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212    Basins associated with strike-slip deformation

(a) (b)
3-D elastic plate 2-D elastic plate
30

20
–0.02
0 –0.02 0
10 –0.06
–0.06

y (km)

0.06
0.02
0 0.02

–10

–20

–30
–20 –10 0 10 20 –20 –10 0 10 20
x (km) x (km)

Fig. 6.27  Comparison between 2-D and 3-D plane stress models for pull-apart basins (after Katzman et al. 1995). A sinistral displace-
ment discontinuity of 1 km is defined across two en echelon strike-slip faults. Vertical displacement is shown for (a) a 3-D elastic plate,
and (b) a 2-D thin elastic plate with elastic thicknesses of 15 km. Contour interval 0.02 km, Poisson’s ratio 0.25 and Young’s modulus
75 GPa. The 2-D plane stress model produces unrealistic deformation around the fault tips. Reproduced with permission of the American
Geophysical Union.

ap
erl
Ov

–1
50

15 km
–1
00

–5
0 00
–1
ya 0 0
xis –5
st (km
We ) 50 0 s (k m)
xi Sh
10 xa ea rz
0 50 on
e
15 x0
No 0 100
rth

Fig. 6.28  Three-dimensional block diagram showing the set-up for the numerical pull-apart basin model (Katzman et al. 1995). Shaded
planes define zones of weakness having zero shear strength (faults). Shaded arrows indicate the displacements defined as boundary
conditions. The base of the model in the vicinity of the faults (within the shear zone) is stress free and thus freely deforming. The total
width of the shear zone, 2x0, and the overlap distance between the fault segments, are varied in the model. Reproduced with permission
of the American Geophysical Union.
Basins associated with strike-slip deformation    213

(b) (a)

lt
ey Fau

e
Rift Basin Mediterranean Sea Hula Kinneret

p l a t
Graben

Vall
Rift shoulders

Jordan
Salt diapir
Dead Sea
Normal fault Jericho Graben
Strike–slip fault
–50 Bathymetry (m) Qumran 30$N

i a n
0
Sinai
0 20km Elat

a b
Graben

e
a Ba olocen
sin

A r
r n Ba

sin
Darga Graben

H
Dea ocene–
he
Nort

Arnon

d Se
Sink

Re
t

d
Pleis
–730

Se
Late

a
–70 30$E
–50 0
0 25$N

Zeelim Plain Reverse faults Pull-apart basins


in

Strike–slip faults Tertiary volcanic rock


Bas

Masada
Lisan Faults
rn

0 200km
the

Peninsula
Folds
Sou

n
Basi

Kerak
Graben
om
Sed

Mount Sedom (c) W Judea Dead Sea Moab E


ene
istoc

M
MSL P
0 M A D
0
–Ple

M D Precambrian
L L
P S A
Ama

A A
cene

P
km

Precambrian
tsy

ah
Plio

S
u T
Fa 5 T
ult M
M S P
LF
Shore of L

P
T
M
n

LF
sa

P
ke Li
a

Older Formations Dead Sea Group


T – Tertiary D – Dead Sea deposits
M – Mesozoic L – Lisan Formation
P – Paleozoic A – Amora Formation
LLEY

Inferred strike – slip fault S – Sedom Formation


A
VA V

Pliocene gulf deposits


t

n
Faul

Basi

Borehole LF – Lido Formation


ARA

eva
Arav

Laminated carbonates,
Haz

shales, sandstone,
conglomerate
cene

Halite, gypsum,
Mio

anhydrite

Fig. 6.29  (a) Location of Dead Sea Basin. (b) Structural interpretation, showing main faults, basins and salt diapirs (from Garfunkel et al.
1981). (c) Cross-section of Dead Sea Basin between Mount Sedom and Moab (from Zak & Freund 1981). MSL, Mean sea level. (b), (c)
Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.
214    Basins associated with strike-slip deformation

(a) Model set-up


Pre-defined weak zones

-3 mm yr-1

+3 mm yr-1

12 km 18 km
Felsic

50 km
Mafic
80 km

Peridotite

m
0k
25

100 km

(b) Brittle brick

h0
Brittle layer

l0

hsed = h0 - h

l h

No isostatic compensation

Fig. 6.30  (a) Model set-up for 3-D numerical model of Petrunin & Sobolev (2008), showing rheological layering similar to the situation
in the Dead Sea transform, with a strike-slip velocity of 6 mm yr−1. Fault seeds (predefined weak zones) are placed in the upper 10 km
of felsic crust with a spacing of 12 km. (b) Brittle brick model of Petrunin & Sobolev (2008, fig. 12). A brittle layer of initial thickness hb
and length l0 is stretched to thickness h and length l, allowing sediment in the pull-apart basin to accumulate to thickness hsed. Reprinted
with permission from Elsevier.

continental lithosphere is rigid. Stronger crust has a thicker brittle 6.29). However, we can consider the strike-slip movement over the
layer, so sedimentary basins should be deeper on relatively cold litho- last 4.5 Myr, during which the Sedom and younger formations were
sphere for the same amount of strike-slip displacement. Once again, deposited. We take l0 once again as 132 km, but attribute only 50 km
taking the Dead Sea Basin as an example, seismicity occurs at depths of strike-slip displacement to this period, giving a predicted sediment
of up to 18–22 km, which therefore approximates the thickness of the thickness of 7.5 km. This is close to the combined thickness of
brittle layer h0. The basin extends over a N–S distance of 132 km the Pliocene to Holocene sediments. The model subsidence rate is
between bounding faults, and 60–65 km of strike-slip displacement 1–2 mm yr−1, close to the estimates of present rates (0.8–0.9 mm yr−1).
is thought to have occurred during the early Miocene (25–14 Ma). The main point to be appreciated from these modelling results is that
Further strike-slip displacement took place in the Pliocene– sediment thicknesses in pull-apart basins are controlled by the thick-
Pleistocene-Holocene (last 4.5 Myr). Removing the early Miocene ness of the brittle layer undergoing stretching and the rate of strike-
deformation alone therefore gives l = 132 km and l0 < 72 km. Eqn. slip displacement.
[6.4] gives a sediment thickness of 9 km, which is much greater than If isostatic compensation is included, eqn. [6.4] can be
the thickness of preserved Hazeva Formation in the Arava Valley (Fig. modified to
Basins associated with strike-slip deformation    215

l ( ρ − ρuc ) (a)
hs = huc  1 − 0  lc [6.5]
 l  ( ρlc − ρs )
huc, ρIc ρs

where the subscripts uc, lc and s refer to upper crust, lower crust and Sediments hs
sediments (Fig. 6.31). This is likely to be more important when the

Brittle crust, hb
crust is weak, allowing viscous flow in the lower crust to achieve Upper crust
isostatic compensation. Taking huc = 15 km, and ρuc, ρlc and ρs as
ρuc
2750 kg m−3, 2850 kg m−3 and 2500 kg m−3, and using the displacement
data for the late Miocene (see above), hs is 2 km, similar to the pre-
served sediment thicknesses. Using the displacement data for the last
4.5 Myr, hs becomes 1.6 km, much smaller than the brittle brick pre- hlc, ρIc ∆hIc
diction of 7.5 km. ρIc
A comparison of the brittle brick model, the fully isostatically
compensated model, and observations on basin depth are shown in Lower crust

Ductile
Fig. 6.32.

6.4.2  Sandbox experiments: pure strike-slip


versus transtension
Most models of pull-apart basins consider the case of pure strike- (b)
slip motion, that is, the slip vector is on average parallel to the PDZ
marked by major basement-cutting faults. Pull-apart basins also huc, ρIc ρs
occur where the motion is obliquely compressional (e.g. Karako- hs
Sediments
rum, Himalaya, Tibet) (§6.3.4), but especially where the motion is
obliquely transtensional (e.g. southern Dead Sea system, Vienna Brittle crust, hb
Basin). Numerical models show that even small amounts of tran- Upper crust
stension (5°) can cause the area of subsidence to broaden out sig-
ρuc
nificantly, by a factor of 2 to 3 (ten Brink et al. 1996). Scaled (ratio
of 10−5) sandbox models also show that the fault geometries and ∆hIc
surface areas of pull-apart basins developed in pure strike-slip are
different to those associated with transtension (Dooley et al. 2004; hlc, ρIc
Wu et al. 2009) (Fig. 6.33). Whereas pull-apart basins in both ρIc
settings are elongate, sigmoidal or rhomb-shaped grabens, the
Lower crust
transtensional pull-apart basins are wider, with two distinct depo-
Ductile

centres instead of a centrally located singular depocentre (Fig. 6.34).


With pure strike-slip, a deep, narrow elongate rhomb-shaped, flat-
bottomed basin is formed, flanked by shallow terraces. The fault
structure is essentially a narrow negative flower structure. In con-
trast, two depocentres with opposite polarity, separated by an intra- Fig. 6.31  Contrasting isostatic results for (a) brittle brick
basinal high, forming a much wider region of subsidence, typify stretching (BBS) model where the lower boundary of the brittle
layer is located within the lower crust and is fixed because of
transtension. Basement faults form a broad, complex, upward- the high viscosity of the lower crust, and (b) the lower boundary
diverging negative flower structure. of the brittle layers is located within the lower crust and com-
The introduction of transtension therefore strongly affects the plete Airy isostatic compensation is achieved. Note the differ-
overall dimensions of the pull-apart basin, being both wider and ence in thickness of sediments in the basin. Reprinted from
longer than in pure strike-slip, without appreciably changing the Petrunin & Sobolev (2008, p. 396, figs 12 and 13), with permis-
length-width aspect ratio. The Vienna Basin, for example, is situated sion from Elsevier. Subscripts uc and lc refer to upper crust and
lower crust. See text for discussion.
within the sinistral transform system that detaches at depth at the
base of the Alpine-Carpathian orogenic wedge, has two depocentres
bordered by en echelon faults (Hinsch et al. 2005) (Fig. 6.34), and
consists of a broad, asymmetric flower structure, showing many simi- Gulf of Aqaba pull-apart basin is larger in surface area (both length
larities with the transtensional pull-apart basins produced in sandbox and width) compared to the pure strike-slip main Dead Sea Basin,
experiments (Wu et al. 2009). Although dual depocentres are also and depocentres are at both ends rather than centrally located inside
found in pure strike-slip models, their development is thought to be a terraced basin margin (Fig. 6.35).
enhanced in transtension. The Cariaco Basin, Venezuela (Schubert
1982), is a further example. Along the Dead Sea Transform, the 6.4.3  Application of model of uniform extension
southernmost basins, such as the Gulf of Aqaba, are currently forming to pull-apart basins
under 2–5° transtension, compared to pure strike-slip in the north,
thereby allowing a direct comparison of the size and fault geometries The local extension in pull-apart basins causes very rapid subsidence
in the two settings. As in sandbox experiments, the transtensional and sediment accumulation, over 10 km of sediments accumulating
216    Basins associated with strike-slip deformation

25
Maximum sedimentary thickness, km
hs=hb
RS
20 Pure
BBS - model
strike-slip
15 pull-apart
TBM
basin TBM

10 More compensation

5 hs=huc(ρlc–ρuc)/(ρlc–ρs)
RS
Isostatic compensation
0
0 100 200 300
Strike-slip displacement, km

Fig. 6.32  Comparison of maximum sediment thickness versus


displacement length for the brittle brick model, the full compen-
EEBM
sated model and (dashed) observations from the Dead Sea area.
RS
Reprinted from Petrunin & Sobolev (2008, fig. 15) with permis-
sion from Elsevier.

