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UNIT – I

FLUID STATICS

Density of a fluid is defined as the ratio of the mass of a fluid to its volume. Its unit is Kg/m3.

𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑

𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 (𝜌) =

𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑

2. Define specific weight or weight density.

Specific weight or weight density of a fluid is defined as the ratio between the weight of a fluid to its

Volume.

It is denoted by 𝜔,

𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 ∗ 𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑑𝑢𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔𝑡 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝜔 = = =𝜌∗𝑔

𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑

Specific volume of a fluid is defined as the volume of a fluid occupied by a unit mass or volume per

unit mass of a fluid. It is expressed as m3/Kg.

𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 1 1

𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = = =

𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝜌

𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑

4. Define specific gravity or relative density.

Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the weight density of a fluid to the weight density of a

standard of a standard fluid..

For liquids, the standard fluid is taken as water and

For gases, the standard fluid is taken as air.

𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔𝑡 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑

𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 (𝑆) =

𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔𝑡 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑

5. Define compressibility.

Compressibility is the reciprocal of bulk modulus of elasticity K, which is defined as the ratio of

compressive stress to volumetric strain.

6. Define coefficient of compressibility.

Coefficient of compressibility is denoted by ′𝛽′ and defined as volumetric strain per unit

Compressive stress.

7. Define surface tension of fluids.

The surface tension of a fluid is the property which enables the fluid to resist tensile stress. It is due

to the cohesion between the molecules at the surface of a liquid.

8. What is meant by capillarity?

Capillarity is defined as the phenomenon of rise or fall of a liquid surface in a small tube relative to

the adjacent level of liquid, when the tube is dipped vertically in the liquid. Its unit is meter.

FLUID MECHANICS

The rise of liquid surface in the capillary tube is known as capillary rise and the fall of liquid surface

in the capillary tube is known as capillary depression.

The rise of Liquid surface is known as capillary raise while the fall of the Liquid surface is known as

capillary depression.

Mathematically, the capillary rise or fall is given by,

4𝜎 cos 𝜃

=

𝜌𝑔𝑑

For the capillary rise is given by

4𝜎

= → 𝜃 = 00 → cos 𝜃 = 1 … … for water

𝜌𝑔𝑑

For the capillary fall is given by

4𝜎 cos 𝜃

= → 𝜃 = 1280 … … for mercury

𝜌𝑔𝑑

10. What is known as viscosity?

The property of a fluid which offers resistance to the movement of one layer of fluid over adjacent

layers of fluids is called viscosity.

11. What is meant by kinematic viscosity?

The ratio between the dynamic viscosity and density is defined as kinematic viscosity of a fluid.

12. State ‘Newton’s law of viscosity.

It states that ‘For a steady uniform flow, the shear stress on a fluid element is layer is directly

proportional to the rate of shear strain. The constant of proportionality is called the coefficient of

viscosity.

13. State Pascal’s law.

Pascal’s law states that the pressure or intensity of pressure at a point in a static fluid is equal in all

directions.

14. Define Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids.

A real fluid in which the shear stress is proportional to the rate of shear strain is known as

Newtonian fluid.

Fluids which do not obey Newton’s law of viscosity are called Non-Newtonian fluids.

15. What are manometers?

Manometers are defined as the devices used for measuring the pressure at a point in a fluid by

balancing the column of fluid by the same or another column of the fluid.

It states that the shear stress () on a fluid element layer is directly proportional to the rate of shear

strain. The constant of proportionality is called the coefficient of viscosity.

Mathematically, it is expressed by the following equation

𝑑𝑢

𝜏= 𝜇

𝑑𝑦

FLUID MECHANICS

Fluids which obey the above relation are known as Newtonian fluids

Fluids which do not obey the above relation are called Non-Newtonian Fluid.

17. Define Surface Tension and state the unit for surface tension?

Surface tension is defined as the tensile force acting on the surface of a Liquid in contact with a gas

or on the surface between two immiscible Liquids such that contact surface behaves like a membrane

under tension.

Surface tension is expressed in N/m (or) dyne/Cm

4𝜎

Surface tension for a liquid droplet is given by, 𝑝 = 𝑑

8𝜎

Surface tension for a soap bubble is given by, 𝑝 = 𝑑

2𝜎

Surface tension for a liquid droplet is given by, 𝑝 = 𝑑

18. What is the difference between dynamic viscosity and kinematic viscosity? And State their units

Dynamic Viscosity: ()

Dynamic viscosity (or) coefficient of dynamic viscosity is defined as the ratio between to the

shear stress and rate of shear deformation.

