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MODELLING AND EVALUATION OF RIDE

HANDLING CONTROL SYSTEMS

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by
A.R. PIRASATH RAJH [Reg No: RA1411011010067]

Under the guidance of


Dr. P. SATHISH KUMAR, Ph.D.
(Assistant Professor, Department of Automobile Engineering)

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree

of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

In

AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING
of

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

S.R.M. Nagar, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram District

MAY 2018
SRM INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
(Under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956)

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report titled “MODELLING AND EVALUATION OF

RIDE HANDLING CONTROL SYSTEMS” is the bonafide work of “A.R. PIRASATH

RAJH”, who carried out the project work under my supervision. Certified further, that to the

best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form any other project report or

dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on

this or any other candidate.

SIGNATURE SIGNATURE

Dr. SATHISH KUMAR Dr. LEENUS JESU MARTIN


GUIDE HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT
ASST. PROFESSOR PROFESSOR
DEPT. OF AUTOMOBILE DEPT. OF AUTOMOBILE

Signature of the Internal Examiner Signature of the External Examiner

i
ABSTRACT

My project’s purpose was to develop a vehicle plant model. Which can

be integrated with the real ECUs for Hardware in the loop, and software

in the loop simulations.

The model generated will be a mathematical model. I had to create


and simulate a basic model of suspension and steering system. The model
had to be made with the given specifications as given by the Manufac-
turer. The model which I created was for an Electric SUV. The model had
to be evaluated and checked for errors, given DVPs by the company had
to be met and corrections had to be model accordingly. The model hence
created had to be compatible with the external ECUs for the hardware in
the loop simulations
Scanned by CamScanner
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I owe thanks to the following people who helped and supported us in the preparation of the

project. I would like to thank my Director, Dr. Muthamizhchelvan, Faculty of Engineering

and Technology, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai.

I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to Dr. Leenus Jesu Martin, Professor and

Head of the Department of Automobile Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and

Technology, Chennai, for giving me the opportunity to take up this project. I would like to

express our deepest gratitude to my guide Dr. P. Sathish Kumar, Assistant Professor,

Department of Automobile Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai,

for his valuable guidance, timely help, consistent support and encouragement, which greatly

contributed towards the successful completion of the project. He has been a pillar of support to

me throughout.

I would also like to thank my Industrial Project Guide, Mr. Lovely Chadha, Senior Systems
Manager, Bluebinaries Engineering and Solutions Pvt. Ltd., Chennai for his valuable inputs
during the project reviews.

I would also like to extend my gratitude to my parents for their continuous support,
encouragement and motivation without which the completion of this project would be
impossible.

A. R. Pirasath Rajh

ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv

LIST OF TABLES viii

LIST OF FIGURES x

ABBREVIATIONS xi

1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Brief Introduction of the Sub-systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 Electronic Stability Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.2 Electronic Power steering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.3 iBooster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 Plant Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

2 Vehicle Modelling on CarMaker 4


2.1 CarMaker Initial Project Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1.1 CarMaker Project Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 Vehicle Body Definitions (Sprung Mass) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2.1 Parametrization conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2.2 Parametrization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3 Body Components Definitions(Unsprung Mass . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.3.1 Parametrization Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.4 Engine Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.5 Suspension System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.6 Steering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.6.1 The Mechanical Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

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2.6.2 Power Assistance Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.7 Brake System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.8 Aerodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.9 Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

3 Running a Simulation 25
3.1 Loading a Test Run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.2 CarMaker GUI Interfaces and Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.3 CarMaker IPG Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4 CarMaker Simulink Configuration 29


4.1 Updating Project Folder for Simulink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.2 Simulink Model Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.3 CarMaker Simulink Library Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.4 CarMaker4SL – Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.4.1 CarMaker4SL – Library in Simulink . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.4.2 Main Function blocks in library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.5 Additional Functional Blocks in library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.5.1 Real Time Variable Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.5.2 Library Access and Plug-in Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

5 CarMaker Simulink Block - Overview 35

6 Model Evaluation 36
6.1 Double Lane Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6.2 Slalom Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6.3 Steady state circular test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6.4 Step steer test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
6.5 Turning diameter test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

7 Integration with the Hardware 42

8 Simulation of the Model 44

vi
References 46
LIST OF TABLES

2.1 CarMaker Project Features Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7


2.2 CarMaker Steering Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

6.1 Double Lange Change test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


6.2 Slalom Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
6.3 Steady State Circular Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
6.4 Step Steer Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
6.5 Turning Diameter test results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

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LIST OF FIGURES

2.1 CarMaker GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5


2.2 CarMaker GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3 Axis System orientation in CarMaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.4 Rigid Vehicle Body Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.5 Vehicle body data parameters input – 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.6 Vehicle body data parameters input – 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.7 Vehicle body data parameters input - 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.8 Bodies Mass and Geometric Parameters - 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.9 Bodies Mass and Geometric Parameters - 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.10 Position Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.11 Engine Mass and Geometric Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.12 Suspension Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.13 Suspension Damper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.14 Suspension Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.15 Suspension Stabilizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.16 Suspension Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.17 Suspension Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.18 Suspension Wheel Bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.19 1D Lookup Table - Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.20 1D Lookup Table - Rack Travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.21 Steering Column Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.22 Double Cardan joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.23 Torsion bar stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.24 Torsion bar damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.25 Power Assist module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.26 Brake Hydraulic system Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.27 Brake pressure distribution configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

ix
2.28 CarMaker aerodynamics axis system based on SAE J1594 . . . 21
2.29 Aerodynamics parameterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

3.1 TestRun Loaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25


3.2 CarMaker GUI Interfaces and Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.3 CarMaker IPG Movie - Animation Window . . . . . . . . . . . 28

4.1 CarMaker Project Folder Update for Simulink Examples . . . . 29


4.2 Simulink Model - Generic Model for CarMaker . . . . . . . . . 30
4.3 Simulink Model – Generic Model – Block Details . . . . . . . . . 30
4.4 Simulink Model Dependency Viewer– CarMaker4SL Library . 31
4.5 CarMaker4SL Complete Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.6 Signal Access Blocks in Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.7 Real Time Signal Access,Library Blockset and Plug-in Block Blocks
in Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

