments peculiar to itself. Three types of
instruments, however, are common to all parts of the country. They are
Surnay (or Sorna), the various types of Ney (flute), and the Dohol, a
doubleheader drum.
Lesson Twenty four 299

Iranian Cinema
[5] Cinema was only five years old when it came to Persia at the beginning of
the 20th century. The first Persian filmmaker was Mirza Ebrahim Khan
Akkas Bashi, the official photographer of Muzaffar al-Din Shah. After a
visit to Paris in July 1900, Akkas Bashi obtained a camera and filmed the
Shah's visit to Europe upon the Shah's orders. He is said to have filmed the
Shah's private and religious ceremonies, but no copies of such films exist
today. A few years after Akkas Bashi started photography, Khan Baba
Motazedi, another pioneer in Iranian motion picture photography emerged.
He shot a considerable amount of footage during the reign of Qajar to the
Pahlavi dynasty. In 1925, Ovanes Ohanian, decided to establish the first
film school in Iran. Within five years he managed to run the first session
of the school under the name "Parvareshgahe Artistiye cinema" (The
Cinema Artist Educational Centre).
[6] In 1930 the first Iranian silent film was made by Ovanes Ohanian
called “Haji Agha”. Later that year, Abdolhossein Sepanta made the first
Iranian sound film, entitled “Lor Girl”. Sepanta would go on to direct
movies such as “Ferdowsi”, “Shirin and Farhad” and “Black Eyes”. In
1937, he directed “Laili and Majnoon”, an Eastern love story similar to the
English story of Romeo and Juliet. The 1960s was a significant decade for
Iranian cinema, with 25 commercial films produced annually on average
throughout the early 60’s, increasing to 65 by the end of the decade. The
majority of production focused on melodrama and thrillers.
[7] Post-revolutionary Iranian cinema has been celebrated in many
international forums and festivals for its distinct style, themes, authors,
idea of nationhood, and cultural references. Starting With “Viva...!” by
Khosrow Sinai and followed by many excellent Iranian directors who
emerged in the last few decades, such as Abbas Kiarostami, Asghar
300 English for the students of art

Farhadi and Bahram Beizayee. Kiarostami, who some critics regard as


one of the few great directors in the history of cinema, planted Iran firmly
on the map of world cinema when he won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes
Film Festival for “Taste of Cherry” in 1997.

Iranian theater
[8] Persian theatre goes back to antiquity. The first initiation of theater and
phenomena of acting can be traced in ceremonial theaters to glorify
national heroes and legends and to humiliate the enemy, as in the classics
"Soug Sivash" and "Mogh Koshi". In this section, naqqali, tazieh,
Kheimeh-shab bazi and Siah-bazi are described.
[9] Naqqali_ is one of the oldest forms of the traditional Persian theatre.
Naqqali is the performance in prose often accompanied by music, dance
and decorative and painted scrolls. Both men and women can be Naqqali
performers who should wear simple costumes and a single piece of a
historical but related costume. This art was formerly performed in
coffeehouses, private houses and historical caravanserais. A decline in the
popularity of coffeehouses in Iran, and with new forms of entertainment,
has resulted in diminishing interest in Naqqali performance.
Lesson Twenty four 301

A Naqqali performer

[10] Tazieh_ is a form of traditional, religious Persian theatre in which the


drama is conveyed through music, narration, prose and singing. Tazieh
dates from before the Islamic era. A common theme is the epic tragedy of
Siavash in “Shahnameh” of Ferdowsi. In Persian tradition, Tazieh and
Parde-Khani are inspired by historical and religious events, and symbolize
epic spirit and resistance. The common theme is hero tales of love,
sacrifice, and resistance against evil. Tazieh resembles the European opera
in many respects.
302 English for the students of art

[11] Kheimeh-Shab Bazi_ is the Persian traditional puppetry which is


performed in a small chamber. There are two people involved in the
performance: a musical performer and a person telling the story (called a
Morshed). The dialogue is between Morshed and the puppets. The method
of performance, its characters and the techniques used in writing the
puppet show make it unique and distinguish it from other types of
puppetry. A newer genre of Iranian puppetry emerged during Qajar era.
Puppetry is still very common in contemporary Iran.
[12] Siah-Bazi_ is a type of Iranian folk performing art that features a
blackface, mischievous harlequin that does improvisations to stir laughter.
The term Siah-Bazi literally translates to “playing black” and is a sketch in
which two men dressed in red turbans, one has black face paint and they
engage in a verbal duel which is often witty, political in nature and
humorous. The character with the black face takes on a clown-like role
and tries to disgrace the master. The master appears to be a respectable
person but underneath he is immoral and not to be respected. The
blackface character is portrayed as the working class member and the
audience can empathize with their struggle through humor. The Iranian
Revolution affected the tone and performance of Siah-Bazi, and they
edited away the sexual references, dancing and music.