𝜏 𝑁 − 𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝜇= = = 10 𝑃𝑜𝑖𝑠𝑒

𝑑𝑢 𝑚2

𝑑𝑦

Kinematic Viscosity: (𝜗)

It is defined as the ratio between the dynamic viscosity and density of fluid. It is denoted by

the Greek symbol (𝜗) (Nu).

𝐷𝑦𝑛𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑐 𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝜇 𝑚2

𝜗= = = = 1000 𝑆𝑡𝑜𝑘𝑒

𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝜌 𝑠𝑒𝑐

19. What is the effect of temperature on viscosity of liquids (Water) and gases (Air)?

For Liquids: The viscosity of liquids decreases with the increase of temperature due to cohesive

forces predominates the molecular momentum transfer due to closely packed molecules with the increase

in temperature, the cohesive forces decreases with the result of decreasing viscosity

For Gases: the viscosities of gases increases with the increase of temperature due to the cohesive

forces are small and molecular momentum transfer predominates. With the increase in temperature, the

molecular momentum transfer increases and hence viscosity increases.

20. Define Manometer.

It is defined as the devices used for measuring the pressure at a point in a fluid by balancing the

column of fluid by the same or another column at the fluid.

21. Define absolute pressure.

It is defined as the pressure which is measured with reference to absolute vacuum pressure.

22. Define Gauge pressure.

It is defined as the pressure which is measured with the help of a pressure measuring instrument,

in which the atmospheric pressure is taken as datum.

The atmospheric pressure on the scale is marked as zero.

FLUID MECHANICS

It is defined as the pressure below the atmospheric pressure.

24. What are the different types of mechanical gauges?

Mechanical gauges are defined as the device used for measuring pressures by balancing the fluid

column by the spring (or) dead weights.

Generally, the mechanical gauges are best suitable for measuring very high fluid pressure. In case

of steam boilers where manometer can’t be used, a mechanical gauge can be conveniently used.

1. Bourdon tube pressure gauge

2. Diaphragm pressure gauge

3. Dead weight pressure gauge

4. Bellows pressure gauge.

25. Define Hydro – Static force?

Hydro – Static force is defined as the fluids are at rest means that there is no relative motion

between adjacent fluid layers.

The Velocity gradient between the two adjacent fluid layers divided by the distance between the

layers will be zero. Then the shear stress is also equal to zero.

𝑑𝑢

Mathematically, Velocity gradient = =0

𝑑𝑦

26. Define Total Pressure and Centre of Pressure?

Total Pressure:

It is defined as the force exerted by a static fluid on a surface either plane or curved. When the fluid

comes with the surfaces. This force always acts normal to the surface

Centre of Pressure:

It is defined as the point of application of the total pressure on the surface.

(or)

It is based on “Principle of Moments”. This states that the moment of the resultant force about an

axis is equal to the sum of moments of the components about the same axis.

FLUID MECHANICS

UNIT – Ii

FLUID

kinematics & dynamics

The following are the various types of fluid flows:

Steady and unsteady flow

Uniform and non-uniform flow

Laminar and Turbulent flow

Compressible and incompressible flow

Rotational and Ir-rotational flow

One, two and three dimensional flow.

2. Define Steady and Unsteady flow.

Steady flow:

Fluid flow is said to be steady if at any point in the flowing fluid, the various fluid characteristics

such as Velocity, Density and Pressure do not change with time.

𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑃 𝜕𝜌

= 0; = 0; =0

𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑡

Unsteady flow:

Fluid flow is said to be unsteady if at any point flowing fluid, the various fluid characteristics such

as Velocity, Density and Pressure change with time.

𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑃 𝜕𝜌

≠ 0; ≠ 0; ≠0

𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑡

3. Define Uniform and Non-uniform flow.

Uniform flow:

When the velocity of flow of fluid does not change both in direction and magnitude from point to

point in the flowing fluid for any given instant of time, the flow is said to be uniform.

𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑃 𝜕𝜌

= 0; = 0; =0

𝜕𝑠 𝜕𝑠 𝜕𝑠

Non-uniform flow:

If the velocity of flow of fluid changes from point to point in the flowing fluid at any instant, the

flow is said to be non-uniform flow.

𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑃 𝜕𝜌

≠ 0; ≠ 0; ≠0

𝜕𝑠 𝜕𝑠 𝜕𝑠

4. Compare Laminar and Turbulent flow.

Laminar flow:

A flow is said to be laminar if Reynolds number is less than 2000 for pipe flow. Laminar flow is

possible only at low velocities and high viscous fluids. In laminar type of flow, fluid particles move in

laminas or layers gliding smoothly over the adjacent layer.

FLUID MECHANICS

Turbulent flow:

In Turbulent flow, the flow is possible at both velocities and low viscous fluid. The flow is said to be

turbulent if Reynolds number is greater than 4000 for pipe flow. In Turbulent type of flow fluid, particles

move in a zig – zag manner.

5. Define Compressible and incompressible flow

Compressible flow:

The compressible flow is that type of flow in which the density of the fluid changes from point to

point i.e. the density is not constant for the fluid. It is expressed in kg/sec.

ρ ≠ constant

Incompressible flow:

The incompressible flow is that type of flow in which the density is constant for the fluid flow.

Liquids are generally incompressible. It is expressed in m3/s.

ρ = constant

6. Define Rotational and Ir-rotational flow.

Rotational flow:

Rotational flow is that type of flow in which the fluid particles while flowing along stream lines and

also rotate about their own axis.

Ir-rotational flow:

If the fluid particles are flowing along stream lines and do not rotate about their own axis that type

of flow is called as ir-rotational flow.

7. Define One, Two and Three dimensional flow.

One dimensional flow:

The flow parameter such as velocity is a function of time and one space coordinate only.

u = f (x), v = 0 & w = 0.

Two dimensional flow:

The velocity is a function of time and two rectangular space co-ordinates.

u = f1(x, y), v = f2(x, y) & w =0.

Three dimensional flow:

The velocity is a function of time and three mutually perpendicular directions.

u = f1(x, y, z), v = f2(x, y, z) & w = f3(x, y, z).

8. State the assumptions used in deriving Bernoulli’s equation

The following assumptions are analyzed for deriving the Bernoulli’s equation:

Flow is steady

Flow is laminar

Flow is Ir – rotational

Flow is incompressible

Fluid is ideal.

FLUID MECHANICS

9. Write the Bernoulli’s equation applied between two sections with losses.

The Bernoulli’s equation for real fluids are given by,

𝑃1 𝑉1 2 𝑃2 𝑉2 2

+ + 𝑍1 = + + 𝑍2 + 𝐴𝑙𝑙 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠

𝜌𝑔 2𝑔 𝜌𝑔 2𝑔

𝑃1 𝑉1 2 𝑃2 𝑉2 2

+ + 𝑍1 = + + 𝑍2 + 𝑀𝑎𝑗𝑜𝑟 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 + 𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑜𝑟 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠

𝜌𝑔 2𝑔 𝜌𝑔 2𝑔

10. List out the various forces are considered when the fluid in motion.

When the fluid is in motion, the following forces are generally considered:

Force due to Pressure

Force due to Gravity

Force due to Viscosity

Force due to Turbulence

Force due to Compressibility

The resultant equation of motion is given by,

𝐹𝑅 = 𝐹 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 + 𝐹 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 + 𝐹 𝑉𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 + 𝐹 𝑇𝑢𝑟𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 + 𝐹 𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦

For fluid flow, where force due to compressibility is negligible, the resulting equation of motion is

known as Reynold’s equation of motion.

11. What is known as Navier Stoke’s equation of motion.

For fluid flow, where force due to turbulence is negligible, the resulting equation of motion is

known as Navier-Stoke’s equation.

12. What is known as Euler’s equation of motion.

For fluid flow, where force due to viscosity is negligible, the resulting equation of motion is known

as Navier-Stoke’s equation.

13. Define Reynold’s number.

It is defined as the ratio of the inertia force of a flowing fluid and the viscous force of the fluid.

14. Define Continuity equation and Write the continuity equation for three, two and one dimensional flows.

The equation based on the principle of conservation of mass is called continuity equation.

𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤

+ + = 0 … … … … … … … … Three Dimensional fluid flow (For Cylindrical Coordinates)

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

𝜕 𝜕

𝑟𝑢𝑟 + 𝑢 = 0 … … … … … … … … Three Dimensional fluid flow (For Polar Coordinates)

𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝜃 𝜃

𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣

+ = 0 … … … … … … … … … … … 𝑇𝑤𝑜 Dimensional fluid flow

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

𝑄 = 𝐴1 𝑉1 = 𝐴2 𝑉2 … … … … … … … … … One Dimensional fluid flow

15. Define Impulse Momentum Equation (or) Momentum Equation.

The total force acting on fluid is equal to rate of change of momentum.

According to Newton’s second law of motion, F = ma

F dt = d(mv)

FLUID MECHANICS

16. Mention the range of Reynold’s number for laminar and turbulent flow in a pipe.

If the Reynold’s number is less than 2000, the flow is laminar.

If the Reynold’s number lies in between 2000 to 4000, then the flow changes from laminar to turbulent

But if the Reynold’s number is greater than 4000, the flow is turbulent flow.

17. Define Kinematics of flow.

It is defined as that branch of science which deals with motion of particles without considering the forces

causing the motion.

18. What are the methods of describing fluid flow?

The fluid motion is described by two methods they are

(i) Lagrangian method, and

(ii) Eulerian method

In the Langrangian Method, a single fluid particle is followed during its motion and its velocity, acceleration ,

density etc are described . In case of Eulerian method the velocity, acceleration, density pressure and density etc.

are described at a point in flow field. The Eulerian method is commonly used in fluid mechanics.

19. Explain the term local Acceleration and convective Acceleration.

Local acceleration: It is defined as the rate of increase of velocity with respect to time at a given point in a

flow field.

u v w

, , is known as local acceleration

t t t

Convective Acceleration:

It is defined as the rate of change of velocity due to the change of position of fluid particles in a fluid flow.

20. Write the various types of flow line

The various type of flow line is as follows:

Path line

Stream line

Streak line or filament lines

Potential lines or Equi-potential lines

Flow net

21. Explain the terms:

(i) Path Line (ii) Stream Line (iii) Stream tube (iv) Streak line

Path Line:

A path line time is defined as the path or line traced by a single particle of fluid during a period of time. Path

line shows the direction of velocity of the same fluid.

Stream Line:

This is an imaginary curve drawn through a flowing fluid in such a way that the tangent of which at any

point . the pattern of flow of fluid may be represented by a series of stream Lines obtained by drawing a series of

curves into the following fluid such that the velocity vector at any point is tangential to the curves.

Stream tube:

A stream tube is an imaginary tube formed by a group of stream lines passing through a small closed curve

which may or mayn’t be a circle. The concept of stream tube is useful in analyzing the several fluid flow problems.

FLUID MECHANICS

Streak line:

Streak line may be defined as the line traced by a fluid particle passing through a fixed point in a fluid flow. It

is the locus of all end point of the fluid particle.

22. Define Equi – Potential line.

A line along which the velocity potential is constant, is called Equi – Potential line.

23. Define flow net.

A grid obtained by drawing a series of Equi – Potential lines and stream lines is called Flow net.

24. Define Buoyancy?

The upward force exerted by a liquid on a body when the body is immersed in the liquid is known as buoyancy

(or) force of buoyancy.

25. Define Velocity Potential function

It is defined as a scalar function of space and time such that its negative derivative with respect to any

direction gives the fluid velocity in that direction.

It is denoted by ′∅′ (Phi)

Mathematically, the velocity potential function for steady flow is given by,

𝜕∅ 𝜕∅ 𝜕∅

𝑢= − ; 𝑣= − ; 𝑤= −

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

26. Define Stream function.

It is defined as the scalar function of space and time, such that its partial derivative with respect to any

direction gives the velocity component at right angles to that direction.

It is denoted by ′𝜑′(Psi)

Mathematically, the stream function for steady flow is given by,

𝜕𝜑 𝜕𝜑

= 𝑣; = −𝑢

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

26. List out various types of fluid motions.

A fluid particle while moving may undergo any one of the combination of the following four types of

displacements, they are

Linear Translation (or) Pure translation

Linear Deformation

Angular Deformation

Rotation

It is defined at ht e value twice of the rotation and hence it is given as 2 *rotation.

It is defined as the quantity of a fluid flow in per second through a section of pipe (or) a channel.

For incompressible fluid flow: the rate of flow is expressed as the volume of the fluid flowing across the

section per second.

SRI VENKATESWARA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY:: ANANTAPURAMU Page 9

FLUID MECHANICS

Units are M3/sec( or) Liters/sec

For compressible fluid flow: the rate of flow is expressed as the weight of the fluid flowing across the section

per second.

Units are kgf / sec( or) Newton /sec

The point through which force of buoyancy is supposed to act is called centre of buoyancy.