5.1 Vehicle Model on Simulink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

7.1 dSPACE Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

8.1 Simulation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44


8.2 Simulation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
8.3 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

x
ABBREVIATIONS

ABS Antilock Braking System


CG Centre of Gravity
CM CarMaker
DOF Degree of Freedom
DVP Design Validation Plan
ECU Electronic Control Unit
EPS Electronic Power steering
ESP Electronic Stability Program
IO Input/Output
GUI Graphical User Interface
HiL Hardware in the loop
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
SUV Sport Utility Vehicle

xi
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The goal of the project was to develop a Vehicle’s plant model using CarMaker software
and Check the stability of the model. Plant model will be used for Software in the loop
and Hardware-In-the-loop simulations. The model being developed is based on a SUV
class of vehicle. The HiL Simulation is done mainly to test the control unit of the
system and also tune it accordingly. Here, SiL involves running the simulation without
any hardware and running the developed plant model using simulated virtual control
unit. Whereas, HiL simulation involves connecting the actual ECU with the virtual
plant model which helps to control the virtual car with a real ECU.

1.1 Brief Introduction of the Sub-systems

The plant model developed should be compatible with control units of the following
subsystems:

1. Electronic Stability Program(ESP)

2. Electronic Power Steering

3. iBooster

1.1.1 Electronic Stability Program

Electronic stability program or Electronic stability control is an enhanced version of the


Antilock Brake system that increases the stability of the vehicle by taking inputs from
various extra sensors such as, Gyro sensors, steering angle sensor in addition with the
existing wheel speed sensors.
The control unit takes input from the steering angle sensor, as well as the gyro sensor by
which it detects when the car oversteers or understeers. The ECU then decides Braking
torque to be applied on each wheel to keep the vehicle under control and improve ride
stability. Sometimes ESP is also combined with the traction control system which re-
duces the driving torque being supplied to the wheels. It is generally done it Automatic
Transmission cars, driving torque is generally reduced by giving a signal to the clutch.

ESP can also have various other features such as:

1. HiL descent control

2. Emergency brake assist

3. Turning Assistant

4. Hill hold control

5. Load adaptive control

6. Trailer sway mitigation

1.1.2 Electronic Power steering

Power steering is a driver assist system which helps the driver by reducing the driver’s
effort applied on the steering wheel to turn the vehicle. Conventional power steering
uses a Hydraulic Circuit to provide assistance to the driver. Where in Electronic Power
steering, an electric motor is used to provide assisting force enabling the driver to turn
the steering wheel by applying considerably less force.
The Electric motor is Controlled by an ECU which takes input from torque sensor which
senses the differential torque. ECU then decides the torque to applied by the motor and
sends it a signal. There and various arrangements used depending on the requirement,
namely:

1. Column Mounted Motor

2. Rack Mounted Motor

3. Pinion Mounted Motor

2
1.1.3 iBooster

It is a system used to amplify the Braking force applied by the driver on the pedal. Gen-
erally Vacuum Boosters are used which uses the Engine’s intake manifold pressure to
Boost the pedal Force. In Electric Vehicles, an iBooster has to be used to Increase the
pedal Force as the engine is not present in EVs to supply the required Negative pressure.
iBooster is a vacuum-independent electromechanical brake booster, It contains a Motor
controller by an ECU, which takes input from the force sensor and controls the motor
accordingly.
It can be tuned in a way to provide different pedal feels just by varying the settings
of the ECU. It can also be combined with the ESP in an Electric Vehicle to introduce
Regen braking where there the Drives feels baking force on the pedal but ESP opens
the valves accordingly resulting in no rise in the brake fluid pressure.

1.2 Plant Modelling

Plant modelling, is a transfer function which shows relation between the input and the
output signals of a system. The plant model includes physical properties of the system
being designed. It may of may not have Feedback signals.
In our case the Plant model is being developed by the help of software, CarMaker. The
CarMaker is integrated with the Matlab Simulink, which is used to make changes to
the basic model developed on the CarMaker. Various Control units such as control unit
for EPS, ESP, iBooster, Air bags etc. Have to be added to the basic vehicle model on
Simulink. Custom Brake hydraulic model, suspension Kinematics Model or Virtual
control units can also be added to the Vehicle Plant model.
The plant model is then integrated with the Hardware (ECU) via hardware and software
provided by the company dSPACE, In the developed simulink model itself, various
blocks are connected to the IO ports on the dSPACE scalexio boards which are mapped
to the ECU’s Cables accordingly.

3
CHAPTER 2

VEHICLE MODELLING ON CARMAKER

The vehicle model is a collection of various systems which include vehicle’s mass, En-
gine mountings, Steering, Suspension, Brake systems etc. For building each system,
CarMaker takes input data in set format.
The vehicle body module interface, along with other modules form the vehicle data set.
Each module has a different GUI. By inputting proper parameters and coordinates in
them, a vehicle a per our requirements, can be constructed.
CarMaker also allows one to generate a generic vehicle model data set by simply se-
lecting the required type of the vehicle. It should be avoided to use the value from the
generated generic vehicle model, as the properties of the vehicle being modelled may
vary accordingly, and the accuracy of the simulation might get reduced. The list of
model parameters is shown below.
List of Model Parameters

1. Vehicle Body Sprung Mass

2. Bodies Unsprung Mass

3. Engine Mountings

4. Suspension

5. Steering

6. Brake

7. Aerodynamics

8. Sensors
2.1 CarMaker Initial Project Creation

2.1.1 CarMaker Project Configuration

The CarMaker software has a user-friendly GUI. Where simple options are provided to
open and modify the parameters.