Part ΙΙ. Word study: Pronunciations, definitions and examples


Acrimonious (adj.) /ˌækrɪˈməʊnɪəs/
(Typically of speech or discussion) angry and bitter.
There was an acrimonious dispute about wages yesterday.
Lesson Twenty four 303

Archaeology (n.) /ˌɑːkɪˈɒlədʒi/


The study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites
and the analysis of physical remains.
He was a professor of archaeology.

Chamber (n.) /ˈtʃeɪmbə(r)/


(1) A large room used for formal or public events. (2) An enclosed space
or cavity.
There is a meeting in the council chamber tomorrow.

Diminish (v.) /dɪˈmɪnɪʃ/


(1) Make or become less. (2) Cause to seem less impressive or valuable.
The new law is expected to diminish the government's chances.

Harlequin (n.) /ˈhɑːlɪkwɪn/


A mute character in traditional pantomime, typically masked and dressed
in a diamond-patterned costume.
His facial expression is absolutely appropriate for being a harlequin.

Humiliate (v.) /hjʊˈmɪlɪeɪt/


Make someone feel ashamed and foolish by injuring his dignity and pride.
Your dressing style will humiliate me in front of the whole school!

Immoral (adj.) /ɪˈmɒr(ə)l/


Not conforming to accepted standards of morality.
304 English for the students of art

No one is immoral. All of us will be asked for our deeds.

Improvisation (n.) /ɪmprəvʌɪˈzeɪʃn/


Something that is improvised; in particular, a piece of music, drama, etc.
created spontaneously or without preparation.
She specializes in improvisation on the piano.

Mischievous (adj.) /ˈmɪstʃɪvəs/


(1) Causing or showing a fondness for causing trouble in a playful way.
(2) (Of an action or statement) causing or intended to cause harm or
trouble.
Your mischievous children destroyed our house

Thriller (n.) /ˈθrɪlə/


A novel, play, or film with an exciting plot, typically involving crime or
espionage.
There is a thriller about a robbery on the conference room tomorrow.

Transparent (adj.) /trænˈspær(ə)nt/


(1)(Of a material or article) allowing light to pass through so that objects
behind can be distinctly seen. (2) Easy to perceive or detect.
I really want to swim in that transparent water.

Witty (adj.) /ˈwɪti/


Showing or characterized by quick and inventive verbal humour.
I am seriously looking forward to hear your witty remarks.
Lesson Twenty four 305

Part ΙΙΙ. Exercises


A. Open questions
Based on the text you have read, answer the following questions orally.

1- What is unique in Iranian music?


2- Describe the Iranian folk music?
3- How are sah-bazi and kheimeh-shab bazi different?
4- How did Islamic revolution affect the Iranian performing arts?
5- How did cinema appear in Iran?

B. Comprehension check
Read each statement and decide whether it is true or false. Write “T”
before true statements and “F” before false ones.

…..... 1. Iranian music, as evidenced by the archaeological records


of Elam, dates back thousands of years
……. 2. Mirza Ebrahim Khan Akkas Bashi directed the first Iranian
theater.
……. 3. “Morshed” is a traditional character in siah-bazi.
……. 4. “Tazieh” is older than “Kheimeh-shab bazi” in the history
of Iranian theater.
……. 5. Abdolhossein Sepanta made the first Iranian sound film.
……. 6. Puppetry is very common in Iran these days.

C. Multiple choice questions


Read the reading passage carefully and select the most appropriate
answer for each of the following multiple-choice test items.
306 English for the students of art

1- Opera …………...
A) is a modern art in Iran.
B) have not been existed in Iran.
C) originated from Iran much before its emergence in Europe.
D) is similar to folk music in Iranian culture.

2- ………….. has been credited to have given an organization of


musical system
A) Bamshad B) Barbad
C) Nakisa D) Azaad

3- Who has made the first movie in history of Iranian cinema?


A) Akkas bashi B) Ostovar
C) Motazedi D) Ohanian

4- ……….. is one of the oldest forms of the traditional Persian theatre


A) Kheimeh-shab bazi B) Tazieh
C) Siah-bazi D) Naqqali

5- “Costumes” in paragraph 9 is closest in meaning to ………..


A) dresses. B) uniforms.
C) clothes. D) all of the above.

D. Word formation
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the following table.
Make necessary changes.
Lesson Twenty four 307

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb


transparence transparent transparently
humiliation humiliate humiliating humiliatingly
(im)morality (im)moral (im)morally
mischievousness mischievous mischievously

1- I do love crystal because of its …………..