30. Define Meta – centre?

The point about which a body starts oscillating when the body is tilted is known as meta - centre

31. Define Meta – Centre Height?

The distance between the meta centre and centre of gravity is known as meta centric height.

Mathematically,

𝐼

𝐺𝑀 = − 𝐵𝐺

𝑉

Where,

I = Moment of Inertia of the floating body at water surface about the axis Y-Y.

V = Volume of the body Sub – Merged in water

BG = Distance between centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy.

32. Write the conditions of equilibrium of floating and Sub – Merged bodies.

The following are the conditions for equilibrium of floating and Sub – Merged bodies: -

Equilibrium Floating Body Sub – Merged Body

1. Stable Equilibrium M is above G B is above G

2. Unstable Equilibrium M is below G B is below G

3. Neutral Equilibrium M and G coincides B and G coincides

FLUID MECHANICS

UNIT – Iii

FLUID dynamics

1. State the assumptions used in deriving Bernoulli’s equation

The following assumptions are analyzed for deriving the Bernoulli’s equation:

Flow is steady

Flow is laminar

Flow is Ir – rotational

Flow is incompressible

Fluid is ideal.

2. Write the Bernoulli’s equation applied between two sections with losses.

The Bernoulli’s equation for real fluids are given by,

𝑃1 𝑉1 2 𝑃2 𝑉2 2

+ + 𝑍1 = + + 𝑍2 + 𝐴𝑙𝑙 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠

𝜌𝑔 2𝑔 𝜌𝑔 2𝑔

𝑃1 𝑉1 2 𝑃2 𝑉2 2

+ + 𝑍1 = + + 𝑍2 + 𝑀𝑎𝑗𝑜𝑟 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 + 𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑜𝑟 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠

𝜌𝑔 2𝑔 𝜌𝑔 2𝑔

3. . List out the various forces are considered when the fluid in motion.

When the fluid is in motion, the following forces are generally considered:

Force due to Pressure

Force due to Gravity

Force due to Viscosity

Force due to Turbulence

Force due to Compressibility

The resultant equation of motion is given by,

𝐹𝑅 = 𝐹 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 + 𝐹 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 + 𝐹 𝑉𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 + 𝐹 𝑇𝑢𝑟𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 + 𝐹 𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦

For fluid flow, where force due to compressibility is negligible, the resulting equation of motion is

known as Reynold’s equation of motion.

For fluid flow, where force due to turbulence is negligible, the resulting equation of motion is

known as Navier-Stoke’s equation.

FLUID MECHANICS

For fluid flow, where force due to viscosity is negligible, the resulting equation of motion is known

as Navier - Stoke’s equation.

It is defined as the ratio of the inertia force of a flowing fluid and the viscous force of the fluid.

The total force acting on fluid is equal to rate of change of momentum.

According to Newton’s second law of motion, F = ma

F dt = d(mv)

9. Mention the range of Reynold’s number for laminar and turbulent flow in a pipe.

If the Reynold’s number is less than 2000, the flow is laminar.

If the Reynold’s number lies in between 2000 to 4000, then the flow changes from laminar to

turbulent. But if the Reynold’s number is greater than 4000, the flow is turbulent flow.

A venturi meter is a device used for measuring the rate of flow of a fluid flowing through a pipe. It consists

of three parts;

(i) A short converging part

(ii) Throat and

(iii) Diverging part

It is a device used for measuring the rate of flow of fluid through a pipe. It is a cheaper device as compared

to venturi meter. It is also works on the same principle as that of venture meter. It consists of a flat circular plate

which has a circular sharp edged hole called orifice which is concentric with the pipe.

It is a device used for measuring the velocity of flow at any point in a pipe or a channel. It is based on the

principle that, if the velocity of flow at appoint becomes zero, the pressure there is increased due to the conversion

of kinetic energy into pressure energy. In its simplest form, the pitot – tube consists of a glass tube, bent at a right

angles.

FLUID MECHANICS

13. Define kinetic energy correction factor?

Kinetic energy factor is defined as the ratio of the kinetic energy of the flow per sec based on actual velocity

across a section to the kinetic energy of the flow per sec based on average velocity across the same section. It is

denoted by (α).

𝐾. 𝐸 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦

K. E factor α =

𝐾. 𝐸 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦

It is defined as the ratio of momentum of the flow per sec based on actual velocity to the momentum of the flow per

sec based on average velocity across the section.

