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# Mapua University

## School of School of Chemical, Biological, and

Materials Engineering and Sciences
Chemistry for Engineers Laboratory
First Quarter SY 2019-2020

## Experiment 1: Vinegar Analysis

First Author*, Second Author, Third Author, Fourth Author, Fifth Author Commented [rbz1]: From the referenc

CM011L-B22 Group No.4

Abstract
Commented [e2]: INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND:
Volumetric analysis
Titration technique
- titrant
- analyte
- stoichiometric point

## © 2019 The Authors. OBJECTIVE:

Identify the percent by mass of acetic a
Keywords: Type your keywords here, separated by semicolons ;
THEORY/HYPOTHESIS;

## 1. Introduction Mass of vinegar (g)

Introduce titration Density of vinegar (g/mL)

How titration is applied, then direct to our experiment
Volume of vinegar (mL)
The mass of vinegar was known, the mass of acetic acid was unknown
The mass of acetic acid can be identify by manipulating the molar ratio between sodium hydroxide and acetic acid, *PRESENT DENSITY FORMULA

In a balanced equation, the molar ratio between NaOH (sodium hydroxide) and CH3 COOH (acetic acid) is one mole AA (g)
of NaOH per one mole of CH3 COOH, Molar mass of acetic acid
(g/mol)
CH3 COOH(𝑎𝑞) + NaOH(𝑎𝑞) → NaCH3 CO2 (𝑎𝑞) + H2 O(𝑙)
NaOH (mol) => AA (mol)
(1 mole NaOH)/(1 mole CH_3 COOH) Molar ratio between acetic acid and so
To get the moles of sodium hydroxide, multiply its volume to its molar mass. Then find the moles of acetic acid by (1 mol acetic acid/ 1 mol sodium hydrox
multiply moles of sodium hydroxide to its molar ratio between acetic acid. The calculated moles of acetic acid was NaOH (L) => NaOH (mol)
used to find the mass of acetic acid by Molarity of sodium hydroxide
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar with the use of titration (mol/L)
technique to identify NaOH (L)
Liter of sodium hydroxide
(L)
Here introduce the paper, and put a nomenclature if necessary, in a box with the same font size as the rest of the
paper. The paragraphs continue from here and are only separated by headings, subheadings, images and formulae. The *PRESENT PLAN IN R&D, SOLUTIO
section headings are arranged by numbers, bold and 10 pt. Here follows further instructions for authors. *PRESENT MOLARITY (NAOH), CHE
EQUATION, MOLAR RATIO, MOLAR

mL = > L
Convert milliliter into liter
CM011L Laboratory Report 2

Nomenclature

B position of
C further nomenclature continues down the page inside the text box

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CM011L Laboratory Report 3

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## 2. Methodology Commented [rbz3]: Molarity = mole/

Unknown molarity concentration
In this experiment, the students were tasked to find the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar with the use of We don’t know the concentration of mol
volumetric analysis, the experiment was done with two different samples of vinegar with unknown concentration, liter of solution, therefore we can not ide
each sample was done with two trials. acetic acid

## To know the percent by mass of acetic ac

Firstly, a 3 ml vinegar was added to 20 ml distilled water into an Erlenmeyer flask. Secondly, a 50 ml buret was need to know the mass of acetic acid and
rinsed twice, to eliminates impurity and ensures the accuracy of the experiment, then the buret was filled with 50 ml (present the equation)
of 0.1070 M sodium hydroxide until the tip of meniscus has reach 0 mL,
Two drops of phenolphthalein vinegar water sample The mass of acetic acid is unknown, the
The sample in the Erlenmeyer flask was titrated by slowly adding a drop of sodium hydroxide from the tip of the be found from its density.
The density of vinegar is 1 g/mL.
buret to the sample until the sample turns into faint pink, the volume of sodium hydroxide that used during titration To find the mass of vinegar, multiply the
was recorded by looking the meniscus at eye level. to its density.

Lastly, the computations are done to find the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar. The density of vinegar is The mass of acetic acid can be found by
given 1 g/mL, the mass of vinegar was calculated by multiplying its volume to its density (see Appendix A.), the mass molar ratio between sodium hydroxide a
of acetic acid was calculated stoichiometrically (see Appendix B.), and the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar In a balanced equation, the molar ratio be
hydroxide and acetic acid is one mole of
was calculated by dividing the mass of acetic acid by the mass of vinegar and multiply it by 100% (see Appendix C.).
per one mole of acetic acid,
The same procedure was repeated in another experiment.

1
Footnote text.
CM011L Laboratory Report 4

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## 3. Results and Discussions Commented [rbz4]: Observation

Data
The color of sample A is darker than sample B, A-17.7 B-17.2
The students observed that when the endpoint is near, the color of the indicator fade slowly with each drop of
sodium hydroxide into the solution

The endpoint (and the stoichiometric point) is near when the color fade of the phenolphthalein indicator occurs
more slowly with each successive addition of smaller volumes of NaOH solution to the vinegar.
Samples Percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar
Sample A 3.79%
Sample B 3.68%

## Trial number Sample A (mL) Sample B (mL)

Trial 1 17.6 17.1
Trial 2 17.8 17.3
Average: 17.7 17.2

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CM011L Laboratory Report 5

E
 (1)
  E 
m

J C T  const.   P     1  P 

 E 
  C  

4. Conclusion

The students have attain its objective of determining the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar with unknown
concentration

## A.1. Computations: Mass of vinegar

There is also the option to include a subheading within the Appendix if you wish.

## B.1. Computations: Mass of acetic acid in sample A

There is also the option to include a subheading within the Appendix if you wish.
CH_3 COOH(𝑎𝑞) + NaOH(𝑎𝑞) → NaCH_3 CO_2 (𝑎𝑞) + H_2 O(𝑙)
(1 mole NaOH)/(1 mole CH_3 COOH)
(17.7 ml NaOH) ((1 L)/(1000 ml)) ((1 mole NaOH)/(1 L NaOH))((1 mole CH_3 COOH)/(1 mole NaOH)) (
/1 mole CH_3 COOH)

## B.2. Computations: Mass of acetic acid in sample B

There is also the option to include a subheading within the Appendix if you wish.

## C.1. Computations: Percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar (sample A)

There is also the option to include a subheading within the Appendix if you wish.

## C.2. Computations: Percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar (sample B)

There is also the option to include a subheading within the Appendix if you wish.

References

[1] Filippini, Massimo, and Lester C. Hunt. (2011) "Energy demand and energy efficiency in the OECD countries: a stochastic demand frontie r
approach." Energy Journal 32.2 (2011): 59-80.
[2] Filippini, Massimo, and Lester C. Hunt. (2012) "US residential energy demand and energy efficiency: A stochastic demand frontier approach."
Energy Economics 34.5 (2012): 1484-1491.
[3] Weyman-Jones, Thomas, Júlia Mendonça Boucinha, and Catarina Feteira Inácio. (2015) "Measuring electric energy efficiency in Portugue se
households: a tool for energy policy." Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal 26.3 (2015): 407-422.
[4] Saunders, Harry (2009) “Theoretical Foundations of the Rebound Effect”, in Joanne Evans and Lester Hunt (eds) International Handbook on
the Economics of Energy, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar
CM011L Laboratory Report 6

[5] Sorrell, Steve (2009) “The Rebound Effect: definition and estimation”, in Joanne Evans and Lester Hunt (eds) International Handbook on the
Economics of Energy, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar