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Amadeu Marques - Ana Carolina Cardoso

Learn and Share in English 2

Língua Estrangeira Moderna - Inglês - Ensino Médio

Manual do Professor

Amadeu Marques

Autor de diversos livros didáticos, paradidáticos, do Dicionário Amadeu


Marques de Inglês-Português/Português-Inglês e, mais recentemente, de
Inglês para o Enem. Licenciado em Língua Inglesa pela Faculdade de Filosofia,
Ciências e Letras da Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro.
Certificado de Proficiência em Inglês pelas universidades de Michigan, Estados
Unidos, e Cambridge, Inglaterra. Certificado de inglês falado e compreensão
com grau de distinção no exame da Arels, Inglaterra. Curso de extensão na
Regent School, Londres, e na EF (Education First), Cambridge.

Ana Carolina Cardoso

Doutora em Linguística Aplicada pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro


(UFRJ) e mestra em Linguística Aplicada pela mesma instituição. Especialista
em Design Instrucional para a EaD Virtual pela Universidade Federal de Itajubá
(Unifei-MG) e licenciada em Letras Português-Inglês pela UFRJ. Professora de
língua inglesa do Colégio de Aplicação da UFRJ.

1ª edição

São Paulo - 2016

Diretoria editorial: Lidiane Vivaldini Olo

Gerência editorial: Luiz Tonolli

Editoria de Língua Estrangeira e Arte: Mirian Senra

Edição: Caroline Santos, Danuza Dias Gonçalves e Barbara Manholeti (estag.)

Gerência de produção editorial: Ricardo de Gan Braga


Arte: Andréa Dellamagna (coord. de criação), Erik TS (progr. visual de capa e
miolo), Leandro Hiroshi Kanno (coord. e edição), Letícia Lavôr (assist.), Lívia
Vitta Ribeiro (assist.) e Tangente Design (diagram.)

Revisão: Hélia de Jesus Gonsaga (ger.), Rosângela Muricy (coord.), Ana Paula
Chabaribery Malfa, Heloísa Schiavo e Luís Maurício Boa Nova; Brenda Morais
e Gabriela Miragaia (estagiárias)

Iconografia: Sílvio Kligin (superv.), Denise Durand Kremer (coord.), Carlos


Luvizari e Evelyn Torrecilla (pesquisa), Cesar Wolf e Fernanda Crevin
(tratamento de imagem)

Ilustrações: Alexandre/Imaginário

Foto da capa: Australian War Memorial, Campbell, Australia, detail. Walter


Bibikow/Getty Images

Protótipos: Magali Prado

Direitos desta edição cedidos à Editora Ática S.A.

Avenida das Nações Unidas, 7221, 3º andar, Setor A

Pinheiros - São Paulo - SP - CEP 05425-902

Tel.: 40 03-30 61

www.atica.com.br / editora@atica.com.br

2016

ISBN 97885O817993 O (AL)

ISBN 97885O817994 7 (PR)

Cód. da obra CL 713416

CAE 566183 (AL) / 566 184 (PR)

1ª edição

1ª impressão

Impressão e acabamento

Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP)

(Câmara Brasileira do Livro, SP, Brasil)


Marques, Amadeu

Learn and share in English : língua estrangeira moderna : inglês / Amadeu


Marques, Ana Carolina Cardoso. -- 1ª ed. -- São Paulo :

Ática, 2016.

Obra em 3 v.

1. Inglês (Ensino médio) I. Cardoso, Ana Carolina. II. Título.

16-01898 CDD-420.7

Índices para catálogo sistemático:

1. Inglês : Ensino médio 420.7

APRESENTAÇÃO

Caros alunos

Este livro foi feito com muito cuidado para vocês e com muito respeito por
vocês.

Nosso objetivo é ajudá-los a construir e ampliar o seu conhecimento não


apenas de inglês - língua que desempenha um papel importante no mundo do
trabalho, na área do desenvolvimento científico e acadêmico, na comunicação
internacional, no acesso à informação e a diferentes culturas -, mas também de
outras disciplinas e temas, igualmente relevantes.

Vocês serão convidados a explorar temas atuais, discutir, refletir e posicionar-


se em relação a eles. São assuntos de diferentes esferas comunicativas
integrados ao universo dos jovens, em constante diálogo com outras disciplinas
do currículo escolar e importantes para a afirmação da cidadania. Nos textos
desta coleção, serão abordadas questões a respeito de saúde, meio ambiente,
educação, tecnologia, arte, igualdade social, integridade moral, coragem e
superação, amizade, amor, ética, sustentabilidade e diversidade cultural.

Em todas as Unidades, não só deste livro, mas de toda a coleção, vocês terão
oportunidades de compartilhar seus saberes e conhecimentos, poderão
manifestar opiniões, refletir criticamente quanto aos temas, trabalhar de forma
colaborativa com os colegas, usar recursos tecnológicos para pesquisar e
aprofundar esses saberes e conhecimentos, estender a abordagem e promover
a conscientização a respeito de questões que envolvem a comunidade escolar
e seu entorno.

Dessa forma, enquanto desempenham um papel ativo nas aulas de Inglês,


vocês serão protagonistas da própria aprendizagem e da sua formação como
cidadãos.

No trabalho com este livro vocês serão levados a desenvolver as habilidades


de compreensão e produção escrita e oral de forma integrada. Estudarão e
produzirão textos de diferentes gêneros, fazendo uso da linguagem em
diversas práticas sociais.

Hoje em dia, o conhecimento efetivo da língua inglesa abre portas no presente


e caminhos para o futuro.

Desejamos a vocês um trabalho ao mesmo tempo eficiente, produtivo e


prazeroso com esta coleção.

Agora, é só virar a página. Let's get started!

Os autores

Conheça seu livro

Esta é uma coleção didática em três volumes, projetada para os anos letivos
que compõem o Ensino Médio. Conheça as Unidades e seções que encontrará
ao longo do livro:

Starter Unit

Nesta Unidade você resgata assuntos previamente estudados por meio de


atividades que abordam diversos temas e tipos de texto.

Abertura de Unidades

Na página dupla de abertura, você é convidado a explorar o título da Unidade e


uma imagem relacionada ao seu tema central.

Learning How to Learn


Em Learning How to Learn você desenvolve estratégias para aprimorar o seu
desempenho escolar e a aprendizagem de língua inglesa.

Let's Start

Ao realizar as atividades desta seção, você ativa seu conhecimento prévio e


explora o vocabulário a respeito do assunto que será abordado na Unidade.

Reading

Nesta seção você explora o texto principal da Unidade, fazendo inferências,


identificando sua ideia central e informações específicas, estabelecendo
relações entre o texto lido e a sua realidade, refletindo e se posicionando
criticamente a respeito dele.

More Food for Thought

Nesta seção você explora um texto que retoma o assunto abordado no texto
principal, faz associações entre eles e expressa suas opiniões a respeito do
tema.

Pronunciation Tips

Nesta seção você estuda a pronúncia, acentuação ou entonação de palavras e


de expressões presentes nos textos da Unidade.

Word Study

Aqui você estuda o vocabulário de forma contextualizada.

Language Study

Em Language Study você estuda aspectos gramaticais de forma


contextualizada a fim de compreender mecanismos de uso da língua inglesa.

Let's Practice

Nesta seção você realiza atividades que focalizam aspectos gramaticais da


língua inglesa de forma contextualizada.

Speaking

Nesta seção você interage com colegas de turma, produzindo diferentes tipos
de textos orais relacionados ao seu cotidiano e ao tema da Unidade.
Listening

Nesta seção você é levado a compreender diferentes tipos de textos orais e


discutir os assuntos abordados neles.

Writing

Nesta seção você produz diferentes tipos de textos escritos, a partir da


observação daqueles explorados na Unidade.

Think About It

Aqui você explora outro texto relacionado ao tema da Unidade, reflete e discute
a respeito dele, relacionando o assunto em destaque com a sua realidade.

Self-Assessment

Neste momento você reflete acerca do seu aprendizado por meio de um


questionário.

Keep Exploring

Em Keep Exploring você aprofunda a compreensão de temas relacionados à


Unidade com sugestões de filmes, livros, canções, vídeos e sites.

Check Your English

Nesta Unidade você revisa assuntos estudados a cada quatro Unidades e se


prepara para o Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio com a seção De Olho no
Enem.

Project

Aqui você desenvolve um projeto interdisciplinar em grupo, debate com os


colegas acerca de temas abordados nas Unidades e se envolve em questões
referentes à comunidade escolar e seu entorno.

Contents

Starter Unit - Getting Started, p. 10

Unit 1 - Help! I Can't Put Down My Phone

Interconnections: IT; Sociology


Life Skills: Keeping a Positive, Healthy Attitude As To the Use of Technological
Devices

Let's Start, p. 18

Technological Devices

Reading, p. 19

Help! I Can't Put Down My Phone

Word Study, p. 22

False Cognates

Wonder or Wander?

Word Building: Suffixes -ing and -ed

Phrasal Verbs

In Other Words

Function Words (but, however, despite)

Language Study, p. 25

Modal Verbs: Can, May, Could

Writing, p. 28

Infographic

Listening, p. 28

Interview with the Author of a Book about

Learning in the Age of Technology

Speaking, p. 29

Debate: Is Technology Good or Bad?

FONTE: VOOK/Shutterstock

Unit 2 - Why Should Animals Have Rights?

Interconnections: Biology; Philosophy

Life Skills: Ethics: Raising Awareness of the Moral Issue of Animal Rights
Let's Start, p. 34

Attitudes Toward Animals

Reading, p. 34

Animals Are Not Ours

Word Study, p. 38

False Cognates

Exploitation or Exploration?

Understanding References

In Other Words

Language Study, p. 39

Possessive Pronouns

Another Use of the Auxiliary Verb Do

Modal Verbs: Can, Should, Would

Verb Tenses Revision

Writing, p. 44

A Campain Poster about Animal Protection

Listening, p. 45

The Mission of an Animal Protection Organization

Speaking, p. 46

Describing an Organization Concerned with

Animal Welfare

Unit 3 - Why Humanity Must Unite

Interconnections: Philosophy; Sociology

Life Skills: The Value of Cultural Diversity and the Need to Fight Prejudice

Let's Start, p. 50
Cultural Diversity

Reading, p. 50

I. Asimov

Word Study, p. 54

Word Building: Suffixes -al, -less, and -able

Phrasal Verbs

Like, Likely and Alike

In Other Words

Language Study, p. 55

Modal Verbs: Must, Might

Modal Verbs Revision: Will, Would, Can, Could and Should

Writing, p. 58

Classroom Rules

Listening, p. 59

Cyberbullying

Speaking, p. 60

Talking to a Tourist about Your Culture

Unit 4 - Hi! You Must Be a Robot...

Interconnection: Philosophy

Life Skills: Ethics: Man and Machine or

Man vs. Machine?

Let's Start, p. 64

Robots

Reading, p. 65

Artificial Intelligence (A.I.): Movie Script

Word Study, p. 69
In Other Words

False Cognates

Adoptive or Adopted?

Language Study, p. 70

Must, Have to, Mustn't, Don't/Doesn't

Have to, Ought to

The Structure: Subject + Verb + Object + Infinitive

Question Tags

Listening, p. 73

Asimov's Laws of Robotics

Writing, p. 74

A Movie Script

Speaking, p. 74

A Conversation with a Domestic Robot

Check Your English 1, p. 76

Project 1 A School Play, p. 81

FONTE: Dario Pignatelli/Bloomberg/Getty Images

Unit 5 - The Young Man Who Would Love to Live in Sunset Land

Interconnection: Philosophy

Life Skills: Pursuing Your Own Dreams

Let's Start, p. 84

Happiness

Reading, p. 85

Sunset Land

Word Study, p. 88
In Other Words

Function Words

Foreign or Strange?

Language Study, p. 89

Modal Verb: Would

Modal Verbs Revision: Must, Can, Will

Verb Tenses Revision: Simple Present, Present Continuous, Simple Past, Past
Perfect, Future

Comparative Adjectives

Writing, p. 93

An Ending to a Short Story

Listening, p. 93

An Interview on Happiness

Speaking, p. 94

Talking about Your Dreams

Unit 6 - Science Has Remade the World

Interconnections: Biology; Mathematics; Physics; Chemistry

Life skills: Science: Keeping Track of Modern Scientific Discoveries and


Enjoying their Fruits

Let's Start, p. 98

Famous Scientists

Reading, p. 99

Life, the Multiverse and Everything

Word Study, p. 101

False Cognates

In Other Words

Word Building: Prefixes and Suffixes


Compound Words

Function Words

Language Study, p. 103

Verb Tenses: Present Perfect, Simple Past

Comparatives and Superlatives

Writing, p. 106

A News Summary

Listening, p. 107

Scientific Discovery Breaking News

Speaking, p. 108

Talking about Important Modern Scientific Inventions

FONTE: National Geographic Creative/The Bridgeman Art Library/Keystone

Unit 7 - Have You Ever Heard of Banksy?

Interconnection: Art

Life Skills: Culture: Enjoying Different Art Forms

Let's Start, p. 112

Art

Reading, p. 114

Who Is Banksy?

Word Study, p. 116

False Cognates

Function Words

Definitions

Language Study, p. 117

Uses of the Present Perfect


Modal Verbs Revision: Might, Could, Must, Will

Speaking, p. 120

Have You Ever Done That?

Listening, p. 120

A Museum Audio Guide About The Starry Night, by Vincent van Gogh

Writing, p. 121

A Quiz about Art

FONTE: Picture Hooked/Loop Images/Corbis/Latinstock

Unit 8 - We Have Been Talking About That for Decades

Interconnections: Geography; Biology

Life skills: The Value of Water and the Importance of Saving It

Let's Start, p. 126

Saving Water

Reading, p. 127

Water Scarcity

Word Study, p. 129

Definitions

Function Words

Language Study, p. 130

Present Perfect vs. Simple Past (Revision)

Present Perfect Simple vs. Present Perfect Continuous

Used to

Listening, p. 133

Tips on How to Save Water

Speaking, p. 134

Ideas on How to Save Water at School


Writing, p. 134

A Letter of Complaint

Check Your English 2, p. 138

Project 2 - Poetry Board, p. 143

Grammar Reference, p. 144

Irregular Verbs, p. 151

False Cognates, p. 157

Glossary, p. 159

Index, p. 167

Bibliography, p. 168

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STARTER UNIT

Nesta Unidade Introdutória você vai:

- Discutir a respeito de diferentes temas relevantes;

- Aplicar estratégias de leitura essenciais para a compreensão textual;

- Explorar textos de diferentes gêneros.

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Atenção professor: Nesta Unidade Introdutória são apresentadas atividades


que contemplam diferentes temas, gêneros textuais e aspectos linguísticos
estudados no volume 1 desta coleção. Para ajudar os alunos a resolver as
atividades propostas, incentive-os a fazer uso de estratégias de leitura
(também já abordadas no volume 1). Na seção Estratégias de Leitura e
Compreensão do Texto, você poderá saber mais a respeito delas. Explore-as
com a turma nesta Unidade Introdutória e sempre que julgar necessário ao
longo do ano. Fim da observação.

Getting Started

FONTE: Rido/Shutterstock

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Read the poem by Carl Sandburg and answer questions 1 to 5 in your
notebook.

Soup

I saw a famous man eating soup.

I say he was lifting a fat broth

Into his mouth with a spoon.

His name was in the newspapers that day

Spelled out in tall black headlines

And thousands of people were talking about him.

When I saw him,

He sat bending his head over a plate

Putting soup in his mouth with a spoon.

FONTE: Available at: http://allpoetry.com/poem/8478921-Soup-by-Carl-


Sandburg. Accessed on: October 30, 2015.

Boxe complementar:

FONTE: Allan Grant/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images

Carl Sandburg (1878-1967) was an American poet, writer, and editor. During his
lifetime, Sandburg was widely regarded as "a major figure in contemporary
literature".

Available at: www.outlived.org/ person.php?id=2909. Accessed on: October 30,


2015.

Fim do complemento.

1. What was the famous man doing when the poet saw him?

- He was eating some solid food.

- He was lifting a spoon over his head.

- He was doing a common, ordinary thing.

- He was doing something nobody does.


Resposta correta: He was doing a common, ordinary thing.

2. Why was the man's name in the newspapers that day?

- Because he was lifting a fat broth into his mouth.

- Because the poet saw him eating soup.

- Because he was bending his head over a plate.

- Because he was famous.

Resposta correta: Because he was famous.

3. The poet's words teach us

- that some people do common things in a special way.

- that even famous people like soup.

- that we are all made of the same stuff - rich or poor, general or soldier,
celebrity or common person.

- that it is a good idea to eat soup if you want to become famous.

Resposta correta: that we are all made of the same stuff - rich or poor, general
or soldier, celebrity or common person.

4. Mark the question to which this could be the answer:

"I saw a famous man eating soup."

- Who was the man?

- What did you see?

- What did he do?

- What did he eat?

Resposta correta: What did you see?

5. Transcribe the line of the poem where the verb expresses an action that was
in progress at a certain moment in the past.

- "Into his mouth with a spoon"

- "His name was in the newspapers that day"

- "And thousands of people were talking about him."


- "When I saw him,"

Resposta correta: "And thousands of people were talking about him."

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Read the text below and do activities 6 to 8 in your notebook.

FONTE: ADN-Bildarchiv/ullstein bild/Getty Images

Anne Frank (1929-1945) is seen here aged 12, in 1940, at her desk at the
Montessori school in Amsterdam. Her The Diary of a Young Girl is one of the
most important books of the 20th century. Frank, a Jewish victim of the
Holocaust, died at the age of 15.

Available at: www.telegraph.co.uk/books/what-to-read/40-quotes-about-life-for-


an-optimist/anne-frank/. Accessed on: October 30, 2015.

6. Complete the following questions with a question word, as appropriate.


Choose from the box. Two of the question words may be used more than once.
Be careful! Two of those question words will not be necessary.

Box:

Where - Why - How old - When - Which - Who - How - What

End of box.

a) ____ can we see in that picture?

Resposta: Who

b) ____ was that photo taken?

Resposta: When

c) ____ was Anne Frank at that moment?

Resposta: Where

d) ____ school did she go to, Piaget or Montessori?

Resposta: Which

e) ____ was she living in 1940?

Resposta: Where

f) ____ was she when that photo was taken?


Resposta: How old

g) ____ was Anne Frank a victim of?

Resposta: What

h) ____ was Anne when she died?

Resposta: How old

7. Now answer the questions you completed in the previous activity.

Resposta: a) (We can see) Anne Frank.; b) (That photo/It was taken) In 1940.;
c) (Anne Frank/She was) At her desk (at school).; d) (Anne Frank/She went) To
Montessori school (in Amsterdam).; e) (Anne Frank/ She was living) In
Amsterdam.; f) (Anne Frank/She was) Twelve (years old).; g) (Anne Frank/She
was a victim of) The Holocaust.; h) (Anne Frank/ She died) At the age of
fifteen/When she was fifteen.

8. Rewrite the sentence below using the correct verb form in the box to
complete the quotation from Anne Frank.

Box:

start - starts - started - starting - was starting

End of box.

"How wonderful it is that nobody need wait a single moment before to improve
the world."

Available at: www.telegraph.co.uk/books/what-to-read/40-quotes-about-life-for-


an-optimist/anne-frank/. Accessed on: October 22, 2015.

Resposta: starting

Atenção professor: Ao fazer a verificação da atividade, lembre aos alunos que


before é uma preposição e que o verbo depois de uma preposição deve estar
na forma terminada em -ing. Fim da observação.

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9. Observe the infographic and read the text. In your notebook, complete the
statement with the correct alternative.
FONTE: Available at: www.inpowerwomen.com/research-summary-statistics-
on-women/. Accessed on: November 1, 2015. CRÉDITOS:
Reprodução/www.inpowerwomen.com

Up-to-date statistics show that

- all over the world women have been occupying positions that were formerly
held only by men.

- men used to be at the wheel for thousands of years, but now that position is
held by female drivers.

- most American women in the 21st century wear pants instead of a skirt and
blouse.

- in this century power is held by those who wear the pants, especially in the
United States.

Resposta correta: all over the world women have been occupying positions that
were formerly held only by men.

10. Observe the cartoon, paying close attention to the verbal and non-verbal
language, and use your background knowledge of History and Geography to
answer the question. What does the cartoonist suggest?

FONTE: Available at: www.davegranlund.com/cartoons/2009/12/13/climate-


changeand-atlantis/. Accessed on: November 1, 2015. CRÉDITOS: © 2009
David Granlund/PoliticalCartoons.com

Atenção professor: Atlântida é uma lendária ilha que teria afundado. A primeira
menção conhecida a essa ilha remonta às obras A Natureza e Atlântida, de
Platão. Veja mais na seção Cultural Notes e Language in Use do Manual do
Professor. Fim da observação.

- Atlantis submerged as a consequence of climate change.

- History never repeats itself.

- People who lived in Atlantis did not believe in global warming.

- Atlantis went completely underwater because ancient people did not care for
the planet.

Resposta correta: Atlantis submerged as a consequence of climate change.


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11. Read the extract below and then answer the question on it.

Sunlight radiating heat, visible light, and ultraviolet light is the source of almost
all life on Earth. Everything you see alive around you is there because a plant
somewhere was able to capture sunlight and store it. All animals live from these
plants, whether directly (as with herbivores) or indirectly (as with carnivores,
which eat the herbivores). This is true of mammals, insects, birds, amphibians,
reptiles, and bacteria, everything living. Every life form on the surface of this
planet is here because a plant was able to gather sunlight and store it, and
something else was able to eat that plant and take that sunlight energy in to
power its body.

HARTMANN, Tom. The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight, Three Rivers Press,
New York, 2004. (Fragment).

The text above highlights the importance of a phenomenon that involves all
living things and that we study in Biology class. That phenomenon is

- solar radiation.

- the process of photosynthesis.

- how the human body works.

- cellular organization.

Resposta correta: the process of photosynthesis.

12. Read the following dialogue. In your notebook, complete the statement
about it with one of the phrases in the box.

Box:

is a pessimist - is in a cranky mood - is an optimist - has no idea of time and


space

End of box.

FONTE: MILNE, A. A., Winnie-the-Pooh. Available at:


http://happychanson.deviantart.com/art/Winnie-the-Pooh-and-Piglet-
339240143. Accessed on: November 1, 2015. CRÉDITOS:
Reprodução/happychanson.deviantart.com
Judging from that dialogue, we may infer that Pooh ____.

Possible answer: is an optimist.

LEARNING HOW TO LEARN

Atenção professor: Momento para o aluno refletir a respeito de sua própria


aprendizagem e de como desenvolver estratégias para melhorar seu
desempenho. Fim da observação.

Atenção professor: Discuta com os alunos ideias para que eles possam
melhorar sua prática de estudos. Se julgar conveniente, liste na lousa, com a
contribuição deles, algumas dicas para que todos tenham esse registro e
discutam como aplicar essas dicas na rotina de estudo. Fim da observação.

1. How often do you study? What do you do when you have doubts about what
you are studying?

Personal answers.

2. Read the text and discuss the following question with some classmates.

Study Every Day

If you study a little bit every day you'll be continually reviewing things in your
mind. This helps you understand things. It also helps you avoid the stress of
last-minute cramming. [...] If you're finding it hard to find time to study, cut back
on some (but not all!) of your other activities. Prioritising study might mean
spending less time online, or it might mean cutting back on shifts at work, or
giving weekend sport a miss for a while.

Ask for Help

If you're stuck on something, or something just doesn't seem to make sense,


you can always ask for help. Talk to your teachers about the things you don't
understand. Talk to your friends and fellow students too.

Available at: www.youthcentral.vic.gov.au/studying-training/studying-tips-


resources/top-10-study-tips. Accessed on March 22, 2016.

Based on the tips from the text, what can you do to improve your study habits?

Personal answer.
16

UNIT 1 - Help! I Can't Put Down My Phone

Nesta Unidade você vai:

- Discutir e refletir a respeito da tecnologia no cotidiano dos jovens;

- Compreender e usar os verbos modais can, may e could;

- Explorar infográficos;

- Relacionar os conteúdos com as disciplinas de Sociologia e Informática.

17

Observe the picture below and discuss the following questions with your
classmates.

a) In your opinion, what does the picture represent?

Possible answer: Technology.

b) Which of the technological devices in the picture do you use?

Possible answers: laptop, tablet, smartphone.

c) Which one is your favorite? Why?

Personal answers.

FONTE: Oleksiy Mark/Shutterstock

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LET'S START

Atenção professor: Nesta seção são propostas atividades que visam levantar o
conhecimento prévio do aluno e apresentar o vocabulário relacionado ao tema
da Unidade. Fim da observação.

1. Look at the different technological devices in the pictures below. What do you
use them for? Match each device to the activities you normally do with it. You
may add some activities to the list.

LEGENDA: computer

FONTE: Kekyalyaynen/Shutterstock
LEGENDA: cell phone

FONTE: Bloomua/Shutterstock

LEGENDA: digital camera

FONTE: jeafish Ping/Shutterstock

LEGENDA: television

FONTE: Africa Studio/Shutterstock

LEGENDA: video game

FONTE: GooGag/Shutterstock

LEGENDA: tablet

FONTE: Peter Kotoff/Shutterstock

a) Take pictures.

b) Chat with friends.

c) Text friends.

d) Watch the news.

e) Listen to music.

f) Download and watch videos.

g) Check e-mails.

h) Check notifications.

i) Search for information.

j) Others.

Personal answers.

2. Now compare your answers with a classmate's. Do you use the same
devices to do the same activities?

Personal answer.

19

READING
BEFORE YOU READ

Atenção professor: Com as atividades a seguir o aluno prepara-se para a


leitura, levantando seu conhecimento prévio e criando hipóteses a respeito do
texto. Fim da observação.

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que observar o título, o formato, a


imagem e a fonte do texto é uma estratégia de leitura importante, pois nos
ajuda a identificar rapidamente seu gênero e a levantar hipóteses quanto ao
assunto principal. Veja mais na seção Estratégias de Leitura e Compreensão
do Texto no Manual do Professor. Fim da observação.

1. Do you have a cell phone? If so, how many times a day do you check it?

Personal answers.

2. Look at the picture and the title of the text below. In what way are they
related?

Possible answer: The picture suggests the cell phone is a kind of cage or
prison, something the person simply cannot put down or be away from.

3. Observe the source of the text. What is the target audience, what particular
group of people is the magazine intended for?

Resposta: Teenagers.

4. Do you think the article focuses on positive or negative aspects of modern


cell phones? Make your predictions and check them as you read the text.

Personal answers.

Atenção professor: O artigo destaca aspectos negativos do uso do celular, mas


verifique as previsões dos alunos só depois que todos tiverem lido o texto. Fim
da observação.

AS YOU READ

Atenção professor: Nesta seção é apresentado o texto principal, abordando


temas que contribuem para a ampliação do conhecimento de mundo do aluno e
lhe dão a oportunidade de refletir e se posicionar criticamente. Fim da
observação.

Now read the text and do the following activities in your notebook.
Help! I Can't Put Down My Phone

If you feel frantic at just the thought of being digitally disconnected, you're not
alone. Find out how your phone is changing the way your brain works. (Sorry,
there's no app that can stop it.) [...]

Yes, technology helps us stay connected and informed. Who can even imagine
life without the Internet in their hands or being able to text Mom to say "running
late, don't worry"? When technology does everything, however, it's easy to
become dependent on it. And now, scientists are beginning to wonder if our
tech addiction is giving us a leg up, or putting obstacles (in many cases invisible
ones!) in our path.

With your phone in your hand, you can look up a date for a history paper
without cracking a book or trucking to the library. But despite having these
shortcuts, students are still spending the same amount of time on homework
today as they were 30 years ago, when smartphones were about as common
as flying cars. So where's all that time going? The answer may be at your
fingertips. "I usually keep my phone on the desk or in my pocket while I'm doing
homework," says seventeen-year-old Oliver. "I'll check any notifications I get,
just as a little break."

A "little break" may sound harmless, but more is happening during that brief
digression than you think. [...] So what can you do? Consider this scenario:
Have you ever stayed up late grappling with a tough problem? You go to sleep
and the next morning you're groggy. You hop into the shower, and miraculously
- somewhere between the shampoo and conditioner - you find your answer. Is it
magic water?

Yes and no. Showers are a great way to wake you up, but they also force you to
put down your phone. And when you're finally free from the phone's feedback
loop, your mind can wander - often to the answer you were looking for.
"Technology is very addictive and very distracting," says Dr. David Greenfield,
founder of The Center for Internet and Technology Addiction at the University of
Connecticut School of Medicine. "When you're using it, it's keeping you from
doing something else."
And whether that "something else" is homework, hang time with your friends, or
anything in-between, it's important to realize that your phone could be getting in
the way - maybe even more than it's helping you out.

FONTE: (Ilustração) Aniwhite/Shutterstock. (Texto) KAMINSKI, Margaret. Help!


I can't put down my phone. Choices: The award-winning health & life skills
magazine for teens, May 2015. Available at:
http://choices.scholastic.com/story/help-i-cant-put-down-my-phone. Accessed
on: November 1, 2015. (Fragment). CRÉDITOS: Reprodução/dn-
img.choices.scholastic.com

20

General Comprehension

Atenção professor: Em General Comprehension desenvolve-se a capacidade


do aluno de compreender a essência do texto. Fim da observação.

The main idea of the text is

- using your phone all the time is quite harmless.

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos, se julgar necessário, que a


palavra harmless é formada pelo sufixo -less, que significa sem. Harmless
significa sem danos, ou seja, que não causa danos, inofensivo. Esse
mesmo sufixo é usado na formação de outras palavras, como homeless (sem
casa), fearless (sem medo, destemido), noiseless (silencioso) etc. Fim da
observação.

- when teenagers can't put down their phone, they feel frantic.

- the excessive use of the phone may bring more problems than benefits.

- with your phone in your hand, you can do your homework without having to
find information in any other source.

Resposta correta: the excessive use of the phone may bring more problems
than benefits.

Atenção professor: Para saber mais a respeito de Skimming, veja a seção


Estratégias de Leitura e Compreensão do Texto no Manual do Professor. Fim
da observação.
Detailed Comprehension

Atenção professor: Em Detailed Comprehension desenvolve-se a capacidade


do aluno de extrair informações específicas e estabelecer relações entre as
ideias apresentadas no texto. Fim da observação.

Atenção professor: Explore com os alunos as atividades abaixo, antes de eles


realizarem a atividade. Oriente-os a ler o texto de forma direcionada para
respondê-las. Circule pela sala enquanto fazem a atividade e auxilie-os em
caso de du'vidas. Eles podem fazer as atividades em duplas, mas, se for mais
conveniente, deixe-os fazer individualmente. Incentive-os a partilhar as
respostas com um ou dois colegas antes da verificação geral. Para saber mais
a respeito de Scanning, veja a seção Estratégias de Leitura e Compreensão do
Texto no Manual do Professor. Fim da observação.

1. Match the two columns to find the right complement to each statement. Write
down the complete sentences in your notebook.

Column 1:

a) Technology helps you stay

b) Taking a shower forces you to

c) Phones are changing the way

d) Our tech addiction is probably

e) When you're using your phone,

f) Some people feel frantic, extremely worried,

g) While Oliver is doing his homework,

Column 2:

1) when they are digitally disconnected.

2) our brain works.

3) connected and informed.

4) he keeps his phone close at hand.

5) you're not doing something else.


6) not helping us out.

7) be away from your phone for a while.

Possible answers: a) 3); b) 7); c) 2); d) 6); e) 5); f) 1); g) 4)

2. What are some of the benefits of cell phones mentioned in the text?

Possible answer: Phones help you communicate, stay connected and informed.
You can do some research for a school paper using your phone, for example.

3. What are some of the problems the excessive use of phones can bring?

Possible answer: You may become addicted. Cell phones can also be very
distracting.

AFTER YOU READ

Atenção professor: Nesta seção são trabalhadas questões que levam o aluno a
assumir uma postura crítica em relação ao assunto tratado no texto. Fim da
observação.

Atenção professor: Esta atividade de pós-leitura é um momento de discussão e


reflexão a respeito do texto e do assunto nele abordado. Peça aos alunos que
discutam as questões em pequenos grupos, em inglês ou em português, a seu
critério. Após alguns minutos, expanda a discussão para toda a turma e
verifique o posicionamento dos alunos a respeito do assunto em questão. Fim
da observação.

Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

a) What other problems (besides those mentioned in the text) can the excessive
use of phones bring?

b) Do you admit being a tech addict? Why (not)?

c) What can you do to help someone who is a tech addict?

Personal answers.

Boxe complementar:

Pronunciation Tips
Atenção professor: Nesta seção são destacadas a pronúncia, a acentuação ou
a entonação de palavras ou expressões contidas nos textos. Fim da
observação.

Recognizing word stress is a very important part in English pronunciation.


Column A shows an example of a word stressed on the first syllable. Column B
shows an example of a word where the stress falls on the second syllable.
Column C is an example of a word stressed on the third syllable.

The words in the box were taken from the text. Listen to them and add, in your
notebook, each one to the appropriate column.

Box:

history - consider - seventeen - dependent - obstacles - library - addictive -


realize - connected - medicine

End of box.

Tabela: equivalente textual a seguir.

A B C

- history - consider - seventeen

Resposta: A: obstacles, library, medicine; B: dependent, addictive, connected;


C: realize Se achar necessário, reproduza o áudio mais de uma vez para os
alunos prestarem atenção à sílaba tônica de cada palavra.

Fim do complemento.

21

MORE FOOD FOR THOUGHT

Atenção professor: Nesta seção é apresentado um texto para ampliar a


discussão e reflexão por parte do aluno a respeito do tema da Unidade e levá-
lo a fazer associações com o tema do texto principal. Fim da observação.

Read the infographic below and discuss the following questions in small groups.
FONTE: Available at: http://choices.scholastic.com/story/help-i-cant-put-down-
my-phone. Accessed on: December 4, 2015. CRÉDITOS: Reprodução/cdn-
img.choices.scholastic.com

a) According to that infographic, teenagers spend an average of seven hours


per day using their cell phones. Are you one of those teens?

b) How much time do you spend per day using your cell phone?

c) Do you think a cell phone is vital to your life? Why (not)?

d) What is more vital to you: your cell phone or your toothbrush?

e) Do you use your cell phone for non-school related stuff when you are at
school?

f) Do you disconnect your cell phone before going to bed or do you sleep with
your phone near at hand?

g) How many times a day do you check your cell phone?

h) How many text messages do you send per day?

i) Do you know teenagers who are tech addicted?

j) Do you fit in any of those statistics?

k) Which piece of information from the infographic do you consider most


surprising?

l) Do you think those statistics apply to any teenagers all over the world? Why
(not)?

Personal answers.

Boxe complementar:

Project

This activity content could be useful for Project 1, on page 81. You may start
taking notes and developing your ideas about it.

Fim do complemento.
Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que eles já podem começar a
pensar em ideias para o Project 1. Vá até a página 81 e explique-lhes
brevemente o projeto. Fim da observação.

22

Observação: Na página 157 há uma lista com alguns falsos cognatos que
aparecem neste volume. Vá até lá e interaja com a atividade que deverá ser
realizada ao longo do ano. Fim da observação.

WORD STUDY

Atenção professor: Nesta seção são abordadas questões que destacam alguns
aspectos lexicais encontrados nos textos. Fim da observação.

False Cognates

Some words in English are called false cognates, or false friends. They look like
other words in Portuguese, but their meanings are different. So what do those
words mean, actually?

Read these sentences from the text again, observe the words in bold, pay
close attention to the context and find out their true meaning. Then choose the
correct options. Write them down in your notebook.

Atenção professor: Oriente os alunos a transcrever a lista de falsos cognatos


da página 157 para o caderno. Ao final de cada Unidade eles devem preencher
a lista com os significados dos falsos cognatos registrados. Essa é uma tarefa
a ser realizada ao longo do ano e servirá ao aluno como fonte de consulta. Fim
da observação.

a) "And now, scientists are beginning to wonder if our tech addiction is giving
us a leg up [...]."

Word in bold: addiction

- adição

- dependência, vício

- audição

Resposta correta: dependência, vício.


b) "[...] without cracking a book or trucking to the library."

Word in bold: library.

- biblioteca

- livraria

- livreto

Resposta correta: biblioteca.

c) "Technology is very addictive [...]"

Word in bold: addictive.

- aditiva

- aditivado

- viciante

Resposta correta: viciante.

d) "[...] it's important to realize that your phone could be getting in the way [...]."

Word in bold: realize.

- realizar

- perceber, compreender

- tornar real

Resposta correta: perceber, compreender.

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que adição em inglês,


corresponde a addition, que livraria é bookshop (no Reino Unido) e bookstore
(nos EUA) e que o substantivo aditivo em inglês é additive (não confundir com
o adjetivo addictive). Já realize, no sentido mais comum, significa perceber,
notar, compreender, mas realize pode não ser falso cognato, em outro
contexto, menos comum. Em realizea dream oragoal, corresponde de fato a
realizar um sonho ou um objetivo. Fim da observação.

Wonder or Wander?
Wonder and wander are very similar in form but very different in meaning. Use
the context from the text to help you find their meaning in the sentences below.
Then choose the correct definition of each of them.

"And when you're finally free from the phone's feedback loop, your mind can
wander - often to the answer you were looking for."

"And now, scientists are beginning to wonder if our tech addiction is giving us a
leg up, or putting obstacles (in many cases invisible ones!) in our path."

a) ____: think about something and want to know more about it.

Resposta: wonder

b) ____: stop concentrating and start thinking about other things.

Resposta: wander

Word Building: Suffixes -ing and -ed

1. Read the following sentence from the text, paying close attention to the
words in bold.

"'Technology is very addictive and very distracting,' says Dr. David Greenfield
[...]"

Word in bold: distracting.

In distracting, the suffix -ing is used to form

- a verb.

- an adjective.

- an adverb.

Resposta correta: an adjective.

Atenção professor: Chame a atenção dos alunos para o fato de o verbo distract
poder ser considerado uma palavra transparente, significando distrair, em
português. Fim da observação.

2. Now read the text below and do the following activities in your notebook.

Should Students Be Allowed to Bring Electronic Devices to School?


Why do students need to bring electronics to school? For learning purposes?
No! They are very distracting, which causes students to play games, go on
inappropriate websites and urges students to text. Students should not be
allowed to bring electronic devices to school because students would get easily
distracted and some students would feel left out if they didn't have electronic
devices.

Available at: www.debate.org/opinions/should-students-be-allowed-to-bring-


electronic-devices-to-school. Accessed on: November 10, 2015. (Fragment).

a) Is the author for or against the use of cell phones in the classroom?

Resposta: He is against it.

b) Do you share the author's opinion? Justify your answer.

Personal answer.

23

3. Observe the words in bold in the text on the previous page. Distracting and
distracted are both adjectives, formed from the same verb: distract. What is the
difference in meaning between them? Read the text once more and, in your
notebook, complete the explanation below using the words in the box.

Box:

distracted - ing - passive - -ed

End of box.

Adjectives formed with (I) have an active connotation, they suggest cause. A
distracting technology causes you to feel (II). On the other hand, adjectives
formed with (III) have a (IV) connotation, they suggest effect.

Words in bold: cause; distracting; effect.

Resposta: (I) -ing; (II) distracted; (III) -ed; (IV) passive

4. Now choose the appropriate adjectives from the box below to complete the
following sentences about technology. Not all of them will be used. Write them
down in your notebook.

Box:
annoying - annoyed - boring - bored - surprising - surprised - amazing - amazed

End of box.

a) Some people think that life without the Internet is not at all interesting; it is
____.

Resposta: boring

b) Being able to look up a date or a word definition using your phone is really
____.

Resposta: amazing

c) Some teenagers feel ____ when they can't surf the Internet.

Resposta: bored/annoyed

d) Receiving text messages all the time can be ____.

Resposta: annoying

e) I was ____ to read those facts about tech addiction. That's really ____.

Resposta: surprised/amazed, surprising/amazing

Phrasal Verbs

1. Read these sentences from the text and observe the words in bold. Then
use your notebook to do the activities that follow.

"Find out how your phone is changing the way your brain works."

Words in bold: Find out.

"With your phone in your hand, you can look up a date for a history paper
without cracking a book or trucking to the library."

Words in bold: look up.

"And when you're finally free from the phone's feedback loop, your mind can
wander - often to the answer you were looking for."

Words in bold: looking for.

"[...] Have you ever stayed up late grappling with a tough problem?"

Words in bold: stayed up.


"[...] Showers are a great way to wake you up [...]"

Words in bold: wake; up.

"[...] your phone could be getting in the way - maybe even more than it's
helping you out."

Words in bold: helping; out.

What do the words in bold have in common? Choose the correct answer.

- They are all single-word verbs.

- They are phrasal verbs, a combination of a verb + a particle.

- They all form 3-word expressions.

Resposta correta: They are phrasal verbs, a combination of a verb + a particle.

2. Read the sentences in activity 1 again. In your notebook, match each phrasal
verb in bold to its meaning.

a) find out

b) look up

c) look for

d) stay up

e) wake up

f) help out

1) stop sleeping

2) try to find a piece of information

3) discover

4) try to find

5) stay without going to bed

6) help

Resposta: a) 3); b) 2); c) 4); d) 5); e) 1); f) 6)

FONTE: Subidubi/Shutterstock

24
3. Complete the following explanation about phrasal verbs using the words in
the box.

Use your notebook for that.

Box:

preposition - verb - meaning - clear

End of box.

Phrasal verbs consist of a combination of a (I) followed by an adverb or a (II) .


Some phrasal verbs have a very (III) meaning (put down, stay up, etc.), but in
many of those combinations the (IV) is different from that of its separate words
(look up, look for, etc.).

Resposta: (I) verb; (II) preposition; (III) clear; (IV) meaning

In Other Words

Observe the expressions and idioms in bold in the sentences below. In your
notebook, match them to their respective meanings. Go back to the text on
page 19 if necessary. The context will help you understand the meanings.

a) "[...] our tech addiction is giving us a leg up [...]."

Expressions/idioms in bold: giving us a leg up.

b) "The answer may be at your fingertips."

Expressions/idioms in bold: at your fingertips.

c) "[...] when you're finally free from the phone's feedback loop [...]."

Expressions/idioms in bold: free from the phone's feedback loop.

d) "[...] your phone could be getting in the way [...]."

Expressions/idioms in bold: getting in the way.

1) helping us out

2) able to put down the phone

3) putting obstacles in your path

4) very near or in your hand

Resposta: a) 1); b) 4); c) 2); d) 3)


Function Words

1. Read the following sentences from the text, paying close attention to the
words in bold. Then choose the correct options to complete the explanation
about those words and write them down in your notebook.

"A 'little break' may sound harmless; but more is happening during that brief
digression than you think."

Word in bold: but.

"When technology does everything, however, it's easy to become dependent


on it."

Word in bold: however.

"But despite having these shortcuts, students are still spending the same
amount of time on homework today as they were 30 years ago."

Words in bold: but despite.

"Showers are a great way to wake you up, but they also force you to put down
your phone."

Word in bold: but.

But, however, and despite are function words (conjunction, adverb,


preposition) used to express (a) addition/contrast, but they have (b) the
same/different positions in the sentence. In some of the sentences above (c)
two/three function words are possible.

Resposta: contrast; different; two

2. Now complete these sentences based on the infographic on page 21, using
but, however, or despite, as appropriate. Use the explanation above as
reference if necessary.

a) Texting while driving is dangerous, ____ some people do it.

Resposta: but

b) ____ being a dangerous activity, texting while driving is a fact.

Resposta: Despite

c) Texting while driving is dangerous. Some people, ____, often do it.


Resposta: however

25

LANGUAGE STUDY

Atenção professor: Nesta seção são estudados alguns dos principais aspectos
gramaticais com exemplos de uso presentes nos textos. Fim da observação.

Modal Verbs: Can, May, Could

Observe the verbs in bold in these sentences from the text.

"I can't put down my phone."

Verb in bold: can't.

"Sorry, there's no app that can stop it."

Verb in bold: can.

"With your phone in your hand, you can look up a date for a history paper [...]."

Verb in bold: can.

"So what can you do?"

Verb in bold: can.

"The answer may be at your fingertips."

Verb in bold: may.

"A 'little break' may sound harmless [...]."

Verb in bold: may.

"[...] it's important to realize that your phone could be getting in the way [...]."

Verb in bold: could.

Observação: To learn more about Modal Verbs, go to page 144. Fim da


observação.

1. Can, could, and may are some of the words called modal verbs or modal
auxiliary verbs. In your notebook, write down the correct options to complete
the following sentences about them.

a) In the examples above, the modal verb can expresses


- permission.

- ability.

- request.

Resposta correta: ability.

b) In the examples above, the modal verbs may and could express

- ability.

- prohibition.

- possibility.

Resposta correta: possibility.

2. All modal verbs have some special characteristics. Transcribe the best option
to complete each of the following sentences.

a) Modal verbs are used before the infinitive with/without to of another verb, to
modify its meaning.

Resposta: without

b) We add/do not add an s in the third person singular.

Resposta: do not add

c) They are used/are not used with do when forming negatives or in questions.

Resposta: are not used

3. Complete the following statement about the negative form of the modals.

For negative sentences with the modal verbs can, may and could, we use
cannot or (a), may not and (b).

Resposta: (a) can't; (b) could not or couldn't

Atenção professor: A forma mayn't, ainda que usada em British English, é hoje
muito pouco comum. Fim da observação.

4. The modal verbs can, may and could are used to express different
meanings. Take a look at the following picture, in which a group of students are
in a computer lab doing some research for a school assignment. Then match
each question to its appropriate meaning expressed by the modal verbs in the
box below.

Box:

offer - polite request - request - permission

End of box.

FONTE: Alexandre/Imaginario

Resposta: a) request; b) offer; c) polite request; d) permission

26

LET'S PRACTICE

Atenção professor: Nesta seção o aluno é levado a praticar alguns aspectos


gramaticais estudados na seção Language Study. Fim da observação.

1. A cartoonist often uses humor to illustrate a topic. What comic device does
the cartoonist use in exploring that classroom situation?

FONTE: Available at: www.andertoons.com/teacher/cartoon/6298/i-appreciate-


text-kate-but-next-time-you-can-just-raise-your-hand. Accessed on: April 29,
2016. CRÉDITOS: © Mark Anderson/Anderstoon.com

- Symbol.

- Exaggeration.

- Irony.

- Informal language.

Resposta correta: Irony.

2. What's the meaning expressed by the modal verb can in the teacher's
words?

- Permission.

- Remote probability.

- Polite request.

- Necessity.

Resposta correta: Permission.


3. What point does the cartoonist want to make, what inferences can you make
by observing the situation shown in the cartoon?

- Cell phones are not allowed in schools.

- Teachers do not like texting.

- Students do not raise their hands anymore, every time they have a doubt.

- Tech addiction can be found everywhere these days, even in the classroom.

- Texting is much more efficient than communicating with someone face-to-face.

Resposta correta: Tech addiction can be found everywhere these days, even in
the classroom.

4. Have you or has anyone you know ever bought anything online? Do you think
it's practical? Do you think it's safe? Read the text about the effects of
technology on customers and complete it with the modals can, cannot, may or
could.

Effects on Customers

Technology (I) have both a positive and negative effect on customers. While
some customers (II) enjoy the convenience of paying bills online, others (III) see
this as a possible invasion of their privacy. Some (IV) be frustrated when they
(V) reach a live person to help them with a problem.

Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/pros-cons-technology-business-


today-2709.html. Accessed on: November 9, 2015. (Fragment).

Resposta: (I) can, may, could; (II) may, can, could; (III) may, can, could; (IV)
may, can, could; (V) cannot

27

5. Discuss with a classmate: do you think online shopping can have a positive
or negative effect on you? Why (not)?

Personal answers.

6. In your notebook, complete the following statements with the meaning of the
modal verbs in the activity 4.

a) The modal verbs used in (I), (II), (III) and (IV) express ____.
Resposta: ability

b) The modal verb used in (V) expresses ____.

Resposta: possibility

7. Do you like museums? Do you think museums are boring, a home for old
stuff? Read the following text about The Tech Museum of Innovation, in San
Jose, in the heart of Silicon Valley, California.

FONTE: David McNew/Newsmakers/Getty Images

The Tech Museum of Innovation is a hands-on technology and science


museum for people of all ages and backgrounds. The museum - located in the
capital of Silicon Valley - is a non-profit learning resource established to inspire
the innovator in everyone. Through programs such as The Tech Challenge, our
annual team design competition for youth, and internationally renowned
programs such as The Tech Awards, The Tech celebrates the present and
encourages the development of innovative technology for a more promising
future.

Operating Hours and Holidays

Regular galleries are open 357 days a year, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.

Group Sales

Save up to 20% on museum gallery admission when you make a reservation of


10 or more tickets in advance.

Help! I Can't Put Down My Phone

Available at: www.thetech.org. Accessed on: November 9, 2015. (Fragment).

8. Now transcribe the following sentences using can or can't, according to the
text.

a) People of all ages ____ visit the museum.

Resposta: can

b) Visitors ____ touch the exhibits in the museum.

Resposta: can

c) Everyone ____ feel inspired to innovate after a visit to that museum.


Resposta: can

d) You ____ visit the museum regular galleries at night.

Resposta: can't

e) Big groups ____ get a discount.

Resposta: can

f) You ____ say a Museum of Innovation is a thing of the past.

Resposta: can't

9. Do you think The Tech Museum of Innovation is interesting? Why (not)?

Personal answers.

Atenção professor: Sugira aos alunos que façam uma busca (na internet, em
livros ou revistas) a respeito de outros museus de tecnologia ao redor do
mundo, inclusive no Brasil. Essa atividade pode ser passada para casa ou
realizada no laboratório de informática da escola se possível. Fim da
observação.

28

WRITING

1. We have been talking about technology. However, does everybody have


access to it? Read and find out.

There are about 4.4 billion people on this planet who have never been online.
That number is the finding of a new study that tried to quantify what the global
offline population looks like. The report found that of the estimated 7 billion-plus
people alive today, more than half are offline.

Available at:
www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2014/10/02/353288711/why-4-4-billion-
people-still-dont-have-internet-access. Accessed on: November 5, 2015.
(Fragment).

2. Why are so many people still not connected? Think about it. Do some
research and talk to your classmates and teacher about this issue. Then do the
following activity in your notebook.
Atenção professor: Discuta com os alunos as razões para tantas pessoas ainda
não terem acesso à internet. Comente com eles que não apenas pessoas que
moram em áreas rurais ou mais carentes têm dificuldade de acesso a ela, mas
também muitos idosos, pessoas que vivem em países com regimes autoritários
etc. Converse com eles a respeito da importância de fazer um rascunho
quando se escreve um texto. Nesse rascunho, eles podem inserir as ideias
mais básicas e algumas palavras-chave que serão desenvolvidas futuramente.
Diga-lhes que, depois de pronto, é interessante partilhar com os colegas e
receber um retorno deles e do professor. Comente também que, após a
reescrita do texto, deve-se revisar o trabalho para evitar erros e, por fim, passá-
lo a limpo. Lembre aos alunos que a troca de rascunhos e o retorno com as
impressões entre eles é uma oportunidade de colaboração, em que partilham
conhecimentos e um contribui para enriquecer o trabalho do outro. Dessa
forma, eles passam a perceber que o professor não é a única pessoa a quem
eles podem recorrer para pedir ajuda. Sugira que vejam outros exemplos de
infográficos e, se possível, criem (e partilhem) seus próprios infográficos online,
usando ferramentas gratuitas como http://piktochart.com ou
www.canva.com/create/infographics/ (acesso em: 30 out. 2015). Fim da
observação.

a) An NGO (non-governmental organization) is promoting a campaign for


technology access. The organization is asking some high school students for
help. You have been invited to create an infographic about technology access in
your community. The infographics selected by the organization will be printed
on flyers and distributed in different places and also shared on social media.

The aim is to make people aware of this issue. Before you start preparing your
infographic, go back to page 21, read that infographic again and point out the
characteristics you find in it.

- It has many pictures.

- It has numbers and percentages.

- It has a title.

- It focuses on different issues.

- It has long texts.


- It has an attractive modern layout.

- It shows some black-and-white photos.

Respostas corretas: It has many pictures. It has numbers and percentages. It


has an attractive modern layout.

b) To create your infographic, you can survey people from your community or
school to find out, for example, how many people have access to technology,
why some people do not have access to it, what kind of technology people have
access to, what they use it for, etc.

Observação:

An infographic is a representation of information in a graphic format designed to


make the data easily understandable at a glance. People use them to quickly
communicate a message and to simplify the presentation of large amounts of
data.

Available at: http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/infographics. Accessed on:


October 24, 2015.

Fim da observação.

c) Write the draft of your infographic. Follow these steps.

- Ask a classmate to read your draft. Get some feedback.

- Rewrite your infographic using the feedback you had as a basis and make any
improvements or necessary corrections.

- Proofread your work.

d) Would you say too much technology brings more problems than benefits?

Personal answers.

LISTENING

BEFORE YOU LISTEN

Atenção professor: Com as atividades desta seção é ativado o conhecimento


prévio do aluno a respeito do assunto que será abordado no texto oral. Fim da
observação.

Discuss the following questions with a classmate.


a) Do you prefer to talk to your friends face-to-face or to text them?

b) Do you think technology can be a useful tool for learning? Why (not)?

c) Do you use technology to help you in your studies?

Personal answers.

29

AS YOU LISTEN

Atenção professor: Nesta seção são apresentadas atividades variadas de


compreensão oral. Fim da observação.

You are going to listen to a TV program called Learning from Authors, where, in
this case, a journalist interviews the author of a book about learning in the age
of technology.

Listen and identify the correct options according to what the author said.

Atenção professor: Reproduza o áudio uma vez e peça aos alunos que tentem
compreender o sentido geral do que ouviram. Reproduza o áudio novamente
para que eles respondam às questões. Finalmente, reproduza o áudio uma
terceira vez para que verifiquem suas respostas. É interessante pedir aos
alunos que leiam as questões antes de ouvir o áudio. Dessa forma, eles ficam
atentos às informações de que precisam para respondê-las. A transcrição de
áudio está na seção Audio Scripts do Manual do Professor. Fim da
observação.

a) At the very beginning of the interview, the author makes a philosophical point
that has to do with moderation. He says that

- we can never have enough of a good thing.

- too much of anything is bad.

Resposta correta: too much of anything is bad.

b) The author's main point is that

- technology is bad for children's brains.

- technology is a good tool for learning, but children need some limits.
Resposta correta: technology is a good tool for learning, but children need
some limits.

c) He also said that

- some schools use too much technology in the classroom.

- his grandchildren prefer to have a conversation rather than texting.

- the excessive use of technology can cause concentration problems.

- both children and adults can get addicted to electronic devices.

Resposta correta: both children and adults can get addicted to electronic
devices.

AFTER YOU LISTEN

Atenção professor: Nesta seção, o aluno discute, com seu(s) colega(s) o


assunto abordado no áudio. Fim da observação.

Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

a) Do you agree with the author's main point? Why (not)?

b) Is tech addiction a teenager's thing or do adults get addicted to their cell


phones too?

Personal answers.

Observação: The author tells his grandchildren, "No, we're gonna talk". Gonna
is frequently used in speech in colloquial English instead of going to. Fim da
observação.

SPEAKING

Have you ever watched a debate? What was it about? Who participated in it?
Let's have a class debate on the topic: Is technology good or bad?

"Some say technology is a blessing; others say it's a curse. Which is right?"

Daniel Burrus, Technology futurist

Available at: www.huffingtonpost.com/daniel-burrus/is-technology-good-or-


evi_b_1826270.html. Accessed on: November 5, 2015. (Fragment).
1. Get together in groups and decide which side your group will support. Then
think of some arguments to justify your position. If your group decides to
support the idea that technology is good, think of some pros of using it. If your
group decides that technology is bad, think of some cons of using it.

2. After some time discussing with your group, get ready for the debate. A
student or the teacher can be the moderator, controlling the time and keeping
order. The expressions below may be useful for the debate.

Tabela: equivalente textual a seguir.

Moderating the Presenting an


Disagreeing
Debate Argument

You have... minutes to I believe that... I don't agree.


answer. Without a doubt... That's not how I see it.
It's your turn now. I'm pretty sure that... I understand your
Please do not interrupt. In my opinion/view... point, but...

Atenção professor: Ao final do debate, se achar conveniente, apresente a


resposta que o próprio Daniel Burrus dá à sua pergunta: "They both are. It's not
about whether technology is good or bad; it's about what we decide to do with
technology that matters." Pergunte aos alunos se eles concordam com essa
afirmação do autor e por quê. Fim da observação.

30

THINK ABOUT IT

Atenção professor: Nesta seção o aluno reflete e discute com seu(s) colega(s)
a respeito de temas que se relacionam com os textos já trabalhados na
Unidade. Fim da observação.

1. Read the text below and discuss the following questions in small groups.

Understanding Internet Slang today

Why Is Internet Slang Used?


Using abbreviations and acronyms to chat and communicate with others helps
those who are familiar with technology to chat quicker while saving time.
Because of the constant feed of news, media, and technology to keep up with
daily, those who are familiar with Internet slang are capable of easily
multitasking without taking up too much time to send a formal letter, message,
email, or chat reply.

Where Online Slang Is Used Today

The most common places to find Internet slang and abbreviations or acronyms
being used includes chat rooms, within text messages, instant messages and
programs, along with social media networks.

Internet Slang List

Below are a few examples of the most popular Internet slang words used today:

Dope: good/awesome

Killin' It: doing great

Boss: awesome/top/supreme

Off The Hook: more amazing than expected

Texting Symbols, Abbreviations and Acronyms

Here are some of the most popular symbols, abbreviations, and acronyms you
are likely to stumble upon when texting or receiving messages and chatting
online:

BRB: Be right back

OMG: Oh my God/oh my gosh

LOL: Laugh out loud/lots of laughs

TTYL: Talk to you later

JK: Just kidding

ILY: I love you

LU2: Love you too

PLZ: Please
IMO: In my opinion

CYA: See you

SUP: What's up?

GL: Good Luck

H8: Hate

L8R: Later

Za: Pizza

Peeps: People/friends

PPL: People

RUS: Are you serious?/Are

you sure?

GN: Good night

Faces, Signs, and Their Meanings in Texts and Messages

:-) happy

:-( sad

:/ unsure/disappointed/ upset

>:( angry

>:O anger/yelling

:O surprised

-_- annoyed/disbelief/ upset

O-o surprised/intrigued/ raising an eyebrow

$$$ money

@ at

FONTE: Available at: http://nobullying.com/internet-slang/. Accessed on:


December 4, 2015. (Fragment). CRÉDITOS: VOOK/Shutterstock

31
Observação: Netspeak (or cyberslang), the Internet slang known as internetês
in Portuguese, is the kind of linguistic variety people use on the Internet for the
sake of brevity and objectivity when sharing information and communicating
with one another. That kind of language may be suitable for informal situations
on the Internet, but it is not considered appropriate use of language in formal
situations. Fim da observação.

a) Do you think this text is aimed at people who are Internet addicts?

Possible answer: No, because Internet addicts would probably know all those
abbreviations, acronyms and slangs.

b) According to the text, why and where are Internet slang, abbreviations and
acronyms used?

Possible answer: They are used to save time; they are used in chat rooms,
texting, social media.

c) Did you know any of the slang, abbreviations, acronyms or signs on the list?
Which ones?

d) Do you use slang, abbreviations, acronyms or signs when texting (in


Portuguese)? Which ones do you use?

e) Do you think using slang, abbreviations and acronyms on the Internet may
influence the way you write in other situations, as, for example, while taking a
test?

f) Write a message to a classmate using slang, abbreviations, acronyms and


signs on the list. Does she/he understand your message?

Personal answers.

2. Read the sentence below, taken from the text. Then choose the correct
definition of the word in bold.

"[...] those who are familiar with Internet slang are capable of easily multitasking
without taking up too much time to send a formal letter, message, email, or chat
reply."

Word in bold: multitasking.

- using the ability to write texts.


- using the ability to write Internet slang.

- using the ability to write computer programs.

- using the ability to perform more than one activity at the same time.

Resposta correta: using the ability to perform more than one activity at the
same time.

3. Do you usually multitask when using the computer?

Personal answer.

SELF-ASSESSMENT

Atenção professor: Esta é uma oportunidade para o aluno verificar seu próprio
desempenho quanto aos pontos trabalhados na Unidade. Fim da observação.

1. Evaluate your performance in this Unit. In your notebook, give yourself a


score from 1 to 5 for each of the topics below.

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

I can...

a) read and understand a text about cell phone addiction.

b) understand and use the modals can, may, could.

c) create an infographic about access to technology.

d) understand an interview about technology and learning.

e) argue about the pros and cons of technology.

1. poor

2. not so good

3. good

4. very good

5. excellent
Atenção professor: Incentive os alunos a refletir a respeito de sua
aprendizagem, da execução das atividades e do seu desempenho em aula.
Fim da observação.

2. Take a look at the items in activity 1 in which you gave yourself a score of 1
or 2. Talk to a classmate and think of what you can do to improve your
performance. Then discuss your ideas with your teacher.

Atenção professor: Ao discutir com os alunos o que pode ser feito para a
melhoria do desempenho em aula, conscientize-os de que, com a
autoavaliação, é possível obter um diagnóstico mais preciso em relação ao
aproveitamento deles quanto ao conteúdo e às habilidades trabalhadas. Fim da
observação.

KEEP EXPLORING

Atenção professor: Nesta seção são sugeridos livros, músicas, filmes e sites
relacionados ao tema da Unidade. Fim da observação.

Book: ABREU, C.; EISENSTEIN, E.; ESTEFENON, S. Vivendo esse mundo


digital. São Paulo: Artmed, 2013.

Movie: MATRIX. Director: Lana Wachowski, Lily Wachowski. Production: Joel


Silver. EUA, Silver Pictures, Village Roadshow Productions, 1999. 1 DVD.

Website: British Council:


http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/magazine/science-and-technology.
Accessed on: November 10, 2015.

32

UNIT 2 - Why Should Animals Have Rights?

Nesta Unidade você vai:

- Discutir e refletir a respeito de proteção aos animais;

- Compreender e fazer uso dos verbos modais can, should e would;

- Explorar pôsteres de campanhas;

- Relacionar os conteúdos com as disciplinas de Biologia e Filosofia.

33
FONTE: Svetlana Foote/Shutterstock

Look at the picture below and discuss with your classmates:

a) Do you like animals? Which one is your favorite?

b) Do you have any pets?

Personal answers.

c) Do you like wild animals? Do you know which of the animals in the
picture are endangered?

Possible answer: The jaguar, the tiger, the lynx, the black rhino/rhinoceros, the
gorilla, etc. Peça aos alunos que observem a imagem e proponha as perguntas
acima para toda a turma. Neste momento, busca-se engajar todos na
discussão e levantar o conhecimento prévio deles a respeito do assunto que
será abordado na Unidade. A discussão pode ser feita em inglês ou em
português, a seu critério.

34

LET'S START

Atenção professor: Nesta seção são propostas atividades que visam levantar o
conhecimento prévio do aluno e apresentar o vocabulário relacionado ao tema
da Unidade. Fim da observação.

1. Look at the words in the box below. Which lexical area do they belong to: a,
b, or c? Use your notebook to classify these words. Check your answers with a
classmate's.