Momentum Correction factor β =

𝑀𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑢𝑚 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦

FLUID MECHANICS

UNIT – Iv

FLUID flow through orifices & mouth pieces

Notches & weirs

1. Define the terms Orifice & Mouthpiece?

Orifice:

Orifice is a small opening on the side (or) at bottom of a tank through which a fluid is

flowing.

Mouthpiece:

Mouthpiece is short length of a pipe which is two to three times its diameter in length fitted

in a tank (or) a vessel containing the fluid.

The Orifices and Mouthpieces are used for measuring the rate of flow of fluid.

The Orifices are classified as:

1. According to the size of the orifice:

a. Small Orifice

b. Large Orifice

2. According to the shape of the orifice:

a. Circular Orifice

b. Triangular Orifice

c. Rectangular Orifice

d. Square Orifice

3. According to the upstream edge of the orifice:

a. Sharp – Edged Orifice and

b. Bell – Mounted Orifice Sub – Merged (or) Drowned Orifice.

4. According to the nature of discharge through orifice:

a. Free Discharging Orifice and

b. Sub – Merged (or) Drowned Orifice.

(i) Fully – Sub – Merged Orifice

(ii) Partially – Sub – Merged Orifice

FLUID MECHANICS

The Mouthpieces are classified as:

1. According to the Position of the Mouthpieces:

a. External Mouthpiece

b. Internal Mouthpiece

2. According to the shape of the Mouthpieces:

a. Cylindrical Mouthpiece

b. Convergent – Divergent Mouthpiece

3. According to the nature of discharge through Mouthpieces:

a. Mouthpieces running full

b. Mouthpieces running free

The above classification of Nature of discharge mouthpieces is also known Borda’s (or) Reentrant

Mouthpieces,

4. State Hydraulic Coefficients.

There are three hydraulic co – efficient namely,

Coefficient of velocity (Cv)

𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑎𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑎 − 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑎

Cv =

𝑇𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦

Coefficient of Contraction(Cc)

𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒 𝑗𝑒𝑡 𝑎𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑎 − 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑎

Cc =

𝑇𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒 𝑂𝑟𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑒

Coefficient of Discharge(Cd)

𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒

Cc =

𝑇𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒

The Co – efficient of discharges for Mouthpieces are as follows:

External Mouthpieces: Cd = 0.855

Internal Mouthpieces – Running full : Cd = 0.707

Internal Mouthpieces – Running free : Cd = 0.50

Convergent - Divergent Mouthpieces: Cd = 1.0

FLUID MECHANICS

NOTCH:

A notch is a device used for measuring the rate of flow of a liquid through a small channel or a tank.

It may be defined as an opening in the side of a tank or a small channel in such a way that the liquid

surface in the tank or channel is below the top edge of the opening.

WEIR:

A weir is concrete structure, placed in an open channel over which the flow occurs.

It is generally a vertical wall, with a sharp edge at the tip, running all the way across the open

channel.

NAPPE:

The sheet of water flowing through a notch or over a weir is called Nappe or Vein.

CREST:

The bottom edge of a notch or a top of a weir over which the water flows, is known as the Sill or

Crest.

The Notches/Weirs are classified as:

1. According to the shape of the opening:

a. Rectangular notch / Rectangular Weir

b. Triangular notch / Triangular Weir

c. Trapezoidal notch / Trapezoidal (Cipolletti) Weir

d. Stepped notch.

2. According to the effect of the sides on the nappe:

a. Notch / Weir with end contraction

b. Notch / Weir without end contraction (Suppressed Notch / Weir)

3. According to the shape of the crest:

a. Sharp – crested weir,

b. Broad – crested weir,

c. Narrow – crested weir, and

d. Ogee – shaped weir.

8. What are the advantages of triangular notch or weir over a rectangular notch or wier.

A triangular notch or weir is preferred to a rectangular weir or notch due to following reasons:

FLUID MECHANICS

a. The expression for discharge for a right – angled V – notch or Weir is very simple.

b. For measuring low discharge, a triangular notch gives more accurate results than a rectangular

notch.

c. In case of triangular notch, the total head ‘H’ is only required for determining the discharge flowing

through the notch/weir.

9. Define end contraction of a weir. What is the effect of end contraction on the discharge through a

weir.

If a weir or notch for which the length of the crest is equal to the width of the channel. This type of

weir is called suppressed weir. But if the weir is not suppressed, the effect on flow over a weir is

considered. Thus effect is said to be an End – contraction.

According to Francis’s formula, on the basis of experiments that end contraction decreases with the

effective length of the crest of weir and hence decreases the discharge.

Each end contraction reduces the crest length by “0.1 H” times.

Where H = Head over a weir.

For example, a rectangular weir with two end contractions, then the effective length of the crest is

𝐿 = 𝐿 − 0.2𝐻

Then the discharge flowing through the rectangular notch / weir is:

2

𝑄= ∗ 𝐶 ∗ 𝐿 ∗ 2𝑔 ∗ 𝐻 3/2

3 𝑑

2

𝑄= ∗ 𝐶 ∗ 𝐿 − 0.2𝐻 ∗ 2𝑔 ∗ 𝐻 3/2

3 𝑑

FLUID MECHANICS

UNIT – v

Analysis of pipe flow

1. What does Hagen - Poiseulle equation refer to?

The equation refers to the value of loss of head in a pipe of length ‘L’ due to viscosity in a laminar flow.

𝑃1 − 𝑃2 32𝜇𝑢𝐿

=

𝜌𝑔 𝜌𝑔𝐷 2

Where,

𝑃1 − 𝑃2

= 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑒𝑎𝑑, 𝑢 = 𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑉𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝜌𝑔

µ = Coefficient of viscosity; L = Length of pipe; D = Diameter of pipe,

𝜕𝑝 𝑟

𝜏=− ∗

𝜕𝑥 2

The Maximum Shear Stress expression is given by,

𝜕𝑝 𝑅

𝜏𝑀𝑎𝑥 = − ∗

𝜕𝑥 2

4. Give the formula for velocity distribution: -

The formula for velocity distribution is given as:

1 𝜕𝑝

𝑢=− ∗ ∗ 𝑅2 − 𝑟2

4𝜇 𝜕𝑥

Where,

R = Radius of the pipe,

r = Radius of the fluid element.

5. Give the equation for average velocity : -

The formula for average velocity distribution is given as:

1 𝜕𝑝

𝑢=− ∗ ∗ 𝑅2

8𝜇 𝜕𝑥

Where,

R = Radius of the pipe.

6. Give the equation for Maximum velocity : -

The formula for Maximum velocity distribution is given as:

1 𝜕𝑝

𝑈𝑀𝑎𝑥 = − ∗ ∗ 𝑅2

4𝜇 𝜕𝑥

Where,

R = Radius of the pipe.

FLUID MECHANICS

7. Write the relation between Maximum Velocity and Average Velocity?

The expression for Maximum velocity distribution is given as

1 𝜕𝑝

𝑈𝑀𝑎𝑥 = − ∗ ∗ 𝑅2

4𝜇 𝜕𝑥

The expression for average velocity distribution is given as:

1 𝜕𝑝

𝑢=− ∗ ∗ 𝑅2

8𝜇 𝜕𝑥

The relation between Maximum Velocity and Average Velocity is given as:

1 𝜕𝑝 2

𝑈𝑀𝑎𝑥 − 4𝜇 ∗ 𝜕𝑥 ∗ 𝑅

=

𝑢 1 𝜕𝑝

− 8𝜇 ∗ ∗ 𝑅2

𝜕𝑥

𝑈𝑀𝑎𝑥

=2

𝑢

8. Give the expression for the coefficient of friction in viscous flow?

The Coefficient of friction between pipe and fluid in viscous flow

16

𝑓= 𝑖𝑓 𝑅𝑒 < 2000 … … … … … … 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝐿𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤

𝑅𝑒

0.007

𝑓= 𝑖𝑓 𝑅𝑒 > 4000 𝑡𝑜 106 … … … … … … 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑇𝑢𝑟𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤

𝑅𝑒 1/4

Where,

𝑓 = Coefficient of friction

𝑅𝑒 = Reynolds number

9. What are the factors to be determined when viscous fluid flows through the circular pipe?

The factors to be determined are:

i. Velocity distribution across the section.

ii. Ratio of maximum velocity to the average velocity. iii. Shear stress distribution.

iii. Drop of pressure for a given length.

Kinetic energy factor is defined as the ratio of the kinetic energy of the flow per sec based on actual velocity

across a section to the kinetic energy of the flow per sec based on average velocity across the same section. It is

denoted by (α).

𝐾. 𝐸 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦

K. E factor α =

𝐾. 𝐸 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦

11. Define momentum correction factor (β):

It is defined as the ratio of momentum of the flow per sec based on actual velocity to the momentum of the flow per

sec based on average velocity across the section.

