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Castellano, San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija
NZCI Campus, Masinloc, Zambales



A Thesis Proposal
Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School
Dr. Gloria D. Lacson Foundation Colleges
NZCI Campus, Masinloc, Zambales

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the

Subject Methods of Research Subject Code: ___
of the course Master of Arts in Education


Sandra E. Elad

Summer, 2018-2019





In the Philippine school system, information and

communication technology (ICT) is usually introduced in the

elementary schools through the subject Home Economics and

Livelihood Education (HELE) and in the secondary schools

through Technology and Home Economics (THE). The idea is

that “technology must be studied first as a separate subject,

then applied in other learning areas as a tool for learning

how to learn” (ICT in Education, UNESCO, Bangkok, 2007).

Since 1997, the Department of Education (DepEd) has

intensified the provision of IC training to teachers of

different subjects, including TLE . This was an important

event because integration requires the teachers to become

a skilled and competent user of computer technology when

teaching. The DepEd’s interest in the innovative use of ICT

in classroom teaching and learning is well understood. The

global community as well as the neighboring countries in Asia

is aggressively pursuing the technology based approach

to teaching called ICT integration. On top of it,

for years the country has been battling poor

academic performance in TLE. ICT Integration can be the key

to the improvement of Technology Education in the

country. With this vision, it is imperative that

the implementation of the ICT program, particularly in

government schools, be examined to readily address the new

educational problems that arise from it.

ICT integration is a technological innovation in

education. Rogers (2003) believes that the implementation

of an innovation is just one phase of a five-stage

diffusion process. Diffusion here means “the process

through which an innovation spreads via communication

channels over time among the members of a social

system” (Rogers, Medina, Rivera, & Wiley, 2003, p. 3)

Rogers’ theory explains how innovation is communicated to

the would-be innovators in five stages, namely, knowledge,

persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation.

Knowledge requires exposure to the innovation and

understanding how to use it. Persuasion refers to the

development of a favorable attitude toward the innovation.

Decision refers to the commitment to its adoption.

Implementation is putting the innovation to use, whereas

confirmation refers to the reinforcement resulting from

favorable outcomes. This study sought to determine the

implementation level of the DepEd’s ICT Integration program in

Mathematics teaching. The degree to which technology was

used in the classroom indicated the implementation level of

the government’s ICT integration program. The study focused

on the public high schools in Metro Manila, the country’s

capital, which is expected to have the best ICT resources.


It is important for teachers to understand the

precise role of ICT so that they can effectively cope with

innovations in teaching students. Teachers are less likely to

integrate technology into their instruction unless they accept

the notion of the requirement of technology use in their

classroom environment. The central questions with regard to

technology acceptance are how individuals perceive technology

and which factors contribute to the lack of utilization (Kiraz

& Ozdemir, 2006). The lack of both technical and pedagogical

knowledge and skills of the teacher to use available ICTs in

the classroom becomes the major constraint. The use of

technology for teaching requires the development not only of

knowledge, skills, and behaviors but also of appropriate

attitudes (Kim & Baylor, 2008). Attitudes might be influenced

by concerns, confidence, and so forth. For example, pre-

service teachers’ attitudes toward a technology are affected

by their confidence in using it. Even though technology is

available, and teachers have the requisite skills and

knowledge, if they are not confident in using technology for

teaching, they might be unwilling to do so. Attitude toward

ICT integration in instruction, and the level of knowledge and

skills of teachers in the Philippines vary due to demographic,

geographic, economic and regional differences.

DepEd Computerization Program (DCP) is the program

of the Department of Education that aims to provide public

schools with appropriate technologies that would enhance the

teaching-learning process and meet the challenges of the 21st

century. This program shall respond to the computer backlog

of public schools by providing them hardware and software, and

training on simple trouble shooting (DO No. 78, s. 2010).

“We have to set up our ICT thrust as we gradually

implement the K to 12 Basic Education Reform Program. As we

all know, ICT plays a very important role in administrative

functions as well as in the teaching and learning process,”

Luistro explained (The Philippine Star 2012).

Related foreign and local literature

Siemens and Tittenberger (2009) in the Handbook of

Emerging Technologies mentioned that to measure the

effectiveness of technology use in teaching and learning

process one has to answer questions like; “How do we measure

effectiveness? Is it time spent in a classroom? Is it a

function of test scores? Is it about learning or

understanding?” A lot of research has been conducted on how

modalities, distance, and models of education influence the

quality of learning.

Bialo and Sivin (1995) reported about the

effectiveness of science education; Bayrakter (2002) reported

the effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI);

Butler and Wiebe (2003) reported about technology based

science lessons.

Enigo (1997) undertook a study relating to the

effectiveness of instructor controlled interactive video

(ICIV) and conventional non-interactive video. The researcher

found that instructor controlled interactive video was more

effective than the lecture method and conventional non-

interactive video.

Livingston (2008) differentiated between three types

of Wired Classrooms with reference to technology-enhanced

classrooms; a) the handson electronic classroom (with a

computer at every seat); b) the electronic lecture hall (with

one instructor's machine plus projection); c) the networked

classroom (with a network drop for the instructor's laptop or

personal computer).

Riordan (2008) has given the concept of 'Moodle: An

electronic classroom'. 'Moodle' is the name of a program that

allows the classroom to extend onto the web. This program

allows a common place for students to go for many classroom

resources. Using 'Moodle', one can post news items, assign

and collect assignments, post electronic journals and

resources, and more.

It is quite clear from these research studies that

electronic classroom can be conceived as a classroom equipped

with latest technologies used both inside and outside a

classroom though network. It can be an Italian Electronic

Classroom (1981): a project aimed at providing free online

useful informationtechnology or an Integrated Classroom, or an

Electronic Classroom of Tomorrow (ECOT, 2000) which is an

online public community school sponsored by Lucas County

(Ohio) Educational Service Centre or Blackstock School (2009),

a classroom with an interactive learning environment, or an

electronic library, or Technology Supported Classroom, ICT

Enabled Classroom, Technology Enriched Classroom, Wired

Classroom. All these are actually the advancements of the

classroom equipped with audio visual aids in earlier times.

It can also be seen that current and emerging

educational technologies have the potential to provide a

platform for experimentation in teaching learning. Studies

have shown that there are mostly favorable results for our

teachers/learners while they teach/learn in the classroom. For

increasing the technology utilization in India, several

initiatives have been taken by authorities for the

introduction of technologies to make the teaching learning

process more effective at different levels. These include

CLASS Project (1984-85), Digitising the Black Board project

(2000), Virtual Classroom Technology on EDUSAT for Rural

Schools (ViCTERS, 2001),starting “EKLAVYA” channel (2003),

“Vidya Vahini - “Intra-net and internet Effectiveness of

Electronic Classroom 69 for schools” Pilot Project (2003), an

exclusive educational channel for Kerala, provision of

Technology intrusion through National Curriculum Framework

(NCF, 2005), Launch of Sakshat: National Mission on Education

through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT,

2009) and so on.

Therefore, in the present study the author would

study the effectiveness of electronic classroom in a school

where technology is integrated as a tool of teaching

Technology and Livelihood Education. In this study, the

effectiveness was defined as the impact of different media

combined for delivery of content by the teachers through the

electronic classroom technique as perceived by the students

for learning Technology and Livelihood Education at the

secondary school level.


Guided by Rogers’ theory, this study sought to answer the

following questions:
1. To determine the factors related to computer


2. To know the implementation level of ICT


3. To determine problems are associated with ICT




1. Profile of the

a. Age

b. Sex

2. Educational
Attainment of the TECHNOLOGY
3. Position as a

4. Number of years
in Service

5. Factors
affecting the
proficiency in

This study researches on the effectiveness of using E-

classroom in Teaching Technology and Livelihood Education to

Camarin High School students.

Significance of the study

The results and findings of this study may prove

beneficial to the students, teachers, school heads and


Students. This study will help the students in looking for

more ways for them to learn effectively in TLE, applying the

knowledge they have to learn practically and intelligently

through the use of E-classroom.

Teachers. The results of this study would help them nurture

their abilities to practice and train their selves in using E-

classroom in teaching showing innovativeness and technology-

improvement to students in discussing lessons in TLE.

School Heads and Administrators. The findings of this study

will make the school heads and administrators be aware on how

to extend their help when Teachers are in need. Through the

results, they can effectively supervise the performance of

their TLE teachers.


1. Knowledge requires exposure to the innovation and

understanding how to use it.

2. Persuasion refers to the development of a favorable

attitude toward the innovation.