1. Starring CarMaker

To start CarMaker in Windows, press the Start Button and select Programs >
IPG > CarMaker

To start CarMaker for HiL in Windows, press the Start Button and select Pro-
grams > IPG > CarMaker HiL

Figure 2.1: CarMaker GUI

2. Creating a new Project

In CarMaker projects are created which can contain numerous Vehicle models,
roads, manoeuvres etc. To create a project, open File> Project Folder>create/update
project.
In the popping up dialog box you need to enter the file path where you want your
project to be placed. Select the required features and click ok to proceed. The
dialog box is shown in Figure 2.2 .
Depending on the application, you can add several features to your project folder.
Bur for basic simulation, none of the features are required.

5
Figure 2.2: CarMaker GUI

The addition of features will include data in your newly created project folder
accordingly, refer Table 2.1 for details.

6
Table 2.1: CarMaker Project Features Description

Feature Description
Source / Build
Required for compiling new CarMaker executables
Environment
Sources: Extra Adds several example models written in
Models c-code to the src folder of your project
Loads various example Functional Mock-up Units to
FMI Examples
the Plugins folder of your project
CarMaker for The src_cm4sl folder will be containing
Simulink Extras the required Simulink models
Simulink Coder (RTW) Provides model examples, that were integrated via
Examples Mat Lab Simulink Encoder (former Real Time Workshop)
If the post processing tool AVL Concerto
Concerto Work
is available on the system, predefined layouts from
Environment
the CarMaker project folder can be used.
This option copies all example data files (Test Runs,
vehicle and tire data sets, etc.) to your project folder.
Duplicate Example
This feature is usually not required. Without this
Data
option, you still have access to all examples stored in
the installation directory.

2.2 Vehicle Body Definitions (Sprung Mass)

This is used to define the properties of sprung mass bodies in the system. It include
mass, location, and inertial properties of the bodies.

2.2.1 Parametrization conditions


1. Axis Systems

All definitions of data are made according to DIN 70000, the axis system ori-
entation in CarMaker is represented in figure 2.3.
X axis points towards the forward direction, Y axis points towards the left and Z
axis is oriented upwards. CarMaker gives us flexibility to define a vector from
the origin (Fr1) to the designed origin(FrD). Thus it is not required to recalculate
the coordinates w.r.t Fr1, we only have to place FrD w.r.t to the Fr1.

2. Vehicle Mass/ Geometry Specifications


Various kinds of masses in kg (sprung, unsprung rotating, unsprung nonrotating)
must be specified, along with their moment of inertia (Ixx, Iyy, Izz); products of
inertia (Ixy, Ixz, Iyz) can also be specified, but they have a lower importance and
hence can be set to zero.

7
Figure 2.3: Axis System orientation in CarMaker

The position of the centre of gravity of the various masses is defined in x, y, z


columns. The data must be specified in m with respect to the origin (FrD).

2.2.2 Parametrization

The Parameterization is carried out in CarMaker, in Vehicle data set. The values for the
Vehicle Body mass and geometry is given under the tab “Vehicle Body” as shown in
Figure 2.4. Where distances are specified in m, mass in kg.

1. Rigid Vehicle Body parameters


In rigid body model, vehicle body is considered as a single unit of mass. The
Rigid body can be set by clicking on the drop-down menu in the vehicle body tab
as shown in Figure 2.4.

Figure 2.4: Rigid Vehicle Body Parameters

The parameters get highlighted depending on the option selected (rigid / flexible
body). They can be entered directly in to the tabs as shown in Figure 2.5. The
position of the CG of the sprung mass value and the main inertia components can
be configured in the given tab.

Figure 2.5: Vehicle body data parameters input – 1

8
The products of inertia (Ixy, Ixz, Iyz), for the sprung mass can be configured for
the rigid body and flexible body components can be configured by using the ar-
row option in the screen present next to Izz[kgm2] as shown in Figure 2.6.

Figure 2.6: Vehicle body data parameters input – 2

2. Flexible Vehicle Body parameters


The highlighted items in the figure shows the rigid body configuration (Named as
Vehicle Body). To model a flexible vehicle body, the option needs to be changed
in the dropdown menu. Only then, the unchangeable options, named as Body B,
would get enabled and can be changed accordingly.
The flexible body system requires body stiffness and damping parameters on ro-
tation along X axis (Torsion) and the rotation on Y axis (Bending). The stiffness
parameters can be configured by a single Characteristic value or can also be given
as a variable plot of Angle vs. Torque for both X and Y axis. The parameters of
X and Y axis can be configured individually.
The Axis configuration for the X and Y axis rotation and the data parametrization
is shown in the Figure 2.7.
Similarly, the damping coefficients can be fed as a single characteristic value in
the unit of Nms/deg or a 1D look up table can be plotted accordingly.

Figure 2.7: Vehicle body data parameters input - 2

9
2.3 Body Components Definitions(Unsprung Mass

Next step of the making vehicle dynamics model in CarMaker, is to define the un-sprung
mass’s properties. Which mainly include wheels and wheel carriers. The properties
include the mass, location, and the inertial properties.

2.3.1 Parametrization Conditions


1. Axis Systems
All definitions of data are made according to DIN 70000, the axis system used in
CarMaker have been represented in figure 2.3.
2. Body Masses / Geometry Specifications
The nominal data of the vehicle is parameterized. The values need to be fed are,
masses in kg (of unsprung rotating, unsprung nonrotating), along with the main
inertias (Ixx, Iyy, Izz) you may also specify the products of inertia (Ixy, Ixz, Iyz),
but their influence is of lower importance as shown in figures 2.8 and 2.9 . The
position of the centre of gravity of the various masses is defined in x, y, z columns.
The data need to be specified in m w.r.t the origin (FrD).

Figure 2.8: Bodies Mass and Geometric Parameters - 1

Figure 2.9: Bodies Mass and Geometric Parameters - 1

10
3. Position Configurations
This is the area where the origin point FrD is defined w.r.t the Fr1 and even hitch
point, jack points and aero markers positions are defined. The x, y, z positions of
the points mentioned above are fed accordingly as shown in Figure 2.10.
All these values have to be fed taking FrD as origin and its location is given w.r.t
the Fr1, which is considered lying at the rearmost part of the car centre plane, on
the ground. It is done by mentioning the Origin Fr1.

Figure 2.10: Position Configurations

4. Trim Load Configurations


The masses which are not generally included in kerb weight are referred as kerb.
We can add trim loads of any constant mass in the vehicle model. The loads
can be positioned at any location in the system with their mass and the inertia
properties.
The maximum number of trim loads that can be selected, is 30. Anything more
than that will have to be included with the sprung mass and values will have to be
calculated accordingly. Trim load configuration is shown in Figure 2.10.

2.4 Engine Mounting

The CarMaker vehicle model includes a separate engine body which is elastically mounted
on the main body. When activated, the position and engine’s mass need to be defined
with the location of the joint between engine and vehicle body. The joint comprises of
a spring damper element which can be parameterized accordingly.

11
The Parameterization of the engine mounting on the vehicle is carried out in the Car-
Maker by feeding the values for the engine’s mass, geometry and inertia, as given in the
tab “Engine” (shown in Figure 2.11) All distances are specified in m, masses in kg.

Figure 2.11: Engine Mass and Geometric Parameters

2.5 Suspension System

The parameters of suspension system plays a huge role in the modelling the vehicle on
CarMaker. It consists many modules to be parametrised which include defining spring
stiffness, damping coefficients, stabilizer bar, kinematics of wheel, compliance of the
system etc.
All distances and movements are specified in m, force in N, velocity in m/s, stiffness in
N/m, and angles in rad. The amplification factors have no unit.
In damper component parameterization, compression of the damper is specified as Push,
and the Rebound / Jounce is specified as the Pull.
Whereas, In the buffer component parameterization, the Rebound stop is specified as
Push, and the Bump stop is specified as the Pull in the configuration.

1. Springs
Spring are the vertical load carrying member in the suspension system. The pa-
rameters of the springs for front and rear are specified individually. The properties
of left and right springs are considered identical in both front and rear suspension.

2. Damper This module simulates a suspension damper. It calculates the force


Fdamp. The dampers pull/push characteristics are defined separately. ‘Pull’ is
when the damper is under tensile load, ‘push’ is when the damper under com-
pressive load. Values have to fed as shown in the figure 2.13.

12
Figure 2.12: Suspension Springs

Figure 2.13: Suspension Damper

3. Buffers
This module simulates suspension push/pull buffers. The buffers limit the wheel
travel. This limit is specified by the parameter “length tz0”. If the wheel travel
reaches the given distance (tz0), the buffer acts like an additional spring, which is
parameterized in the tables and shown as Figure 2.14.

4. Stabilizer
This module simulates a body roll stabilizer. The stiffness of the stabilizer bar
is entered in N/m (approximation of virtual spring on small displacements). Op-
tionally, it can also be parameterized in Nm/rad as shown in figure 2.15.

5. Kinematics
CarMaker offers a kinematics model, where it is not necessary to define the geom-
etry suspension rather we have to input parameters defining the wheel’s motion
when it moves up/down or while they’re being steered. Motion ratio of springs,
dampers, stabilizers and buffers can also be specified accordingly as shown in
figure 2.16.

13
Figure 2.14: Suspension Buffers

Figure 2.15: Suspension Stabilizer

6. Compliance
The compliance triggers additional movements in wheel depending on the forces
acting on the wheel. The parameters in the tables of the editor are coefficients
which define the variation of the wheel position in meter or rad per Newton (when
a force is applied) or Newton-meter (when a torque is applied) on the wheel, in
both outwards and inward directions. Compliance parameterization shown in
Figure 2.17.

7. Wheel Bearing
This option activates/deactivates the consideration of the friction acting in the
wheel bearings. It is done by specifying friction coefficient in the bearing and
its radius which will be used to calculate the frictional torque. Wheel bearing
parametrization shown in Figure 2.18.

8. External Forces
This is useful only when the kinematics model of CarMaker is extended, e.g.
when modelling an active stabilizer.

14
Figure 2.16: Suspension Kinematics

Figure 2.17: Suspension Compliance

2.6 Steering System

The steering system helps the user to define a relation between the rack movement and
change in the wheel’s toe angle. A driver assistance system which can also be added to
the steering system. The CarMaker steering model library provides the following mod-
els: The Pfeffer steering model consists of a mechanical module and an assist module.
The mechanical module models the mechanical parts of a steering system including
steering wheel, steering column, torsion bar, hardy disc, mesh, steering rack and pin-
ion. The assist module refers to the hydraulic powered steering (HPS) and the electrical

15
Figure 2.18: Suspension Wheel Bearing

Table 2.2: CarMaker Steering Model

MODEL
SPECIFICATION
NAME
Static Steer Ratio Standard steer by angle model with 0 DOF
Dynamic Steer Ratio Standard steer by torque model with 1 DOF
Steering model of Dr. Pfeffer, University of Munich, with 2 DOF
Pfeffer with Power Steering
and power assistance module.

powered steering (EPS) system.


All the Stiffness coefficient or non-linear stiffness of the torsion bar is specified in
Nm/deg, Damping coefficient of the torsion bar in Nms/rad, Frictional torque in Nm,
Twist angle in deg.Steering gear ratio can be fed in the form of a lookup table in terms
of rack travel or ratio as shown in figure 2.19 and figure 2.20.

Figure 2.19: 1D Lookup Table - Ratio

16
Figure 2.20: 1D Lookup Table - Rack Travel

2.6.1 The Mechanical Module

It consists all mechanical components which transfer torque from the steering wheel to
the tie rods, i.e. the steering wheel, steering column, hardy disc, torsion bar, pinion,
steering rack and the occurring damping and friction effects.
Steering column: For parametrizing steering system the values of column inertia, stiff-
ness, friction torque gradient, damping coefficient and damping torque are to be filled
in steering column section which is shown in figure 2.21.

Figure 2.21: Steering Column Properties

Intermediate shaft : The column non-uniformity is described by double cardan joint


and 1D lookup table. Double cardan joint is described by defining the geometric po-
sitions (X-Y-Z coordinates in m) of upper and lower column mount. The fork angle
describes the difference angle between the two fork planes of the intermediate axis
(deg) as shown in figure 2.22

17
Figure 2.22: Double Cardan joint

Torsion bar : The damping property and stiffness of torsion bar is provided to build
CarMaker model and it is shown in figure 2.23 and figure 2.24.

Figure 2.23: Torsion bar stiffness

Figure 2.24: Torsion bar damping

18
2.6.2 Power Assistance Module

The power assistance module model represents the assistance for the mechanical mod-
ule of a steering system to reduce the steering effort from driver. There are three main
types - Hydraulic (HPS) and Electrical (EPSc and EPSapa) systems. A HPS system
uses hydraulic pressure supplied by an engine-driven pump to assist the motion of turn-
ing the steering wheel. An EPSapa system uses an electric motor coupled directly to the
steering rack for assistance. An EPSc system uses an electric motor coupled directly to
the steering column shaft for assistance. The parameters related to power assist module
is shown in figure 32.

Figure 2.25: Power Assist module

2.7 Brake System

CarMaker offers appropriate hydraulic brake system model for almost every purpose.
There are different interests for using a specific brake system model. A simple brake
model is sufficient, if the main interest of investigation is not the brake system itself and
no brake ECU is used. It is good for driving manoeuvres with simple braking tasks.
If the purpose of modelling is the hydraulic brake system itself or if a brake ECU has
to be connected, there is a detailed brake model available. The aim is to represent the
real braking system as closely as possible in combination with real time computing con-
straints. The parameters for brake hydraulic system and pressure distribution system is
shown in Figure 2.26 and 2.27.

19
Figure 2.26: Brake Hydraulic system Configuration

Figure 2.27: Brake pressure distribution configuration

The brake module’s role is to calculate the current braking torque (wheel and park
brake) on each wheel. These torques are supported by the wheel carrier.
While using a hybrid powertrain with electric motors for regenerative braking, the brake
module/control, communicates with the powertrain control to get target regenerative
braking torque at each wheel. It depends on the maximum possible regenerative brak-
ing torque of the motor(s) and repartition strategy. Additionally, the brake control pilots
the brake system based on these current regenerative braking torques to achieve the de-
sired total braking torque at each wheel. All torques are transferred as absolute values.
The brake model Hydraulic consists of two parts: a hydraulic brake system and a cor-
responding brake control unit, which could also be a real brake ECU (using the IO
module) brake Torque Amplification for the front and rear system based on the Brake
distribution to the front and rear wheels is calculated accordingly. The unit of Wheel

20
brake pressure is bar and that of torque is in Nm.

2.8 Aerodynamics

CarMaker considers forces and torques due to external airflow. All data confirmed with
the SAE norm J1594 shown in Figure 2.28.

Figure 2.28: CarMaker aerodynamics axis system based on SAE J1594

According to this norm the SAE Road Vehicle Aerodynamics commission defined the
following frame (SAE-frame):

• X: positive forward

• Y: positive right

• Z: positive downward

The origin of the SAE-frame usually in the wheel contact plane at the intersection
point of the symmetry lines of track base and wheel base (in design configuration).
Aerodynamic forces and torques depend on:

• Relative wind speed between wind and vehicle

• Angle of attack of wind (is given in degrees)

21
1. Tau is 0 if the wind is coming from front

2. Tau is more than 0 if the wind is slightly coming from front left.

CarMaker incorporates wind loads as 3 forces and 3 torques on the vehicle body:
The vehicle reference area is the projected frontal area including tires and underbody

parts. Aero. Coeff: this characteristic specifies the 3 force coefficients and the 3 torque
coefficients depending on the angle of attack of the wind Tau.
The tau-mapping should cover the whole field of angles, ranging from tau = -180 [deg]
to tau = +180 [deg].
Force and torque configuration screen in CarMaker is shown as figure 2.29.

22
Figure 2.29: Aerodynamics parameterization

2.9 Sensors

CarMaker provides an option to place different sensors and detect changes accordingly
during simulation. It allows the user to define the location of the sensors and calculate
their capacity. The object sensor module iterates each time step over all objects to find
the closest object and calculates the distance between object and itself. Depending on
the calculation class the distance is referred to the reference point or the nearest point.
The object with the smallest overall distance is the relevant target. If two or more
objects have the same distance, the first detected object will be considered.

1. Driver Assistance Sensor


The Driver Assistance Sensor Module (DASensor) gives interfaces to add various
sensors used for adaptive cruise control, parking assistance etc within CarMaker.

2. Free Space Sensor


The Free Space Sensor Module (FSSensor) is an extended DASensor module,
whose sensor beam is subdivided in equiangular horizontal and vertical segments.
Each segment determines the nearest detected point of the surrounding traffic
objects and the corresponding bearing angles and approach velocity.

3. Traffic Sign Sensor

23
The Traffic Sign Sensor Module (TSSensor) detects all or some selected traffic
signs like an idealized camera(determined by horizontal/vertical aperture angles
and range).

4. Line Sensor
The Line Sensor Module detects in a specified sensor view markings and traffic
barriers like an idealized camera(defined by horizontal/vertical aperture angles
and range).

5. Road Property Sensor


The task of a road property sensor (RPSensor) is to determine at a predefined
preview distance (horizon) important road specific attributes like the road curva-
ture, road marker attributes (speed limit), the longitudinal and lateral slope and
relative information like the deviation distance and deviation angle. This infor-
mation can support in applications like lane keeping assistance, lane departure
warning, autonomous driving, sign detection, energy management, pre-scanning,
and optimization of fuel consumption or detection of wheel travel.

6. Collision Detection
The Collision Detection module detects if the ego vehicle body or wheels touch
any traffic object. For the envelope of the vehicle body a cuboid or an extruded
x-y contour can be defined. In general, for the verification of collision the side
areas of the traffic object and the vehicle body are considered. Thus, it can be
used for crash scenario or for parking manoeuvres beside curb stone.

7. Global Navigation Satellite System


This sensor module calculates the position and velocity of all GPS satellites in
their orbits using the navigation message, a file containing all parameters to sim-
ulate the position of the satellites for a given time. With the use of error models,
the pseudo range between the satellite and the vehicle is calculated. Traffic ob-
jects can be considered to only use the satellites with a clear line of sight for
calculating the position of the receiver.

24
CHAPTER 3

RUNNING A SIMULATION

Performing a simulation in CarMaker, is just like on a real test drive: we have to define
the vehicle, it’s tires, a driver, a test track and a manoeuvre which the driver should
complete. In CarMaker there is a model for each of these requirements. The combina-
tion of these models forms a “Test Run”.
The standard installation of CarMaker includes many typical Test Runs containing all
data required to describe each of these models. Thus, you can already work with it and
see the main features of the program.

3.1 Loading a Test Run

Locate the Test Run, Which will be containing all the required inputs (Car, Road,Manauver,Tires)
for the the Vehicle Simulation to be performed.As shown in the figure 3.1

Figure 3.1: TestRun Loaded


Pressing the start button starts the simulation. However this can also done by using
Simulink and Scripts.

3.2 CarMaker GUI Interfaces and Controls

Figure 3.2: CarMaker GUI Interfaces and Controls

Following is the explanation of the CarMaker GUI


Section (A) “Storage of Results”
The results of CarMaker are saved to a buffer of the computer memory. You can save
your results to a file, too, to analyse them later. This box enables you to control the
saving strategy.
Section (B) “Simulation” feedback
Note a powerful feature of CarMaker! You can define the speed of the simulation: real
time, slower or faster than real time. The “max” option enables to simulate as fast as
your CPU allows: up to 40 times faster than real time.
That saves time, especially when you need to automate your Test Runs. The simulation
speed can be changed even while the simulation is running. In this box the time and

26
distance of the current simulation are displayed. You also receive information about the
status of the simulation (“idle” when no simulation is running, “preparing” during the
start phase, or “Running”).
Section (C) “Manoeuvre”
You can define several manoeuvre steps. They are shown in this box. The current ma-
noeuvre step is highlighted in blue. Hence, you always know which manoeuvre step
currently is being performed.

3.3 CarMaker IPG Movie

IPG movie is the animation window in CarMaker. Which enables us to view the vehicle
running in the simulation environment. This animation runs in real time when the inputs
are being given from manual or automation controls.
Animation window has multiple options, resolution background, all are configurable by
user using simple options changes. Few animation parameters can be changed on the
run of simulation. And few options are restricted to configure during the simulation
run.
As shown in Figure 3.3 The points of view and the background can be changed as per
viewer’s requirement. But IPG Movie is much more than just an animation tool. For
instance, you can export the animation you are watching to a file to use it later for a
presentation.

27
Figure 3.3: CarMaker IPG Movie - Animation Window

28
CHAPTER 4

CARMAKER SIMULINK CONFIGURATION

CarMaker inbuilt contains the required basic Simulink models in the library. By up-
dating the project folder, the Simulink models can be created in the existing project
folder.

4.1 Updating Project Folder for Simulink

Open CarMaker via the Windows Start Button and create a new project (CarMaker GUI
> File > Project Folder > Select / update project) and toggle on the option “CarMaker for
Simulink Extras” as shown in Figure no 43. Now a project folder is created that contains

Figure 4.1: CarMaker Project Folder Update for Simulink Examples

an additional folder called “src cm4sl” which provides the interface to Simulink.
Close the CarMaker GUI and open Matlab. Set the folder “src cm4sl” of your new
project as working directory, Open the generic.mdl model.
The Matlab window should have opened followed by the Simulink environment and the
Simulink model “generic.mdl”. A successful start-up procedure leads to the following
window as shown in Figure .
4.2 Simulink Model Overview

The Simulink model overview is shown in Figure 4.2, which has three default blocks in
place along with some information about the model like Title, its compatible CarMaker
version number and few model descriptions on a brief.
The blocks in the model are briefed in Figure 4.2. Which shows the Model configuration
block, Simulink representation and GUI link block.

Figure 4.2: Simulink Model - Generic Model for CarMaker

Figure 4.3: Simulink Model – Generic Model – Block Details

30
4.3 CarMaker Simulink Library Overview

Every Simulink model will have a Simulink library, where the blocks are taken from and
used. In this model along with the Simulink model library there’s an additional library
configured, that is the CarMaker library. This library has the special blocks which are
used in modelling of CarMaker interfaces like input, output blocks, conversion blocks,
S-Functions and configurable components. This library in Simulink can be explored by
viewing the model dependency viewer in Simulink including libraries shown in Figure
4.4.

Figure 4.4: Simulink Model Dependency Viewer– CarMaker4SL Library

4.4 CarMaker4SL – Library

The Library consists of many blocks and also it will have the default blocks which are
present in generic model. Which can be copied and altered as per the requirement from
the library.

31
4.4.1 CarMaker4SL – Library in Simulink

The CarMaker4SL stands for CarMaker for Simulink, the complete library is shown in
Figure 4.5.

Figure 4.5: CarMaker4SL Complete Library

4.4.2 Main Function blocks in library

In the CarMaker4SL 4 simple blocks are available, and these are the most used blocks
in the modelling. The blocks in the library are shown in Figure 4.6. Define CM Dict
Block
This block is used to define the dictionary parameters in CarMaker via Simulink model
Read CM Dict Block

32
Figure 4.6: Signal Access Blocks in Library

This block is used to read the dictionary parameter values from CarMaker to Simulink
model, this block works both in Simulink and Real Time environment.
Write CM Dict Block
This block is used to write the dictionary parameter values to CarMaker from Simulink
model, this block works both in Simulink and Real Time environment.
Signal Access Block
The block is used to access the parameters signals and to process them signal values
form Simulink in CarMaker and take out the output form the same block in to Simulink
model.

4.5 Additional Functional Blocks in library

4.5.1 Real Time Variable Blocks

This Real time variable blocks are used in real time environment only. To access the
variables from CarMaker (From CM Var) and to CarMaker (To CM Var). Same function
can be availed by using the “Read CM Dict” and “Write CM Dict” blocks. The blocks
are in red colour where as other blocks are in orange colour. The blocks are shown in
4.7.

4.5.2 Library Access and Plug-in Block

Apart from the basic blocks there are some special blocks which are mandatory and
which will help in accessing the libraries and creating the Plug-in models for CarMaker
Figure no 50 shows the blocks from the CarMaker4SL library. The blocks are shown in
Figure 4.7.

33
Figure 4.7: Real Time Signal Access,Library Blockset and Plug-in Block Blocks in
Library

34
CHAPTER 5

CARMAKER SIMULINK BLOCK - OVERVIEW

The Simulink Block consists of a series of subsystem having its own architecture and
S-Functions as required by the CarMaker to process the signals and run the simulation.
The Blocks work with a time Sync commands, and the data is processed from one block
to the other in a flow and the flow cannot be altered or modified.
Some signals can be processed from the block to the previous blocks, using a time delay
function, but it is advised to avoid those delay functions as the data will be processed
in the next time step and the real time simulation may go slow with this kind of model
modifications.
The Model preview is shown in Figure 5.1. For detailed model exploring it is advised

Figure 5.1: Vehicle Model on Simulink

to study in MatLab Simulink with the real model so as to get a better understanding of
the model and its configurations.
CHAPTER 6

MODEL EVALUATION

The model created has to be checked for it’s stability and correctness. This can be done
by comparing the generated model with any other model available of the same class and
weight. DVPs are set with reference to other vehicles of same segment.
Various virtual tests are performed on the model by developing standard ISO test cases.
The tests and performed and required data in logged and plotted to see the results. The
tests performed are as follows:

6.1 Double Lane Change

In this test the vehicle moving at a specified speed shifts to the subsequent lane and
comes back to it’s original lane within a specified distance. The test was performed and
results are shown in 6.1.

6.2 Slalom Test

In this test the driver tries to take the car through a curvy path at a set specified speed.
The test was performed and following are the results obtained as shown in Table 6.2.

6.3 Steady state circular test

In this test the car is run on a circular track starting from zero speed and going upto the
maximum speed it can go without skidding too much. Results shown in Table 6.3
Table 6.1: Double Lange Change test Results

S.No Parameters Units Target DVP CM Value


1 Yaw rate deg/ sec <20 13.18
2 Lateral acceleration g <0.8 0.36
3 Sideslip angle deg <6.5 1.70
4 Pitch angle deg <1.2 1.039
5 Roll angle deg <6.5 2.20
Maximum vehicle velocity as per ISO Standard
6 kmph 80.23
achieved (80kmph)
7 Yaw acceleration deg/ sec2 <60 45
8 Roll acceleration deg/ sec2 <120 14.035
Maximum Front Outside <1.8 * static load
9 N 8501.21
Tire Load of same wheel
Maximum Rear Outside Tire <1.8 * static load
10 N 5950.85
Load of same wheel
11 Minimum Front Inside Tire Load N >0 4542.80
12 Minimum Rear Inside Tire Load N >0 2845.13
Initial front left wheel
13 N >0 6346.49
reaction
Initial front right wheel
14 N >0 6192.18
reaction
Initial rear left wheel
15 N >0 4493.85
reaction
Initial rear right wheel
16 N >0 4376.86
reaction

37
Table 6.2: Slalom Test Results

S.No Parameters Units Target DVP CM Value


1 Yaw rate deg/ sec <40 33.75
Lateral
2 g <0.8 0.58
acceleration
Sideslip
3 deg <6.5 3.25
angle
4 Pitch angle deg <1.0 0.74
5 Roll angle deg <6.5 2.032
Maximum
6 kmph 40 kmph 40
Vehicle Velocity
Yaw
7 deg/ sec2 <70 62.01
acceleration
Roll
8 deg/ sec2 <120 24.88
acceleration
Steering
9 deg as per ISO Standard 179.73
wheel angle
Maximum Front <1.8 * static load of
10 N 9570.726
Outside Tire Load same wheel
Maximum Rear <1.8 * static load of
11 N 6945.567
Outside Tire Load same wheel
Minimum Front
12 N >0 3285.68
Inside Tire Load
Minimum Rear
13 N >0 2095.61
Inside Tire Load
Initial front
14 N >0 6294.68
left wheel reaction
Initial front
15 N >0 6115.106
right wheel reaction
Initial rear
16 N >0 4568.79
left wheel reaction
Initial rear
17 N >0 4430.84
right wheel reaction

38
Table 6.3: Steady State Circular Test Results

S.No Parameters Units Target DVP CM Value


1 Roll angle deg <6.5 2.58
2 Pitch angle deg <1.0 0.277
3 Yaw rate deg/ sec <25 23.98
4 Sideslip angle deg <6.5 3.33
5 Laateral Acceleration g <0.8 0.75
6 Steering Wheel Angle deg As per ISO standards 183.16
Suspension Roll Gradient
7 deg/ g <6.5 deg/’g’ NA
at .3 g (deg/’g’)
Body Slip Gradient at .3
8 deg/ g <6.5(deg/g) NA
g (deg/’g’)
Pitch Gradient at .3 g
9 deg/ g <1.2 deg/’g’ NA
(deg/’g’)
Maximum vehicle velocity
10 kmph >40 kmph and (Skidding) 65.35
achieved and type of Fatal
Maximum Front Outside <1.8 * static load of
11 N 9551.627
Tire Load same wheel
Maximum Rear Outside Tire <1.8 * static load of
12 N 7528.378
Load same wheel
13 Minimum Front Inside Tire Load N >0 2488.125
14 Minimum Rear Inside Tire Load N >0 1785.623
Initial front left wheel
15 N >0 6294.68
reaction (N) (at time = 0)
Initial front right wheel
16 N >0 6115.106
reaction (N) (at time = 0)
Initial rear left wheel
17 N >0 4568.794
reaction (N) (at time = 0)
Initial rear right wheel
18 N >0 4430.84
reaction (N) (at time = 0)