𝑀𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑢𝑚 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦

Momentum Correction factor β =

𝑀𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑢𝑚 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦

FLUID MECHANICS

12. What is meant by energy loss in a pipe?

When the fluid flows through a pipe, it losses some energy or head due to frictional resistance and other

reasons. It is called energy loss. The losses are classified as; Major losses and Minor losses

The major energy losses in a pipe is mainly due to the frictional resistance caused by the shear force

between the fluid particles and boundary walls of the pipe and also due to viscosity of the fluid.

The loss of energy or head due to change of velocity of the flowing fluid in magnitude or direction is called

minor losses.

It includes: Head loss due to

Sudden expansion of the pipe :

𝑣1 − 𝑣2 2

𝑒 =

2𝑔

V1 = velocity in small pipe

V2 = velocity in large pipe

2

𝑣2 2 1

𝑐 = −1

2𝑔 𝐶𝑐

𝑣2 2

𝑐 = 0.375 𝑖𝑓 𝐶𝑐 = 𝐶𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 0.62

2𝑔

𝑣2 2

𝑐 = 0.5 𝑖𝑓 𝐶𝑐 = 𝐶𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑠 𝑛𝑜𝑡 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛

2𝑔

At inlet of the pipe:

𝑣2

𝑖 = 0.5

2𝑔

At outlet of the pipe:

𝑣2

0 =

2𝑔

Bend in a pipe:

𝑘𝑣 2

𝑏 =

2𝑔

2

𝑣2 2 𝐴

𝑜𝑏 = −1

2𝑔 𝐶𝑐 𝐴 − 𝑎

𝑘𝑣 2

𝑝𝑓 =

2𝑔

FLUID MECHANICS

15. State Darcy-Weisbach equation (or) What is the expression for head loss due to friction?

The Darcy-Weisbach equation (or) The expression for head loss due to friction is given by,

4𝑓𝑙𝑣 2

𝑓 =

2𝑔𝑑

Where,

𝑓 = Head loss due to friction (m); L = Length of the pipe (m);

d = Diameter of the pipe (m); V = Velocity of flow (m/sec); f = Coefficient of friction

The head loss due to friction in pipe can also be calculated by Chezy’s formula

𝑉 = 𝐶 𝑚𝑖

Where,

C = Chezy’s constant; m = hydraulic mean depth = d/4;

hf

V = velocity of fluid flow; i loss of head per unit length

L

(b) Total Energy line [TEL]

Hydraulic gradient line: It is defined as the line which gives the sum of pressure head and datum head of a

flowing fluid in a pipe with respect the reference line.

HGL = Sum of Pressure Head and Datum head.

Total energy line: Total energy line is defined as the line which gives the sum of pressure head, datum head

and kinetic head of a flowing fluid in a pipe with respect to some reference line.

TEL = Sum of Pressure Head, Datum head and Velocity head.

The different types of flows are as follows:

Uniform flow, non uniform flow, stream line flow, turbulent flow, steady flow, unsteady flow, compressible

flow, incompressible flow, rotational flow, irrigational flow, one dimensional flow, two dimensional flow, three

dimensional flow etc.,

Siphon is a long bent pipe used to transfer liquid from a reservoir at a higher level to another reservoir at a

lower level, when the two reservoirs are separated by a high level ground.

20. What is compound pipe? What will be loss of head when pipes are connected in series?

When pipes of different lengths and different diameter are connected end to end, (in series) it is called as

compound pipe. The rate of flow through each pipe connected is series is same.

FLUID MECHANICS

21. Explain the terms (i) Pipes in parallel (ii) Equivalent pipe (iii) Equivalent size of the pipe?

(i) Pipes in parallel:

When the pipes are connected in parallel, the loss of head in each pipe is same. The rate of flow in

main pipe is equal to sum of the rate of flow in each pipe, connected in parallel.

(ii) Equivalent pipe:

A single pipe of uniform diameter, having same discharge and same loss of head as compound pipe

consisting of several pipes of different lengths and diameters is known as equivalent pipe

(iii) Equivalent size of the pipe:

The diameter of equivalent pipe is called equivalent size of the pipe.

The equivalent size of the pipe is obtained from

L L1 L2 L3

d5 d15 d52 d53

Where,

L = Equivalent length of pipe; d = Equivalent size of the pipes

L1, L2, L3 are lengths of pipe connected in series; and

d1, d2, d3 are diameters of pipe connected in series.

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