3. Decision refers to the commitment to its adoption.

4. Implementation is putting the innovation to use.

5. Confirmation refers to the reinforcement resulting from

favorable outcomes.


This chapter deals with the research design, respondents,

instruments, procedure, and statistical treatment of data to

be used in the fulfillment of this thesis.

Research Methodology

The present study will use the descriptive method.

According to Huff D., descriptive method describes the nature

of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study and to

explore the causes of particular phenomena. This method will

be used because it will study on the use of E-classroom in

teaching Technology and Livelihood Education.


Participants of the study are randomly selected students

of Taltal Nationa High School who are enrolled in their

Technology and Livelihood Education classes and also the TLE

Teachers and TLE School Heads for E-classroom Evaluation.

Population Sample and Size

The researcher would want to use the selected students of

Taltal National High School by using ramdom sampling

estimating to 20 students in different grade levels.

Research Instrument

Establishment and Implementation of Electronic Classroom as a

Tool of Teaching

Before the final form of the electronic classroom

was set up and made functional for teaching/ learning

Technology and Livelihood Education in the experimental

school, a number of settings/modes were tested and various

trials were carried out. Out of all modes (Closed circuit

television, cable television mode, computer assisted

instructions-CAI, computer connected with large screen

television), the most workable and feasible mode that was

achieved during this study was a type of integrated system.

This integrated system was a combination of all the

technologies, which were present in the institution. After

conducting a number of field trials and implementation of

digital content matter, the ultimate design of the electronic

classroom that was finalized consisted of mainly two outputs

in form of coaxial and digital signals were generated and

transmitted from the control room known as the knowledge

centre. This control room was facilitated with a server, two

computers and four channels for video lectures and programmes.

The signals generated from the control room were transmitted

through a local area network, which had been created in all

the classrooms of the school. In every classroom, the display

systems were made available to receive both types of signals.

This display system consisted of mainly the large screen

television, a computer, projector, backup power supply and

other network devices etc.

Along with the development, teachers were also

trained according to a schedule and these trainings were

conducted inside and outside of the campus of the school

selected for the study. Most of the staff involved in the

project received training from the companies, which were

providing the hardware or software. For content, the experts

from the subjects and languages were asked for conducting the

training of the teachers and the staff involved in the content



Keeping in view the main purpose of the study, an in

depth review was done and it was found that a majority of

tools developed have either been used in studying

effect/impact of the type of technology utilized or for the

effectiveness of learning material/ content and methodology of

delivery of the content. Therefore, majority of the statements

drafted in the tool belong to direct opinions of the students

regarding the use of technology by the teacher and other

factor related to technology inside a classroom.

A 22 items questionnaire entitled 'Students

Questionnaire on Effectiveness of Electronic Classroom'

(SQEEC) was prepared to evaluate the impact of electronic

classroom. This questionnaire consisted of four scales namely

Interest (five items), Comprehension (six items), Freedom to

Learn (five items) and Enthusiasm (six items). This

questionnaire was mainly developed on the model of TROFLEI

(Technology Rich Outcome Focused Learning Environment

Inventory); which was earlier designed and standardized by

Fraser, Dorman and Aldridge in 2004. The subjects were asked

to respond using a five-point scale (almost never, seldom,

sometimes, often and almost always). A score of 1 represented

the option “almost never” while a score of 5 on the scale

represented the category “almost always”.

First, a rough draft was developed by the

investigator which was subjected to reading and approval of

the experts in the field of technology in education at

different levels. The instrument was improved in the light of

the feedback from these experts including the experts in

language and psychological testing.

The final draft of the instrument consisted of three

parts. The first part comprised of 22 statements related to

electronic classroom and the instructions for filling up the

modified Likert-type response options. The second part focused

on the demographic information about students including class,

section, roll number, gender, age, subject, school name etc.

The last part consisted of 10 questions related to technology

integration in the day to day activities of the students which

were considered as background variables for this study.

Statistical Treatment

The responses will be analyzed and recorded in tally

sheets. Then the data were placed in a table form ready for

the statistical treatment. To answer the problem on the degree

of effectiveness in using E-classroom in teaching TLE, the

weighted mean will be used. The formula is as follows:

S1(W5)+ S2(W4)+ S3(W3)+ S4(W2)+ S5(W1)

WX =


S = responses

W = weight assigned to the scale

N = subjects

WX = weighted mean