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LECTURE 1

First order filters

 High order-filters can be realized by cascading first and second order sections.
These filters can be implemented by passive RC or LC circuit. However, using
active-RC filters based on op amps provides several advantages:
 Gain which can be set to a desired value
 Independent of some of the filter parameters without affecting others
 The output impedance is very low (ideally zero) allowing cascading
 (i.e. any high-order filter function can be realized using first-order and
second-order filters)
 In fact, active-RC filters are suitable for discrete implementation. But they are not
suitable for high-frequency operation
 In standard form the denominator of the first-order transfer function is written as
s   o where ωo is the pole frequency. Based on the value of the coefficient of s1
and s 0 in the numerator, first order filters are classified as lowpass, highpass,
general, and allpass as follows:

1. Low-pass filter:
* Its transfer function is given by:
ao
T (s) 
s  o
T(s) has zero at infinity.
* The bode plot of the lowpass filter can be developed as shown in Fig. 1 (a). For
frequencies less than the pole frequency ωo, the transfer function is constant and
equals to 20log(ao/ ωo). After ωo the frequency response decreases by 20dB/decade.
Fig. 1: First-order LPF (a) Bode plot (b) passive realization (c) active RC realization

* This transfer characteristics can be implemented with simple series RC circuit

shown in Fig. 1(b). The TF can directly be found by VDR:
1/ sC 1
Vo ( s )  Vi ( s)  Vi ( s)
R  1/ sC sCR  1
V ( s) 1/ CR
 o 
Vi ( s) s  1/ CR
Thus, the 3dB corner frequency will be at ωo =1/RC and the lowpass gain is unity.

Example 1: Find the TF of the active RC filter shown in Fig.1 (c).

Solution: the TF can be obtained by writing KCL equation at v-=0 and then solving
for Vo(s) as follows:
0  Vi 0  Vo
  (0  Vo ) sC  0
R1 R2
Multiplying by R1R2 and solving for Vo results in:
Vo ( s ) R2 1/ CR1
 
Vi ( s ) sCR1 R2  R1 s  1/ CR2

Therefore, ωo=1/CR2 and dc gain of –R2/R1. This gain can be controlled via R1
without changing the corner frequency.

2. Fist order highpass filter (HPF):

* The TF of first-order HPF is given by:
as
T (s)  1
s  o
T(s) has zero at dc frequency. The Bode plot of the magnitude response of T(s) can be
developed as shown in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2: First-order HPF (a) Bode plot (b) passive realization (c) active RC realization
* This transfer function has a corner frequency of ωo. The HP gain is obtained by
letting s   resulting in gain of a1.
* The passive realization of HPF is obtained by taken the voltage a cross the resistor
of the RC series connection shown in Fig. 2(b) resulting in ωo =1/RC and the HP gain
of unity

Example 2: find the TF of the op amp based first-order HPF shown in Fig. (c).
Solution: Writing a single KCL at v-=0 and solving for Vo yields:
0  Vi 0  Vo
 0
R1  1/ sC R2
R2
 Vo   Vi
R1  1/ sC
Vo( s ) sCR2 R /Rs
  2 1
Vi ( s ) sCR1  1 s  1/ CR1
It can be seen that the corner frequency is ωo =1/CR1 and the high frequency gain is –
R2/R1.

3. First-order general filter

* The standard form of the general first order filter is given by:
a s  a0
T (s)  1 (1)
s  o
T(s) has zero frequency at –a0/a1. The Bode plot of the magnitude response of T(s) can
be developed as shown in Fig. 3(a).
Fig. 3: First-order general filter (a) Bode plot (b) passive realization (c) active RC
realization

* At low frequencies ω is less than ωo, the dc terms in the denominator and numerator
are dominant thus the transfer function will be approximately a0/ ωo, Whereas at high
frequencies where ω is more than a0 / a1 , the s terms become dominant and the
transfer function becomes approximately a1 . For frequencies between ωo and
a0 / a1 the function decreases by 20dB/decade.

* This general first-order filter can be realized by the passive circuit shown in Fig.
3(b) or the active RC circuit of Fig. 3(c).

Example 3: find the transfer function of the circuit of Fig. 3(c).

Solution: the TF can be found by writing KCL equation at v-=0.
0  Vi 0  Vo
 (0  Vi ) sC1   (0  Vo ) sC2  0
R1 R2
Then, solving for Vo results in:
Vo ( s ) sC  1/ R1 sC / C  1/( R1C2 )
 1  1 2
Vi ( s) sC2  1/ R2 s  1/( R2C2 )
(2)
1 1
Comparing equations (1) and (2) suggests that:  0  , a0 / a1  , dc gain = –
C2 R2 C1 R1
R2/R1 and high frequency gain= -C1/C2.
4. First-order Allpass filter
* The first-order Allpass function can be written in standard form as:
s  0
T ( s )  a1
s  o
The magnitude of this filter can be obtained as follows:
 j    o 
2 2

T ( j )  a1  a1
 j     o  o
2 2

Thus the allpass filter has a constant gain for all frequencies.
* However, its phase response shows frequency dependent characteristics. The phase
of T(s) can b obtained as follows.
 ( j )  tan 1 ( /  o )  tan 1 ( /  o )  2 tan 1 ( /  o )
Therefore, for low frequencies the phase will be approximately zero. At ωo the phase
will be -90. Finally, at high frequencies the phase approaches -180 as shown in Fig.
3(b).
* The first-order allpass filter can be used to adjust the phase of an input signal by any
value between zero and -180.
* An allpass first order filter can be implemented by the passive circuit of Fig. 4(c) or
the active circuit of Fig. 4(d).

Example 4: Find the transfer function of the circuit of Fig. 4(d).

Solution: the TF can be found as follows.
1/ sC 1
By VDR: v  Vi  Vi
R  1/ sC sCR  1
v  Vi v  Vo 1
By KCL:   0  v  (Vi  Vo )
R1 R1 2
1 1 1
But v  v  Vi  Vi  Vo
sCR  1 2 2
Vo ( s)  sCR  1 sCR  1 s  1/ CR
   
Vi ( s ) sCR  1 sCR  1 s  1/ CR
Thus, ωo=1/RC and Flat gain=a1=1