Box:

abuse - neglect - rabbit - fear - pig - consideration - frustration - fish - bird -


cruelty - hen - loneliness - exploitation - guinea pig - pain - prejudice - suffering -
pleasure

End of box.

a) Animal Species

Resposta: Animal Species: pig, hen, guinea pig, bird, rabbit, fish;

b) Animal Feelings
Resposta: Animal Feelings: pain, pleasure, fear, suffering, loneliness,
frustration;

c) Human Attitudes Toward Animals

Resposta: Human Attitudes Toward Animals: prejudice, cruelty, abuse,


exploitation, consideration, neglect.

2. Read the following statements and choose the ones you agree with. Then
compare your answers with a classmate's.

a) Dogs are people's best friends.

b) Animals belong in the wild, not in cages.

c) Meat is delicious and nutritious food.

d) Adopting a pet is better than buying one.

e) Killing animals for sport is a cruel activity.

Personal answers.

Atenção professor: Peça aos alunos que expliquem por que concordam com as
frases ou discordam delas. Fim da observação.

READING

BEFORE YOU READ

Atenção professor: Com as atividades a seguir o aluno prepara-se para a


leitura, levantando seu conhecimento prévio e criando hipóteses a respeito do
texto. Fim da observação.

1. All the things below come or are made from animal parts. Match the words to
the corresponding picture.

a) meat

b) wool

c) silk

d) leather

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que observar o título, a fonte e a


imagem do texto e fazer previsões a respeito deles são estratégias de leitura
importantes. Para saber mais acerca de Exploring the Title and the Format e
Making Predictions, veja a seção Estratégias de Leitura e Compreensão do
Texto no Manual do Professor. Fim da observação.

FONTE: MaraZe/Shutterstock

FONTE: Yuriy Chertok/Shutterstock

FONTE: indigolotos/Shutterstock

FONTE: Nagy Mariann/Shutterstock

Resposta: a) 1; b) 4; c) 3; d) 2

2. Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

a) Do you eat meat?

b) If so, do you consume more white meat or red meat?

c) Do you use objects made from leather, silk or wool?

d) Do you like to see animals kept in zoos or exhibited in circuses?

e) Do you care for animals? Why (not)?

Personal answers.

3. The text you are about to read is from an organization called PETA. Observe
the title, source and the logo of the text. What kind of organization do you think
PETA is? Make your predictions.

Atenção professor: Depois que os alunos tiverem lido o texto, explique que a
organização chama-se People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA),
uma organização sem fins lucrativos que defende os direitos dos animais. Fim
da observação.

35

AS YOU READ

Atenção professor: Nesta seção é apresentado o texto principal, abordando


temas que contribuem para a ampliação do conhecimento de mundo do aluno e
lhe dão a oportunidade de refletir e se posicionar criticamente. Fim da
observação.
Read the text and check your predictions. Then do the following activities in
your notebook.

Animals Are Not Ours

To eat, wear, experiment on, use for entertainment, or abuse in any other way

Almost all of us grow up eating meat, wearing leather, and going to circuses
and zoos. Many of us bought our beloved "pets" at pet shops, had guinea pigs,
and kept beautiful birds in cages. We wore wool and silk, ate burgers, and
fished. We never considered the impact of these actions on the animals
involved. For whatever reason, you are now asking the question: Why should
animals have rights? [...]

People often ask if animals should have rights, and quite simply, the answer is
"Yes!". Animals surely deserve to live their lives free from suffering and
exploitation. Jeremy Bentham, the founder of the reforming utilitarian school of
moral philosophy, stated that when deciding on a being's rights, "The question
is not "Can they reason?" nor "Can they talk?" but "Can they suffer?". In that
passage, Bentham points to the capacity for suffering as the vital characteristic
that gives a being the right to equal consideration. The capacity for suffering is
not just another characteristic like the capacity for language or higher
mathematics. All animals have the ability to suffer in the same way and to the
same degree that humans do. They feel pain, pleasure, fear, frustration,
loneliness, and motherly love. Whenever we consider doing something that
would interfere with their needs, we are morally obligated to take them into
account. [...]

Animal rights is not just a philosophy - it is a social movement that challenges


society's traditional view that all non-human animals exist solely for human use.
[...] Only prejudice allows us to deny others the rights that we expect to have for
ourselves. Whether it's based on race, gender, sexual orientation, or species,
prejudice is morally unacceptable. If you wouldn't eat a dog, why eat a pig?
Dogs and pigs have the same capacity to feel pain, but it is a prejudice based
on species that allows us to think of one animal as a companion and the other
as dinner.
FONTE: Available at: www.peta.org/about-peta/why-peta/why-animal-rights/.
Accessed on: November 12, 2015. (Fragment). CRÉDITOS: Reprodução/PETA

General Comprehension

Atenção professor: Em General Comprehension desenvolve-se a capacidade


do aluno de compreender a essência do texto. Fim da observação.

Read the text quickly and choose the two sentences below that express the
main idea (not the details) of the text.

- Animals should have rights.

- Dogs and pigs have the same capacity to feel pain.

- Animals do not exist only for human use.

- Prejudice is not morally acceptable.

Resposta correta: Animals should have rights. Animals do not exist only for
human use.

Atenção professor: Para saber mais a respeito de Skimming, veja a seção


Estratégias de Leitura e Compreensão do Texto no Manual do Professor. Fim
da observação.

Detailed Comprehension

Atenção professor: Em Detailed Comprehension desenvolve-se a capacidade


do aluno de extrair informações específicas e estabelecer relações entre as
ideias apresentadas no texto. Fim da observação.

1. What argument does the author use to convince the readers that animals
deserve rights?

Resposta: He claims that animals have the capacity to suffer.

Atenção professor: Explore com os alunos as atividades abaixo, antes que eles
as realizem. Oriente-os a ler o texto de forma direcionada para respondê-las.
Circule pela sala enquanto fazem a atividade e auxilie-os em caso de du'vidas.
Eles podem fazer as atividades em duplas, mas, se achar conveniente, deixe-
os fazer individualmente. Incentive-os a partilhar as respostas com um ou dois
colegas antes da verificação geral. Para saber mais a respeito de Scanning,
veja a seção Estratégias de Leitura e Compreensão do Texto no Manual do
Professor. Fim da observação.

2. Choose the correct options (more than one is possible). The author

- is against any kind of prejudice.

- claims that animals are sacred.

- condemns the use of leather clothes and the imprisonment of birds in cages.

- defends the idea that animals exist exclusively for human use.

Resposta correta: is against any kind of prejudice; condemns the use of leather
clothes and the imprisonment of birds in cages.

3. We can infer from the text that the author

- has a domestic pig.

- doesn't eat animals.

- lives in a rural area.

Resposta correta: doesn't eat animals.

36

4. Match the columns, finding the comments on the right that complement the
statements on the left.

Left column:

a) Animals are not ours to wear.

b) Animals should not be used for our food.

c) Animals should not be used just for our entertainment.

d) Animals suffer when they are used in lab experiments.

e) Animals are abused in many other ways.

f) Birds have wings so they can fly.

g) Animals feel loneliness as much we do.

Right column:

1) "I think I'm going to be a vegan."


2) Mice, guinea pigs, even dogs and cats are locked inside cages in
laboratories.

3) "Go and take off that woolen sweater, now!"

4) "Would you like to spend your life in a cage just for public exhibition?"

5) Neglect and cruelty to animals should stop.

6) "That kitten has been abandoned. I'm going to adopt it."

7) "Would you like to spend your whole life inside a cage?"

Resposta: a) 3); b) 1); c) 4); d) 2); e) 5); f) 7); g) 6)

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que eles já podem começar a


pensar em ideias para o Project 1. Vá até a página 81 e explique-lhes
brevemente o projeto. Fim da observação.

Boxe complementar:

Project

This activity's content could be useful for Project 1, on page 81. You may start
taking notes and developing your ideas about it.

Fim do complemento.

AFTER YOU READ

Atenção professor: Nesta seção são trabalhadas questões que levam o aluno a
assumir uma postura crítica em relação ao assunto tratado no texto. Fim da
observação.

Discuss the following questions in small groups. Justify all your answers.

a) Do you agree with the author's views? Or do you find them radical?

b) Do you think eating animals is a form of abuse?

c) Could you live without wearing leather, silk or wool?

d) Do you think using animals in scientific experiments is abusive?

e) Do you think keeping animals in circuses or zoos is wrong?

f) Do you know any recent case of animal abuse in your country?

Personal answers.
Atenção professor: Esta atividade de pós-leitura é um momento de discussão e
reflexão a respeito do texto e do assunto nele abordado. Peça aos alunos que
discutam as questões em pequenos grupos, em inglês ou em português, a seu
critério. Após alguns minutos, expanda a discussão para toda a turma e
verifique o posicionamento dos alunos acerca do assunto em questão. Fim da
observação.

Boxe complementar:

Pronunciation Tips

Atenção professor: Nesta seção são destacadas a pronúncia, a acentuação ou


a entonação de palavras ou expressões contidas nos textos. Fim da
observação.

1.

The following words are from the text. In each group there is a word that has a
different vowel sound from the other two. Write it down in your notebook. Notice
that the vowel sounds are underlined for you.

a) pet

Underlined vowel: e.

pleasure

Underlined vowels: ea.

capacity

Underlined vowel: a.

Resposta: capacity;

b) meat

Underlined vowels: ea.

companion

Underlined vowel: a.

reason

Underlined vowels: ea.


Resposta: companion;

c) leather

Underlined vowels: ea.

fear

Underlined vowels: ea.

whether

Underlined vowel: e.

Resposta: fear;

d) love

Underlined vowel: o.

suffer

Underlined vowel: u.

bought

Underlined vowels: ou.

Resposta: bought;

e) live

Underlined vowel: i.

quite

Underlined vowel: i.

give

Underlined vowel: i.

Resposta: quite;

f) vital

Underlined vowel: i.

right

Underlined vowel: i.
prejudice

Underlined vowel: i.

Resposta: prejudice;

g) dinner

Underlined vowel: i.

feel

Underlined vowels: ee.

species

Underlined vowel: e.

Resposta: dinner;

h) allows

Underlined vowel: o.

ours

Underlined vowels: ou.

wool

Underlined vowels: oo.

Resposta: wool

2.

Listen again and check your answers.

Fim do complemento.

37

MORE FOOD FOR THOUGHT

Atenção professor: Nesta seção é apresentado um texto para ampliar a


discussão e reflexão por parte do aluno a respeito do tema da Unidade e levá-
lo a fazer associações com o tema do texto principal. Fim da observação.

Look at the picture, read the poem and do the following activities with a
classmate.
The Price

There's a price for the eggs you eat,

It's the hens that have to pay,

Locked in their battery cages

Day after day after day.

"It's warm and dry," the farmer says,

"There's plenty to drink and eat."

But the sloping wire-mesh floor

Gives them deformed feet.

There's nowhere for them to perch.

It's hard to turn around.

They cannot spread their wings

Or forage for food on the ground.

"The profit margin's higher,"

I heard the farmer say.

"It's in everybody's interest

To keep the hens this way."

There's a price for the eggs you eat,

It's the hens that have to pay,

Locked in their battery cages

Day after day after day.

FONTE: FOSTER, John. The Poetry Chest. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2007. p. 125. (Fotografia) Melanie Stetson Freeman/The Christian Science
Monitor/Getty Images

a) The picture above to the poem

- denies what is described in the poem.

- illustrates what is described in the poem.


- contradicts the situation described in the poem.

Resposta correta: illustrates what is described in the poem.

b) In which conditions do those hens live?

Possible answer: They live in battery cages, with little space for them to move.

c) According to the poem, why do the farmers do that to the hens?

Possible answer: Because it's more profitable for them (the farmers).

d) Do you agree with the farmer when he says "It's in everybody's interest to
keep the hens this way"? Why (not)?

Personal answers.

e) Can you see the positive side of keeping hens that way?

Possible answer: The price of the eggs that we eat is probably kept low, so
more people have a chance to buy them (but the poem stresses the fact that it's
the hens that have to pay the price).

f) Do you think the author of the poem and the author of the text on page 35
share similar opinions regarding animals? Why (not)?

Personal answers.

g) Do you think The Price was written by a contemporary poet? Why (not)?

Possible answer: Yes, because the main idea focused in the poem is a
contemporary issue.

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que John Foster é um poeta inglês,
nascido em 1941, que escreveu muitos poemas e publicou livros,
especialmente para crianças. Ele tem um website em que ensina a escrever
poemas e disponibiliza os seus: Fim da observação.

38

WORD STUDY

Atenção professor: Nesta seção são abordadas questões que destacam alguns
aspectos lexicais encontrados no texto. Fim da observação.
Observação: Na página 157 há uma lista com alguns falsos cognatos que
aparecem neste volume. Vá até lá e interaja com a atividade que deverá ser
realizada ao longo do ano. Fim da observação.

Atenção professor: Oriente os alunos a transcrever a lista de falsos cognatos


da página 157 para o caderno. Ao final de cada unidade eles devem preencher
a lista com os significados dos falsos cognatos registrados. Essa é uma tarefa
a ser realizada ao longo do ano e servirá ao aluno como fonte de consulta. Fim
da observação.

False Cognates

Read the two sentences below taken from the text. The words in bold are false
cognates, that is, they are similar in form to words in Portuguese, but their
meanings are different. Choose the right option.

a) "Whether it's based on race, gender, sexual orientation, or species,


prejudice is morally unacceptable."

Word in bold: prejudice.

- prejuízo

- preconceito

- praticidade

Resposta correta: preconceito.

b) "All animals have the ability to suffer in the same way and to the same
degree that humans do."

Word in bold: degree.

Atenção professor: Diga aos alunos que prejuízo e prejudicar, em inglês,


correspondem a harm ou damage. Já degrau, em inglês, corresponde a stair
ou, em alguns contextos, a step. Fim da observação.

- grau

- degrau

- degradação

Resposta correta: grau.


Exploitation or Exploration?

1. Observe the words in bold in the two sentences below. Use the context to
get to their meaning, then check the definition of those two words. In your
notebook, write 1 or 2 to match each definition.

a) Animals surely deserve to live their lives free from suffering and exploitation.

Word in bold: exploitation.

b) Jeremy Bentham is responsible for the exploration of moral issues.

Word in bold: exploration.

1) examination or search to learn more and find out about something.

2) unfair treatment of a person or an animal in a way that is wrong, just to get


some benefit for yourself.

Resposta: a) 2); b) 1)

In Portuguese, there is only one noun to express those two meanings:


exploração. The same difference applies to the verbs: exploit and explore. In
Portuguese, however, there is only one verb to express those two meanings.
What is it?

Resposta: Explorar.

2. Complete the sentences using the correct verb form of exploit or explore, as
appropriate.

a) Animals go and ____ the world in a natural way (when they're free).

Resposta: explore;

b) Keeping animals in zoos can be a form of ____ them.

Resposta: exploiting

Understanding References

Choose the alternative that contains the words that each pronoun in bold refers
to. Go back to the text on page 35 if necessary.

a) "[...] deciding on a being's rights, "The question is not 'Can they reason?' nor
'Can they talk?' but 'Can they suffer?'"
Pronoun in bold: they; they; they.

- a being

- rights

Resposta correta: a being.

b) "Whenever we consider doing something that would interfere with their


needs, [...]"

Pronoun in bold: their.

- people

- the animals

Resposta correta: the animals.

c) "Whenever we consider doing something that would interfere with their


needs, we are morally obligated to take them into account."

Pronoun in bold: them.

- the animals' needs

- the animals

Resposta correta: the animals' needs.

FONTE: Sasha_Ivv/Shutterstock

39

In Other Words

Match the words and phrases from the text on page 35 to their equivalents.

Go back to the text and read the words in their context. This will help you infer
their meanings.

a) deserve (l. 6)

b) like (l. 10)

c) whenever (l. 12)

d) account (l. 13)

e) deny (l. 15)


f) allows (l. 15)

1) consideration

2) permits

3) have a right

4) such as

5) say "no" to

6) every time that

Resposta: a) 3); b) 4); c) 6); d) 1); e) 5); f) 2)

LANGUAGE STUDY

Atenção professor: Nesta seção são estudados alguns dos principais aspectos
gramaticais com exemplos de uso presentes nos textos. Fim da observação.

Possessive Pronouns

Observação: To learn more about Possessive Pronouns, go to page 146. Fim


da observação.

1. Observe the word in bold in this sentence:

Animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on, use for entertainment, or
abuse in any other way.

In theory, another way of saying this would be:

Animals are not our animals to eat, wear, etc.

Words in bold: animals; our animals.

possessive adjective - our

noun - animals

Now choose the appropriate options to complete the statements below and
write them down in your notebook.

Possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns have similar forms, but they
differ in use. Possessive adjectives are always used (a) before/after a noun,
while possessive pronouns (ours is a possessive pronoun) are used instead of
a possessive adjective + noun (b) to avoid repetition/to make it shorter.
Resposta: (a) before; (b) to avoid repetition

2. Rewrite the table below in your notebook, completing it with the missing
words.

Tabela: equivalente textual a seguir.

Personal Pronouns I you ____ she it ____ you they

Possessive Adjectives my your his ____ its our your ____

Possessive Pronouns mine ____ his hers Ø ____ yours theirs

Personal Pronouns: he, we; Possessive Adjectives: her, their; Possessive


Pronouns: yours, ours.

3. The sentences below are related to the text on page 35 and the poem on
page 37. Complete them with the appropriate possessive pronoun.

a) Many of us bought our beloved "pets" at pet shops. Did you buy ____ there?

Resposta: yours;

b) Animals surely deserve to live their lives free from suffering and exploitation.
We deserve to live ____ in the same way.

Resposta: ours;

c) People often ask if animals should have their rights. Oppressed people
should have ____ too.

Resposta: theirs;

d) The hens are locked in their cages. Tigers in a zoo are locked in ____ too.

Resposta: theirs

FONTE DAS ILUSTRAÇÕES: Sasha_Ivv/Shutterstock

40

Another Use of the Auxiliary Verb Do

Look at the word highlighted in bold in this sentence, taken from the text. Then
choose the right option to complete the grammar rule.
"All animals have the ability to suffer in the same way and to the same degree
that humans do."

Word in bold: do.

The auxiliary verb do can be used in the second part of a sentence when (a) we
want/we don't want to repeat the verb used in the first part of the sentence. In
the example above, do is used to avoid repeating the verb (b) have/suffer.

Resposta: (a) we don't want; (b) have

Modal Verbs: Can, Should, Would

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que a forma negativa do verbo


modal should é should not ou shouldn't. Se achar conveniente, também
relembre aos alunos que, nas orações interrogativas, o verbo modal aparece
antes do sujeito, como nas frases a e b. Fim da observação.

We started studying modal verbs in Unit 1 and we have learned that they
express different ideas. What ideas do the modal verbs in bold express in the
following sentences? Use the context to help you. Choose from the box below
and answer in your notebook. There is one extra word.

Box:

impossibility - permission - ability/capacity - refusal in a hypothetical situation -


conditional/future in the past - advice/suggestion/moral obligation

End of box.

a) Why should animals have rights?

Modal verb in bold: should.

Resposta: advice/suggestion/moral obligation

b) The question is not "Can they reason?" nor "Can they talk?" but "Can they
suffer?"

Modal verbs in bold: can; can; can.

Resposta: ability/capacity

c) Whenever we consider doing something that would interfere with their


needs, we are morally obligated to take them into account.
Modal verb in bold: would.

Resposta: conditional/future in the past

d) If you wouldn't eat a dog, why eat a pig?

Modal verb in bold: wouldn't.

Resposta: refusal in a hypothetical situation

e) They cannot spread their wings.

Modal verb in bold: cannot.

Resposta: impossibility

Verb Tenses Revision

Atenção professor: Faça uma revisão oral com os alunos a respeito do uso de
cada tempo ou forma verbal que aparece no texto. Fim da observação.

Let's have another look at the text Animals Are Not Ours. Use your notebook to
do the activities that follow.

"Almost all of us grow up eating meat, wearing leather, and going to circuses
and zoos. Many of us bought our beloved "pets" at pet shops, had guinea pigs,
and kept beautiful birds in cages. We wore wool and silk, ate burgers, and
fished. We never considered the impact of these actions on the animals
involved. For whatever reason, you are now asking the question: Why should
animals have rights?"

Scan the paragraph above and write down in your notebook

a) a phrasal verb in the simple present tense.

Resposta: grow up;

b) some verbs used to express actions in the past.

Possible answers: bought, had, kept, wore, ate, fished, considered;

c) five irregular verbs in the simple past.

Resposta: bought, had, kept, wore, ate;

d) the base form of those five verbs.

Resposta: buy, have, keep, wear, eat;


e) two regular verbs in the simple past.

Resposta: fished, considered;

f) the base form of those two verbs.

Resposta: fish, consider;

g) a verb that expresses an action in progress in the present.

Resposta: are asking;

h) a modal verb.

Resposta: should;

i) the meaning expressed by that modal verb.

Resposta: moral obligation

41

LET'S PRACTICE

Atenção professor: Nesta seção o aluno é levado a praticar alguns aspectos


gramaticais estudados na seção Language Study. Fim da observação.

1. Observe the campaign poster below and do the following activities in your
notebook.

FONTE: Available at: http://osocio.org/message/this-provocative-prevention-


campaign-is-aboutanimal-cruelty-and-domestic/. Accessed on: November 12,
2015. CRÉDITOS: Reprodução/SpotAbuse.org

a) The aim of the campaign is to

- convince people to adopt dogs.

- ask people to report pet abuse.

- raise awareness of the use of dogs by the police.

Resposta correta: ask people to report pet abuse.

b) In "Dogs can help us find..." the modal verb can expresses

- permission

- possibility
- capacity

Resposta correta: capacity.

c) Complete the sentences below about the campaign, using can, could,
should or would.

- People that hurt animals ____ also hurt other people.

- When you see someone beating an animal, you ____ call 911.

Resposta: may/can/could/would; should

42

2. Read these texts about animals in different cultures and do the following
activities.

In Australia, kangaroos are a sacred animal in the Aboriginal dreaming and laws
and should not be culled according to senior Indigenous elder Max
Dulumunmun Harrison. His concerns over the growing slaughter of kangaroos -
totaling more than three million adult kangaroos and one million joeys each year
are echoed in the findings of two reports released today examining the harvest
of kangaroos for human and pet consumption.

Available at: http://newsroom.uts.edu.au/news/2010/12/sacred-animals-not-fair-


game-for-dinner-table-nor-dog-dish. Accessed on: December 4, 2015.
(Fragment).

FONTE: Inc/Shutterstock

Pigs are the most important domestic animal in Pacific cultures, being an
important source of food and a basis for societal wealth.

Available at: www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2006/11/13/1779858.htm.


Accessed on: December 4, 2015. (Fragment).

FONTE: Volodymyr Burdiak/Shutterstock

It's becoming a routine ritual on the crowded, colorful streets of Delhi, India: A
small team of men surrounds a wandering cow, attempting to coax it on to a
waiting truck for a trip to a suburban reserve. But the cow catchers need to be
careful: To India's millions of Hindus, the cow is a holy animal that cannot be
harmed.
Available at: www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/holy-cow-hinduisms-sacred-
animal/1811/. Accessed on: August 7, 2015.

FONTE: neelsky/Shutterstock

a) Choose the correct statements (more than one), according to the texts.

- Pigs are considered pets in Pacific cultures.

- Some people and some pets consume kangaroo meat.

- Hindus consider the cow a sacred animal.

- In Delhi, cows are part of a religious ritual that takes place in suburban areas.

Resposta correta: Pigs are considered pets in Pacific cultures. Some people
and some pets consume kangaroo meat. Hindus consider the cow a sacred
animal.

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que o Hinduísmo é a religião da


maioria das pessoas que vivem na Índia e no Nepal. Fim da observação.

b) Rewrite the sentences below with the modal verb that correctly completes
each of them, according to the texts you read.

- In the Pacific cultures people can/cannot eat pigs.

- According to some aspects of Aboriginal culture, people can/shouldn't kill


kangaroos.

- According to Hindu religion, people shouldn't/may harm cows.

Resposta: can; shouldn't; shouldn't

43

3. Read these excerpts about animal extinction and complete them with the
modal verbs from the box, as appropriate. Sometimes, more than one modal
verb is possible. Then answer the questions that follow. Use your notebook to
do the activity.

Box:

can - cannot - should - may - could - would

End of box.
Scientists are worried about the high rate of recent animal extinctions in the
world. It is estimated that approximately half of the species alive on earth today
____ become extinct within the next 75 years. [...] Natural extinction occurs due
to animals not being able to survive in a changing environment. These changes
____ involve weather, new predators, changes in food sources, and new
competition for food sources.

Available at: www.extinct-animals-facts.com. Accessed on: February 29, 2016.


(Fragment).

Resposta: may/can/could; may/can/could

Today many conservationists are concerned with human interaction causing


species to become extinct. This is because human interaction has increased the
rate of extinctions beyond what normally ____ occur in nature. More extinctions
reduces the planet's biodiversity and ____ have adverse effects for all life on
Earth.

Available at: www.ducksters.com/animals/how_animals_become_extinct.php.


Accessed on: February 29, 2016. (Fragment).

Resposta: should; may/can/could

Specialization of habitat or diet has caused much extinction. Animals that


depend on a certain type of habitat or food source and ____ adjust to
alterations, whether natural or human-caused, are extinction-prone.

Available at: www.endangeredspecieshandbook.org/vanishing_what_traits.php.


Accessed on: February 29, 2016. (Fragment).

Resposta: cannot

Endangered animals are at risk of extinction - there are so few of them that they
____ soon be wiped out altogether. Although some animals have always
evolved more successfully than others, human activity is changing the world in
such a way that many more animals are endangered than ____ otherwise be.

Available at: www.oum.ox.ac.uk/thezone/animals/extinct/define.htm. Accessed


on: February 29, 2016. (Fragment).

Resposta: may/can/could; would


a) What are scientists and conservationists worried about?

Possible answer: They are worried about the high rate of animal extinction in
the world.

b) What are some causes of animal extinction?

Possible answer: Natural changes in the environment and human activity.

c) What are some consequences of animal extinction?

Possible answer: The reduction of the planet's biodiversity, which affects all life
on Earth.

d) In your opinion, why should people be worried about this issue?

Personal answer.

4. Read the text below and do the following activity in your notebook.

Why We Should Care About Animals

When war, famine and poverty affect so many humans, why should we care
about the suffering of animals? When we tolerate cruelty to animals we are
tolerating cruelty itself, and cruelty has a harmful effect on human society.
Civilization and peace need co-operation to exist, and cruelty does not promote
co-operation.

Available at: http://focaweb.com/why.htm. Accessed on: December 4, 2015.


(Fragment).

Choose the alternative that summarizes the idea conveyed by the text.

- We shouldn't tolerate cruelty to animals because any kind of cruelty is bad for
our civilization.

- People who are cruel to animals should go to jail.

- Because there is so much poverty around the world, we cannot care about
animals.

Resposta correta: We shouldn't tolerate cruelty to animals because any kind of


cruelty is bad for our civilization.

44
WRITING

1. Look at the campaign posters below and discuss the following questions with
a classmate.

Animals Are Not Clowns

Roll up, roll up, ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls for the crack of the whip
against the animal's stinging wounds. A big round of applause for the flaming
hoops, the injuries and the electric shocks.

Come and see the famed number of cages and tightly binding chains allowing
no escape from endless training sessions. Laugh, applaud and join in with the
repetitive choreographed routines typical of depressed animals under great
stress.

All the fun of the circus travelling from city to city exhibiting animals as human
caricatures. Clowning around that's no fun at all.

Animal circuses - Don't be part of the show.

FONTE: Available at: http://osocio.org/message/animals-are-not-clowns/.


Accessed on: December 4, 2015. CRÉDITOS: Reprodução/Acção Animal e
LPDA

I Am Not a Trinket

Tens of thousands of elephants are kiled every year for their ivory tusks, which
are made into everything form knickknacks to souvenirs.

FONTE: Available at: www.worldwildlife.org/pages/stop-wildlife-crime. Accessed


on: December 4, 2015. CRÉDITOS: Reprodução/WWF

a) What is the issue focused in each campaign?

Resposta: Campaign 1: Animals being exploited in circuses. Campaign 2:


Elephants being killed for their ivory tusks.

b) What is the objective of those campaign posters?

Possible answer: To raise awareness of the abuses animals suffer/the impact of


human actions on the animals involved.

c) Do you think they are effective? Why (not)?


Personal answers.

d) Which aspects of verbal and non-verbal language are used in both posters?
Which of them catches your attention?

Possible answers: The animals look sad, there is a dark background color,
there are some powerful statements meant to cause impact and there are
slogans. Personal answer.

45

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos a importância de fazer um


rascunho quando se escreve um texto. Nesse rascunho, podem-se inserir as
ideias mais básicas e algumas palavras-chave que serão desenvolvidas
futuramente. Diga-lhes que, depois de pronto, é interessante partilhar com os
colegas e receber um retorno deles e do professor. Comente também que,
após a reescrita do texto, deve-se revisar o trabalho para evitar erros e, por fim,
passar a limpo. Lembre aos alunos que a troca de rascunhos e o retorno com
as impressões entre eles é uma oportunidade de colaboração, em que
compartilham conhecimentos e um contribui para enriquecer o trabalho do
outro. Dessa forma, eles passam a perceber que o professor não é a u'nica
pessoa a quem eles podem recorrer para pedir ajuda. Se for possi'vel, sugira
que façam seus pôsteres no computador, usando ferramentas que já
conhecem ou ferramentas novas. Uma opção é o site www.postermywall.com,
que permite a criação, o download e o compartilhamento de pôsteres de forma
gratuita. Fim da observação.

2. Now it's your turn to create a campaign poster. Think of the issue you want to
focus on: pet abuse, animal adoption, endangered animals, etc. The target
audience will be people from your school and community. You can display your
poster inside or outside school or share it on the Internet.

- Write the draft of your poster. Go back to the campaign posters in this section
and on page 41 to get some ideas.

- Ask a classmate to read your draft. Get some feedback.

- Rewrite your poster using the feedback you had as a basis and make any
improvements or necessary corrections.
- Proofread your work.

LISTENING

BEFORE YOU LISTEN

Atenção professor: Com as atividades desta seção é ativado o conhecimento


prévio do aluno a respeito do assunto que será abordado no texto oral. Fim da
observação.

1. Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

a) Can you find abandoned animals on the streets in your neighborhood?

b) Is your neighborhood close to a wildlife area? If so, do you usually see any
animals wandering in the neighborhood? What do you do when you see them?

Personal answers.

2. Look at the picture below. People For Animals is an organization from


Bangalore, a city in India. What kind of organization do you think it is? Make
your predictions and check them as you listen.

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que Bangalore é uma cidade


localizada ao sul da Índia. A placa da organização que aparece na imagem
está escrita em duas línguas: canará, um dos idiomas falados no sul da Índia, e
inglês, que também é língua oficial do país. Fim da observação.

FONTE: Reprodução/People for Animals

Personal answers.

AS YOU LISTEN

Atenção professor: Nesta seção são apresentadas atividades variadas de


compreensão oral. Fim da observação.

Atenção professor: Antes de reproduzir o áudio, peça aos alunos que leiam a
atividade. Dessa forma, eles ficarão mais atentos às informações necessárias
enquanto ouvem a faixa. Outra sugestão é reproduzir o áudio três vezes: na
primeira, peça aos alunos que tentem entender a ideia geral do texto que vão
ouvir. Na segunda, eles devem procurar responder à atividade. Na terceira,
verificam suas respostas e tentam identificar as informações que ainda não
haviam conseguido compreender. Diga a eles que, como na leitura, não é
preciso que compreendam todas as palavras que ouvirem, mas é importante
que consigam entender a ideia central e algumas informações específicas para
responder à questão proposta. A transcrição do áudio está na seção Audio
Scripts do Manual do Professor. Fim da observação.