EEBM
in a period of less than 5 Myr in some examples such as the Miocene
Ridge Basin of California (Link & Osborne 1978). It is debatable
whether the subsidence of pull-apart basins can be approximated by
Transtensional
a model of lithospheric extension (McKenzie 1978a, §3.3.1), in which RS pull-apart basin
fault-controlled subsidence is followed by a thermal subsidence
phase. Late Paleozoic pull-apart basins of eastern Canada (such as
the 100 × 200 km Magdalen Basin, Gulf of St. Lawrence area) are EEBM
thought to have undergone a rift, then thermal subsidence history
(Bradley 1983). However, the generally small size of pull-apart basins
implies that lateral temperature gradients must be large. Lateral heat
conduction to the basin walls becomes an important source of heat Basin limit
loss; the narrower the basin the greater the lateral cooling. The critical
basin width below which lateral heat loss to the sides becomes impor- Depocentre
tant appears to be about 100 km (Steckler 1981) to 250 km (Cochran PDZ
1983). In comparison, most strike-slip basins are 10–20 km in width.
Since narrow basins cool rapidly during extension, the subsidence is Oblique slip
direction
greater than predicted for the rift stage by the uniform extension
model (§3.3.1). Rapid early subsidence related to lateral heat loss may Plate motion
help to explain the sediment starvation and deep bathymetries char-
acteristic of the early phases of pull-apart basin development. The
subsequent post-rift thermal subsidence should be correspondingly Fig. 6.33  Pull-apart basins in a dextral strike-slip system based
on sandbox experiments, showing at top a small basin bordered
less. The Tekirdag depression along the North Anatolian Fault has
by a narrow terraced margin (TBM) in the case of pure strike-slip,
been active in the Pliocene–Quaternary and has a basin floor at and at bottom a larger basin with two depocentres and a wide
maximum depths of 1150 m, suggesting that basin subsidence has far margin with en echelon normal faults (EEBM) for the case of
outstripped sediment supply for the last <4 Myr (Okay et al. 1999). trantension. RS, Riedel shears. After Wu et al. (2009, Fig. 11),
The Ridge Basin of California was initiated in the late Miocene and reprinted with permission from Elsevier.
was initially occupied by a deep-marine embayment before continen-
tal conditions prevailed in the Pliocene (Link & Osborne 1978).
These two examples therefore support the idea of early underfilled
stages in pull-apart basins, caused by high subsidence rates that brittle upper crust. Upper crustal faults are believed to sole out into
outpace sediment supply. these detachment zones, which may be rheologically weak zones in
the mid-lower crust, or may be related to lithospheric extension or
to lithospheric convergence. The stretching of the upper crust
6.4.4  Pull-apart basin formation and thin-skinned without associated mantle upwelling is suggested by the generally low
tectonics: the Vienna Basin surface heat flows of many strike-slip zones. The narrowness of
strike-slip basins, and of the topographic features associated with
It has previously been observed that the common block rotations in strike-slip deformation, indicate that they are essentially uncompen-
zones of strike-slip deformation require a detachment beneath the sated isostatically. Such cases can be referred to as thin-skinned
Basins associated with strike-slip deformation    217

stension (Figs 6.34, 6.36). The NE–SW trending major fault systems
Initial active during sedimentation in the Vienna Basin do not significantly
PDZ VIENNA BASIN disrupt the underlying autochthonous cover rocks of the European
SEDIMENT ISOPACHS plate and appear to pass into flat detachments (at c.10 km depth)
EN-ECHELON FAULTING
ALONG BASIN MARGINS
using older thrust planes (Royden 1985). Since the extension is thin-
skinned, the lower crust and mantle are unaffected by the extension
near the surface. This is supported by a number of lines of evidence:
(i) the uniformly low heat flows of 45–60 mW m−2 through the
Vienna Basin and adjacent regions (Cermak 1979; Royden 1985); (ii)
subsidence curves derived from boreholes show no recognisable
17ºE
thermal subsidence phase; and (iii) low thermal gradients and low
levels of organic maturity in basin sediments.
Other pull-apart basins are situated in regions where the lithos-
Late-stage phere has been thinned. These basins have high geothermal gradi-
PDZ ents, high surface heat flows, and correspondingly high levels of
organic maturity in the basin-fill. The Salton Trough area of the
48.5ºN northern Gulf of California is an example. Pull-apart basins with
mantle involvement are likely to behave more like extensional basins
than their thin-skinned counterparts.
Within the Carpathian orogenic system, the Vienna Basin is situ-
ated near the thrust front, and the sinistral strike-slip deformation
is related to the relative movement between active and inactive
nappes in the Alpine-Carpathian belt. As the distance from the
thrust front increases, extension may reach progressively greater
depths, ultimately affecting the entire lithosphere. This may explain
why the Pannonian Basin, situated far to the south of the arcuate
Carpathian suture, involves mantle lithosphere extension and is
situated above elevated asthenosphere (Fig. 6.36). The Pannonian
48ºN Basin therefore experiences elevated surface heat flows, in contrast
with the thin-skinned Vienna Basin located close to the orogenic
N A’ thrust front.
A