39
6.4 Step steer test

In this test a sudden input of steer angle is given while the car is moving and the data is
logged accordingly. Results of the test are shown in the table 6.4

6.5 Turning diameter test

This test is done to find out the minimum turning circle diameter of the car.It is a open
loop test and only driver input is given here.Results are shown in the Table 6.5

40
Table 6.4: Step Steer Test Results

S.No Parameters Units Target DVP CM Value


1 Yaw rate deg/ sec <18 10.84
Lateral
2 g <0.8 0.42
acceleration
Sideslip
3 deg <6.5 1.12
angle
4 Pitch angle deg <1.0 1.16
5 Roll angle deg <6.5 1.35
Maximum
6 kmph As oer ISO Standard 80.20
Vehicle Velocity
Yaw
7 deg/ sec2 <60 20.40
acceleration
Roll
8 deg/ sec2 <120 38.400
acceleration
Steering
9 deg as per ISO Standard 25.50
wheel angle
Maximum Front <1.8 * static load of
10 N 8018.79
Outside Tire Load same wheel
Maximum Rear <1.8 * static load of
11 N 6096.20
Outside Tire Load same wheel
Minimum Front
12 N >0 4228.00
Inside Tire Load
Minimum Rear
13 N >0 2984.72
Inside Tire Load
Initial front
14 N >0 6294.410
left wheel reaction
Initial front
15 N >0 6114.437
right wheel reaction
Initial rear
16 N >0 4568.561
left wheel reaction
Initial rear
17 N >0 4432.511
right wheel reaction

Table 6.5: Turning Diameter test results

S.No. Parameters Units Target CM Value


1 TC m <11 7.4

41
CHAPTER 7

INTEGRATION WITH THE HARDWARE

The plant model developed has to be integrated with hardware. That is, the model has
to be connected to the ECU via the I/O ports on the dSPACE hardware.
This is done by importing special input and output dSACE blocks onto the model and
connect to the ports on the plant model. Following is the screenshot of the Configura-
tion desk software provided by the dSPACE as shown in the figure 7.1.

Figure 7.1: dSPACE Configuration

In the Figure,

1. Details of the project

2. Shows External devices, i.e. the external ECU

3. Contains input and output Functions.


4. shows the Relation with the plant model

Thus, as we can see, all the input and output ports are mapped to the ports on the
ECU by using this technique.

43
CHAPTER 8

SIMULATION OF THE MODEL

Figure 8.1: Simulation Setup

As we can see in the Figure 8.2 , Host PC is running the Developed Model. The
Output can be seen as an Animated Video on the IPGMovie And Also in the form
of Graphs/raw data in IPGControl. Monitor 1 is displaying the Plant Model Of the
the Vehicle and Monitor 2 is showing the Animated Video of the car running on a
Combination proving ground.
As in the Figure 8.1, real Electronic stability program ECU is connected to the Host PC
via Crossover Ethernet cable through the dSPACE hardware placed on the racks.
Output of the HiL testing of the Model developed can be seen in the figure 8.3. All the
Required outputs can be achieved by using various tools present in the software,such as
IPGMovie, IPGControl, Instrument etc. The real time values can also be tapped from
the simulink model of the vehicle as explained earlier.
Figure 8.2: Simulation Setup

Figure 8.3: Output

45
REFERENCES

1. E. Ono, Hoang D. Tuan, S. Hosoe, “Bifurcation in vehicle dynamics and robust


front wheel steering control”, IEEE Technical Papers, INSPEC Accession Num-
ber: 5911268, DOI: 10.1109/87.668041.

2. Raghavendra Nese ; Nabal Kishore Pandey ; Satish Thimmalapura ,“A systematic


approach of vehicle plant model development for vehicle virtual testing and cal-
ibration”, IEEE Technical Papers, INSPEC Accession Number: 15722605, DOI:
10.1109/ITEC-India.2015.7386942.

3. M. Bacic, “On hardware-in-the-loop simulation”, Print ISSN: 0191-2216, DOI:


10.1109/CDC.2005.1582653.

46
MODELLINGANDEVALUATIONOFRIDE
HANDLINGCONTROLSYSTEMS
ORIGINALITY REPORT

6 %
SIMILARIT Y INDEX
4%
INT ERNET SOURCES
3%
PUBLICAT IONS
3%
ST UDENT PAPERS

PRIMARY SOURCES

1
Submitted to SRM University
St udent Paper 2%
2
Green Energy and Technology, 2015.
Publicat ion 1%
3
"8th International Munich Chassis Symposium
2017", Springer Nature, 2017
1%
Publicat ion

4
www.research-collection.ethz.ch
Int ernet Source <1%
5
Submitted to B.S. Abdur Rahman University
St udent Paper <1%
6
www.alueurope.eu
Int ernet Source <1%
7
Alfonso Montella. "A comparative analysis of
hotspot identification methods", Accident
<1%
Analysis & Prevention, 2010
Publicat ion

paduaresearch.cab.unipd.it
Int ernet Source

<1%
8

9
Hyoung-Ki Lee. "Improvement of dead
reckoning accuracy of a mobile robot by slip
<1%
detection and compensation using multiple
model approach", 2008 IEEE/RSJ International
Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems,
09/2008
Publicat ion

10
thesis.lib.ncu.edu.tw
Int ernet Source <1%
11
Kacelenga, Ray, Adrien Berube, Russell S.
Harmon, and Gerald J. Dobeck. "", Detection
<1%
and Remediation Technologies for Mines and
Minelike Targets VII, 2002.
Publicat ion

12
www.ecardlr.com
Int ernet Source <1%
13
dspace.vutbr.cz
Int ernet Source <1%
14
saiv.espaceweb.usherbrooke.ca
Int ernet Source <1%

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