Listen to an audio from People For Animals (PFA) that explains their work.
Choose the correct option to complete the text about the organization. Pay
close attention to the options in bold. Use your notebook to write down each
correct option.

People For Animals (PFA) is a (a) private/non-profit organization that rescues


(b) pets/wild animals that are (c) abandoned or abused/injured or
displaced in Bangalore, India. The organization has an emergency vehicle and
a veterinarian that helps the animals in process of (d)
rehabilitation/socialization. When animals get better, PFA (e) releases them
back into the nature/makes them available for adoption.

Words in bold: (a) private/non-profit; (b) pets/wild animals; (c) abandoned


or abused/injured or displaced; (d) rehabilitation/socialization; (e) releases
them back into the nature/makes them available for adoption.

Resposta: (a) non-profit; (b) wild animals; (c) injured or displaced; (d)
rehabilitation; (e) releases them back into the nature

46

AFTER YOU LISTEN

Atenção professor: Nesta seção, o aluno discute com seu(s) colega(s) o


assunto abordado no áudio. Fim da observação.

Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

a) Do you think PFA's mission is important? Why (not)?

b) Have you ever rescued or helped an animal? If so, talk about that
experience.

c) Do you know of any other organization that rescues animals?

Personal answers.

SPEAKING
Atenção professor: Peça aos alunos, com antecedência, para fazerem buscas
na internet, em jornais ou revistas. Eles podem realizar a atividade em duplas.
Fim da observação.

Throughout this Unit we've learned about some organizations concerned with
animal welfare. Now it's your turn to search for other organizations that help
animals (in your city, country or in any other place around the world) and make
a presentation to your class. In your presentation you should mention:

FONTE DAS FOTOS: Tatiana Popova/Shutterstock

- The name of the organization;

- Where it is from;

- Its mission;

- Who can join it;

- Other information you consider important.

THINK ABOUT IT

Atenção professor: Nesta seção, o aluno reflete e discute com seu(s) colega(s)
a respeito de temas que se relacionam com os textos já trabalhados na
Unidade. Fim da observação.

1. Observe the title of the text, the web logo and the picture on next page, and
answer the following questions in your notebook.

a) What animal is being focused on that IFAW (International Fund For Animal
Welfare) campaign?

Resposta: The whale.

b) What is IceWhale?

Resposta: IceWhale is the Association of Icelandic Whale Watchers.

47

2. What do you think the campaign is about? Read the text below, check your
predictions and discuss the following questions with a classmate.
Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que Reykjavík é a capital da
Islândia, país insular no Norte da Europa, situado no oceano Atlântico Norte.
Fim da observação.

Meet Us Don't Eat Us: Campaign to Take Whale Meat off the Menu for Tourists

"Meet Us Don't Eat Us," a joint project between IFAW and IceWhale (the
Association of Icelandic Whale Watchers), was launched in Reykjavík in the
summer of 2010. To date, around 200 volunteers from 26 countries have
participated in the project which runs annually from May to September in
Reykjavík.

The aim is to inform and educate tourists about a few key facts regarding whale
meat consumption in Iceland and gain their support to protect whales by ending
commercial whaling, instead of tasting whale meat in Reykjavík restaurants. In
reality whale meat consumption by Icelanders is not that common (only around
three per cent of Icelanders eat whale meat regularly, according to an October
2013 poll) so if tourists sample whale meat they are directly contributing to the
number of whales being killed.

FONTE: Available at: www.ifaw.org/united-states/our-work/whales/meet-us-


don't-eat-us-campaign-take-whale-meat-menu-tourists. Accessed on:
December 4, 2015. (Fragment). CRÉDITOS DAS IMAGENS:
Reprodução/IFAW

a) What problem is the project concerned about?

Resposta: The killing of whales for meat consumption in Reykjavík restaurants.

b) What does the campaign slogan ask tourists to do?

Possible answer: To go and meet the whales, to watch them, but not to
consume their meat.

c) Is whale meat an important food source in Iceland?

Resposta: Not really. Only 3% of Icelanders eat whale meat regularly.

d) Would you eat whale meat if you went to Iceland? Why (not)?

Personal answers.
e) What advice regarding animals would you give to tourists who come to
Brazil?

Atenção professor: Essa é uma boa oportunidade de incentivar os alunos a


usar os verbos modais aprendidos até agora. Fim da observação.

SELF-ASSESSMENT

Atenção professor: Esta é uma oportunidade para o aluno verificar seu próprio
desempenho quanto aos pontos trabalhados na Unidade. Fim da observação.

1. Evaluate your performance in this Unit. In your notebook, give yourself a


score from 1 to 5 for each of the topics below.

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

I can...

a) read and understand a text about animal rights.

b) understand and use possessive pronouns and the modals should


and would.

c) create a campaign poster about animal welfare.

d) understand an audio about an organization from India that saves


animals.

e) make a presentation about an organization that is concerned with


animal welfare.

1. poor

2. not so good

3. good

4. very good

5. excellent
Atenção professor: Incentive os alunos a preencher o quadro abaixo refletindo
a respeito de sua aprendizagem, da execução das atividades e do seu
desempenho em aula. Fim da observação.

2. Take a look at the items in activity 1 in which you gave yourself a score of 1
or 2. Talk to a classmate and think of what you can do to improve your
performance. Then discuss your ideas with your teacher.

Atenção professor: Ao discutir com os alunos o que pode ser feito para a
melhoria do desempenho em aula, conscientize-os de que com a autoavaliação
é possível obter um diagnóstico mais preciso em relação ao aproveitamento
deles quanto ao conteúdo e às habilidades trabalhadas. Fim da observação.

KEEP EXPLORING

Atenção professor: Nesta seção são sugeridos livros, músicas, filmes e sites
relacionados ao tema da Unidade. Fim da observação.

Book: KOLBERT, Elizabeth. Sexta extinção: uma história não natural. Rio de
Janeiro: Intrínseca, 2015.

Movie: AMAZÔNIA. Direção de Daniela Santos e André Montenegro.


Produção: Stéphane Milliere, Laurent Baujard, Fabiano Gullane, Caio Gullane,
Debora Ivanov e Gabriel Lacerda. Brasil: Imovision, 2014. 1 DVD.

Website: Instituto Chico Mendes: www.icmbio.gov.br/portal/. Acesso em: 21


jan. 2016.

48

UNIT 3 - Why Humanity Must Unite

Nesta Unidade você vai:

- Discutir e refletir a respeito de diversidade cultural e preconceito;

- Compreender e usar os verbos modais must e might;

- Explorar normas de convivência;

- Relacionar os conteúdos com as disciplinas de Filosofia e Sociologia.

49

FONTE: Annasunny24/Shutterstock
Observe the picture below and discuss the following questions with your
classmates.

a) What comes to your mind when you see this picture?

b) What do you think it represents?

Personal answers.

Atenção professor: Incentive os alunos a relacionar a ilustração ao título da


Unidade. Peça que observem como as pessoas, representadas na ilustração
por bonecos, estão vestidas de formas diferentes, têm tons de pele e cabelos
diferentes. Encaminhe uma discussão a respeito da diversidade cultural. Neste
momento, busca-se engajar todos na discussão e levantar o conhecimento
prévio deles a respeito do assunto que será abordado na Unidade. A discussão
pode ser feita em inglês ou português, a seu critério. Fim da observação.

50

LET'S START

1. Match the word and phrases in the box to their definitions. Transcribe your
answers, then check them with a classmate.

Box:

Cultural diversity - Cultural stereotype - Cultural heritage - Culture

End of box.

Atenção professor: Leia as palavras do boxe com os alunos e pergunte a eles


se já tinham ouvido esses termos. Peça exemplos a fim de ampliar a discussão
e prepará-los para a atividade. Fim da observação.

a) ____: The customs, arts, beliefs, social institutions, and achievements of a


particular society, group, place, or time.

Resposta: Culture;

b) ____: The existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within a society.

Resposta: Cultural diversity;


c) ____: The legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or
society that are acquired from past generations, maintained in the present and
offered for the benefit of future generations.

Resposta: Cultural heritage;

d) ____: readily available image of a given social group, usually based on


rough, often negative generalizations.

Resposta: Cultural stereotype

Available at: www.oxforddictionaries.com;


www.jyu.fi/viesti/verkkotuotanto/kp/vf/jaakko.shtml. Accessed on: January 29,
2016.

2. Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

a) Does Brazilian society reflect a great cultural diversity?

b) Are stereotypes about different groups common in Brazil? Are they based on
positive or negative generalizations?

c) Is it okay to make generalizations about people? Why (not)?

d) In your opinion, what cultural heritage (buildings, landscapes, artifacts) in the


area where you live will be left for the next generations?

Personal answers.

READING

BEFORE YOU READ

1. In pairs, discuss the following questions.

a) What kind of moral problems is humanity currently facing?

b) Would you say there are too many different nations but too little
understanding between them? Why (not)?

c) Why do you think there are so many wars in the world?

Personal answers.
2. The text you are about to read is an extract from an autobiographical book by
Isaac Asimov. Before reading the text, complete the mini biography below and
get to know a little about Asimov. Choose from the words in the box.

Box:

sci-fi - Born - penned - died - immigrated - biochemistry

End of box.

(I) on January 2, 1920, in Petrovichi, Russia, Isaac Asimov (II) with his family to
the United States and became a (III) professor while pursuing writing. An
immensely prolific author who (IV) nearly 500 books, he published influential (V)
works like I, Robot and the Foundation trilogy, as well as books in a variety of
other genres. Asimov (VI) in New York City on April 6, 1992.

Available at: www.biography.com/people/isaac-asimov-9190737. Accessed on:


January 29, 2016. (Fragment).

Resposta: (I) Born; (II) immigrated; (III) biochemistry; (IV) penned; (V) sci-fi; (VI)
died

51

AS YOU READ

Atenção professor: O sionismo é um movimento judeu que, no final do século


XIX, buscava a criação de um Estado independente, tendo sua concretização
ocorrida em maio de 1948, com a criação do Estado de Israel na Palestina.
(Fonte: www.dicio.com.br/sionismo/. Acesso em: 29 jan. 2016.) Fim da
observação.

Now read the text and do the following activities in your notebook.

The Earth should not be cut up into hundreds of different sections, each
inhabited by a self-defined segment of humanity that considers its own welfare
and its own "national security" to be paramount above all other consideration.

I am all for cultural diversity and would be willing to see each recognizable 5
group value its cultural heritage. I am a New York patriot, for instance, and if I
lived in Los Angeles, I would love to get together with other New York
expatriates and sing "Give My Regards to Broadway".
This sort of thing, however, should remain cultural and benign. I'm against it if it
means that each group despises others and lusts to wipe them out. I'm 10
against arming each little self-defined group with weapons with which to enforce
its own prides and prejudices.

The Earth faces environmental problems right now that threaten the imminent
destruction of civilization and the end of the planet as a livable world. Humanity
cannot afford to waste its financial and emotional resources on 15 endless,
meaningless quarrels between each group and all others. There must be a
sense of globalism in which the world unites to solve the real problems that face
all groups alike.

Can that be done? The question is equivalent to: Can humanity survive?

I am not a Zionist, then, because I don't believe in nations, and because


Zionism merely sets up one more 20 nation to trouble the world. It sets up one
more nation to have "rights" and "demands" and "national security" and to feel it
must guard itself against its neighbors.

There are no nations! There is only humanity. And if we don't come to


understand that right soon, there will be no nations, because there will be no
humanity.

FONTE: Available at: www.goodreads.com/work/quotes/41326-i-asimov-a-


memoir. Accessed on: January 29, 2016. (Fotografia) Reprodução/Bantam

General Comprehension

Atenção professor: Para saber mais a respeito de Skimming, veja a seção


Estratégias de Leitura e Compreensão do Texto do Manual do Professor. Fim
da observação.

What's it all about? Choose the sentence that gives us the main idea (not the
details) the author wants to put forward.

- Nationalism and patriotism are important values that should be defended at all
costs.

- Humanity may not survive if the current environmental problems are not
solved.
- The problems humanity is facing at present can only be solved when the
whole world acts as one, despite international conflicts.

- Cultural diversity should be preserved, even if it leads to quarrels and wars.

Resposta correta: The problems humanity is facing at present can only be


solved when the whole world acts as one, despite international conflicts.

Detailed Comprehension

1. Read the sentences below and write F if the author is For the situation
described or A if the author is Against it.

a) A segregated world.

Resposta: A

b) Different cultural groups respecting each other.

Resposta: F

c) War between countries.

Resposta: A

d) Resorting to the use of violence when there is disagreement over an issue.

Resposta: A

e) People united to solve global problems.

Resposta: F

f) The creation of more nations.

Resposta: A

Atenção professor: Explore com os alunos as questões acima antes de


realizarem a atividade. Oriente-os a ler o texto de forma direcionada para
responder a elas. Circule pela sala enquanto fazem a atividade e auxilie-os em
caso de dúvidas. Eles podem fazer as atividades em duplas, mas, se for mais
conveniente, deixe-os fazer individualmente. Incentive-os a partilhar as
respostas com um ou dois colegas antes da verificação geral. Para saber mais
a respeito de Scanning, veja a seção Estratégias de Leitura e Compreensão do
Texto do Manual do Professor. Fim da observação.
52

2. Isaac Asimov's views on the state of the Earth are summed up in the
statements below. Find the missing words in the box and write them down in
your notebook.

Box:

wars - life - humanity - national - civilization

End of box.

According to Asimov,

a) the problem is: our planet may not continue to sustain human ____.

Resposta: life

b) the consequence is: the end of human ____.

Resposta: civilization

c) the difficulties are: nationalism, pride, prejudice, the conviction that ____
security is above all other considerations.

Resposta: national

d) the consequences of those ways of thinking are: lack of understanding,


quarrels, conflicts, ____.

Resposta: wars

e) the solution is: the union of people across the world in concerted effort to
solve the problems ____ has in common.

Resposta: humanity

3. Answer the following questions in your notebook.

a) Asimov claims that patriotism should be benign. According to him, in which


situation is patriotism a bad thing?

Resposta: It's a bad thing when one group despises another one and lusts to
wipe it out.
b) Some of the problems humanity is facing make it more than necessary,
according to Asimov, for people to get together in order to solve them. What
kind of problems are those?

Resposta: Environmental problems.

c) Was Asimov a nationalist? Transcribe an excerpt (or more than one) from the
text to justify your answer.

Resposta: No, he wasn't. Possible answers: "The Earth should not be cut up
into hundreds of different sections", "I don't believe in nations", "There are no
nations! There is only humanity".

d) According to the author, what will eventually happen if segregation and


fighting do not stop?

Resposta: There will be no nations, because there will be no humanity.

AFTER YOU READ

Atenção professor: Esta atividade de pós-leitura é um momento de discussão e


reflexão a respeito do texto e do assunto nele abordado. Peça aos alunos que
discutam as questões em pequenos grupos, em inglês ou em português, a seu
critério. Após alguns minutos, expanda a discussão para toda a turma e
verifique o posicionamento dos alunos acerca do assunto em questão. Fim da
observação.

Discuss the following questions in small groups.

a) Go back to activity 1 on page 51. Do you have the same view regarding
those situations?

b) How do you deal with people who belong to different cultures or have ideas
that are different from yours?

c) Do you believe peaceful coexistence is possible?

Personal answers.

Boxe complementar:

Pronunciation Tips
1. The following words are from the text. Listen to them and identify the word in
each group that has a different vowel sound from the other three. Notice that
the vowel sounds are underlined for you.

a) threaten

Underlined vowels: ea.

weapon

Underlined vowels: ea.

question

Underlined vowel: e.

merely

Underlined vowel: e.

Resposta: merely - Underlined vowel: e.

b) waste

Underlined vowel: a.

value

Underlined vowel: a.

patriot

Underlined vowel: a.

neighbors

Underlined vowels: ei.

Resposta: value - Underlined vowel: a.

c) quarrels

Underlined vowels: ua.

resources

Underlined vowels: ou.

group

Underlined vowels: ou.


enforce

Underlined vowel: o.

Resposta: group - Underlined vowels: ou.

d) love

Underlined vowel: o.

above

Underlined vowel: o.

emotional

Underlined vowel: o.

done

Underlined vowel: o.

Resposta: emotional - Underlined vowel: o.

e) survive

Underlined vowel: i.

despises

Underlined vowel: i.

benign

Underlined vowel: i.

prejudices

Underlined vowel: i.

Resposta: prejudices - Underlined vowel: i.

f) unites

Underlined vowel: u.

security

Underlined vowel: u.

destruction
Underlined vowel: u.

humanity

Underlined vowel: u.

Resposta: destruction - Underlined vowel: u.

2. Listen again and check your answers.

Fim do complemento.

53

MORE FOOD FOR THOUGHT

1. Read the quote below from Kofi Annan, United Nations Secretary-General
from 1997 to 2006. Then discuss the following questions with a classmate.

"Ignorance and prejudice are the handmaidens of propaganda. Our mission,


therefore, is to confront ignorance with knowledge, bigotry with tolerance, and
isolation with the outstretched hand of generosity. Racism can, will, and must
be defeated."

Kofi Annan

FONTE: Available at: www.goodreads.com/quotes/134621-ignorance-and-


prejudice-are-the-handmaidens-of-propaganda-our-mission. Accessed on:
January 29, 2016. (Fotografia) Jamie McCarthy/WireImage/Getty Images

a) Do you agree with his definitions of ignorance and prejudice?

b) Do you know anyone who has been a victim of prejudice? If so, how did that
person feel? And how did you feel about it?

c) What can you do to change the behavior of someone who has any prejudice
against anyone or any group?

Personal answers.

2. Read the text below to learn more about prejudice. Then answer the following
questions together with a classmate. Use your notebook to do that.

How to Fight Against Prejudice


Prejudice can be found at any time and in any society. People have prejudice
about another race, religion, nation and even about people who look different
from them. It is known that prejudice appears when there is a lack of
knowledge. That's because not enough knowledge leads to a generalization,
which is the root of every prejudice. Once people establish their general
judgment about one particular group of people, they tend to keep their beliefs
alive by ignoring facts that might spoil their judgment. They don't want to learn,
because learning is generally hard and, what is more dangerous, it might also
destroy their beliefs. People with prejudice never compare one individual to
another, but one whole group to another group. But, what if there is nothing to
compare?

Imagine yourself in a foreign country, far enough to present big cultural


differences between you and inhabitants of that country. What would happen
with any prejudice you might have? Could it still exist? If there is nothing to
compare, your prejudice will simply disappear because it will become invalid.

Next time, when you find yourself in a situation in which you have to fight
against prejudice, try to imagine people of that group isolated from the others.
That way you can successfully fight against any prejudice.

Available at: http://ocw.usu.edu/English/introduction-to-writing-academic-


prose/how-to-fight-against-prejudice.html. Accessed on: January 29, 2016.
(Fragment).

a) Is prejudice a recent issue?

Resposta: No, it can be found at any time.

b) What kinds of prejudice are mentioned in the text? What other kinds of
prejudice do you know about?

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que eles já podem começar a


pensar em ideias para o Project 1. Vá até a página 81 e explique-lhes
brevemente o projeto. Possible answers: The text mentions prejudice about
another race, religion, nation and about people who look different from you. But
there is also prejudice related to gender, age, disease, disability, sexual
orientation, social class, appearance, etc. Fim da observação.
c) According to the text, what is the root of every prejudice? Do you agree with
it?

Resposta: The root of prejudice is the lack of knowledge about a certain person
or group, which leads to generalization. Personal answer.

d) Should we generalize and stereotype people? Why (not)?

Resposta: No, we shouldn't. Personal answer.

e) What advice is given in the last paragraph? Do you think it's good advice?

Resposta: Don't compare groups of people to other groups, but imagine people
of that group isolated from the others. Personal answer.

Boxe complementar:

Project

This activity's content could be useful for Project 1, on page 81. You may start
taking notes and developing your ideas about it.

Fim do complemento.

54

WORD STUDY

Word Building: Suffixes -al, -less and -able

Read the sentences below, taken from the text on page 51, paying close
attention to the words in bold. Then do the following activities in your notebook.

"Humanity cannot afford to waste its financial and emotional resources on


endless, meaningless quarrels between each group and all others."

Words in bold: financial; emocional; endless; meaningless.

"I am for cultural diversity and would be willing to see each recognizable group
value its cultural heritage."

Word in bold: recognizable.

1. The words financial and emotional come from the nouns finance and
emotion and are formed with the suffix -al, which is used to form

- adjectives.
- adverbs.

- verbs.

Resposta correta: adjectives.

Atenção professor: Peça aos alunos que voltem ao texto da página 51 e


procurem mais um exemplo de adjetivo formado com esse sufixo (cultural). Fim
da observação.

2. The words endless and meaningless are formed with the suffix -less, which
means

- without.

- excessively.

- few.

Resposta correta: without.

Atenção professor: Pergunte aos alunos se eles se lembram de outras palavras


com esse sufixo (homeless, fearless, helpless etc.). Na primeira Unidade deste
livro a palavra harmless foi vista. Fim da observação.

3. The suffix that expresses the opposite idea of the suffix -less is

- -able, as in recognizable and available.

- -ful, as in peaceful and beautiful.

- -ity, as in humanity and community.

Resposta correta: -ful, as in peaceful and beautiful.

Atenção professor: Pergunte aos alunos se eles se lembram de outras palavras


com esses sufixos (comfortable, helpful, cheerful, immunity etc.). Fim da
observação.

4. The word recognizable comes from the verb recognize and is formed with
the suffix -able, which is used to form

- nouns.

- adjectives.

- adverbs.
Resposta correta: adjectives.

5. Go back to the text and find an expression that corresponds to "a world we
can live in".

Resposta: A livable world.

FONTES DAS FOTOGRAFIAS: (1) Rawpixel.com/Shutterstock (2) Firma


V/Shutterstock (3) espies/Shutterstock (4) Rawpixel.com/Shutterstock (5)
Rawpixel.com/Shutterstock

Phrasal Verbs

In Unit 1 we learned some multi-word verbs, or phrasal verbs. Some of those


verbs can be found in the text on page 51. Read the sentences below and use
the box to identify the meaning of each phrasal verb in bold. Use the context to
help you.

Box:

establishes - destroy them completely - divided

End of box.

a) 'The Earth should not be cut up into hundreds of different sections [...]."

Phrasal verb in bold: cut up.

Resposta: divided

b) "I'm against it if it means that each group despises others and lusts to wipe
them out."

Phrasal verb in bold: wipe them out.

Resposta: destroy them completely

c) "I am not a Zionist, then, because I don't believe in nations, and because
Zionism merely sets up one more nation to trouble the world."

Phrasal verb in bold: stes up.

Resposta: establishes

55

Like, Likely and Alike


1. Read the following quotes about globalism and prejudice. One of them is
from Isaac Asimov. After that, in your notebook, complete the table with like,
likely and alike, according to their meanings.

"There must be a sense of globalism in which the world unites to solve the real
problems that face all groups alike."

Isaac Asimov

"Prejudice is like a hair across your cheek. You can't see it, you can't find it with
your fingers, but you keep brushing at it because the feel of it is irritating."

Marian Anderson

"The less secure a man is, the more likely he is to have extreme prejudice."

Clint Eastwood

Available at: www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/prejudice. Accessed on:


January 29, 2016.

Tabela: equivalente textual a seguir.

similar to: ____ probable; probably: ____ in the same way: ____

Resposta: like; likely; alike

2. Discuss with a classmate: Do you agree with the quotes above? Why (not)?

Personal answers.

In Other Words

Match the words from the text on page 51 to their equivalents. Go back to the
text and read the words in their context. This will help you infer their meanings.

a) welfare (l. 2)

b) paramount (l. 3)

c) benign (l. 8)

d) despises (l. 9)

e) lusts (l. 9)

f) threaten (l. 12)


1) hates, has no respect for

2) wants something very much

3) more important than the others

4) is likely to cause harm

5) good care and living conditions

6) kind and nice

Resposta: a) 5); b) 3); c) 6); d) 1); e) 2); f) 4)

LANGUAGE STUDY

Modal Verbs: Must and Might

1. We started studying modal verbs in Unit 1 and we have learned that they are
used as auxiliary verbs, before other verbs in the base form, to add an idea
such as possibility, ability, permission, etc. to the meaning of the verb. Read the
two sentences below, taken from the text on page 51, paying close attention to
the words in bold. Then do the following activities in your notebook.

"There must be a sense of globalism."

Word in bold: must.

"[...] It sets up one more nation to have 'rights' and 'demands' and 'national
security' and to feel it must guard itself against its neighbors."

Word in bold: must.

a) The modal verb must expresses

- necessity or strong obligation.

- probability.

- ability/capacity.

Resposta correta: necessity or strong obligation.

b) Choose the correct options (more than one). According to Asimov,

Atenção professor: Chame a atenção dos alunos para a forma negativa de


must: must not/mustn't, expressando proibição, aquilo que não pode/deve ser
feito. Fim da observação.
- people must not create more nations.

- people mustn't start wars.

- people must stay away from their neighbors.

Resposta correta: people must not create more nations; people mustn't start
wars.

56

2. Read the two excerpts below, taken from the text on page 53, paying close
attention to the words in bold. Then do the following activities in your notebook.

"[...] they tend to keep their beliefs alive by ignoring facts that might spoil their
judgment. They don't want to learn, because learning is generally hard and,
what is more dangerous, it might also destroy their beliefs."

Words in bold: might; might.

"What would happen with any prejudice you might have?"

Word in bold: might.

a) In that context, the modal verb might expresses

- permission.

- remote probability.

- strong obligation.

Resposta correta: remote probability.

b) Transcribe the correct option according to the excerpts above.

- Some people stick to their prejudices even when faced with facts that might
show their attitude is wrong.

- People who have prejudice might not ignore facts.

- Those people might have to change their attitude in the future.

Resposta correta: Some people stick to their prejudices even when faced with
facts that might show their attitude is wrong.

Modal Verbs Revision: Will, Would, Can, Could and Should


Observação: To learn more about Modal Auxiliary Verbs, go to page 144. Fim
da observação.

As we have seen, modal verbs can have more than one meaning. What ideas
do the modal verbs in bold express in the following sentences, taken from the
previous texts? The same idea may be applied more than once. Use the context
to help you and choose from the box. There is one extra meaning.

Box:

prediction - possibility - permission - ability/capacity - advice/moral


obligation/the right thing to do - conditional/result of a hypothetical situation -
logical impossibility/prohibition - possibility in a hypothetical situation

End of box.

a) "Can that be done?"

Modal verb in bold: Can.

Resposta: possibility

b) "The question is equivalent to: Can humanity survive?"

Modal verb in bold: Can.

Resposta: ability/capacity

c) "The Earth should not be cut up into hundreds of different sections."

Modal verbs in bold: should not.

Resposta: advice/moral obligation/the right thing to do

d) "[...] And if we don't come to understand that right soon, there will be no
nations, because there will be no humanity."

Modal verbs in bold: will; will.

Resposta: prediction

e) "I am all for cultural diversity and would be willing to see each recognizable
group value its cultural heritage. [...] and if I lived in Los Angeles, I would love
to get together with other New York expatriates and sing "Give My Regards to
Broadway"."
Modal verbs in bold: would; would.

Resposta: conditional/result of a hypothetical situation

f) "Could it still exist? If there is nothing to compare, your prejudice will simply
disappear because it will become invalid."

Modal verbs in bold: Could; will; will.

Resposta: could: possibility in a hypothetical situation; will: prediction

g) "Humanity cannot afford to waste its financial and emotional resources [...]"

Modal verb in bold: cannot.

Resposta: logical impossibility/prohibition

h) "This sort of thing, however, should remain cultural and benign."

Modal verb in bold: should.

Resposta: advice/moral obligation/the right thing to do

LET'S PRACTICE

1. The following quotes are all from Isaac Asimov. Choose the option that
contains the idea expressed by each modal verb in bold.

a) "If knowledge can create problems, it is not through ignorance that we can
solve them."

Modal verb in bold: can; can.

- possibility; capacity/ability

- capacity; permission

Resposta correta: possibility; capacity/ability

b) "I write for the same reason I breathe - because if I didn't, I would die."

Modal verb in bold: would.

- result of a hypothetical situation

- result of a real situation

Resposta correta: result of a hypothetical situation

57
c) "Your assumptions are your windows on the world. Scrub them off every
once in a while, or the light won't come in."

Modal verb in bold: won't.

- future positive event

- future negative event

Resposta correta: future negative event.

d) "A few years ago, the idea of a computer you could put in your pocket was
just science fiction."

Modal verb in bold: could.

- capacity or possibility in the past

- permission in the past

Resposta correta: capacity or possibility in the past.

e) "People think of education as something they can finish."

Modal verb in bold: can.

- capacity/ability

- advice

Resposta correta: capacity/ability.

f) "It is the writer who might be able to catch the imagination of young people,
and plant a seed that will flower and come to fruition."

Modal verbs in bold: might; will.

- remote probability; certainty about a future event

- obligation; prediction

Resposta correta: remote probability; certainty about a future event.

Available at: www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/16667.Isaac_Asimov.


Accessed on: January 29, 2016.

2. Choose two quotes from the previous activity you consider the most
interesting ones. Now explain to a classmate why you consider them
interesting.
Personal answers.

3. Do you know what bullying is? Would you say it is related to prejudice? Read
the texts below, choose the best option to complete each of them and write the
answers down in your notebook.

Atenção professor: Inicie uma discussão a respeito de bullying antes de os


alunos começarem a realizar a atividade, perguntando, por exemplo, o que é,
se está relacionado com algum tipo de preconceito, quais tipos de bullying
existem, se isso é um problema na escola onde estudam, quais impactos causa
à pessoa que o sofre, como reduzir essa prática no ambiente escolar etc. Fim
da observação.

FONTE: karen roach/Shutterstock

1) Bullying is a repeated aggressive behavior where one person (or group of


people) in a position of power deliberately intimidates, abuses, or coerces an
individual with the intention to hurt that person physically or emotionally. Acts of
bullying can/must/should be physical or verbal.

Available at: http://preventingbullying.promoteprevent.org/what-bullying.


Accessed on: January 29, 2016. (Fragment).

Resposta: can

2) Bullying stops us from being who we want to be, and prevents us from
expressing ourselves freely, and must/might/will even make us feel unsafe. If
you are bullied, say something!

Available at: www.stopbullying.gov/what-you-can-do/teens/. Accessed on:


January 29, 2016. (Fragment).

Resposta: might

3) Remember, bullying does not only happen at school. It may/should/must


happen anywhere, including through texting, the Internet and social media.

Available at: www.stopbullying.gov/what-you-can-do/teens/. Accessed on:


January 29, 2016. (Fragment).

Resposta: may
4) Why might/must/can bullying stop? Bullying is the worst thing that
should/can/would happen in a school. It does more long-term harm to an
individual than anything else, as I know from bitter experience.

Available at: www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/3312408/Why-the-


bullying-must-stop.html. Accessed on: January 29, 2016. (Fragment).

Resposta: must, can

Boxe complementar:

Project

This activity's content could be useful for Project 1, on page 81. You may start
taking notes and developing your ideas about it.

Fim do complemento.

58

4. Answer the following questions according to the texts from the previous
activity. Then compare your answers with a classmate's.

Which text

a) was written by a person who used to be a bullying victim?

Resposta: 4

b) encourages people to report bullying?

Resposta: 2

c) describes bullying?

Resposta: 1

d) mentions the consequences of bullying?

Resposta: 2, 4

e) mentions where bullying can happen?

Resposta: 3, 4

WRITING

1. Discuss the following questions in small groups.


a) Does bullying happen in your school?

b) Have you ever been bullied? How did you feel?

c) Have you ever bullied anyone? Why (not)? How do you feel about that?

d) What harm can a bullied person suffer?

e) What should you do when you see someone being bullied?