6.5  Characteristic depositional systems


Basin Fill (km)
Base of Neogene
The sedimentary fills of strike-slip basins have a number of features
0 in common (Miall 2000). Basin geometries are deep but relatively
narrow, with high syndepositional relief causing conglomerates and
2 breccias to be banked up against faulted basin margins. Sedimenta-
4 tion rates are rapid. Lateral facies changes are also rapid, so that
marginal breccias may pass laterally directly into lacustrine mud-
6 stones. Fault movements cause syndepositional unconformities to
20 km PDZ
form in individual basins and different stratigraphies to develop in
closely adjacent basins, making correlation difficult. Basin sediments
Fig. 6.34  Isopachs of Neogene fill of Vienna Basin, and faults, are commonly offset from their source, as may be proved by a mis-
showing dual depocentres and en echelon faulting along basin matching between size of depositional system and drainage area, or
margin, typical of transtensional strike-slip motion. Cross-section between the petrography of basin sediments and that of hinterland
along transect A-A’ is shown in Fig. 6.11c. From Hinsch et al. geology. In modern basins there may be offsets of geomorphological
(2005), in Wu et al. (2009, Fig. 9), reprinted with permission
features such as rivers, alluvial fans or submarine canyons.
from Elsevier.
The best-known intracontinental transform is the San Andreas
system, and one of the best-documented pull-apart basins in this
strike-slip basins. Thin-skinned strike-slip basins should exhibit a system is Ridge Basin, California. It shows many of the elements
distinctive subsidence and thermal history compared to basins indicated above. The basin was initiated in the Miocene and contin-
involving mantle upwelling. ued to accumulate sediment during the Pliocene, after which it was
The 200 km by 60 km Vienna Basin contains up to 6 km of Miocene uplifted. It contains over 13.5 km of sediment (maximum strati-
sedimentary rocks and formed adjacent to the coeval Carpathian graphic thickness, but not the true thickness measured in any one
thrust belt. The Vienna Basin is an excellent example of a rhombo- location) deposited at an estimated rate of 3 mm yr−1, and is located
hedral pull-apart that developed on top of the allochthonous thrust between the San Andreas and San Gabriel faults (Fig. 6.37). During
terranes of the Alpine-Carpathian system in a background environ- the late Miocene the San Gabriel Fault was a major active strand of
ment of lithospheric shortening, but in a local environment of tran- the San Andreas system. The Ridge Basin formed to the east of a
218    Basins associated with strike-slip deformation

(a) (b) 35º30'E (c) 34º30'E PDZ


PDZ
32º00'N
Mediterranean
Sea

Terraced 29º30'N
basin
(b) sidewalls

31º30'N
Dead Sea
Fault
–31ºE
System Depocentres 5º

Arabian Dead
Sinai Plate Sea
–30ºE Block Basin

En-echelon
(c) basin
Central margin
depocentre system

28º30'N

Gulf of
Elat
(Aqaba)

Basin limit
900 m bathymetric
Red Sea PDZ Basin limit contour
Salt sub-basins
PDZ
Arabian Plate
motion 50 km 36ºE 20 km 20 km

