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ELT 061 – Dispositivos e Circuitos Eletrônicos Básicos

Amplificadores Operacionais

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LOGO Símbolo do Amplificador Operacional

1965 – primeiro circuito integrado – amplificador operacional µA 709

1 – entrada inversora
vo  A(v2  v1 ) 2 – entrada não inversora
3 – saída

v2 +
_
A vo

v1

Figure 2.1 Circuit symbol for the op amp.

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LOGO Encapsulamentos

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LOGO Fontes de Alimentação

Figure 2.2 The op amp shown connected to dc power supplies.

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LOGO Circuito Equivalente do A.O. ideal
Características Ideais:
• Ganho diferencial infinito.
• Resistência de entrada infinita.
• Resistência de saída nula.
• Faixa de passagem infinita.

Exemplo: LM 741

A = 200.000
Ri = 2 MΩ
Figure 2.3 Equivalent circuit of the ideal op amp. Ro = 75 Ω

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LOGO Amplificador inversor

Figure 2.5 The inverting closed-loop configuration.

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LOGO Análise do Amplificador inversor

Figure 2.6 Analysis of the inverting configuration. The circled numbers indicate the order of the
analysis steps.

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LOGO O circuito somador

Figure 2.10 A weighted summer.

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LOGO Outro somador

Figure 2.11 A weighted summer capable of implementing summing coefficients of both signs.

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LOGO O amplificador não inversor

Figure 2.12 The noninverting configuration.

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LOGO Análise do Amplificador não inversor

Determine o ganho deste amplificador considerando o ganho A finito.

Figure 2.13 Analysis of the noninverting circuit. The sequence of the steps in the analysis is indicated by the
circled numbers.

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LOGO O seguidor de tensão

Figure 2.14 (a) The unity-gain buffer or follower amplifier. (b) Its equivalent circuit model.

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LOGO Exercício 2.9
Use o teorema da superposição para determinar vo.

Figure E2.9

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LOGO Resistor sensor de temperatura – PT100

RTDBULB, Pt., 100


Ohm
@ 0˚ C, a = .00385
Temperatura RESISTENCIA RTDBULB, Pt., 100 Ohm
oC (Ohm)
-50 80,32
@ 0˚ C, a = .00385
200,00
-40 84,29
-30 88,23 Valor da resistência - Ω 180,00

-20 92,16 160,00


-10 96,09
140,00
0 100,00
10 103,9 120,00
20 107,9 100,00
30 111,67
80,00
40 115,54
50 119,4 60,00
60 123,24
40,00
70 127,07
80 130,89 20,00
90 134,7 0,00
100 138,5
110 142,29
120 146,06
130
140
149,82
153,57
Temperatura °C
150 157,31
160 161,04
170 164,76
180 168,46
190 172,16
200 175,83

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LOGO Ponte com Strain Gage

Força

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LOGO Sinais de modo diferencial e de modo comum

v Id
v1  v Icm 
2
v Id  v 2  v1

v Id
v2  v Icm 
2 1
v Icm  (v1  v2 )
2

Figure 2.4 Representation of the signal sources v1 and v2 in terms of their differential and common-
mode components.

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LOGO Amplificadores de Diferenças

vo  Ad v Id  Acm v Icm

CMRR – Common-mode Rejection Ratio

| Ad |
CMRR  20 log
| Acm |

Figure 2.15 Representing the input signals to a differential amplifier in terms of their differential and
common-mode components.

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LOGO Amplificador de diferenças

Figure 2.16 A difference amplifier.

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LOGO Teorema da Superposição
R4  R1  R2 
vo 2   vI 2
R3  R4  R1 

R2 R4  R1  R2 
vo1   vI 1 vo   v I 2 
R2
v I1
R1 R3  R4  R1  R1
Figure 2.17 Application of superposition to the analysis of the circuit of Fig. 2.16.

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LOGO Amplificador de diferenças

R4  R1  R2  R2
vo   v I 2  v I1
R3  R4  R1  R1

R4 R2
Se: 
R3 R1

R2
vo  (v I 2  v I 1 )
R1

Figure 2.16 A difference amplifier.

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LOGO Amplificador de instrumentação

Figure 2.20 A popular circuit for an instrumentation amplifier: (a) Initial approach to the circuit; (b) The circuit
in (a) with the connection between node X and ground removed and the two resistors R1 and R1 lumped
together. This simple wiring change dramatically improves performance; (c) Analysis of the circuit in‘ (b)
assuming ideal op amps.

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LOGO Amplificador de Instrumentação

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LOGO Amplificador de Instrumentação
Projete o amplificador de instrumentação para que o ganho
possa ser variado entre 2 e 1000 utilizando um potênciometro
de 100 KΩ.

Ganho do primeiro estágio:

 2 R2 
vo 2  vo1  1  vid
 2 R1 

Figure 2.21 To make the gain of the circuit in Fig. 2.20(b) variable, 2R1 is implemented as the series
combination of a fixed resistor R1f and a variable resistor R1v. Resistor R1f ensures that the maximum
available gain is limited.

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LOGO Amplificador de Instrumentação – INA114

http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/sbos014/sbos014.pdf
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LOGO Largura de faixa

Figure 2.22 Open-loop gain of a typical general-purpose internally compensated op amp.

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LOGO Considerando o ganho A finito

vo  R2 R1

vi 1  1  R2 R1  / A

1  R2 R1   A

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LOGO Saturação da tensão de saída

Figure 2.25 (a) A noninverting amplifier with a nominal gain of 10 V/V designed using an op amp that
saturates at ±13-V output voltage and has ±20-mA output current limits. (b) When the input sine wave has
a peak of 1.5 V, the output is clipped off at ±13 V.