Personal answers.

2. Look at the poster below and answer the following questions in your
notebook.

Atenção professor: Chame a atenção dos alunos para o jogo de palavras em


Don't just stand there, em que stand funciona como verbo e tem o sentido de
ficar parado, e Take a stand against bullying, em que stand funciona como
substantivo e tem o sentido de atitude, posição (take a stand = tomar uma
atitude, posição). Fim da observação.

FONTE: Available at: www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-anti-bullying-poster-


image9997420. Accessed on: January 29, 2016. CRÉDITOS: Mark
Bonett/Dreamstime/Isuzu Imagens

a) Where is the poster probably displayed?

Resposta: In a school.

b) What do those red signs mean?

Resposta: They mean those things (rumors, threats, stealing, etc.) are not
allowed.

c) What should bullying victims or bullying witnesses do about it?

Resposta: Speak up, that is, tell someone, tell their teacher and their family.

Observação: Rumours is the spelling used in the UK (United Kingdom) and in


most other countries which are former British colonies (Australia, India, South
Africa, Nigeria, Kenya, Jamaica, etc.). Rumors is the spelling used in the USA.
Fim da observação.

59
3. Now it's time to think about your own school. Write down a list of rules that
must be followed in class. These rules must aim at the welfare and good
relationship among students and between students and teacher. The rules
could be made public, besides being displayed on the class bulletin board.

- Discuss some ideas with your classmates.

- Write the draft of your rules. Remember to use the modal verbs and the
vocabulary you learned.

- Ask a classmate to read your draft. Get some feedback.

- Rewrite your rules using the feedback you had as a basis and make any
improvements or necessary corrections.

- Proofread your work.

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos a importância de fazer um


rascunho quando se escreve um texto. Nesse rascunho, podem-se inserir as
ideias mais básicas e algumas palavras-chave que serão desenvolvidas
futuramente. Diga-lhes que, depois de pronto, é interessante partilhar com os
colegas e receber um retorno deles e do professor. Comente também que,
após a reescrita do texto, deve-se revisar o trabalho para evitar erros e, por fim,
passá-lo a limpo. Lembre aos alunos que a troca de rascunhos e o retorno com
as impressões entre eles é uma oportunidade de colaboração, em que
compartilham conhecimentos e um contribui para enriquecer o trabalho do
outro. Dessa forma, eles passam a perceber que o professor não é a única
pessoa a quem eles podem recorrer para pedir ajuda. Fim da observação.

LISTENING

BEFORE YOU LISTEN

1. We have learned that bullying can happen in different places. When it


happens online, as on social networks, for example, it is called

- cyberbullying.

- physical bullying.

- verbal bullying.

Resposta correta: cyberbullying.


2. In your opinion, what should we do when communicating online?

- Be polite.

- Make fun of people.

- Spread gossip and rumors.

- Treat people the way we would like to be treated.

Resposta correta: Be polite; Treat people the way we would like to be treated.

FONTE: Reprodução/www.kidshelpphone.ca

AS YOU LISTEN

Listen to an audio from an educational video about cyberbullying and do the


following activities.

Atenção professor: Antes de reproduzir o áudio, peça aos alunos que leiam a
atividade a que precisarão responder. Dessa forma, eles ficam mais atentos às
informações das quais precisam enquanto ouvem a faixa. Outra sugestão é
reproduzir o áudio três vezes: na primeira, peça aos alunos que tentem
entender a ideia geral do texto que vão ouvir. Na segunda, eles devem procurar
responder às atividades. Na terceira, verificam suas respostas e tentam
identificar as informações que ainda não haviam conseguido compreender
anteriormente. Diga a eles que, como na leitura, não é preciso que
compreendam todas as palavras que ouvirem, mas é importante que consigam
entender a ideia central e algumas informações específicas para responder às
questões propostas. A transcrição do áudio está na seção Audio Scripts do
Manual do Professor. Fim da observação.

1. Transcribe the correct option. Cyberbullying is a lose-lose situation, that is,

- the bullying victim can become violent.

- the bullying victim feels bad and the bully looks bad.

- both the bullying victim and the bully lose access to the Internet.

Resposta correta: the bullying victim feels bad and the bully looks bad.

2. In your notebook, complete the following statements.

a) When someone is being cyberbullied, she or he should ____.


Possible answers: block or ignore the bully; save the evidences; speak up.

b) When someone is being cyberbullied, she or he shouldn't ____.

Possible answers: respond; be afraid to stand up for herself/himself.

AFTER YOU LISTEN

Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

a) What would you do if you saw someone being cyberbullied on a social


network?

b) Do you think bullies should be punished? Why (not)? How?

Personal answers.

60

Atenção professor: Se achar conveniente, convide os alunos a formular


possíveis perguntas que o turista faria ao morador local e escreva-as no quadro
para que eles se guiem enquanto realizam a atividade. Lembre-lhes também
que, por se tratar de um diálogo, eles devem começar a conversa com um
cumprimento e/ou se apresentando e terminá-la com uma despedida ou um
agradecimento. Se necessário, escreva algumas expressões úteis no quadro
para orientar os alunos. Depois que eles tiverem realizado o role play com suas
duplas, incentive uma discussão com toda a turma para que partilhem com os
colegas o que disseram a respeito da sua cultura. Fim da observação.

SPEAKING

We have been talking about culture and cultural diversity. Now it's time to talk
about our own culture. Imagine there is a foreign tourist in your city and she/he
wants to learn more about our culture. Get together with a classmate and follow
the guidelines:

Student A:

You are a foreign tourist in Brazil and you want to get to know Brazilian culture
better. Talk to a local (Student B) and ask questions about her/his customs,
habits, traditions, etc.

Student B:
You've just met a foreign tourist (Student A) who wants to learn about your
culture. Talk to her/him and answer her/his questions about your country, city
and culture.

FONTE: XIIXII WORKS/Shutterstock

THINK ABOUT IT

1. Read the text below and do the activities that follow.

Atenção professor: Antes de os alunos começarem a leitura do texto, peça que


observem a imagem, o título e a fonte. Pergunte a eles qual a possível relação
entre o assunto abordado no texto e o tema da Unidade. Incentive-os ainda a
fazer previsões a respeito do que vão ler. Explique aos alunos que a palavra
people pode ter dois sentidos:1. pessoas (plural de person) 2. povo (cujo plural
é peoples). No sentido de pessoas, people já é plural e não tem a desinência
em s. There were between 2 and 4 million people (e não peoples) living in this
territory in 1500. No sentido de povo, a palavra tem plural: peoples. There were
more than 1.000 denominations or Indigenous peoples in Brazil at that time.
Fim da observação.

Indigenous Peoples

Brazil turned 500 in 2000 and still ignores the immense diversity of the
Indigenous peoples living in its territory. It is estimated that, at the time the
Europeans first arrived, there were more than 1.000 denominations, with a total
of between 2 and 4 million people. Today they are 246 peoples, speaking more
than 150 different languages and adding up to 896 917 individuals (IBGE,
2010). [...]

In the perspective of those who already lived in a given area, the historical
process of colonization and constitution of new nations was extremely violent:
extinction of entire peoples, demographic decimation, land seizures, destruction
of traditional means of physical and cultural survival, disappearance of
particular ethnic identities within the new national societies in formation...

After such a long time, so much oppression and, in many cases, miscegenation,
there is a problem regarding Indigenous peoples: how is it possible to identify
clearly persons and groups of persons who are native to these places and those
who are not?

The answer to this fundamental question is not simple. It has to do with


recognition of special rights, the struggle for compensations for historical
injustices, and conflicts of interests regarding the possession of certain areas or
to the exploitation of natural resources. [...]

In Brazil, the most accepted criterion nowadays is that of ethnic


selfidentification. In other words: it is considered Indigenous any member of a
group of people who identify themselves as a collectivity distinct from the
national society as a whole due to their historical links to pre-Columbian
populations (i.e., populations that existed before Columbus first arrived in
America, in 1492).

FONTE: Available at: http://pib.socioambiental.org/en/c/no-brasil-atual/quem-


sao/povos-indigenas. Accessed on: February 23, 2016. (Fragment). (Fotografia)
Edson Grandisoli/Pulsar Imagens CRÉDITOS: Reprodução/Instituto
Socioambiental

Observação: Generically, the Indigenous peoples that live not only in Brazil but
also in the entire American continent are called Indians. This name is the result
of a historical mistake made by the first Europeans who arrived in America, who
thought they had reached India. Because of the similitude among Indians from
North, Central and South America, there are those who prefer to call all of them
Amerindians.

Available at: http://pib.socioambiental.org/en/c/no-brasil-atual/quem-sao/povos-


indigenas. Accessed on: February 23, 2016. Fim da observação.

61

2. Identify the correct statements (more than one), according to the text. Use
your notebook for that.

- The process of colonization in Brazil was not peaceful at all.

- The Indigenous peoples in Brazil have been oppressed for a long time.

- The Indigenous peoples have faced historical injustices and have been
struggling for compensation.
- Pre-Columbian populations are not considered Indigenous.

Resposta correta: The process of colonization in Brazil was not peaceful at all;
The Indigenous peoples in Brazil have been oppressed for a long time; The
Indigenous peoples have faced historical injustices and have been struggling for
compensation.

3. Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

a) What's the criterion to identify an Indigenous person in Brazil?

Resposta: It's ethnic self-identification

b) Isaac Asimov believed in humanity and he used to say that humanity must
unite, without losing its diversity. Do you think Brazil, so diverse both in cultural
and ethnic terms, is a united country?

Personal answer.

c) Can you see any similarity between Isaac Asimov's ideas regarding the
creation of new nations and the process of colonization? Justify.

Possible answer: Asimov thought that the creation of new nations causes
conflicts among people and generates violence. Similarly, the process of
colonization and the constitution of new nations mentioned in the text was
violent, causing the extinction of entire peoples, demographic decimation, land
seizures, destruction of traditional means of physical and cultural survival,
disappearance of particular ethnic identities within the new national societies in
formation, etc.

d) Many Brazilians have Indigenous ancestry of some kind. Do you have some
sort of Indigenous ancestry?

Personal answer.

e) Is there any Indigenous area near the region where you live?

Personal answer.

f) Indigenous peoples certainly have a right to live according to their traditions.


What would you say is the best way to make sure that right is respected?

Personal answer.
g) What can you and your classmates do to raise awareness of the rights of the
Indigenous peoples in Brazil?

Personal answer.

SELF-ASSESSMENT

1. Evaluate your performance in this Unit. In your notebook, give yourself a


score from 1 to 5 for each of the topics below.

Atenção professor: Incentive os alunos a refletir a respeito de sua


aprendizagem, da execução das atividades e do seu desempenho em aula.
Fim da observação.

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

I can...

a) read and understand a text about humanity.

b) understand and use the modals must and might.

c) write down a list of classroom rules.

d) understand an audio from an educational video about


cyberbullying.

e) talk to a foreign tourist about my culture.

1. poor

2. not so good

3. good

4. very good

5. excellent

2. Take a look at the items in activity 1 in which you gave yourself a score of 1
or 2. Talk to a classmate and think of what you can do to improve your
performance. Then discuss your ideas with your teacher.
Atenção professor: Ao discutir com os alunos o que pode ser feito para a
melhoria do desempenho em aula, conscientize-os de que com a autoavaliação
é possível obter um diagnóstico mais preciso em relação ao aproveitamento
deles quanto ao conteúdo e às habilidades trabalhadas. Fim da observação.

KEEP EXPLORING

Book: WILLIG, Ivann. Grades do preconceito. Rio de Janeiro: Multifoco, 2001.

Movies: O ANO em que meus pais saíram de férias. Direção de Cao


Hamburger. Produção: Caio Gullane. Brasil: Films Distribution, 2006. 1 DVD.

XINGU. Direção de Cao Hamburger. Produção: Fernando Meirelles. Brasil: O2


Filmes, 2012. 1 DVD.

Website: Stop Bullying: www.stopbullying.gov. Accessed on: January 29, 2016.

62

UNIT 4 - Hi! You Must Be a Robot...

Nesta Unidade você vai:

- Discutir e refletir a respeito da interação entre robôs e humanos;

- Compreender e usar os verbos modais must, ought to e a expressão


verbal have to;

- Explorar scripts de filme;

- Relacionar os conteúdos com a disciplina de Filosofia.

63

FONTE: Willyam Bradberry/Shutterstock

Observe the picture below and discuss the following questions with your
classmates.

a) What comes to your mind when you hear the word robot?

b) Have you seen any movies involving robots? Which one(s)? How were
the robots shown?

c) What do you think the picture below is showing?


d) What kind of interaction do humans have with robots? Which ones
would you like to have?

Personal answers.

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que em 1920 Karl Capek, um


dramaturgo da República Tcheca, escreveu R. U. R., uma peça de teatro na
qual robôs são produzidos para servir pessoas, até que eles se rebelam e
extinguem a raça humana (robô, em tcheco, significa "trabalho repetitivo"). Foi
uma das primeiras vezes em que a palavra robot foi utilizada. Fim da
observação.

64

LET'S START

1. There are many different kinds of robots. Some of them are shown below. In
your notebook, label them appropriately, using the words from the box.

Box:

medical robot - space robot - domestic/household robot - military robot -


industrial robots

End of box.

FONTE: Dario Pignatelli/Bloomberg/Getty Images

FONTE: Lalo de Almeida/Folhapress

FONTE: Yoshikazu Tsuno/Agência France-Presse

FONTE: Henning Dalhoff/SPL/Latinstock

FONTE: Luis Acosta/Agência France-Presse

Resposta: a) industrial robots; b) medical robot; c) domestic/household robot; d)


space robot; e) military robot

2. Read the text below and complete it with the words from the box. Write them
down in your notebook.

Box:

legs - explore - mankind - dangerous - repetitive - factories - medicine


End of box.

What do Robots do?

Most robots today are used to do (a) actions or jobs considered too (b) for
humans. Robots are also used in (c) to build things like cars, candy bars, and
electronics. Robots are now used in (d), for military tactics, for finding objects
underwater and to (e) other planets. Robotic technology has helped people who
have lost arms or (f). Robots are a great tool to help (g).

Available at: http://idahoptv.org/sciencetrek/topics/robots/facts.cfm. Accessed


on: November 14, 2015. (Fragment).

Resposta: (a) repetitive; (b) dangerous; (c) factories; (d) medicine; (e) explore;
(f) legs; (g) mankind

3. Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

a) Does the text in the previous activity present a positive or a negative view of
robots? Justify your answer.

Possible answer: The text presents a positive view of robots, pointing out how
they are useful to mankind.

b) Do you think robots can be considered dangerous, a threat to mankind? Why


(not)?

Personal answers.

65

READING

BEFORE YOU READ

1. A.I. Artificial Intelligence is a 2001 movie directed by Steven Spielberg. Look


at the movie poster below and answer the questions: Have you ever seen this
movie? If so, what is it about? If not, what kind of movie do you think it is?

FONTE: Reprodução/Warner Bros

Personal answers.
Atenção professor: Permita que os alunos manifestem suas hipóteses e
opiniões. Em seguida, comente com eles que se trata de um filme de ficção
científica (science-fiction ou sci-fi). Fim da observação.

2. Take a look at the text on page 66. By observing its form and layout we can
say it is part of a

- movie review, that is, an article that describes and evaluates a movie.

- movie script, that is, a document that contains the dialogues between the
movie characters.

Resposta correta: movie script, that is, a document that contains the dialogues
between the movie characters.

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que o script (roteiro) também pode
conter indicação do cenário e indicação para os atores quanto à entonação de
voz e à atitude corporal. O script serve de base para o trabalho dos atores,
diretores, técnicos e outras pessoas envolvidas na produção do filme, peça de
teatro, novela etc. Fim da observação.

3. Read the plot of the movie and, in your notebook, draw a chart completing it
with the missing information.

In the late 21st century, global warming has flooded coastlines, and a drastic
reduction of the human population has occurred. There is a new class of robots
called Mecha, advanced humanoids capable of emulating thoughts and
emotions. David, a prototype model created by Cybertronics, is designed to
resemble a human child and to display love for its human owners. They test
their creation with one of their employees, Henry Swinton, and his wife Monica.
The Swintons' son, Martin, was placed in suspended animation until a cure can
be found for his rare disease, which is caused by the Sinclair virus. Although
Monica is initially frightened of David, she eventually warms enough to him to
activate his imprinting protocol, which irreversibly causes David to project love
for her, the same as any child would love a parent.

Available at: http://id.priceaz.com/price/film-artificial-intelligence-


53eea406d481be18543304ff.html?ref=pricelist. Accessed on: November 14,
2015. (Fragment).
a) Time when the story is set.

Resposta: Late 21st century

b) Problem the Earth is facing at that time.

Resposta: Drastic reduction of the human population caused by global warming

c) Name of the new class of robots.

Resposta: Mecha

d) Name of the company that creates the robots.

Resposta: Cybertronics

e) Characteristics of the robots.

Resposta: They resemble humans and are capable of emulating thoughts and
emotions

f) Name of the robot that resembles a boy.

Resposta: David

g) Name of the couple who adopts the robot boy.

Resposta: Henry and Monica Swinton

h) Name of the couple's real child.

Resposta: Martin.

4. Many things happen throughout the story. Read the text below about the end
of the story and answer the following questions.

Two thousand years later, humans are extinct. The now highly advanced Mecha
have evolved into an intelligent, silicon-based form. On their project to studying
humans they find David and discover he is an original Mecha who knew living
humans. Having downloaded and comprehended his memories, the advanced
Mecha use these to reconstruct the Swintons home and explain to David that it
is impossible to make him human. At David's insistence, however, they recreate
Monica, but the clone can only live for a single day. David spends the happiest
day of his life with Monica.
Available at: www.ebooklibrary.org/articles/Artificial_Intelligence:_A.I. Accessed
on: November 19, 2015. (Fragment).

a) What happened to the Mecha robots?

Resposta: They evolved into an intelligent, silicon-based form.;

b) Does the story have a happy ending for humans? Why (not)?

Resposta: No, because humans are extinct.

c) Does it have a happy ending for David? Why (not)?

Resposta: Yes, because he spends one final happy day with Monica (in fact,
Monica's clone).

66

AS YOU READ

You are going to read two parts of the movie script. The first part is from the
beginning of the movie, the second part is from one of the movie's last scenes.

MASTER BEDROOM

[...]

MONICA

I can't accept this! There is no substitute for your own child!

HENRY

You don't have to accept it or even try - it's not too late to take him back! [...] I'll
do whatever you want me to do! [...]

MONICA

I don't know... what to do.

HENRY

I know, I know. I'll return him to Cybertronics first thing in the morning, it's gone.

MONICA

Good. I mean, Henry, did you see his face? He's, he's so real. But he's not... [...]
I mean, inside he's like all the rest, isn't he?
HENRY

A hundred miles of fiber, yeah. [...] If you decide to keep him, there's an
imprinting protocol consisting of a code string of seven particular words which
need to be spoken to David in the predefined order that's been printed here.
Now Monica, for our own protection, this imprinting is irreversible. The robot
child's love would be sealed, in a sense hardwired, and we'd be part of him
forever. Because of this, after imprinting, no Mecha child can be resold. If an
adoptive parent should ever decide not to keep the child, they must return it to
Cybertronics for destruction. Now there are a few simple procedures we need to
follow until you're entirely sure.

MONICA

Silly man. Of course, I'm not sure.

MASTER BEDROOM

DAVID

I found you. [...]

MONICA

How long have I...

DAVID

Would you like some coffee? Just the way you like it?

MONICA

Yeah, I'd love a coffee. It'll wake me up.

DAVID

Okay.

MONICA

You never forget how, do you?

DAVID

No. I never forget.

MONICA
I must be a little confused. What day is it?

DAVID

It is today!

NARRATOR

And as the day wore on, David thought it was the happiest day of his life.

[...]

Available at: http://sfy.ru/?script=ai_ts. Accessed on: November 19, 2015.


(Fragment).

67

General Comprehension

1. What's it all about? Choose the best answer.

The main idea in the movie A.I. Artificial Intelligence is that

- humans should never be worried about being replaced by thinking machines.

- robots are here to stay and there's nothing we can do about it.

- humanity will eventually become extinct and robots will take over.

- artificial intelligence may become a dilemma that humanity will have to face.

Resposta correta: artificial intelligence may become a dilemma that humanity


will have to face.

2. In the first part of the script, Henry and Monica are

- arguing about their relationship.

- planning to replace their real child with a robot.

- deciding whether to keep the robot child or not.

- discussing about Henry's position in the company he works.

Resposta correta: deciding whether to keep the robot child or not.

3. In the second part of the script

- Monica says it's the happiest day of her life.

- Monica blames David for making her confused.


- David asks Monica to prepare him some breakfast.

- David wakes Monica up and they spend a great day together.

Resposta correta: David wakes Monica up and they spend a great day together.

Detailed Comprehension

1. Choose the correct options according to the two parts of the movie script.
Write them down in your notebook.

- David wants to please Monica.

- Henry forces Monica to keep David.

- Monica is pretty sure about adopting a robot.

- When adopting a robot, it's necessary to imprint a code into the robot, which
will make it love its owners.

Resposta correta: David wants to please Monica; When adopting a robot, it's
necessary to imprint a code into the robot, which will make it love its owners.

2. Use your notebook to answer this question: If the owners of a robot don't
want it anymore, what must they do?

Resposta: They must return it to Cybertronics for destruction.

3. Read the text on page 66 again and, in your notebook, transcribe an excerpt
that shows

a) a description of David's appearance.

Possible answer: "Henry, did you see his face? He's, he's so real.".

b) Monica's resistance to the idea of adopting David.

Possible answer: "I can't accept this! There is no substitute for your own child!".

AFTER YOU READ

1. Discuss the following questions in small groups.

a) Do you think robots can have emotions?

b) Do you think it is possible for humans to love robots?

c) Do you think people will be replaced by robots someday?


Personal answers.

2. Read the passage below. Do you agree with it? Why (not)?

"A.I. is not about humans at all. It is about the dilemma of artificial intelligence. A
thinking machine cannot think. All it can do is run programs that may be
sophisticated enough for it to fool us by seeming to think."

Available at: www.rogerebert.com/reviews/great-movie-ai-artificial-intelligence-


2001. Accessed on: November 15, 2015. (Fragment).

Personal answers.

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que eles já podem começar a


pensar em ideias para o Project 1. Vá até a página 81 e explique-lhes
brevemente o projeto. Fim da observação.

Boxe complementar:

Project 1

This activity's content could be useful for Project 1, on page 81. You may start
taking notes and developing your ideas about it.

Fim do complemento.

68

MORE FOOD FOR THOUGHT

Read the text and discuss the following questions with a classmate.

Putting Humanity Ahead of the Robot Expansion

Are we destined to put technology ahead of humanity? Leaders of people ought


to be equipped to handle the continued onslaught of technology innovation. We
mustn't allow the machine to replace the true purpose of an organization. We
mustn't abdicate the responsibility of leadership so advanced machinery
supplants the very basis of civilization. The workplace will not survive if we put
machine before man or woman. [...]

We must put humanity ahead of and before the technology expansion. Perhaps
we humans should aim to be the next "us", rather than developing intelligence
machines that we plan to build to replace us. Let "us" put the machine in its
place. If we want that to happen - if we want to enhance our own humanity in
concert with the technology - leaders best begin the process of introducing and
balancing new forms of open and collaborative behaviours with employees and
peers, in parallel with the technologies we are thoughtfully, and thoughtlessly,
introducing to society.

FONTE: Available at: www.forbes.com/sites/danpontefract/2015/07/20/putting-


humanity-ahead-of-the-robot-expansion/. Accessed on: November 14, 2015.
(Fragment).

a) Does the author have a positive or a negative view about the robot
expansion?

Resposta: He has a negative view.

b) What is he concerned about?

Possible answer: He is concerned about robots replacing or being ahead of


human beings in the workplace.

c) Which of the statements below are aligned with the author's point of view?

- We should develop machines that replace us in our jobs.

- We are introducing some technologies to society without considering their


impacts on employees.

- Company leaders need to deal with the everyday technological innovations.

Resposta correta: We are introducing some technologies to society without


considering their impacts on employees; Company leaders need to deal with
the everyday technological innovations.

d) In your opinion, will the robot expansion cause unemployment?

Personal answer.

Boxe complementar:

Pronunciation Tips

Recognizing word stress is a very important part in English pronunciation. Look


at the columns below. Column A shows an example of a word which is stressed
on the first syllable. Column B shows an example of a word where the stress
falls on the second syllable. Column C is an example of a word stressed on
the third syllable.

1. Listen to the words in the box, taken from the texts and add each one to the
appropriate column, as the example given.

Box:

- population - medicine - developing - possible - memories · repetitive -


Cybertronics - dangerous - intelligence - particular - animation

End of box.

Tabela: equivalente textual a seguir.

A- B- C-

factories technology electronics

Resposta: A: medicine, possible, memories, dangerous; B: developing,


repetitive, intelligence, particular; C: population, Cybertronics, animation

2. Listen again and check your answers.

Fim do complemento.

69

WORD STUDY

In Other Words

Read the sentences below, taken from the texts on pages 66 and 68. Use your
notebook to replace the words and phrases in bold with those you find in the
box.

Be careful! Two of those words or phrases will not be necessary.

Box:

a little - nothing - goal - attack - anything - permit - take the place of - do you
want - exactly like - some - should

End of box.

a) "HENRY: I'll do whatever you want me to do!"


Word in bold: whatever.

Resposta: anything

b) "HENRY: Now there are a few simple procedures we need to follow."

Word in bold: a few.

Resposta: some

c) "DAVID: Would you like some coffee? Just the way you like it?"

Phrases in bold: would you like; just the way.

Resposta: Do you want; Exactly like

d) "Leaders of people ought to be equipped to handle the continued onslaught


of technology innovation."

Words in bold: ought to; onslaught.

Resposta: should; attack

e) "We mustn't allow the machine to replace the true purpose of an


organization."

Words in bold: allow; replace; purpose.

Resposta: permit; take the place of; goal

False Cognates

Observação: Na página 157 há uma lista com alguns falsos cognatos que
aparecem neste volume. Vá até lá e interaja com a atividade que deverá ser
realizada ao longo do ano. Fim da observação.

Atenção professor: Oriente os alunos a transcrever a lista de falsos cognatos


da página 157 para o caderno. Ao final de cada Unidade eles devem preencher
a lista com os significados dos falsos cognatos registrados. Essa é uma tarefa
a ser realizada ao longo do ano e servirá ao aluno como fonte de consulta. Fim
da observação.

Read the two sentences below, taken from the text. The words in bold are false
cognates, that is, they are similar in form to words in Portuguese, but their
meanings are different. What do those words mean? Choose the right option in
each sentence. Write it in your notebook.
a) "There's an imprinting protocol consisting of a code string of seven particular
words."

Word in bold: particular.

- particulares, privadas

- específicas, determinadas

- exigentes

- secretas

Resposta correta: específicas, determinadas.

Atenção professor: Ao final da atividade, diga aos alunos que particular, no


sentido de privado, em inglês, corresponde a private e que eventualmente
corresponde a occasionally ou possibly. Fim da observação.

b) "Although Monica is initially frightened of David, she eventually warms


enough to him to activate his imprinting protocol."

Word in bold: eventually.

- por fim, ao final

- eventualmente

- possivelmente

- consequentemente

Resposta correta: por fim, ao final.

Adoptive or Adopted?

1. Observe the word in bold in the sentence below, taken from the text on page
66. Then choose the appropriate options to complete the following statements.
Write them down in your notebook.

Resposta: adoptive; child

"[...] If an adoptive parent should ever decide not to keep the child, they must
return it to Cybertronics for destruction."

Word in bold: adoptive.


Both adoptive and adopted can be translated for adotivo, in Portuguese. We
use adoptive/adopted when we are talking about the parents or the family. We
use adopted in relation to the child/the parents or the family.

2. Rewrite the sentence in your notebook, completing it with adoptive or


adopted, as appropriate.

David is an (a) son. Monica and Henry are David's (b) parents.

Resposta: (a) adopted; (b) adoptive

FONTE: Sarah Holmlund/Shutterstock

70

FONTE: A-R-T/Shutterstock

LANGUAGE STUDY

Must, Have to, Mustn't, Don't/Doesn't Have to, Ought to

What ideas do the verbs in bold express in the following sentences? Choose
the correct option after each sentence. Use the context to help you. Write the
answers in your notebook.

a) "If an adoptive parent should ever decide not to keep the child, they must
return it to Cybertronics for destruction."

Verb in bold: must.

- a rule, an order, a strong obligation

- permission

- ability

- absence of necessity

Resposta correta: a rule, an order, a strong obligation.

b) "You have to sign it too, right here."

Verb in bold: have to.

- a rule, an order, a strong obligation

- advice

- capacity
- a polite request

Resposta correta: a rule, an order, a strong obligation.

c) "Now, I had to sign a letter of agreement or they wouldn't even let you see
David."

Verb in bold: had to.

- ability in the past

- strong obligation fulfilled in the past

- possibility in the past

- permission in the past

Resposta correta: strong obligation fulfilled in the past.

d) "I must be a little confused. What day is it?"

Verb in bold: must.

- necessity

- logical deduction

- advice

- strong obligation

Resposta correta: logical deduction.

e) "You don't have to accept it or even try - it's not too late to take him back!"

Verbs in bold: don't have to.

- necessity

- no necessity

- prohibition

- an order

Resposta correta: no necessity.

f) "Leaders of people ought to be equipped to handle the continued onslaught


of technology innovation."

Verb in bold: ought to.


- advice, moral obligation, the right thing to do

- capacity

- permission

- probability

Resposta correta: advice, moral obligation, the right thing to do.

g) "We mustn't allow the machine to replace the true purpose of an


organization. We mustn't abdicate the responsibility of leadership so advanced
machinery supplants the very basis of civilization."

Verbs in bold: mustn't; mustn't.

- permission

- no necessity

- prohibition

- ability

Resposta correta: prohibition.

Atenção professor: Modal verbs são verbos defectivos, ou seja, verbos que não
têm certas formas (como o must, cujo passado é had to e cujo futuro é will have
to). O haveto é uma expressão, uma locução verbal, que se usa para cobrir os
tempos em que o must não existe ou então se usa como sinônimo (ou quase
sinônimo) de must, quando queremos expressar necessidade ou forte
obrigação externa (que vem de fora). Outros exemplos são as expressões to be
able to e to be allowed to, que entram para cobrir a ausência de formas de
infinitivo e de particípio de can e may, respectivamente. Os modal verbs são
usados antes do infinitivo sem to, à exceção de ought, que é sempre seguido
de infinitivo com to. Fim da observação.

Observação: To learn more about Modal Auxiliary Verbs, go to page 144. Fim
da observação.

71

The Structure: Subject + Verb + Object + Infinitive


Observação: To learn more about The Structure: Subject + Verb + Object +
Infinitive, go to page 147. Fim da observação.

1. Observe the verbal structure in bold in the sentence below. Then choose the
appropriate option to complete the explanation about it.

"HENRY: I'll do whatever youwant me to do!"

Some verbs in English can be followed by object + infinitive with/without to.


Some of the verbs that can be used with that structure are: want, advise, need,
ask, prefer, allow, tell, order, warn.

Verbal structure in bold: with/without.

Resposta: with

2. Answer the questions below, according to the text on page 66, using the
Subject + Verb + Object + Infinitive structure. In your answers, use the cues
from the box below. Write the answers in your notebook.

Box:

return the robot - love him - tell David the code

End of box.

a) What does David want Monica to do?

Resposta: David wants Monica to love him.

b) If Henry and Monica decide not to keep the robot, what does Cybertronics
order them to do?

Resposta: Cybertronics orders them to return the robot.

c) What does Henry warn Monica to do in case they decide to keep the robot?

Resposta: Henry warns Monica to tell David the code.