Fig. 6.35  Pull-apart basins in the Dead Sea Fault system. (a) Digital elevation model showing topography and main faults. The Dead
Sea pull-apart basin in the north (b) is pure strike-slip, whereas the Gulf of Elat (Aqaba) in the south (c) is transtensional with α = 5°
(Wu et al. 2009, p. 1618, fig. 10). Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.

releasing bend in the fault. During the late Miocene–Pliocene over (Violin Breccia), central lacustrine deposits, chiefly mudstones
60 km dextral strike-slip took place along the San Gabriel Fault, but (8 km), of the Peace Valley Formation, fluviatile clastic wedges of the
in the Pleistocene slip was transferred to the San Andreas Fault along Ridge Route Formation (9 km) along the eastern margin of the basin,
the northeastern flank of the basin. and a basin-wide, final basin filling of alluvial sands and gravels
The sedimentary fill of the basin (Crowell & Link 1982; Link 1982) (1.1 km) of the Hungry Valley Formation. The marginal alluvial
is made up of a basal non-marine unit (Mint Canyon) overlain by cones and talus of the Violin Breccia were derived from the SW and
the 2.2 km-thick upper Miocene Castaic Formation, consisting of pass very rapidly (within 1.5 km) into lacustrine shales and siltstones
marine mudstones and turbidites. The Castaic Formation is overlain of the Peace Valley Formation, or sandstones of the Ridge Route
by the 9–11 km-thick, mostly non-marine Ridge Basin Group, with Formation. The thick clastic wedges of the Ridge Route Formation
marine deposits in the lowermost 600 m. The Ridge Basin Group were shed from source areas to the NE of the basin, but the younger
comprises marginal breccias along the active western fault scarp Hungry Valley Formation was derived from the N, NW and W. This
Basins associated with strike-slip deformation    219

(a)
Isopach interval
1–2 km
2–3 km
> 3 km
Late Cenozoic volcanic rocks
Krakow
Przemysl
European Platform
Carpathians
0 400 km
V TC

Vienna

Eastern Alps D
G Pannonian Basin System

Z
East
P TS Carpathians
DR

S Brasov

South
Carpathians

(b)
~S ~N
P TC V CTF

Crust

Pannonian
fragment e
at
pl
Asthenosphere an
ope
Eur

0 100 km

Fig. 6.36  Map (a) and schematic cross section (b) to show the relationship between the Vienna Basin to other basins in the Carpathian-
Pannonian system. The Vienna Basin is situated at a left step (releasing bend) in a sinistral strike-slip system accommodating relative
movement between active and inactive nappes in the Alpine-Carpathian orogenic system. The Vienna and Transcarpathian basins are
located on the leading (thin) edge of the Pannonian lithosphere and above the deflected European plate. The Pannonian Basin, however,
is located entirely on the Pannonian lithosphere, where it overlies asthenosphere. Extension in the Pannonian Basin therefore involves
mantle, and the basin is consequently ‘hot’ compared to the ‘cool’ Vienna Basin (Royden 1985; © SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology
1985). CTF, Carpathian Thrust Front; V, Vienna Basin; P, Pannonian Basin; TC, Transcarpathian Basin; TS, Transylvanian Basin; S, Sava
Basin; DR, Drava Basin; D, Danube Basin; G, Graz Basin; Z, Zala Basin. © SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology (1985).
220    Basins associated with strike-slip deformation

(a)

Source area
Source area of of bulk of Ridge
Violin Breccia Basin sediments

Modern strand of
San Gabriel Fault San Andreas Fault

Hungry Valley Formation


(b) Pleistocene Th (fluviatile sandstones, conglomerates)
SW NE Peace Valley Formation
RIDGE BASIN Tp
(lacustrine shales, siltstones)
Ridge
Th Hungry Valley Formation Pliocene Basin Ridge Route Formation
Tr
Group (fluviatile sandstones, conglomerates)
Tr Tv Violin Breccia (landslides, debris flows)
Violin
San Ga

Tp Castaic Formation
Peace Valley Fm

San Andreas Fault zone


Tc (marine mudstone and turbidite
Miocene sandstones)
Breccia
briel Fa

Tm
Liebre Fa
Ridge Route Formatio
n Modelo/Mint Canyon Formation
Paleocene-
Ts San Francisquito Formation
ult zon

Eocene
ult zone

Quartz diorite
Tv
Pre-Tertiary and gneiss Basement rocks
e

Ts
on
Castaic Formation ati Thickness
rm San Francisquito 4000
Tc o Fo
Fault zone

uit Formation
Clearwater

3000
isq
Mint Canyon anc 2000
r
Formation an F 0 3 km 1000
S
m

Fig. 6.37  Ridge Basin, California. (a) General tectonic and depositional setting for the Ridge Basin as a pull-apart on the releasing
bend of the San Gabriel Fault (Crowell 1974b). (b) Generalised cross-section showing the sedimentary facies and principal faults. The
fine-grained lacustrine depocentres (Peace Valley) and landslide/debris flow breccias (Violin Breccia) occur close to the San Gabriel
Fault zone (after Link & Osborne 1978 and Crowell & Link 1982).

demonstrates the complexity of sourceland switching in strike-slip opposite margin. These streamflow-dominated fans contribute most
basins. Dextral strike-slip along the San Gabriel Fault displaced the of the sediment to the basin, sometimes filling the basin completely
source region for the Violin Breccia northwestward with time. As a and spreading alluvial deposits across to the active fault scarp to
result, the successive alluvial fans that form the Violin Breccia interfinger with the talus fans. Rates of deformation, catchment and
become younger northwestward, and form an overlapping or shin- fan development are commonly highly asymmetrical in basins of this
gled pattern. Within the axial part of the basin, sediments were trans- type (Allen & Hovius 1998).
ported southeastward down the axis of the basin concurrently with The present-day submarine equivalents of the Ridge Basin are
northwestward migration of the depocentre. found in the California Borderland basins. This area, to the west of
The Ridge Basin has been compared, in terms of its structural and the San Andreas Fault, is underlain by an arc complex formed
sedimentological development, with the larger Hornelen Basin, during subduction of the Pacific plate in the Mesozoic to early
Norway, and the smaller Little Sulphur Creek group of basins, south- Cenozoic (Howell & Vedder 1981). A large number of small basins
ern California (Nilsen & McLaughlin 1985). Each basin is character- filled with submarine fans formed during the Paleogene, and Oli-
ised by marginal fans located tight up against the active strike-slip gocene dextral strike-slip faulting fragmented the region into en
fault, axial lacustrine facies and streamflow-dominated fans along the echelon ridges and rhomboidal basins (Fig. 6.38). Sedimentation is

Fig. 6.38  Strike-slip basins of the California Borderland (Moore 1969; Junger 1976). (a) Map view. (b) Interpretations of seismic reflec-
tion profiles (Howell et al. 1980), vertical exaggeration x10. Q, Pleistocene and Holocene sediments; Tp, middle and late Pliocene sedi-
ments; Tpm, Miocene and early Pliocene sediments; Tm, early to middle Miocene sediments; Tmo, cherty, calcareous and siliceous
shale of late Oligocene to middle Miocene; Tmv, Miocene volcanics; Kl-To, Late Cretaceous to Oligocene sediments. Reproduced with
permission of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Basins associated with strike-slip deformation    221

(a) 120 $ 119 $ 118 $


35 $
Ridge Basin
Anticline 0 300 km
Fault, bar on
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(b) A km A¢
60 50 40 30 20 10 0
0
Patton Ridge Albatross Santa Rosa–Cortes
QTpm Knoll Ridge
Two-way time (s)

Patton Basin
Tanner Basin Tm 1
QTpm QTs?
Tm QTpm

2
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Tm

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B km B¢
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Santa Rosa–Cortes Ridge Santa Monica
Santa Cruz Basin
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Two-way time (s)

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Slump Fault zone Tmv
QTpm 2
KI-To
3

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C km C¢
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Quaternary terrace
deposits
Two-way time (s)

San Pedro Basin


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Metamorphic
basement
2
Tmv?
VE = 5 x