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LOGO Slew rate
É a máxima taxa de variação da tensão de saída de um A.O.

dvo
SR 
dt máx

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LOGO Full Power Bandwith
É a máxima frequência de uma senoide com amplitude
máxima que pode ser amplificada sem distorção por um A.O.
utilizado como buffer.

v I  Vˆi sin wt

dv I
 wVˆi cos wt
dt

wM Vo max  SR

Figure 2.27 Effect of slew-rate limiting on output sinusoidal waveforms.

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LOGO Imperfeições C.C. dos A.O’s

1 – Tensão de Offset de entrada

Figure 2.28 Circuit model for an op amp with input offset voltage VOS.

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LOGO Erro devido à tensão de offset de entrada

Figure 2.29 Evaluating the output dc offset voltage due to VOS in a closed-loop amplifier.

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LOGO Ajuste da tensão de Offset de entrada

Figure 2.30 The output dc offset voltage of an op amp can be trimmed to zero by connecting a
potentiometer to the two offset-nulling terminals. The wiper of the potentiometer is connected to the
negative supply of the op amp.

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LOGO Amplificador com acoplamento capacitivo

Figure 2.31 (a) A capacitively coupled inverting amplifier, and (b) the equivalent circuit for determining its
dc output offset voltage VO.

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LOGO Corrente de polarização e corrente de offset

Corrente de polarização de entrada:

I I
I B  B1 B 2
2

Corrente de offset de entrada:

I OS | I B1  I B 2 |

Figure 2.32 The op-amp input bias currents represented by two current sources IB1 and IB2.

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LOGO Erro devido à corrente de polarização

Figure 2.33 Analysis of the closed-loop amplifier, taking into account the input bias currents.

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LOGO Características elétricas de Amp. Op

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LOGO

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LOGO

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LOGO O amplificador inversor com impedâncias

Figure 2.37 The inverting configuration with general impedances in the feedback and the feed-in paths.

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LOGO Filtro passa baixas

 R2 /R1
V0 ( s)  Vi ( s)
1  sC2 R2

 R2 /R1
V0 ( jw)  Vi ( jw)
1  jwC 2 R2

Vi (t )  Vi sen ( wt )
1
w0 
C2 R2

Figure 2.38 Circuit for Example 2.6.

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LOGO O integrado inversor

Figure 2.39 (a) The Miller or inverting integrator. (b) Frequency response of the integrator.

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LOGO Circuito diferenciador

Figure 2.44 (a) A differentiator. (b) Frequency response of a differentiator with a time-constant CR.

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LOGO Exemplo de circuitos

vo  avs  b
R2 R R1 R
vo  (1  F )vs  (1  F )vREF
R1  R2 RG R1  R2 RG

R2 R
a (1  F )
R1  R2 RG

R1 R
b (1  F )vREF
R1  R2 RG

b R1
Equação de projeto:  vREF
a R2
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LOGO Exemplo de circuitos

RF R2 R  RG
vo  avs  b vo  
RG
vs 
R1  R2
( F
RG
)vREF

RF
a
RG
R2 R  RG
b ( F )vREF
R1  R2 RG

b R1
 vREF
(1  a ) R1  R2

Equação de projeto:
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Exemplo de circuitos
LOGO

vo  avs  b vo  
RF
RG
R
vs  F vREF
R1

RF
a
RG

RF
b vREF
R1

b RG
Equação de projeto:  vREF
a R1

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LOGO Problema 2.8
Determine o ganho vo / vi e a resistência de entrada Rin
em cada circuito.

Figure P2.8

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LOGO Problema 2.16
Encontre as correntes em todos em todos os ramos e as
tensões em todos os nós do circuito. Como a corrente
fornecida pelo A.O. é maior que a fornecida pela fonte de
sinal, de onde vêm a corrente adicional?

Figure P2.16

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LOGO Problema 2.22
A tensão de saída é proporcional à corrente de entrada.
Determine o ganho de transresistência e a resistência
de entrada para os seguintes casos:

1. A é infinito.
2. A é finito.

Figure P2.22

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LOGO

Figure P2.25

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LOGO

Figure P2.30

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LOGO

Figure P2.31

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LOGO

Figure P2.32

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LOGO Problema 2.33
Projete o circuito da figura para implementar um
amplificador de corrente com ganho iL / iI = 20A/A.

Figure P2.33

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LOGO

Figure P2.34

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LOGO

Figure P2.35

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LOGO

Figure P2.43

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LOGO Problema 2.46
O circuito de um voltímetro analógico com alta resistência de entrada é
mostrado na figura abaixo. O voltímetro mede a tensão V entre a
entrada não inversora e terra. A deflexão máxima do medidor de bobina
móvel ocorre para uma corrente de 100 µA. Calcule R de modo que o
medidor de bobina móvel dê a leitura máxima quando V = 10 V. A
resistência do medidor afeta a calibração do voltímetro?

Figure P2.46

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LOGO

Figure P2.47

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LOGO

Figure P2.49

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LOGO

Figure P2.50

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LOGO

Figure P2.51

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LOGO

Figure P2.59

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LOGO

Figure P2.62

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LOGO

Figure P2.68

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LOGO

Figure P2.69

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LOGO

Figure P2.70

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LOGO

Figure P2.71

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LOGO

Figure P2.77

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LOGO Problema 2.78
Os dois circuitos abaixo operam como conversores de tensão em
corrente, ou seja, eles alimentam a impedância ZL com uma corrente
proporcional a vI e independente do valor de ZL. Determine as
expressões io / vI.

Figure P2.78

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LOGO

Figure P2.108

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LOGO

Figure P2.117

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LOGO

Figure P2.118

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LOGO

Figure P2.119

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LOGO

Figure P2.122

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LOGO

Figure P2.125

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LOGO

Figure P2.126

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