Question Tags

Observação: To learn more about Question Tags, go to page 147. Fim da


observação.
1. Observe the sentence below, taken from the text on page 66. Then choose
the appropriate options to complete the following explanation. Write them down
in your notebook.

"MONICA: I mean, inside he's like all the rest, isn't he?"

The short question added to the end of a statement is called a question tag.

Question tags are used mainly in formal written/spoken English, when the
speaker expects the listener to say they agree/don't agree with the statement.

Resposta: spoken; agree

2. Observe some other examples. Then choose the appropriate options and
complete the following statements in your notebook.

"David is not a real boy, is he?"

"David can feel emotions, can't he?"

"MONICA: You never forget how, do you?"

a) The question tag is usually the opposite of the statement. So, if the statement
is affirmative, the question tag is affirmative/negative, and if the statement is
negative, the question tag is affirmative/negative.

Resposta: negative, affirmative

b) If the statement has a form of be or any other auxiliary verb, this is used in
the question tag. If not, a form of do/will is used.

Resposta: do

Atenção professor: Explique aos alunos que never dá sentido negativo à frase,
por isso a question tag é afirmativa. Fim da observação.

3. Complete the statements about the movie A.I. Artificial Intelligence with
question tags.

a) Monica and Henry are married, ____?

Resposta: aren't they

b) Monica is not sure whether to adopt David, ____?

Resposta: is she
c) A robot boy can feel and think like a human, ____?

Resposta: can't he

d) David looks like a real boy, ____?

Resposta: doesn't he

e) David loves his "mother", ____?

Resposta: doesn't he

f) David never forgets, ____?

Resposta: does he

g) "I can't accept this, ____?" Monica said.

Resposta: can I

h) "It is today, ____?", David said.

Resposta: isn't it

FONTE: A-R-T/Shutterstock

72

LET'S PRACTICE

1. Read the poem below and answer the questions in your notebook. Then
check your answers with a classmate.

Atenção professor: Se achar oportuno, explique aos alunos que no final do


poema, como licença poética (e por necessidade de rimar com knew), o autor
usou to who, quando, no rigor gramatical, deveria ser to whom. O pronome
whom (e não who) é o que deve ser usado logo após uma preposição. Fim da
observação.

My Robot

I told my robot to do my bidding.

He yawned and said, "You must be kidding."

I told my robot to cook me a stew.

He said, "I got better things to do."


I told my robot to sweep my shack.

He said, "You want me to strain my back?"

I told my robot to answer the phone.

He said, "I must make some calls of my own."

I told my robot to brew some tea.

He said, "Why don't you make some tea for me?"

I told my robot to boil me an egg.

He said, "First - lemme hear you beg."

I told my robot, "There's a song you can play me."

He said, "How much are you gonna pay me?"

So I sold that robot, 'cause I never knew

Exactly who belonged to who.

SILVERSTEIN, Shel. Falling Up, Poems And Drawings. New York:


HarperCollins Publishers, 1996. p. 36.

FONTE: Reprodução/Harper Collins Publishers

a) What kind of robot is described in the poem?

Resposta: A household/domestic robot.

b) The character in the poem gives the robot a lot of orders. Does the robot
follow her orders?

Resposta: No, he doesn't.

Atenção professor: Chame a atenção dos alunos para o uso do pronome he em


referência a um robô, uso justificado pelo contexto, um diálogo jocoso criado
pela imaginação de Shel Silverstein, em que o robô assume um
comportamento humanizado, não cabendo, nessas condições, o uso de it. Em
obras de ficção, é comum o uso de pronomes "humanos" (he, she) não apenas
como referência a um robô, mas também a animais sempre que, pelo contexto,
tenham sido "personalizados". Fim da observação.
c) What does the robot answer his owner when she asks him to make some
tea?

Resposta: The robot asks his owner why she doesn't make some tea for him.

d) What does the character finally decide to do with the robot? Why does she
do that?

Resposta: She decides to sell the robot because she doesn't know who belongs
to whom.

2. Read the poem again and do the following activities in your notebook.

a) Transcribe a sentence in which a modal verb expresses logical deduction.

Resposta: "You must be kidding."

b) Transcribe a sentence in which a modal verb expresses strong obligation.

Resposta: He said, "I must make some calls of my own."

3. Complete the sentences about the robot in the poem using question tags.

a) The robot didn't cook, ____?

Resposta: did he

b) The robot wants to get paid to play a song, ____?

Resposta: doesn't he

c) The robot doesn't obey his owner's orders, ____?

Resposta: does he

d) The robot is very impertinent, ____?

Resposta: isn't he

e) The robot should follow his owner's orders, ____?

Resposta: shouldn't he

4. As the poem reports a dialogue between a robot and his owner, there are
some words that are typical of informal spoken English. Go back to the poem
and use your notebook to do the following.

a) Transcribe an abbreviation of "let me".


Resposta: lemme

b) Transcribe an abbreviation of "going to".

Resposta: gonna

c) Transcribe an abbreviation of "because".

Resposta: 'cause

73

5. Rhyme is the correspondence of sound between words or the endings of


words. Rhymes are very common in poems. Now go back to the poem and find
words that rhyme with the ones in the box below. Write them down in your
notebook.

Box:

kidding - do - back - phone - me - egg - who

End of box.

Resposta: kidding/bidding; do/stew; back/shack; phone/own; me/tea; egg/beg;


who/knew.

6. Imagine you have a domestic robot. Think of the jobs you would give it, the
rules it must follow, and the things it wouldn't have to do. Then, in your
notebook, write down some sentences using modal verbs.

Atenção professor: Se necessário, ajude os alunos com o vocabulário que eles


não conhecem. Anote no quadro as palavras e expressões que eles desejarem
para realizar a atividade. Fim da observação.

LISTENING

BEFORE YOU LISTEN

1. In Unit 3 you read a text written by Isaac Asimov. What do you remember
about that author?

Possible answer: Isaac Asimov was a Russian-born American scientist, a


professor of biochemistry and prolific science-fiction writer, who published over
two hundred books.
2. Asimov wrote I, Robot, a sci-fi novel that inspired the movie that carries the
same title. Read the plot of the movie and complete it with the words from the
box. Write those words in your notebook.

FONTE: Reprodução/20th Century Fox

Box:

safe - human - intelligent - investigates - human-like

End of box.

In 2035, highly (a) robots fill public service positions throughout the world,
operating under three rules to keep humans (b). Despite his dark history with
robotics, Detective Del Spooner (Will Smith) (c) the alleged suicide of U.S.
Robotics founder Alfred Lanning (James Cromwell) and believes that a (d) robot
(Alan Tudyk) murdered him. With the help of a robot expert (Bridget Moynahan),
Spooner discovers a conspiracy that may enslave the (e) race.

Available at: http://eosfitness.com/class/i-robot-5/. Accessed on: November 17,


2015.

Resposta: (a) intelligent; (b) safe; (c) investigates; (d) human-like; (e) human

3. In the movie, the robots operate under three rules to keep humans safe.
These three rules are based on Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics. Do you have
any idea what those laws are about? Make your predictions.

Personal answers.

Atenção professor: Incentive os alunos a fazer previsões a respeito das regras


que vão ouvir. Depois de escutar e realizar as atividades, pergunte a eles se as
previsões que fizeram se confirmaram ou não. Fim da observação.

AS YOU LISTEN

Atenção professor: A transcrição do áudio está na seção Audio Scripts, do


Manual do Professor. Fim da observação.

Listen to Asimov as he talks about the Three Laws of Robotics, then do the
following activities in your notebook.

1. Number the laws from 1 to 3, according to what you hear. Two of them are
extra.
a) A robot must protect itself.

Resposta: 3

b) A robot mustn't violate the constitution.

Resposta: Ø

c) A robot mustn't harm or let a human being be harmed.

Resposta: 1

d) A robot must obey orders given by qualified personnel.

Resposta: 2

e) A robot must go into self-destruction when it has a technical problem.

Resposta: Ø

2. Answer the following questions.

a) In which situation can the second law be broken?

Resposta: When the order received violates law number one.

b) In which situation can the third law be broken?

Resposta: When the robot's protection of its own existence violates laws
number one or two.

74

3. Listen to Asimov's first law again. Notice that the article a is pronounced
differently when used before robot and when used before human being. In
your notebook, complete the statements below with robot or human being.

The indefinite article a is usually pronounced /ə/, as in "a ____". However, it is


pronounced /eɪ/, as in "a ___" when the speaker wants to give emphasis to the
noun that comes after it.

Resposta: human being; robot.

AFTER YOU LISTEN

Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

a) Do you agree with Asimov's three laws of robotics?


b) Do you think those laws can keep humans safe?

c) What other laws do you think robots must follow?

Personal answers.

WRITING

In the movie I, Robot, Will Smith plays the role of Detective Del Spooner. The
text below is a dialogue between Detective Del Spooner and Sonny, his robot
assistant. The detective wants to show that human beings are more intelligent
than robots. Sonny, on the other hand, shows resistance.

DETECTIVE DEL SPOONER

Human beings have dreams. Even dogs have dreams, but not you, you are just
a machine. An imitation of life. Can a robot write a symphony? Can a robot take
a blank canvas and turn it into a masterpiece?

SONNY

Can you?

Available at: www.imdb.com/title/tt0343818/quotes. Accessed on: November


17, 2015. (Fragment).

Your class is preparing a play based on I, Robot to present to the school


community and you are responsible for part of the script. Your task is to
recreate the dialogue between Detective Del Spooner and Sonny. So think of
the rest of the dialogue between them. What other arguments would the
detective use to support his idea? What would the robot say to convince the
detective that he is similar to a human being?

- Write the draft of your script.

- Ask a classmate to read your draft. Get some feedback.

- Rewrite your script using the feedback you had as a basis and make any
improvements or necessary corrections.

- Proofread your work.

- Share your script with your classmates.


Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos a importância de fazer um
rascunho quando escrevemos um texto. Nesse rascunho, podem-se inserir as
ideias mais básicas e algumas palavraschave que serão desenvolvidas
futuramente. Diga-lhes que, depois de pronto, é interessante partilhar com os
colegas e receber um retorno deles e do professor. Comente também que,
após a reescrita do texto, deve-se revisar o trabalho para evitar erros e, por fim,
escrever a versão final. Lembre aos alunos que a troca de rascunhos e o
retorno com as impressões entre eles são oportunidades de colaboração, em
que todos partilham conhecimentos e um contribui para enriquecer o trabalho
do outro. Dessa forma, eles passam a perceber que o professor não é a única
pessoa a quem eles podem recorrer para pedir ajuda. Após a entrega dos
scripts, os alunos podem expô-los no mural da sala de aula, se possível.
Incentive-os a ler os scripts dos colegas e fazer comentários a respeito
daqueles que acharem mais criativos. Fim da observação.

SPEAKING

Atenção professor: Depois que os alunos tiverem terminado a tarefa, abra uma
discussão com toda a turma e peça a eles que comentem a respeito dos seus
diálogos, das perguntas que fizeram ao "robô" e se estão convencidos ou não
de que o "robô" pode se tornar um de seus amigos. Fim da observação.

An international technology company has just developed a new kind of robot: a


domestic robot that is intended to be a friend. The company is recruiting some
volunteers to test that robot. Now, imagine you are one of the volunteers and
you have to talk to the robot to find out if it is possible for it to become your
friend. Follow the guidelines below.

Student A: Talk to the robot, ask questions, make requests, and check if he
can be your friend.

Student B: You are the robot. Talk back to the human being, answer his/her
questions. Try to convince him/her that you can be his/her friend just like a
human being could.

75

THINK ABOUT IT
Atenção professor: Peça aos alunos que observem o título do texto. Pergunte
que tipos de tarefas eles acreditam que os robôs serão capazes de realizar no
futuro. Incentive-os a fazer previsões a respeito do que vão ler. À medida que
eles fazem a leitura, vão vendo se suas previsões são ou não confirmadas.
Após a leitura do texto, pergunte aos alunos se suas hipóteses se confirmaram.
Fim da observação.

Read the text below and answer the following questions together with a
classmate.

Why Robots Are the Future of Elder Care

By Mark Hay

It's no secret that Japan is facing severe socio-economic pressures due to its
aging, shrinking population. Many in the nation are aging out of their working
years, without enough children born to replace them in the workforce. This
means elder care will require an increasing amount of resources and workers
out of a progressively smaller total pool.

But there is one solution to both the human and financial pressures of an aging
globe: robotic caregivers. It's a concept Japan's been pushing for a while now -
in 2013 and 2014 especially, the Japanese government poured millions into
incentivizing eldercare robotics development. But over the past couple of years,
elder care robot research and development has grown more conventional and
cheaper, producing products with greater functionality and broader consumer
acceptance. And it's started to take hold in companies beyond Japan too,
suggesting a growing wave of acceptance and support for the concept. So no
matter how uncomfortable we may be with robots, it seems like it's high time for
all of us to accept, if not enthusiastically embrace, the dawning of the Asimov
era.

FONTE: Available at: magazine.good.is/articles/robots-elder-care-pepper-


exoskeletons-japan. Accessed on: November 17, 2015. (Fragment).

a) What problem is Japan facing nowadays? And what's a solution to that


problem?
Possible answers: Japan is facing socio-economic pressures because its
population is aging and shrinking. Robotic caregivers, that is, robots taking care
of elder people (instead of other people).

b) Was this solution well accepted by Japanese consumers?

Resposta: Yes, it was.

c) Is the idea being accepted in other countries?

Resposta: Yes, it is.

d) Why is Asimov mentioned in the text?

Resposta: Because his idea of having intelligent robots interacting, living


together with people may be starting.

e) Do you think robotic caregivers would be a good idea for Brazil? Why (not)?

Personal answers.

SELF-ASSESSMENT

1. Evaluate your performance in this Unit. In your notebook, give yourself a


score from 1 to 5 for each of the topics below.

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

I can...

a) read and understand part of a movie script about robots.

b) understand and use question tags, the modals must/mustn't, ought


to and the expressions have to/don't have to.

c) write part of a movie script.

d) understand an audio about the three laws of robotics.

e) talk to a robot to find out if he can become a friend.

1. poor

2. not so good
3. good

4. very good

5. excellent

Atenção professor: Incentive os alunos a refletir a respeito de sua


aprendizagem, da execução das atividades e de seu desempenho em aula.
Fim da observação.

2. Take a look at the items in activity 1 in which you gave yourself a score of 1
or 2. Talk to a classmate and think of what you can do to improve your
performance. Then discuss your ideas with your teacher.

Atenção professor: Ao discutir com os alunos o que pode ser feito para a
melhoria do desempenho em aula, conscientize-os de que com a autoavaliação
é possível obter um diagnóstico mais preciso em relação ao aproveitamento
deles quanto ao conteúdo e às habilidades trabalhadas. Fim da observação.

KEEP EXPLORING

Book: ASIMOV, Isaac. Histórias de robôs. São Paulo: L&PM Pocket, 2005.

Video: WHY we rely on robots. Produced by: TED, New York, 2013. Available
at: www.ted.com/talks/rodney_brooks_why_we_will_rely_on_
robots?language=en. Accessed on: November 27, 2015.

Website: Robotics Trends: www.roboticstrends.com. Accessed on: November


27, 2015.

76

CHECK YOUR ENGLISH 1

Atenção professor: A cada quatro Unidades apresentamos o Check Your


English, para o aluno rever o conteúdo estudado, pôr em prática as estratégias
de leitura apresentadas e solucionar possíveis dúvidas. Fim da observação.

1. Read the text and use your notebook to write the subheadings from the box
to match each kind of prejudicebased bullying.

Box:
Religion and Belief - Body Image - Asylum Seekers and Refugees -
Transphobia - Homophobic Bullying - Disablist Bullying - Race and Ethnicity

End of box.

Prejudice-based Bullying

Children and young people can experience bullying for a variety of reasons;
where they live, their sexual orientations, gender, disability, the colour of their
skin, what clothes they wear or what team they support. The one thing that
these have in common is difference or perceived difference - some children and
young people don't see or understand diversity, they still only see difference.

____ Children and young people who are asylum seekers or refugees may be
at greater risk of bullying directly and indirectly.

____ A child or young person who is noticeably over or underweight may find
that they are particularly vulnerable to bullying behaviour.

____ This kind of bullying can be directed at young people who do not conform
to strict gender 'norms'. For example, a boy who doesn't like football may stand
out as being different.

____ It is the fear of a transgender person and the hatred, discrimination,


intolerance and prejudice that this fear brings.

____ Lack of knowledge and understanding about the traditions, beliefs and
etiquette of different faiths, or having no faith, can lead to intolerance.

____ Children and young people from minority ethnic groups, including the
gypsy/traveling community, often experience bullying based on perceived
differences in dress, communication, appearance, beliefs and/or culture.

____ People who bully others may see children and young people with
disabilities as being less able to defend themselves and less able to tell an adult
about the bullying.

FONTE: Available at: www.respectme.org.uk/prejudice.html. Accessed on:


February 25, 2016. (Fragment). CRÉDITOS:
Reprodução/www.respectme.org.uk
Resposta: Asylum Seekers and Refugees; Body Image; Homophobic Bullying;
Transphobia; Religion and Belief; Race and Ethnicity; Disablist Bullying

2. Use your notebook to answer the questions that follow, according to the text.

Atenção professor: Para os alunos responderem a essa pergunta, incentive-os


a olhar a fonte do texto, ou seja, o link do site de onde foi retirado. Fim da
observação.

a) Respect Me is an anti-bullying organization. Where is it from?

Resposta: The United Kingdom (UK).

b) Why do some children and teenagers bully other people?

Resposta: Because they don't understand diversity, they only see difference.

3. The modal verbs can and may are used several times in the text. What idea
do they express in that context?

- Ability.

- Permission.

- Possibility.

Resposta correta: Possibility.

4. Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que o texto faz uma crítica a
estereótipos relacionados a gênero, citando, por exemplo, que menino que não
gosta de futebol pode sofrer bullying. Pergunte a eles quais outros estereótipos
relacionados ao gênero eles já escutaram e leve-os a refletir a respeito das
consequências que essas generalizações equivocadas podem causar
(depressão, intolerância etc.). Pergunte se eles se lembram de alguma notícia
recente a respeito de algum caso de discriminação contra travestis ou pessoas
transexuais e leve-os a refletir a respeito dessa questão. Para saber mais
acerca do assunto, visite o site www.glaad.org/transgender/transfaq (acesso
em: 25 fev. 2016). Fim da observação.

a) Do you agree that a boy who doesn't like football is "different"? Why (not)?
b) Do you know of any cases of prejudice-based bullying at school or in the
area where you live? What kind of bullying were they? How can you help defeat
that kind of behavior?

Personal answers.

77

5. Observe the campaign poster below and do the following activities in your
notebook.

FONTE: Available at:


http://adsoftheworld.com/media/print/lav_tiger?size=original. Accessed on:
February 3, 2016. CRÉDITOS: Reprodução/Lega Anti Vivisezione

a) The focus of the campaign is

- animal adoption.

- animal extinction.

- animal exploitation.

- illegal wildlife trade.

Resposta correta: animal exploitation.

b) In the sentence "The show mustn't go on", the modal verb mustn't expresses

- logical deduction.

- prohibition.

- capacity.

- necessity.

Resposta correta: prohibition.

6. Read the quotations and use your notebook to write down the idea expressed
by each modal verb or expression, choosing from the ideas in the box. Then
discuss with a classmate: Do you agree with the messages in the quotes?
Which one do you like most? Justify.

Box:
necessity - possibility - hypothetical result - impossibility - strong obligation -
prohibition - logical deduction - capacity - no capacity - prediction

End of box.

a) 'You can trust a man's true character by the way he treats his fellow
animals."

Paul McCartney

Resposta: possibility

b) "Compassion for animals is intimately associated with goodness of character,


and it may be confidently asserted that he who is cruel to animals cannot be a
good man."

Arthur Schopenhauer

Resposta: possibility, impossibility

c) "If slaughterhouses had glass walls, the whole world would be vegetarian."

Linda McCartney

Resposta: hypothetical result

d) "You must do the thing you think you cannot do."

Eleanor Roosevelt

Resposta: strong obligation, no capacity

e) "Choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life."

Confucius

Resposta: prediction, necessity

f) "You must not lose faith in humanity. Humanity is an ocean; if a few drops of
the ocean are dirty, the ocean does not become dirty."

Mohandas Mahatma Gandhi

Resposta: prohibition

g) "Whenever people agree with me I always feel I must be wrong."

Oscar Wilde
Resposta: logical deduction

h) "No one saves us but ourselves, no one can and no one may. We ourselves
must walk the path."

Buddha

Resposta: capacity, possibility, necessity/strong obligation. Personal answers.

78

7. Read the text and do the following activities in your notebook.

The Robots Are Coming, Aren't They?

Posted Jan 17, 2015 by Rob Daley

We have envisioned building humanoid machines in our likeness with the ability
to walk, talk and think like us - or be's the thing - humanoid robots are never
going to happen.

First, the mechanics of the human body are spectacularly complex. Second, we
need major advancements in input/output software. Third, artificial intelligence
is the biggest software challenge in the universe.

FONTE: Available at: http://techcrunch.com/2015/01/17/the-robots-are-coming-


arent-they/. Accessed on: February 3, 2016. (Fragment).

a) Does the author think robots are coming? Transcribe a sentence from the
text that might support your answer.

Possible answer: No, he doesn't. "But here's the thing - humanoid robots are
never going to happen."

b) Complete the sentences about the text using question tags.

- The human body is very complex, ____?

- We need advancements in software to create humanoid machines, ____?

- Artificial intelligence is still a challenge for scientists, ____?

- It isn't easy to build humanoid machines, ____?

- Human-like robots are still a future thing, ____?

Resposta: isn't it; don't we; isn't it; is it; aren't they
8. Read the text and answer the following activities in your notebook.

Cell Phones in School

There was a time when "not in school!" was an important rule set for teenagers
or children and their cell phones. Things have changed (rather quickly) and cell
phones are now welcome in schools' with some guidelines, of course.

FONTE: Available at: www.safesearchkids.com/cell-phones-in-


school/#.VdOAtHju-1s Accessed on: February 3, 2016. (Fragment).

a) Transcribe the correct options (more than one is possible) according to the
text.

- Some time ago, students were not allowed to use cell phones in schools.

- To use cell phones in schools, students must follow some rules.

- Cell phones must be banned from school classes.

- Teachers are starting to use cell phones to teach.

Resposta correta: Some time ago, students were not allowed to use cell phones
in schools; To use cell phones in schools, students must follow some rules.

b) The sentences below show some good and some bad things about using cell
phones in schools. Read them and select GT (for Good Thing) or BT (for Bad
Thing).

- Cell phones can be a distraction in school.

Resposta: BT

- Cell phones can be used to cheat in class.

Resposta: BT

- Cell phones can help students get more organized in school.

Resposta: GT

- Personal phones can be used in the event of an emergency or accident.

Resposta: GT

- Cell phones can be used for bullying, even taking inappropriate or unwanted
pictures and video.
Resposta: BT

- Bringing a phone to school lets students communicate with their parents if they
need to stay after or in case they have left something at home.

Resposta: GT

- It can be very challenging for a teacher or school staff to closely monitor each
student and ensure that school cell phone policies are followed.

Resposta: BT

Available at: www.safesearchkids.com/cell-phones-in-school/#.VdOAtHju-1s.


Accessed on: February 3, 2016. (Fragment).

c) Are you allowed to use your cell phone in your school? Write down, in your
notebook, some guidelines for the appropriate use of cell phones in school. Use
modal verbs in your sentences.

Possible answers: You mustn't use the phone to play games during the class.
You can use the phone to search for information that will help you with an
assignment. You can take pictures with your friends during the break.

79

9. Scan the text below to identify the following information. Use your notebook
to write down your answers.

Indigenous Languages

More than 150 languages and dialects are spoken by the Indigenous peoples in
Brazil today. They are part of the near 7,000 languages spoken today in the
world (SIL International, 2009). Before the arrival of the Portuguese, however,
only in Brazil that number was probably close to 1,000.

In the process of colonization of Brazil, the Tupinambá language, the most


widely spoken along the coast, was adopted by many colonists and
missionaries, taught to Indians grouped in the missions and recognized as
Língua Geral. Today, many words of Tupi origin are part of the vocabulary of
Brazilians.

Just as the Tupi languages have influenced the Portuguese spoken in Brazil,
contact among peoples ensures that Indigenous tongues do not exist in
isolation and change constantly. In addition to mutual influences, languages
have among themselves common origins. They are part of linguistic families,
which in turn can be part of a larger division, the linguistic branch. And just as
languages are not isolated, neither are their speakers. In Brazil there are many
Indigenous peoples and individuals who can speak and/or understand more
than one language; and it is not uncommon to find villages where several
tongues are spoken.

Among such diversity, however, only 25 peoples count more than 5,000
speakers of Indigenous languages: Apurinã, Ashaninka, Baniwa, Baré,
Chiquitano, Guajajara, Guarani (Guarani Ñandeva/Guarani Kaiowá/Guarani
Mbya), Galibi do Oiapoque, Ingarikó, Kaxinawá, Kubeo, Kulina, Kaingang,
Kayapó, Makuxi, Munduruku, Sateré-Mawé, Taurepang, Terena, Ticuna,
Timbira, Tukano, Wapixana, Xavante, Yanomami, Ye'kuana.

Getting to know this vast repertoire has been a challenge to linguists. Keeping it
alive has been the goal of many projects of Indigenous school education.

FONTE: Available at: http://pib.socioambiental.org/en/c/no-brasil-


atual/linguas/introducao. Accessed on: February 25, 2016. (Fotografia) Silvio
Cavuscens/Acervo do fotógrafo

a) Number of languages and dialects currently spoken by Indigenous peoples in


Brazil.

Resposta: 150

b) Approximate number of languages and dialects spoken by Indigenous


peoples in Brazil before the year 1500.

Resposta: 1,000

c) The most widely spoken Indigenous language along the Brazilian coast.

Resposta: The Tupinambá language.

d) The name of five Indigenous peoples in Brazil.

Possible answers: Apurinã, Ashaninka, Baniwa, Baré, Chiquitano, Guajajara,


Guarani, Galibi do Oiapoque, Ingarikó, Kaxinawá, Kubeo, Kulina, Kaingang,
Kayapó, Makuxi, Munduruku, Sateré-Mawé, Taurepang, Terena, Ticuna,
Timbira, Tukano, Wapixana, Xavante, Yanomami, Ye'kuana.

e) The goal of many projects of Indigenous school education in Brazil.

Resposta: To keep the vast repertoire of Indigenous languages alive.

10. Read the text again and choose the only alternative that is not correct.

- The Portuguese language as spoken in Brazil has been influenced by


Indigenous languages.

- In some Indigenous villages, people speak more than one language.

- The languages spoken by the Indigenous peoples who live in isolation change
constantly.

- Contact among different peoples, who speak different languages, causes


changes in those languages.

Resposta correta: The languages spoken by the Indigenous peoples who live in
isolation change constantly.

11. Read the sentences below and identify the meaning expressed by the
modal verb can in each one.

a) "They are part of linguistic families, which in turn can be part of a larger
division, the linguistic branch."

Resposta: possibility

b) "In Brazil there are many Indigenous peoples and individuals who can speak
and/or understand more than one language".

Resposta: ability

12. Indigenous peoples have deeply influenced the formation of Brazilian


society. Can you notice any aspects of Indigenous language, culture or ways of
life in the region where you live?

Personal answer.

Atenção professor: Incentive os alunos a refletir a respeito da influência


indígena na formação da sociedade brasileira, não apenas no que diz respeito
à miscigenação, mas a aspectos culturais, como o exemplo do seu
relacionamento digno com a natureza, o respeito aos ancestrais e aos mais
velhos, a dignidade, a higiene, os ritos, a culinária, a medicina. Além disso,
como enfatizado no texto, muitas palavras da língua portuguesa têm origem
indígena (por exemplo, Iguaçu, Ipanema, Iguatemi, Itajubá, açaí, sucupira etc.).
Fim da observação.

80

DE OLHO NO ENEM

Como visto anteriormente, vivemos em um mundo plural. Quantas culturas e


quantas línguas diferentes existem em nosso planeta! Se pensarmos nos
países onde o inglês é língua oficial, por exemplo, percebemos que há grandes
diferenças entre essas culturas. Mas a cultura não está apenas relacionada ao
país em que se vive. Cultura tem a ver com as crenças, os costumes, os
valores etc. Assim, a diversidade cultural pode existir dentro de um mesmo
país. O nosso Brasil, com sua vasta extensão territorial, apresenta diferentes
tradições e costumes, diversas formas de nos vestirmos, de falarmos, de nos
alimentarmos etc.

Entre os vários aspectos que compõem a diversidade cultural, um dos mais


importantes é a diversidade linguística. A mesma língua pode variar de acordo
com condições sociais, culturais, regionais e históricas em que é utilizada. Há
variações, por exemplo, entre o português falado no Brasil e o português falado
em Portugal. Também há variações linguísticas entre as diferentes regiões do
Brasil, entre a linguagem usada numa conversa entre adolescentes e em uma
conversa entre pessoas mais velhas, entre a linguagem usada nas redes
sociais e a linguagem usada em um texto jornalístico ou em uma obra literária.
Tudo isso também ocorre com o inglês e nos países onde ele é falado. O
importante é refletir a respeito da diversidade de modo a entendê-la e respeitá-
la.

A seguir você realizará uma questão do Enem, da prova de 2012, que envolve
o tema da diversidade linguística.

FONTE: Available at: http://politicalgraffiti.wordpress.com. Accessed on:


February 3, 2016. CRÉDITOS: David Donar/Acervo do cartunista
Cartuns são produzidos com o intuito de satirizar comportamentos humanos e
assim nos dão a oportunidade de refletir sobre nossos próprios
comportamentos e atitudes. Nesse cartum, a linguagem utilizada pelos
personagens em uma conversa em inglês evidencia a

a) predominância do uso da linguagem informal sobre a língua-padrão.

b) dificuldade de reconhecer a existência de diferentes usos da linguagem.

c) aceitação dos regionalismos utilizados por pessoas de diferentes lugares.

d) necessidade de estudo da língua inglesa por parte dos personagens.

e) facilidade de compreensão entre falantes com sotaques distintos.

Resposta correta: b.

81

PROJECT 1

A School Play

Atenção professor: Este projeto busca gerar impactos na comunidade escolar e


em seu entorno, e está relacionado aos temas abordados nas Unidades 1, 2, 3
e 4. Por ser de natureza interdisciplinar, o projeto pode contar com a
participação de professores de outras disciplinas, como Arte, Sociologia e
Língua Portuguesa. Fim da observação.

Acting is a great way of expressing ourselves and communicating our ideas.


How about acting in a school play?

FONTE: Jupiterimages/Stockbyte/Getty Images

Planning Your Project

Get together in small groups.

- Choose an issue you would like to focus on: cultural diversity, technology,
prejudice, bullying, animal rights, etc.

- Think of a short story to be acted out that would make your audience reflect
upon that issue.

- Write down the script of the play.


- Decide the role each of you will play.

- Practice for the performance.

Atenção professor: Combine com os alunos a data em que a peça será


apresentada. Se possível, convide outras turmas, pais e professores para
assisti-la. A turma pode ainda filmar as apresentações, para ter como
recordação ou para compartilhar seu projeto na internet. Após a apresentação
e o compartilhamento dos projetos, incentive os alunos a comentar a respeito
de suas impressões em relação aos seus projetos e aos dos colegas. Pergunte
o que eles puderam aprender com essa experiência e como acreditam que os
projetos podem contribuir para a comunidade. Fim da observação.

Observação: Check out some tips that may help you plan your school play:
http://blogdivertudo.blogspot.com.br/2010/02/como-fazer-uma-peca-de-teatro-
pra.html. Accessed on: February 3, 2016. Fim da observação.