2- Your behavior is ………….. Watch your words and actions!
3- Her ………….. look showed that she has done something wrong.
4- He ………….. his colleague by criticizing him in front of the boss.
5- This story has a ………….. lesson. What is that?

E. Synonym finding
Find a single word in the passage which means:

1 explanation (para.1) ……………………..


2 bitter (para.2) …………………….
3 necessity (para.4) …………………….
4 collect (para.4) …………………….
5 strange (para.4) ……………………..
6 avant-grade (para.5) ……………………..
7 video (para.5) ……………………..
8 yearly (para.6) ……………………..
9 appear (para.7) …………………….
10 topic, subject (para.10) ……………………..
308 English for the students of art

F. Matching
Match the words in column Ι with their appropriate equivalents in
column ΙΙ. Insert the letters in the parentheses provided. There are more
choices in column ΙΙ than required.

column Ι column ΙΙ
1 revival (……) a. musical
2 similarity (……) b. initiation
3 rhythmic (……) c. joker
4 boast (……) d. achieve
5 beginning (……) e. resemblance
6 clown (……) f. clear
7 transparent (……) g. show proudly
(……) h. renewal

G. Cloze test
There are some missing words in the following text. Find the best
choice for each blank and mark it in your book.

Termeh is a type of Iranian hand-woven cloth, produced …..(1)….. in the


Yazd province. Weaving Termeh requires good wool with tall …..(2)…...
Termeh is woven by an expert with the assistance of a worker called
"Goushvareh-kesh". Weaving Termeh is a sensitive, careful, and time-
consuming process; a good weaver can produce only 25 to 30 centimeters
in a day. The …….(3)…… colors used in Termeh are light red, green,
orange and black. Termeh has been ……(4)…… throughout history:
Greek historians commented on the beauty of Persian weavings in the
Achaemenian (532 B. C), Ashkani (222 B. C) and Sassanid (226–641 A.
Lesson Twenty four 309

D) periods. During the Safavid period (1502–1736 A. D), Zarbaf and


Termeh weaving techniques were significantly refined. Owing to the
difficulty of producing Termeh and the ……(5)…. of mechanized
weaving, few Iranian factories still produce traditionally-woven Termeh.

1. A) heavily B) openly C) certainly D) primarily


2. A) fibers B) strings C) ropes D) wools
3. A) behind B) background C) foreground D) forward
4. A) imported B) exported C) admired D) shown
5. A) production B) admiration C) adventure D) advent

References
Hegel G. W. F. and Knox T. M. (1998). Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art.
Oxford University Press.
Thomas, M. (2005). How to Understand Sculpture. Kessinger Publishing.

Carboni, S. & Masuya, T. (1993). Persian tiles. New York: The Metropolitan
Museum of Art.

Swietochowski, M. L. & Babaie, S. (1989). Persian drawings in the


Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Index

Terms Pages
Abstract expressionism 56- 61- 219- 220- 221- 224- 225- 226- 232- 239
Action painting 220- 222- 224- 245
African art 183-187
Age of Enlightenment 19- 24- 106- 113
Aniconism 80- 81- 83- 85
Anthropology 52- 57
Anti-art 80- 82- 85- 86- 195- 201
Applied art 4- 5- 27- 30- 32- 274
Architecture 4- 5- 10- 11- 18- 24- 30- 65- 105- 207- 210- 253-
261- 275-283- 286- 287- 291- 292
Avant-garde 132- 191- 194
Bourgeois 80- 82- 85- 86- 195- 200- 204
Buddhist art 256- 258- 259- 265- 266
Calligraphy 16- 18- 20- 24- 30- 31- 36- 36- 263- 272- 273- 275-
278- 281- 283- 285
Capitalism 80- 82- 85- 123- 239
Chinese art 23- 256- 258- 260- 265- 266- 277
Cinema 39- 92- 93- 98- 296- 297- 299- 300- 305- 306
Cinematography 181
Collage 194- 197
Constructivism 56- 61- 184
Controversy 80- 81- 86- 88- 89- 98
Criticism 19- 24- 67- 71- 73
Cubism 19- 24- 61- 133- 180- 181- 182- 184- 187- 188- 191-
202- 208- 209- 210- 214- 239
Dada(ism) 43- 82- 193- 194- 195- 196- 197- 200- 201- 204-
232- 241
Index 311