Presenting Your Project

On the agreed date, present the play to your classmates and your teacher.

Atenção professor: Para que o projeto dos alunos tenha visibilidade, incentive-
os a compartilhá-lo na internet. Eles podem compartilhar apenas os scripts ou
também os vídeos das apresentações (se houver a autorização dos pais e
alunos). Algumas ferramentas gratuitas de criação de blog estão listadas a
seguir. A divulgação também pode ser feita por meio de outros recursos, a seu
critério. Fim da observação.

Sharing Your Project

Make your project available to the world. You can create a blog for the class,
publish your scripts and be an inspiration for other people. Check the links
below and find out how to create a blog.

Observação: Take a look at some websites that might help you create a blog:
www.webnode.com.br/website-pessoal/; https://br.wordpress.com;
http://pt.wix.com. Accessed on: February 3, 2016. Fim da observação.

82

UNIT 5 - The Young Man Who Would Love to Live in Sunset Land
Nesta Unidade você vai:

- Discutir e refletir a respeito de felicidade e sonhos;

- Compreender e usar o verbo modal would e a forma comparativa dos


adjetivos;

- Explorar contos como gênero literário;

- Relacionar os conteúdos com a disciplina de Filosofia.

83

FONTE: Aleksandr Markin/Shutterstock

Look at the picture below and discuss the following questions with your
classmates.

a) How do you think that person is feeling?

b) What makes you feel that way?

Personal answers.

84

LET'S START

1. What does happiness mean to you? In your notebook, write down some
words that come to your mind when you think of happiness.

Personal answer. Possible answers: love, success, career, family, friendship,


peace, harmony, solidarity.

2. Have you ever seen a reproduction of this painting? Do you know who
painted it? What feeling do you think it expresses?

FONTE: The Bridgeman Art Library/Keystone/Galeria Nacional, Londres,


Inglaterra.

Personal answers.

3. The painting reproduced above is called Sunflowers and was painted by


Vincent van Gogh in 1888. Van Gogh (1853-1890) is considered one of the
greatest Dutch post-impressionist artists. Read the text below and, in your
notebook, answer the following questions together with a classmate.
Sunflowers: Symbols of Happiness

Sunflowers is one of the most popular paintings in the National Gallery. It is the
painting that is most often reproduced on cards, posters, mugs, tea towels and
stationery. It was also the picture that Van Gogh was most proud of. It was
painted during a rare period of excited optimism, while Van Gogh awaited the
arrival of his hero, the avant-garde painter Paul Gauguin. The lonely and
passionate Vincent had moved to Arles, in the South of France, where he
dreamed of setting up a community of artists with Gauguin as its mentor.
Sunflowers was intended to impress Gauguin and was a gesture of friendship.

Available at: www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/learn-about-art/paintings-in-


depth/ sunflowers-symbols-of-happiness/*/viewPage/1. Accessed on: January
21, 2016.

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que a National Gallery é um museu


de arte em Londres, que possui uma coleção de mais de 2.300 grandes
quadros. Fim da observação.

a) What do the flowers in the painting represent?

Resposta: They represent happiness.

b) In which period of Van Gogh's life was Sunflowers painted?

Resposta: He painted it when he was in a period of excited optimism, waiting for


the arrival of his hero, the painter Paul Gauguin.

c) What was the artist's intention when he painted it?

Resposta: He wanted to impress Gauguin and show his friendship.

d) Are flowers a symbol of happiness for you? In your opinion, what else can be
a symbol of happiness?

Personal answers.

Atenção professor: Como tarefa de casa, se achar conveniente, peça aos


alunos que procurem pinturas ou imagens que, na opinião deles, expressam
felicidade. Os alunos podem apresentá-las na aula seguinte e justificar sua
escolha. Fim da observação.

85
READING

BEFORE YOU READ

1. Look at the photo below. Do you think this is a beautiful sight? Would you say
it shows a sunset or a sunrise? Can you tell one from the other?

FONTE: kesipun/Shutterstock

Personal answers.

2. Do you like to watch a beautiful sunset? What emotional effect does it have
on you, what feelings does it cause? What natural sights bring you joy and
happiness?

Personal answers.

3. Read the title of the following text, observe its picture, layout and reference.
What do you think the Sunset Land story is about? Make your predictions and
check them as you read.

Personal answer.

AS YOU READ

Now read the text by Harry Buschman, a contemporary American author who is
devoted to writing short stories.

Sunset Land

By Harry Buschman

Two men sat by the side of the road at the close of day. The younger of the two
stared at the setting sun and sighed. "Oh, how I would love to be where the sun
sets. How beautiful it must be in Sunset Land."

The older man thought a bit before he answered... "Where the sun sets, you
say. Hmm... Now why would a man want to go where the sun sets?"

The young man stared fixedly at the setting sun. "Think how wonderful it must
be to live where the sun sets. Look there, old man, it's touching down just over
the crest of that long dark hill. That's where I want to be."

"I think you will find it is gone when you get there. Stay here, young man - this is
your home. You can watch the sun set every night from our village."
But the young man would not be persuaded to stay. To make his home in
Sunset Land was his fondest dream. It was a beautiful sight from here but he
was certain it would be many times more beautiful to be where the sun sets. He
thought the people there would be far more handsome and intelligent than
those in the simple village he lived in.

So the young man set out on a journey of many years. Each night he would
walk toward the setting sun. He would walk all night only to discover that the
sun had risen again and hung low in the eastern sky behind him. He would
question the natives every morning... "Tell me," he would ask. "Did the sun set
here last night?" They would look at him strangely, point to the west and tell him
the sun always sets in the west.

So he marched on, looking for the western land where the sun sets. There
would be days of rain or snow when the sun was nowhere to be seen, and the
young man, (now growing older) would wait for it to appear again. He crossed
many borders into lands that were foreign to him. There were people of different
colors, different tongues and customs that were strange to him. He crossed
great oceans - great mountains - burning deserts... But to no avail.

He grew old in his search for Sunset Land and he became frail and tired. He
was almost convinced the sun never really sets anywhere, that it was all a cruel
trick and he had wasted his life in a vain and selfish attempt to satisfy a youthful
whim.

To his great surprise he arrived in the town of his birth one day and it occurred
to him that, in walking westward, he had searched the earth around and was
home again. He wanted to find the old man whose advice he had ignored when
he was young. But the old man had passed away many years ago.

That evening he sat by the side of the same road that faced the western
mountains to watch the sun sink over the crest of that same long dark hill he
remembered from a time when he was young.

FONTE: Available at:


www.storyrhyme.com/jcsblog/files/d99ed1a5660ee572cde2a728d8142268-
174.html. Accessed on: August 19, 2015. (Pintura) Kharkhan Oleg/Shutterstock

86
General Comprehension

What's the hidden message of that short story? What can you infer from the
young man's quest? What was he searching for?

- The sun.

- Happiness.

- Home.

Resposta correta: Happiness.

Detailed Comprehension

1. What happened first? Number the sentences below from 1 (first event) to 12
(last event), putting the events in that short story in the correct order. Use your
notebook to write down the numbers, showing the correct sequence of events.

a) The young man ignored his friend's advice and insisted on pursuing his
dream. So he left his village on a very long trip.

Resposta: 6

b) The man became old, physically weak and tired and no longer thought he
would one day reach Sunset Land.

Resposta: 9

c) The young man was convinced life in Sunset Land would be much better and
decided to go and live there.

Resposta: 4

d) The old man did not understand why anybody would want to live in Sunset
Land.

Resposta: 3

e) Without really planning it, the man ended up returning to the same place
where he had lived as a child.

Resposta: 10

f) Two men watched the time in the evening when the sun goes down below the
horizon and one of them was especially impressed by that sight.
Resposta: 1

g) The man, who by now had become old, discovered that the other man had
already died.

Resposta: 11

h) The old man warned the youngster that he would never find that Sunset Land
and advised him to stay in their village.

Resposta: 5

i) The man sat by the side of the same road and watched the sun set, but now
he was alone.

Resposta: 12

j) The man set out on a long difficult journey trying to find a place that he
considered better than his own but wasted his life while doing so.

Resposta: 8

k) The young man told the other one that he would love to live in Sunset Land.

Resposta: 2

l) The young man kept marching toward the setting sun on a journey that took
him many years.

Resposta: 7

2. Sunset Land is a short story, that is, a short work of fiction, less complex and
much more concise than a novel. In your notebook, write down the options
(more than one) that show the characteristics you find in that short story.

- It's a narrative text.

- It has many rhymes.

- It focuses on a single incident.

- There are many details about the characters.

- Past tenses are used throughout the story.

Resposta correta: It's a narrative text; It focuses on a single incident; Past


tenses are used throughout the story.
3. Some components of a short story are the plot, the setting, the characters
and the theme. In your notebook, complete the information below writing the
name of each component related to Sunset Land.

a) ____: A young man and an old man.

Resposta: Characters

b) ____: The side of a road in a village.

Resposta: Setting

c) ____: A young man sets out on a journey to find the place where the sun
sets.

Resposta: Plot

d) ____: Searching for happiness.

Resposta: Theme

87

4. Sunset Land can be interpreted from several subjective ways of thinking. We


can infer about the characters' profiles, their opinions, attitudes, the decisions
they made, and the way the plot develops as a consequence of those features.
Read and observe the features listed below. Then read the parts extracted from
the short story and, in your notebook, match them to each of those features.

a) A foolish, arrogant, prejudiced mindset as to one's own birthplace.

b) Some wise advice, based on experience and a modest attitude towards life.

c) Frustration as to a noble gesture, made impossible by reality.

d) Marveling at something that is just an illusion, totally beyond one's reach.

e) Regret for having taken a thoughtless decision.

f) Acceptance of the fact that "the show must go on", that even having made a
big mistake, it is always possible to start all over again.

g) A late conclusion that something we thought was far away from us was in
fact very near.
1) "He wanted to find the old man whose advice he had ignored when he was
young. But the old man had passed away many years ago."

2) "Oh, how I would love to be where the sun sets. How beautiful it must be in
Sunset Land."

3) "That evening he sat by the side of the same road that faced the western
mountains to watch the sun sink over the crest of that same long dark hill he
remembered from a time when he was young."

4) "I think you will find it is gone when you get there. Stay here, young man -
this is your home. You can watch the sun set every night from our village."

5) "To his great surprise he arrived in the town of his birth one day and it
occurred to him that, in walking westward, he had searched the earth around
and was home again".

6) "It was a beautiful sight from here but he was certain it would be many times
more beautiful to be where the sun sets. He thought the people there would be
far more handsome and intelligent than those in the simple village he lived in."

7) "He was almost convinced the sun never really sets anywhere, that it was all
a cruel trick and he had wasted his life in a vain and selfish attempt to satisfy a
youthful whim."

Resposta: a) 6; b) 4; c) 1; d) 2; e) 7; f) 3; g) 5

AFTER YOU READ

Discuss the following questions in small groups.

a) Did the end of the story surprise you? Why (not)?

b) The young man didn't follow the older man's advice. Do you usually follow
older people's advice? Why (not)?

c) Do you think the man found what he was looking for? Why (not)?

Personal answers.

Boxe complementar:

Pronunciation Tips
English spelling and pronunciation can be tricky. When is the i pronounced /I/ as
in bit and when is it pronounced /aI/ as in bite?

Listen to these words, taken from the text. In your notebook, indicate the correct
vowel sound, /I/ or /aI/ for each word. Then listen again and check your
answers.

a) sighed

b) village

c) risen

d) tired

e) trick

f) whim

g) surprise

h) sink

i) behind

j) sight

Resposta: /I/ village, risen, trick, whim, sink; /aI/ sighed, tired, surprise, behind,
sight

Fim do complemento.

88

MORE FOOD FOR THOUGHT

Read the text below and, in your notebook, answer the questions together with
a classmate.

The Path to the Royal Ball

Ana Paula Oioli left a tiny, humble town in Brazil's countryside, where classical
culture is more than often a vanishing myth, and made it into the international
dancing scene. Not only did she attract the attention of renowned companies
and schools in Europe and North America, at the age of 17, but she also
became the lead-dancer of Coastal City Ballet's upcoming original performance
of Cinderella's eternal fairytale. While Cinderella watched her carriage magically
sprout from pumpkins, it took the Brazilian girl much talent and perseverance to
earn a role of distinction at the royal ball.

"I left Brazil because, unfortunately, dance, like so many other arts, is not really
taken seriously there. If you want a career in that field, you have to go for it and
take all the chances and opportunities," said Oioli.

FONTE: Available at: www.brazilianvibe.ca/en/culture/the-path-to-the-royal-


ball/. Accessed on: January 21, 2016. (Fragment). (Fotografia) David
Copper/Acervo do fotógrafo. CRÉDITOS: Reprodução/Brazilian Vibe

a) Where is Ana Paula Oioli from?

Resposta: She is from a tiny, humble town in Brazil's countryside.;

b) What does she do now?

Resposta: She is a ballet dancer.;

c) Why is Cinderella mentioned in the text?

Resposta: Because Ana Paula plays the role of Cinderella in the performance of
the Coastal City Ballet.;

d) Why did she leave Brazil to dance abroad?

Resposta: Because, according to her, classical dance and other arts are not
taken seriously in Brazil.

e) Did coming from a humble background stop Ana Paula from pursuing her
dreams?

Resposta: No, it didn't.

f) What advice does Ana Paula give to those who want to pursue a career in the
field of arts? Do you think it can be applied to other careers too?

Resposta: To go for it and take all the chances and opportunities. Personal
answer.

g) Can you see any similarity between Ana Paula's story and the story of the
young man in Sunset Land?
Possible answer: Both decide to leave their hometown in order to follow their
dreams, in the pursuit of happiness.

WORD STUDY

In Other Words

Atenção professor: Diga aos alunos que voltem ao texto e, utilizando a


estratégia de fazer inferências, identiquem palavras ou expressões que têm os
sentidos equivalentes aos listados na atividade. Fim da observação.

In your notebook, replace the words and phrases below with those you find in
each paragraph in the text on page 79.

a) (paragraph 1) at the end of the day

Resposta: at the close of day

b) (paragraph 1) looked very directly at someone or something for a long time

Resposta: stared at

c) (paragraph 4) has disappeared

Resposta: is gone

d) (paragraph 5) the dream he most wanted to happen

his fondest dream

e) (paragraph 5) good-looking

Resposta: handsome

f) (paragraph 6) left on a very long trip

Resposta: set out on a journey of many years

g) (paragraph 7) he continued walking

Resposta: he marched on

h) (paragraph 7) in vain, without success

Resposta: to no avail

i) (paragraph 8) a conceited and egocentric try

Resposta: a vain and selfish attempt


j) (paragraph 9) had died

Resposta: had passed away

k) (paragraph 10) watch the sun go down, disappear

Resposta: sink

89

Function Words

Function words are used for expressing relationships between other words in a
sentence. Read the two sentences below, taken from the text. Choose the
options that correspond to the function words in bold.

a) "He wanted to find the old man whose advice he had ignored when he was
young."

Word in bold: whose.

- quem

- cujo

- de quem

Resposta correta: cujo.

b) "Each night he would walk toward the setting sun."

Word in bold: toward.

- na direção de

- para perto de

- para longe de

Resposta correta: na direção de.

Foreign or Strange?

1. Observe the adjectives in bold in the sentences below, taken from the text on
page 85. Then transcribe the options that correctly complete the statements
about those words.
"He crossed many borders into lands that were foreign to him. There were
people of different colors, different tongues and customs that were strange to
him."

Both foreign and strange have to do with differences. We use (a)


foreign/strange when we talk about someone or something from another
country. We use (b) foreign/strange to talk about someone or something that
we find unusual, unexpected, someone or something that surprises or worries
us in some way. The same difference applies to foreigner and stranger, which
are (c) nouns/adverbs.

Adjectives in bold: (a) foreign/strange; (b) foreign/strange; (c)


nouns/adverbs.

Resposta: (a) foreign; (b) strange; (c) nouns

2. Now complete the sentences about Sunset Land using foreign, strange,
foreigner(s) or stranger(s), as appropriate.

a) The two men lived in the same village and knew each other. They were not
____.

Resposta: strangers

b) The older man thought a bit before he answered... "Where the sun sets, you
say. Hmm... Now why would a man want to go where the sun sets?" For the
older man, that was a ____ idea.

Resposta: strange

c) The young man crossed many borders into ____ lands. He was a ____ there.

Resposta: foreign; foreigner

LANGUAGE STUDY

Modal Verb: Would

1. We started studying modal verbs in Unit 1, we have been learning their uses
and meanings. Would is one of the modal verbs that can be used to express
different ideas. Observe would in the two sentences below and, in your
notebook, identify them as a or b according to their meanings. Use the context
to help you.
a) "Oh, how I would love to be where the sun sets."

b) "So the young man set out on a journey of many years. Each night he would
walk toward the setting sun."

- would: used in narratives for talking about repeated actions in the past

Resposta: b

- would: used for saying what somebody wants, likes, thinks or believes

Resposta: a

2. Observe the sentences in the previous exercise again and choose the correct
option to complete the statements below.

In sentence a, would love corresponds to (a) amava/amaria, in Portuguese. In


sentence b, would walk corresponds to (b) caminhava/caminharia.

Resposta: a) amaria; b) caminhava

90

Modal Verbs Review: Must, Can, Will

Observação: To learn more about Modal Auxiliary Verbs, go to page 144. Fim
da observação.

Read the sentences below, taken from the text on page 85. Then use your
notebook to write down the option that contains the idea expressed by the
modal verbs in bold.

a) "How beautiful it must be in Sunset Land."

Modal verb in bold: must.

- necessity

- logical deduction

- strong obligation

Resposta correta: logical deduction.

b) "I think you will find it is gone when you get there."

Modal verb in bold: will.

- strong obligation
- advice

- prediction

Resposta correta: prediction.

c) "You can watch the sun set every night from our village."

Modal verb in bold: can.

- order

- possibility

- permission

Resposta correta: possibility.

d) "Think how wonderful it must be to live where the sun sets."

Modal verb in bold: must.

- necessity

- logical deduction

- advice

Resposta correta: logical deduction.

Verb Tenses Review: Simple Present, Present Continuous, Simple Past,


Past Perfect, Future

1. Based on what you already know about verb tenses, use your notebook to
match the columns below, finding the appropriate use for each tense.

First column:

a) Simple Present

b) Present Continuous

c) Simple Past

d) Past Perfect

e) Future with will

Second column:

1) Completed actions in the past.


2) Actions in progress.

3) Predictions.

4) Permanent states and things that are always true.

5) Actions that happened before others in the past.

Resposta: a) 4; b) 2; c) 1; d) 5; e) 3

2. In your notebook, write 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 next to the following sentences taken


from the text on page 85. Observe the verbs in bold and mark them according
to the uses described in the previous activity.

a) "Where the sun sets, you say."

Verbs in bold: sets; say.

b) "The old man thought a bit before he answered..."

Verbs in bold: thought; answered.

c) "But the old man had passed away many years ago."

Verbs in bold: had passed away.

d) "The younger of the two stared at the setting sun and sighed."

Verbs in bold: stared; sighed.

e) "Look there, old man, it's touching down."

Verb in bold: touching.

f) "I think you will find it is gone when you get there."

Verbs in bold: will find.

g) "He would walk all night only to discover that the sun had risen again [...]"

Verbs in bold: had risen.

h) "That's where I want to be."

Verb in bold: want.

i) "To his great surprise he arrived in the town of his birth one day [...]"

Verb in bold: arrived.

j) "[...] that it was a cruel trick and he had wasted his life [...]"
Verbs in bold: had wasted.

k) "[...] and tell him the sun always sets in the west."

Verb in bold: sets.

l) "He wanted to find the man whose advice he had ignored when he was
young."

Verbs in bold: had ignored.

m) "He grew old in his search for Sunset Land and he became frail and tired."

Verbs in bold: grew; became.

Resposta: a) 4; b) 1; c) 5; d) 1; e) 2; f) 3; g) 5; h) 4; i) 1; j) 5; k) 4; l) 5; m) 1

Comparative Adjectives

Observe the words in bold in these sentences from the text on page 85.

a) Two men sat there. The younger of the two stared at the sun and sighed.

Word in bold: younger.

b) "The older man thought a bit before he answered..."

Word in bold: older.

c) "[...] it would be many times more beautiful to be where the sun sets, he
thought."

Words in bold: more beautiful.

d) "He thought the people there would be far more handsome and intelligent
than those in the simple village he lived in."

Words in bold: more handsome; intelligent,

Atenção professor: Explique aos alunos que a estrutura the younger e the older
aplica-se no caso por se tratar de apenas dois elementos na comparação. A
estrutura mais comum (the youngest e the oldest, ou seja, o uso do artigo the
antes do superlativo) só se aplicaria se a comparação fosse entre mais de dois
elementos, como the youngest of the three ou the oldest of all. A forma e o uso
de comparativos e superlativos continuarão a ser estudados na próxima
Unidade deste volume. Fim da observação.
91

Observação: To learn more about Comparatives, go to page 147. Fim da


observação.

We use comparative adjectives to compare one person, thing or group with


another. Use your notebook to write down each correct option to complete the
rules about the comparative:

a) To indicate superiority, we form the comparative with adjective + -er when the
adjective is short/long.

Resposta: short

b) With long (three and four-syllable adjectives) and most two-syllable


adjectives, we add more/most to the adjective to form the comparative.

Resposta: more

LET'S PRACTICE

1. Read the Indian short story below and, in your notebook, complete it with the
verb forms in the box. The glossary will help you understand some words
related to the Indian culture.

Box:

lived - was sitting - would be - will change - named - would take - would you like
- would make - transformed - saw - cannot marry

End of box.

The Hermit And The Mouse

A long time ago, in the jungle of Malkand, there (I) a hermit named Shalakya.
Every day at dawn he (II) a dip in the holy Ganges, chant mantras, and worship
God.

One evening while he (III) near the bank of the Ganges, he (IV) a small mouse
hiding from the piercing eyes of a hawk. "Oh, poor mouse! If I don't take it along
with me, the hawk will carry it off."

So, Shalakya took the mouse to his hermitage.


"I (V) this mouse into a girl," he thought. "Then she will stay with me as my
daughter, and look after me." He transformed the mouse into a girl. He (VI) her
Apsara. With the passing years, she became a beautiful damsel. She took care
of the hermit, brought flowers from the forest, and arranged for the puja.
Shalakya decided to look for a groom for Apsara. Seeing the radiant beauty of
Apsara, the hermit thought the Sun God would be the perfect match for her. He
invited the Sun God with his spiritual powers.

The Sun God was spellbound by her beauty. "Ah! Beautiful maiden, (VII) to
marry me?" he proposed.

"I (VIII) you," said Apsara. "Your heat would be unbearable for me."

The hermit then asked the Sun God, "Is there anybody more powerful than you,
who would be worthy of my daughter?"

"The Cloud (IX) a better pair with Apsara," he replied. "He can overcast me with
his power."

Then the hermit invoked the Cloud.

"The Cloud is like a vagabond!", said Apsara. "So I am not willing to marry him
either."

The cloud advised, "Mountain is more powerful than me. It can block my way."

Now Shalakya invoked the mountain.

Apsara expressed her unwillingness. "The mountain is too heavy! I will be


crushed under his weight!"

The mountain said, "The mouse (X) the ideal match for you. He can dig up
holes through me."

Then Shalakya called a mouse.

Apsara was delighted to see the mouse and thought it to be the perfect match
for her. Seeing the glow on Apsara's face the hermit (XI) Apsara into a mouse.

Available at: http://shortstoriesshort.com/story/the-hermit-and-the-mouse/.


Accessed on: August 21, 2015.

Glossário:
hermit: a holy man

mantra: sacred sounds believed to have spiritual power

Ganges: a river in India

hermitage: the building where a hermit lives

damsel: young unmarried woman

puja: the act of reverence to a God

Fim do glossário.

Resposta: (I) lived; (II) would take; (III) was sitting; (IV) saw; (V) will change; (VI)
named; (VII) would you like; (VIII) cannot marry; (IX) would make; (X) would be;
(XI) transformed

FONTE: Reprodução/Scribner Press

92

2. In your notebook, write down the sentences below in chronological order


according to the story.

a) The hermit tries to find a husband for the girl.

b) The girl is transformed into a mouse.

c) The mouse is transformed into a beautiful girl.

d) A hermit sees a mouse in danger.

e) The perfect match for the girl seems to be a mouse.

Resposta: a) 3; b) 5; c) 2; d) 1; e) 4

3. What is the message conveyed, the lesson to be learned from the story on
the previous page?

- Act according to your words.

- Don't be proud of something that is of little use.

- Just talk does not help; we should get up and work.

- Changing our attitude gives us hope to live a better life.

- Just by changing the outer appearance one cannot change one's inner self.
Resposta correta: Just by changing the outer appearance one cannot change
one's inner self.

4. Read the text below and do the following activities in your notebook.

Atenção professor: Explique aos alunos que 11st significa 11 stone e 14st
significa 14 stone. A palavra stone, abreviada st, é uma antiga unidade de
peso, ainda usada no Reino Unido, equivalente a 14 pounds (libras) ou 6,350
quilos. Essa unidade não varia no plural (diz-se 11 stone e 14 stone). Hannah
Baines pesa agora 14st, ou seja, 66,040 kg. Fim da observação.

Big Ballet Star Hannah Has the Last Laugh at Bullies Who Said She Was Too
Fat to Dance

By Alun Palmer

As a child, all Hannah Baines wanted to do was dance. She took part in ballet
competitions around her native Yorkshire and began to win. But then came the
laughter.

By the time she was 13 years old, she was 11st, which led jealous competitors
to ridicule her. After all, ballet was just for the willowy, skinny girls, they
sneered. But now 18-year-old Hannah has had the last laugh.

In a unique project, dance legend Wayne Sleep wanted to break down the
taboos about weight in ballet and has brought together 16 plus-sized women
and two men for a performance of Swan Lake. Hannah who now weighs 14st, is
not just one of the curvy girls who are transformed into swans, but she even
landed the lead role of Odette.

Available at: www.mirror.co.uk/tv/tv-news/big-ballet-star-hannah-baines-


3112610. Accessed on: August 21, 2015. (Fragment).

FONTE: Garry Maclennan/Acervo do fotógrafo

a) Transcribe the best options to complete the sentences about Hannah.

Some people laughed/can laugh at Hannah saying that she would/will never
be a ballet dancer, but she didn't give up her dream. The girls that bullied
Hannah must/can be jealous now.

Resposta: laughed; would; must


b) Read the quotation by Hannah and find

- two adjectives in the comparative form.

- a modal verb used to talk about repeated actions in the past.

"I didn't have a problem with my size when I was younger but when I got older I
started going to dance competitions and people would laugh at me even though
I was winning some contests."

Available at: www.mirror.co.uk/tv/tv-news/big-ballet-star-hannah-baines-


3112610. Accessed on: March 7, 2016. (Fragment).

Resposta: younger, older; would

c) Complete the sentences about Hannah using the comparative form of the
adjectives in the box.

Box:

skinny - talented - young - heavy

End of box.

- Hannah is 18, but she started dancing when she was ____ .

- She is ____ now than she was at 13.

- Girls who were ____ than Hannah used to ridicule her.

- Hannah got the lead role of Odette because she was ____ than the other
competitors.

Resposta: younger; heavier; skinnier; more talented

Atenção professor: Explique aos alunos que com skinny e heavy, que são
palavras dissilábicas, terminadas em y precedido de consoante, troca-se o y
por i antes do acréscimo de -er: skinnier e heavier. Fim da observação.

93

WRITING

1. In Sunset Land the main character ends up in his own hometown, sitting by
the side of the same road he used to sit when he was younger, watching the
sunset. How did you like the ending of the short story?
Personal answer.

2. The school library is promoting the Young Writers Week, an event in which
you are invited to share your creativity with your schoolmates. To participate in
this event, you have to write a new ending to Sunset Land.

- Think of a different ending to the short story Sunset Land.

- Go back to activity 2 on page 86 to check the characteristics of short stories.

- Follow the Tips for Writing the Conclusion, given below.

- Write down a draft of its new ending (one paragraph is enough).

- Ask a classmate to read your draft. Get some feedback.

- Rewrite your paragraph using the feedback you had as a basis and make any
improvements or necessary corrections.

- Proofread your work.

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos a importância de fazer um


rascunho quando se escreve um texto. Nesse rascunho, podem-se inserir as
ideias mais básicas e algumas palavras-chave que serão desenvolvidas
futuramente. Diga-lhes que, depois de pronto, é interessante partilhar com os
colegas e receber um retorno deles e do professor. Comente também que,
após a reescrita do texto, deve-se revisar o trabalho para evitar erros e, por fim,
passá-lo a limpo. Lembre aos alunos que a troca de rascunhos e o retorno as
impressões entre eles é uma oportunidade de colaboração, em que partilham
conhecimentos e um contribui para enriquecer o trabalho do outro. Dessa
forma, eles passam a perceber que o professor não é a única pessoa a quem
eles podem recorrer para pedir ajuda. Fim da observação.

Tips for Writing the Conclusion

Think in English. Remember to use the structures, verb tenses and vocabulary
you are now familiar with and make sure your ending

- shows (or suggests) the result of the story1s conflict;

- comes from the main character's actions;

- uses elements from the story's beginning and middle;


- makes the reader keep interested in the story.

The new endings can be displayed on the library board. Read the new endings
written by your classmates. Which one do you like most?

Personal answer.

LISTENING

BEFORE YOU LISTEN

Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

a) What is happiness? In your opinion, is it easy to define happiness?

b) Do you think people have similar opinions about the meaning of happiness?

c) Observe the pictures below. Which definition of happiness do you like best?
Why?

FONTE: Shtonado/Shutterstock

FONTE: Franzi/Shutterstock

FONTE: PODIS/Shutterstock

Personal answers.

94

AS YOU LISTEN

An international magazine has interviewed a group of professors, journalists


and psychologists and asked how they would define happiness. Listen and do
the following activities in your notebook.

a) Do the interviewees define happiness in the same way?

Resposta: No, they don't.

b) What do the interviewees mention about happiness? Identify all the correct
answers.

- Happiness and beauty are interrelated.

- Happiness has to do with the purpose and meaning of life.

- Happiness means not comparing yourself to other people.


- Happiness is related to pleasure, but it's much more than that.

- Staying alone and not being bothered by other people can make you happy.

- Happiness doesn't exist - there are only moments of pleasure and satisfaction.

- The most important thing related to happiness is the relationship with people.

Resposta correta: Happiness has to do with the purpose and meaning of life;
Happiness means not comparing yourself to other people; Happiness is related
to pleasure, but it's much more than that; The most important thing related to
happiness is the relationship with people.

AFTER YOU LISTEN

In small groups, discuss the following question. Which statements from the
previous activity do you most agree with? Justify your answer.

Personal answer.

SPEAKING

1. Discuss the questions below with a classmate.

a) What are your goals in life?

b) What are your dreams?

c) What is it that would make you happier?

Personal answers.

2. Walk around the class and ask these questions to some classmates. Are
their goals and dreams similar to yours or are they different? The expressions in
the box below may be useful to start your discussion.

Atenção professor: Peça aos alunos que circulem pela sala e conversem com
pelo menos cinco colegas a respeito desse assunto. Depois, abra a discussão
para todo o grupo e verifique se os objetivos de vida e os sonhos deles são
parecidos ou diferentes. Fim da observação.

FONTE: frikota/Shutterstock

Box:

Some Useful Expressions


My biggest dream is to...

I'd like to...

I'd love to...

This is how I see myself in 10 years: ...

End of box.

95

THINK ABOUT IT

The poster below is from a UK movement called Action For Happiness. Read it
and discuss the following questions in small groups.

FONTE: Available at: www.actionforhappiness.org/poster-great-dream.