Terms Pages
Divisionism 133- 207- 208- 209
Drama 18- 26- 301- 304
Emotionalism 118- 119- 124- 125- 137- 149
Etymology 5- 8
Expressionism 19- 56- 133- 144- 154- 155- 158- 162- 163- 166-
184- 201- 202
Fantasy 110- 114- 177
Fauvism 133- 168- 169- 172- 175- 176
Feminism 98
Fiction 18- 101
Fine arts 5- 27- 30- 35- 36- 37- 39- 260- 266
Folk (lore) 4- 7- 10- 94- 109- 113- 260- 263- 266- 298- 302-
305- 306
Futurism 184- 206- 207- 210- 213- 214- 217
Genre 2- 41- 42- 43- 44- 47- 48- 49- 51- 179- 188- 253-
263- 302
Gothic 109- 110- 290
Iconography 16- 18- 24
Idealism 119
Impressionism 19- 24- 44- 121- 129- 130- 131- 132- 133- 136- 137-
138- 144- 145- 148- 149- 150- 152- 154- 162- 163-
166- 202- 239
Indian art 256- 258- 260- 261- 265- 266
Islamic art 18- 24- 81- 85- 270- 271- 272- 273- 274- 275- 277-
278- 280- 282- 291
Iranian art 256- 282- 283- 287- 290- 291- 292- 296- 297
Literature 5- 9- 42- 43- 51- 105- 116- 118- 121- 128- 155- 195-
196- 201- 207- 261- 276
Manifesto 65- 172- 176- 195- 198- 201- 204- 207- 209- 213-
214- 217
Marxist 93
312 English for students of art

Terms Pages
Media (Medium) 5- 41- 42- 43- 48- 49- 89- 95- 197- 231- 232- 261-
273- 277
Minimalism 104- 243- 244- 246- 248- 249- 250- 252- 253
Modernism 16- 19- 196- 220- 225
Music 4- 5- 11- 14- 18- 30- 43- 55- 65- 92- 93- 97- 98-
155- 157- 158- 207- 231- 237- 244- 246- 249- 261-
263- 296- 297- 298- 300- 301- 302- 304- 305- 306
Nationalism 109- 112- 113- 207
Naturalism 81- 118- 120- 124- 125- 166
Objective(ity) 16- 25- 75- 121- 124- 125- 127- 137- 162- 198- 244-
246- 249
Optimism 194- 196- 199- 203- 231- 138- 239
Painting 4- 5- 16- 17- 18- 19- 30- 42- 43- 44- 67- 69- 89-
105- 107- 108- 119- 120- 121- 124- 129- 130- 131-
132- 135- 136- 137- 140- 143- 146- 148- 149- 155-
156- 157- 158- 162- 169- 170- 171- 182- 183- 193-
207- 208- 209- 212- 221- 231- 238- 245- 246- 248-
259- 260- 261- 262- 263- 271- 272- 283- 284- 291
Petro- glyph 16- 36- 260
Philosophy 6- 33- 37- 88- 98- 109- 163- 195- 200- 201
Photography 5- 30- 119- 124- 125- 181- 182- 299
Poetry 4- 11- 13- 14- 18- 30- 43- 51- 55- 65- 107- 113-
116- 166- 195- 240- 260- 265- 271
Pointillism 42- 44- 144- 145- 148- 149
Pop art 44- 230- 231- 232- 233- 234- 238- 239- 241- 242
Post-impressionism 142- 143- 148- 150- 152- 239
Post-modernism 19
Pottery 18- 261- 262- 263- 271- 272- 274- 280- 281- 283-
285
Printmaking 5
Propaganda 21- 54- 56- 58- 62- 93
Realism 17- 109- 117- 118- 119- 120- 121- 124- 125- 126-
128- 163- 180- 220- 225
Index 313

Terms Pages
Regionalism 220- 225
Relativism 16- 19- 22- 24
Renaissance 16- 18- 23- 24- 37- 120- 126- 181- 203
Romanticism 81- 87- 104- 105- 106- 107- 109- 112- 113- 117-
118
Satire 94- 97- 99- 240
Secular(ism) 121- 123- 125- 126- 239- 271- 277- 278- 280
Style 2- 17- 18- 19- 23- 41- 42- 43- 44- 45- 48- 49- 89-
108- 110- 119- 121- 130- 133- 143- 155- 166- 169-
178- 181- 182- 183- 184- 208- 209- 214- 221- 231-
235- 246- 248- 261- 274- 284- 284- 299- 303
Subjective(ity) 67- 68- 73- 75- 89- 125- 156- 166- 249
Suprematism 184
Surrealism 19- 56- 61- 194- 196
Symbolism 19- 183- 187- 287- 292
Tragedy 14- 43- 301
Value judgment 2- 32- 66- 67- 73- 74- 75- 77
Visual arts 5- 10- 44- 47- 107- 195- 201- 244- 246- 261- 271-
283- 297
Vorticism 184
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Appendix

(Related to p.17) (Related to p.32)

(Related to p.107) (Related to p.108)


(Related to p.119)

(Related to p.121)
(Related to p. 131)

(Related to p. 132)
(Related to p.144) (Related to p.145)

(Related to p.156) (Related to p.157)


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