Accessed on: October 24, 2015. CRÉDITOS:
Reprodução/www.actionforhappiness.org

a) The poster points out 10 keys to happier living. Which of the things
mentioned do you already do?

b) Which ones are still difficult habits and attitudes for you?

c) Are there any other keys you would include on the list?

d) What should you do to make your dream(s) come true?

Personal answers.

Boxe complementar:

Project

This activity's content could be useful for Project 2, on page 143. You may start
taking notes and developing your ideas about it.

Fim do complemento.

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que eles já podem começar a


pensar em ideias para o Project 2. Vá até a página 143 e explique-lhes
brevemente o projeto. Fim da observação.

SELF-ASSESSMENT
1. Evaluate your performance in this Unit. In your notebook, give yourself a
score from 1 to 5 for each of the topics below.

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

I can...

a) read and understand a short story.

b) understand and use the modal verb would and comparative


adjectives.

c) write a new ending of a short story.

d) understand an interview about the meaning of happiness.

e) talk about my dreams and goals.

1. poor

2. not so good

3. good

4. very good

5. excellent

Atenção professor: Incentive os alunos a refletir a respeito de sua


aprendizagem, da execução das atividades e do seu desempenho em aula.
Fim da observação.

2. Take a look at the items in activity 1 in which you gave yourself a score of 1
or 2. Talk to a classmate and think of what you can do to improve your
performance. Then discuss your ideas with your teacher.

Atenção professor: Ao discutir com os alunos o que pode ser feito para a
melhoria do desempenho em aula, conscientize-os de que com a autoavaliação
é possível obter um diagnóstico mais preciso em relação ao aproveitamento
deles quanto ao conteúdo e às habilidades trabalhadas. Fim da observação.

KEEP EXPLORING
Book: AWAD, E. Nas asas de um sonho: Uma história que muda vidas e
motiva pessoas. Barueri: Novo Século, 2013.

Movie: THE PURSUIT of happyness [À procura dafelicidade]. Directed by


Gabriele Muccino. Production: Todd Black, Jason Blumenthal, James Lassiter,
Will Smith and Steve Tisch. USA: Columbia Pictures, Overbrook Entertainment,
Escape Artists, Relativity Media, 2007. 1 DVD.

Website: Museu da Pessoa: www.museudapessoa.net/pt/home. Acesso em: 4


fev. 2016.

96

UNIT 6 - Science Has Remade the World

Nesta Unidade você vai:

- Discutir e refletir a respeito de descobertas científicas;

- Compreender e usar o Present Perfect e a forma superlativa dos


adjetivos;

- Explorar notícias acerca de descobertas científicas;

- Relacionar os conteúdos com as disciplinas de Biologia, Matemática,


Física e Química.

97

FONTE: National Geographic Creative/The Bridgeman Art Library/Keystone

Observe the picture below and discuss the following questions with your
classmates.

a) Do you recognize the man in the picture?

b) What area of the human knowledge did he work in?

c) In what way did he remake the world?

Personal answers.

Atenção professor: O homem na imagem é Isaac Newton (1643-1727), um dos


maiores cientistas de todos os tempos. Comente com os alunos que a imagem
mostra os símbolos de algumas de suas descobertas, no campo da
Matemática, da Física, do Cálculo, da gravidade, da Óptica e também a
respeito da influência da Lua nas marés. Na próxima página há uma atividade
que aborda uma breve biografia dele. Fim da observação.

98

LET'S START

The people pictured below are famous scientists. In pairs, match the name of
each scientist with the piece of information about her/him. Use your notebook to
do the activity.

LEGENDA: Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

FONTE: Fred Stein Archive/Archive Photos/Getty Images

LEGENDA: Isaac Newton (1643-1727)

FONTE: Reprodução/Galeria Nacional, Londres, Inglaterra.

LEGENDA: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

FONTE: Bob Thomas/Popperfoto/Getty Images

LEGENDA: Marie Curie (1867-1934)

FONTE: Apic/Getty Images

LEGENDA: Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

FONTE: Reprodução/Galleria Degli Uffiz, Florença, Itália.

LEGENDA: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)

FONTE: ullstein bild/Getty Images

1) He was the French chemist and microbiologist who created a new level of
understanding regarding microorganisms, the causes of disease and disease
prevention.

2) He was an Italian scientist who developed telescopes and used them to


make revolutionary observations on our solar system, discovering new objects
like the moons that orbit Jupiter.

3) He changed the world of science with his brilliant work in theoretical physics.
His theories, equations and ideas became the stuff of legend and his image is
known around the world.
4) Together with her husband Pierre, she contributed much to science through
both their individual work and their combined efforts in the field of radioactivity.

5) He introduced the idea of natural selection to the world, backing up his


theories on evolution with substantial observational data recorded on his long
sea voyages.

6) He developed the theory of universal gravitation as well as his famous three


laws of motion, forever leaving his mark on physics, astronomy and
mathematics.

Available at: www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/scientists.html. Accessed on:


January 22, 2016.

Resposta: a) 3); b) 6); c) 5); d) 4); e) 2); f) 1)

99

READING

BEFORE YOU READ

1. Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

a) Do you like science? Do you think it is important? Why (not)?

b) Can you mention any important scientific discoveries?

c) Do you think science still has a lot to discover? If so, what, for example?

Personal answers.

2. Read the title and the subtitle of the following article. What is it about? Make
your predictions.

Personal answers.

AS YOU READ

Read the text and check your predictions. Then do the following activities in
your notebook.

Life, the Multiverse and Everything

Science's unsolved mysteries

Science has remade the world, but scientists are not finished yet
"I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting
myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than
ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me." Those
words, ascribed to Sir Isaac Newton, might still be spoken, with the appropriate
correction for sex, by any scientist today.

The discipline of natural science that Newton helped found in the second half of
the 17th century has extended humanity's horizons to a degree he could
scarcely have envisaged. Newton lived in a world that thought itself 6,000 years
old, knew nothing of chemical elements or disease-causing microbes, believed
living creatures could spring spontaneously from mud, hay or dirty bedlinen, and
had only just stopped assuming that the sun (and everything else in the
universe) revolved around the Earth. Yet even today, deep problems and
deeper mysteries remain. Science cannot yet say how life began or whether the
universe is but one of many. Some things people take for granted - that time
goes forwards but never backwards, say - are profoundly weird. [...] One of
those mysteries is how, after billions of years when the Earth was inhabited only
by single-celled creatures, animals suddenly popped into existence. Perhaps
the deepest mystery of all is how atoms in human brains can consciously
perceive the desire to ask all of these questions in the first place, and then
move other atoms around to answer them. [...]

Bacteria and Brontosaurus. Oxygen and octane. Quarks and quasars. All are
the offspring of Newton's child. Moreover, it is the manipulation of nature which
science permits that has brought today's unprecedented plenty and prosperity.
Most of all, though, science has brought self-knowledge, for it has put humans
in their place in two contradictory ways. It has dethroned them as the centre of
the universe, by showing that mankind is a Johnny-come-lately, living on a tiny
planet orbiting an ordinary star in an unremarkable galaxy that is, itself, one of
more than 150 billion such galaxies. But it has also enthroned humanity,
revealing the extraordinary nature of the universe's inner workings in ways that
Newton's contemporaries were only beginning to glimpse. Simultaneously
demoted and exalted by science in this unprecedented era of discovery, Homo
sapiens still has oceans to survey.

FONTE: The Economist, August 8, 2015. p. 14. (Fragment).


General Comprehension

What's the article about?

- The mysteries science has solved and those that remain to be solved.

- Isaac Newton and his youthful adventures on the seashore.

- How Newton and other great scientists found the answers to science's
mysteries.

Resposta correta: The mysteries science has solved and those that remain to
be solved.

100

Detailed Comprehension

1. The article is divided into four paragraphs. The sentences below are the main
ideas in them. Read them and use your notebook to write down the number of
each paragraph they belong to.

a) Science still has a lot of mysteries to unravel.

Resposta: paragraph 3

b) Science has brought many contributions to the world.

Resposta: paragraph 4

c) Newton was a scientist who greatly contributed to the advance of science.

Resposta: paragraph 2

d) Every scientist is still a child in the sense that there is still a lot to be
discovered.

Resposta: paragraph 1

2. Use your notebook to check if the statements below are True (T) or False (F),
according to the text.

a) In paragraph 1, the author of the article suggests that only men should be
scientists.

Resposta: F
b) Until the 17th century, people believed that the Earth was the center of the
universe.

Resposta: T

c) Science is not sure about the origins of life on Earth.

Resposta: T

d) There are many studies on planets and galaxies, but few on oceans and sea
life.

Resposta: F

3. According to the author of the article, what is probably the deepest mystery
not yet solved by science?

Resposta: How atoms in human brains can consciously perceive the desire to
ask questions, and then move other atoms around to answer them.

AFTER YOU READ

Discuss the questions in small groups.

a) Do you agree that science still has a lot to discover?

b) What discoveries would you like scientists to make?

Personal answers.

Pronunciation Tips

English spelling and pronunciation can be tricky. When is the i pronounced /I/,
as in bit, and when is it pronounced /aI/, as in bite?

Listen to the words and notice the vowel sound in each of them. Use your
notebook to write them down. Make two columns, one for /I/, as in bit, and
another for /aI/, as in bite. Mark the vowel sound of each word as you listen.

Tabela: equivalente textual a seguir.

Resposta: /I/: envisaged, discipline, bedlinen, permits, contradictory, orbiting,


ordinary; /aI/: horizons, diverting, whilst, ascribed, microbes, desire, tiny

101

MORE FOOD FOR THOUGHT


1. Have you ever seen A Beautiful Mind? If so, did you like the movie? What is it
about, do you remember? Russell Crowe played a scientist in that movie. What
was the scientist's name, do you remember? What did he teach?

Personal answers. The scientist's name was John Nash; he taught


Mathematics.

2. A Beautiful Mind is a 2001 film about the life of John Forbes Nash, an asocial
but brilliant mathematician who develops schizophrenia. In 1994, John Nash
was awarded the Nobel Prize in economics. Read his Nobel acceptance speech
(one of the final scenes in the movie), then discuss the following questions with
a classmate.

Atenção professor: Se possível, exiba a cena do filme Uma mente brilhante que
reproduz o discurso de John Nash, disponível em:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=3EDYHnMgJJw (acesso em: 22 jan. 2016). Fim da
observação.

"I've always believed in numbers and the equations and logics that lead to
reason. But after a lifetime of such pursuits, I ask: 'What truly is logic?', 'Who
decides reason?'. My quest has taken me through the physical, the
metaphysical, the delusional - and back. And I have made the most important
discovery of my career, the most important discovery of my life: It is only in the
mysterious equations of love that any logic or reasons can be found. (Looking at
[his wife] Alicia) I'm only here tonight because of you. You're the only reason I
am. You are all my reasons. Thank you."

FONTE: Available at: http://memoryonpause.blogspot.com.br/2008/02/beautiful-


mind.html. Accessed on: January 22, 2016. (Fotografia) Reprodução/Universal
Pictures

a) Had Professor Nash found the answer to his pursuits in science?

Resposta: No, he hadn't.

b) Where had he found logic and reasons?

Resposta: In (the mysterious equations of) love.

c) When he said "You are all my reasons," who was he addressing?


Resposta: His wife.

d) Has mathematics solved all life's mysteries?

Resposta: No, it hasn't.

e) In what way can we compare Isaac Newton and John Nash?

Resposta: They were both great scientists/mathematicians.

f) Can their quests be compared?

Personal answer. Possible answer: Although Newton and Nash lived in very
different times, backgrounds and circumstances, both scientists tried to
discover, to know more about the world they lived in.

WORD STUDY

False Cognates

In each of the sentences below, there is a false cognate in bold. Use the
context to help you find each true meaning and write it down in your notebook.

a) "[...] living on a tiny planet orbiting an ordinary star [...]"

False cognate in bold: ordinary.

Resposta: comum

b) "[...] and had only just stopped assuming that the sun (and everything else in
the universe) revolved around the Earth."

False cognate in bold: assuming.

Resposta: acreditar

c) "Bacteria and Brontosaurus. Oxygen and octane."

False cognate in bold: Bacteria.

Resposta: Bactérias

Atenção professor: Explique aos alunos que, para dizer "ordinário" no sentido
de "grosseiro, desagradável", usa-se gross, rude ou vulgar. Que para dizer
"assumir", no sentido de "passar a ocupar ou exercer cargo, função", usa-se
take over. E que bacteria é o plural de bacterium. Para dizer "uma bactéria",
diz-se a bacterium. Fim da observação.
In Other Words

Replace the words and phrases below with those you find in the text on page
99. Write down the answers in your notebook.

a) (paragraph 1) beach

Resposta: seashore

b) (paragraph 1) sometimes, but not very often

Resposta: now and then

c) (paragraph 1) at the same time as, while

Resposta: whilst

d) (paragraph 1) attributed to

Resposta: ascribed to

e) (paragraph 2) probably would not have imagined

Resposta: could scarcely have envisaged

f) (paragraph 3) believe to be true

Resposta: take for granted

g) (paragraph 4) developments that resulted from Newton's discoveries

Resposta: the offspring of Newton's child

h) (paragraph 4) to have a quick look at

Resposta: to glimpse

Observação: Na página 157 há uma lista com alguns falsos cognatos que
aparecem neste volume. Vá até lá e interaja com a atividade que deverá ser
realizada ao longo do ano. Fim da observação.

Atenção professor: Oriente os alunos a transcrever a lista de falsos cognatos


da página 157 para o caderno. Ao final de cada Unidade eles devem preencher
a lista com os significados dos falsos cognatos registrados. Essa é uma tarefa
a ser realizada ao longo do ano e servirá ao aluno como fonte de consulta. Fim
da observação.

102
Word Building: Prefixes and Suffixes

1. Read the sentences from the text on page 99, paying attention to the words
in bold. Then choose the correct option to complete the following statements
and write them down in your notebook.

"Science's unsolved mysteries"

"Some things people take for granted [...] are profoundly weird."

a) The word unsolved is formed with the prefix un-, which means

Word in bold: unsolved.

- not.

- under.

Resposta: not

b) Unsolved also contains the suffix -ed, here used to

Word in bold: unsolved.

- form the Simple Past.

- form an adjective.

Resposta: form an adjective

c) The word profoundly ends with -ly, a suffix which is used to form

Word in bold: profoundly.

- adverbs of manner.

- adjectives.

Resposta: adverbs of manner

2. Go back to the text and find other examples of words that are formed with the
prefix un- and the suffix -ly. What does each word mean in Portuguese?

Possible answers: Unprecedented (sem precedentes), unremarkable (não


notável, comum), undiscovered (não descoberto), suddenly (de repente),
spontaneously (espontaneamente), consciously (conscientemente).

3. Now answer these questions, according to the text on page 99, using some
of the words from the previous activity. Write them down in your notebook.
a) How did animals pop into existence?

Resposta: Suddenly.

b) Have science's mysteries been solved? Give a complete answer.

Resposta: No, they are still unsolved.

c) How did the ocean of truth lie before Newton's eyes?

Resposta: Undiscovered.

d) Did today's era of discovery exist before? Give a complete answer.

Resposta: No, it's unprecedented.

e) How did people at Newton's time believe living creatures could spring?

Resposta: Spontaneously.

f) In what kind of galaxy are humans living in?

Resposta: An unremarkable galaxy.

Compound Words

Answer the following questions using compound words (that is, formed with two
or more words) that you can find in the text. Write down the answers in your
notebook.

a) What do we call animals that have only one cell?

Resposta: Single-celled creatures.

b) What do we call tiny living things that can cause diseases?

Resposta: Disease-causing microbes.

c) How do we refer to a good understanding of yourself and your abilities?

Resposta: Self-knowledge.

d) What expression can we use to define someone who has only recently come
into activity, does not know much about it, but has suddenly become famous?

Resposta: A Johnny-come-lately.

Function Words
Still and yet are function words that can be found in some sentences from the
text on page 99. In your notebook, match those sentences with the uses of still
and yet, as explained.

a) "Those words, ascribed to Sir Isaac Newton, might still be spoken [...]"

b) "Science has remade the world, but scientists are not finished yet."

c) "Yet even today, deep problems and deeper mysteries remain."

d) "Homo sapiens still has oceans to survey."

1) Used for talking about a situation that continues to exist.

2) Used for talking about a situation that has not happened up to now.

3) Used for introducing an idea that contrasts with what has just been
mentioned.

Resposta: a) 1); b) 2); c) 3); d) 1)

FONTE: Marina Sun/Shutterstock

103

LANGUAGE STUDY

Verb Tenses: Present Perfect, Simple Past

1. Read this sentence from the text on page 99 and observe the verb tense in
bold. Then check the correct options to complete the explanation of the Present
Perfect tense. Write down those options in your notebook.

"Science has remade the world, but scientists are not finished yet."

The sentence above is an example of the Present Perfect tense. We use the
Present Perfect to express several different ideas. In the example above, it
refers to an action that happened within a period of time that is (a) specified
and finished/unspecified and unfinished. We do not know when the action
was done, we just know it was in the (b) past/present and has relevance now.
In sentences like that one, the Present Perfect is used to connect the past and
the present.

Verb tense in bold: (a) specified and finished/unspecified and unfinished;


(b) past/present.
Resposta: a) unspecified and unfinished; b) past

2. Based on the text you read on page 99, do the following activities, writing
them down in your notebook.

a) Answer the questions with Yes or No.

- Has science transformed the world?

Resposta: Yes.

- Have scientists agreed on a theory about the origin of life?

Resposta: No.

b) Are the statements below True or False? Observe the words in bold.

- Science has already discovered how atoms in human brains can consciously
perceive the desire to ask questions.

Word in bold: already.

Resposta: False

- Scientists haven't discovered all the mysteries of the world yet.

Word in bold: yet.

Resposta: True

3. In your notebook, complete the sentences below about the formation of the
Present Perfect.

a) We form the Present Perfect tense with ____ or ____ followed by the main
verb in the Past Participle form.

Resposta: have, has

b) In the negative form we simply add not to have/has: have not (short form:
____ ) or has not (short form: ____ ).

Resposta: haven't, hasn't

c) To form questions with the Present Perfect tense we put ____ or ____ at the
beginning of the question, before the subject.

Resposta: have, has


d) To give short answers, we say "Yes, I/you/we/they have" or "Yes, he/she/it
____" , and "No, I/you/we/they ____" , or "No, he/she/it".

Resposta: has, haven't

e) The adverb ____ means that something happened earlier than we expected
and is commonly used with the Present Perfect.

Resposta: already

f) The adverb ____ means that something that we expected hasn't happened
until now and is commonly used with the Present Perfect in negative sentences.

Resposta: yet

Atenção professor: Peça aos alunos que observem a estrutura do início da


frase "Science has remade the world [...]" e as frases da atividade anterior.
Comente com eles que a forma contraída de have é 've (como em I've gone) e
de has é 's (She's gone). Fim da observação.

4. Go back to the questions in activity 2 a, and give short answers to those


questions.

Resposta: Yes, it has.; No, they haven't.

5. Now look at this other example from the text on page 99. Then choose the
correct options to complete the following explanation.

"Newton lived in a world that thought itself 6,000 years old [...]"

For actions or events that happened in a finished period of time, we do not use
the Present Perfect, but the (a) Simple Present/Simple Past. We know, from
our background experience, that Newton lived in the 17th century and that the
idea people had of the world at that time is something of the past, with no
connection with the present. So, we use the (b) Present Perfect/Simple Past.

Resposta: a) Simple Past; b) Simple Past

104

6. Look at the text on page 99 again. Find examples of the Simple Past and the
Present Perfect. Use your notebook to copy the table below and complete those
examples.
Tabela: equivalente textual a seguir.

Paragraph Simple Past Present Perfect

1 _____ _____

2 _____ _____

3 _____ Ø

4 Ø _____

Resposta: Paragraph 1: Simple Past: lay; Present Perfect: have been;


Paragraph 2: Simple Past: helped, lived, thought, knew, believed, revolved;
Present Perfect: has extended; Paragraph 3: Simple Past: began, popped;
Paragraph 4: Present Perfect: has brought; has brought; has put; has
dethroned; has (also) dethroned

7. Now read John Nash's acceptance speech on page 101 again and find two
other examples of Present Perfect use. Why did he use the Present Perfect in
those sentences? Transcribe them in your notebook and choose the correct
answer below.

- Because it refers to events in a finished period of time.

- Because it refers to events in an unfinished period of time, biographical details


about a living person.

Resposta correta: Because it refers to events in an unfinished period of time,


biographical details about a living person.

"My quest has taken me [...]"; "And I have made the most important discovery
[...]"

Comparatives and Superlatives

1. Look again at these sentences from the texts. Can you identify the
comparatives of short (one syllable) adjectives in those sentences? What
adjectives are those? What is being compared in each sentence?
"I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting
myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than
ordinary [...]"

"Yet even today, deep problems and deeper mysteries remain."

Atenção professor: Explique aos alunos que nos adjetivos dissilábicos


terminados em y, troca-se o y por i antes do acréscimo de -er, quando da
formação do comparativo de superioridade. Smooth - smoother; pretty - prettier;
deep - deeper. Pebbles (how smooth they are), shells (how pretty they are),
mysteries (how deep they are). Fim da observação.

2. Now observe the adjectives in bold in these sentences from the texts on
pages 99 and 101. Then check the correct option to complete the rules in your
notebook.

"Yet even today, deep problems and deeper mysteries remain."

Adjetives in bold: deep; deeper.

"Perhaps the deepest mystery of all is [...]"

Adjetives in bold: the deepest.

"And I have made the most important discovery of my career, the most
important discovery of my life."

Adjetives in bold: the most important discovery; the most important discovery.

The adjective deep has two kinds of comparison to a higher degree


(superiority):

a) the comparative form, used to compare two/more than two things, people,
events, etc.: deeper/deepest.

Resposta: two, deeper

b) and the superlative form, used when comparing three or more things, people,
events, etc.: deeper/deepest, generally preceded by the.

Resposta: deepest

c) Deep is a short (one-syllable) adjective. Longer adjectives (of three syllables


or more and some of two syllables) like important take more/most before the
adjective to form the comparative, and more/most before the adjective when
forming the superlative.

Resposta: more, most

3. In your notebook, complete the sentences below using comparative or


superlative forms of the adjectives deep or important. They are all about the
texts on pages 99 and 101.

a) When it comes to science, mysteries remain ____ than problems.

Resposta: deeper

b) The quest for knowledge is one of the ____ mysteries of all.

Resposta: deepest

c) Logic and reason can only be found in love. According to John Nash, this
was the ____ discovery in his life.

Resposta: most important

d) By reading John Nash's speech, we can infer that his wife was one of the
____ persons in his life.

Resposta: most important

Observação:

Two very common adjectives with irregular forms:

Adjectives:

good

bad

Comparative Forms:

better

worse

Superlative Forms:

(the) best

(the) worst
Fim da observação.

105

LET'S PRACTICE

1. Have you ever heard of Stephen Hawking? Read the quotation below and, in
your notebook, write down the correct verb forms to complete it, choosing from
the ones in the box. Use the context to help you. Then, in pairs, answer
questions a, b and c.

Atenção professor: Se os alunos não souberem quem é Stephen Hawking, diga


que ele é um físico teórico e cosmólogo britânico, um dos cientistas mais
respeitados e admirados da atualidade. Fim da observação.

Box:

has allowed - to build - could become - need to do - learned - have come about
- lived - happened - learned - doesn't have to be

End of box.

"For millions of years, mankind (I) just like the animals. Then something (II)
which unleashed the power of our imagination. We (III) to talk and we (IV) to
listen. Speech (V) the communication of ideas, enabling human beings to work
together (VI) the impossible. Mankind's greatest achievements (VII) by talking,
and its greatest failures by not talking. It (VIII) like this. Our greatest hopes (IX)
reality in the future. With the technology at our disposal, the possibilities are
unbounded. All we (X) is make sure we keep talking."

Available at: http://refspace.com/quotes/Stephen_Hawking/Q1686. Accessed


on: January 22, 2016.

Resposta: (I) lived; (II) happened; (III) learned; (IV) learned; (V) has allowed;
(VI) to build; (VII) have come about; (VIII) doesn't have to be; (IX) could
become; (X) need to do

LEGENDA: Stephen Hawking

FONTE: Karwai Tang/Getty Images

a) Which sentences in the quotation above describe a situation, an action, or an


event that
- was finished, completed in the past?

Resposta: I, II, III, IV

- happened at an unspecified time before now and is still relevant now?

Resposta: V, VII

- is a possibility?

Resposta: IX

- is not necessary?

Resposta: VIII

- expresses purpose?

Resposta: VI

- is necessary?

Resposta: X

b) Which human activity has Stephen Hawking pointed out in the words quoted
above?

Resposta: Talking.

c) Do you agree with Stephen Hawking when he says "Our greatest hopes
could become reality in the future"?

Personal answer.

Boxe complementar:

Project

This activity's content could be useful for Project 2, on page 143. You may start
taking notes and developing your ideas about it.

Fim do complemento.

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que eles já podem começar a


pensar em ideias para o Project 2. Vá até a página 143 e explique-lhes
brevemente o projeto. Fim da observação.
2. New scientific discoveries are made every day. Read the following news
summaries and choose the appropriate verb form to complete them. Use your
notebook to do this activity.

1) Supercomputers Listen to the Heart

New supercomputer models have come/came closer than ever to capturing the
behavior of normal human heart valves and their replacements, according to
recent studies. The studies focused/will focus on how heart valve tissue
responds to realistic blood flow. The new models can help doctors make more
durable repair and replacement of heart valves.

Available at: www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150819120745.htm.


Accessed on: January 26, 2016.

Resposta: have come, focused

2) Potential Biomarker for Pre-diabetes Discovered

Researchers have discovered/has discovered a potential biomarker for pre-


diabetes. They will make/made the connection by analyzing blood samples
taken from 40 participants enrolled in the diaBEAT-it program, a long-term
study.

Available at: www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150820125408.htm.


Accessed on: January 26, 2016.

Resposta: have discovered, made

3) Evidence of Species Loss in Amazon Caused by Deforestation

Researchers studying plants, ants, birds, dung beetles and orchid bees in the
Brazilian Amazon have found/will find clear evidence that deforestation causes
drastic loss of tropical forest biodiversity.

Available at: www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150824064927.htm.


Accessed on: January 26, 2016.

Resposta: have found

106

4) Purifying Contaminated Water with Crab Shells


Scientists would find/have found that crab shells are effective in removing
copper and cadmium from contaminated waters.

Available at: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150824114912.htm.


Accessed on: January 26, 2016. (Adapted).

Resposta: have found

5) Hypertensive Patients Benefit from Acupuncture Treatments, Study Finds

Patients with hypertension treated with acupuncture experienced drops in their


blood pressure that lasted up to a month and a half, researchers are
finding/have found. This work is the first to scientifically confirm that this ancient
Chinese practice is beneficial in treating mild to moderate hypertension, and it
indicates that regular use could help/mustn't help people control their blood
pressure and lessen their risk of stroke and heart disease.

Available at: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150819120750.htm.


Accessed on: January 26, 2016. (Adapted).

Resposta: have found, could help

3. Based on the news summary you read in the previous activity, answer the
following questions. Write them down in your notebook.

a) Which scientific news are about the environment?

Resposta: 3), 4)

b) Which ones are about health problems?

Resposta: 1), 2), 5)

c) Which one reports that the solution to a problem caused by man may be
provided by nature?

Resposta: 4)

4. In this Unit we have been discussing about science. Use your notebook to
transcribe the sentences below and complete them using the superlative form of
the adjectives in parentheses. Complete some of them with your own opinion.
Then compare your sentences with a classmate.

a) In my opinion, ____ is ____ (famous) scientist of all time.


Resposta: personal answer, the most famous

b) I think ____ is one of ____ (interesting) recent discoveries.

Resposta: personal answer, the most interesting

c) ____ is ____ (good) science fiction movie I have seen.

Resposta: personal answer, the best

d) John Nash was one ____ (great) mathematicians of our time.

Resposta: of the greatest

WRITING

1. Read the news summary below and answer the following questions.

Autism: Transforming Behavioral Therapy with Technology

Monday, August 24, 2015 - 11:20 in Psychology & Sociology

Using computer vision, signal processing and privacy protection, a doctoral


student, along with electrical and computer engineering professors, have
developed "MEBook," a combination of a social narrative and gaming system
that psychologists and parents can use as behavioral therapies for autistic
children.

Available at: www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150824114732.htm.


Accessed on: January 26, 2016.

a) What is "MEBook"?

Resposta: It's a combination of a social narrative and gaming system that can
be used as behavioral therapies for autistic children.

b) Who has developed it?

Resposta: A doctoral student, along with electrical and computer engineering


professors.

c) Who will benefit from it?

Resposta: Autistic children.

d) Do you think this is an important development? Why (not)?

Personal answers.
2. Based on the news summary you've just read and the ones in activity 2 on
pages 105 and 106, check the correct options (more than one). A news
summary

- presents the main idea of the article.

- is long and contains details of the story.

- can help you decide whether you want to read the whole article or not.

Resposta correta: presents the main idea of the article; can help you decide
whether you want to read the whole article or not.

107

3. Choose the correct statements (more than one) about the news summary
you've just read and the ones in activity 2 on pages 105 and 106.

- They were all related to scientific articles.

- They all mentioned who made the discoveries.

- The Present Perfect was used to describe some recent discoveries, made in
an unspecified period of time with important results now.

Resposta correta: They were all related to scientific articles; The Present
Perfect was used to describe some recent discoveries, made in an unspecified
period of time with important results now.

4. Now it's your turn to write a news summary. In small groups, discuss this
question: What good news would you like to read in a news summary on a
website about scientific discoveries? Then follow the guidelines.

- Decide on a great scientific discovery you would like to happen.

- Write the draft of a possible news summary for it (don't forget to include a
headline).

- Ask a classmate to read your draft. Get some feedback.

- Rewrite your news summary using the feedback you had as a basis and make
any improvements or necessary corrections.

- Proofread your work.

Personal answer.
Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos a importância de fazer um
rascunho quando se escreve um texto. Nesse rascunho, podem-se inserir as
ideias mais básicas e algumas palavras-chave que serão desenvolvidas
futuramente. Diga-lhes que, depois de pronto, é interessante partilhar com os
colegas e receber um retorno deles e do professor. Comente também que,
após a reescrita do texto, deve-se revisar o trabalho para evitar erros e, por fim,
passar a limpo. Lembre aos alunos que a troca de rascunhos e o retorno com
as impressões entre eles é uma oportunidade de colaboração, em que
partilham conhecimentos e um contribui para enriquecer o trabalho do outro.
Dessa forma, eles passam a perceber que o professor não é a única pessoa a
quem eles podem recorrer para pedir ajuda. Os alunos podem disponibilizar
seus trabalhos no mural da sala de aula ou pode-se criar uma página no Padlet
https://pt-br.padlet.com (acesso em: 26 jan. 2016), um mural on-line gratuito,
em que os alunos podem postar seus newssummaries. Incentive os alunos a
ler os trabalhos dos colegas e a comentar a respeito das notícias que acharam
mais interessantes. Fim da observação.

LISTENING

BEFORE YOU LISTEN

1. Answer the following questions.

a) Do you like to keep informed about recent discoveries?

b) Do you watch the news on TV or read the newspaper to learn about those
discoveries?

c) What's the latest discovery you have heard of?

Personal answers.

2. You are going to listen to some breaking news about a scientific discovery.
Look at the words in the box below and select those you expect to hear.

Box:

stem cells - pills - homework - obesity - planet - ocean - friend

End of box.

Personal answers.
Atenção professor: Depois que os alunos tiverem escutado o áudio, retorne a
esta questão e pergunte a eles quais dessas palavras foram mencionadas no
áudio (stem cells, pills, obesity). Fim da observação.

AS YOU LISTEN

1. Listen and choose the correct option. Researchers have developed a pill that

- changes the color of people's hair.

- gives you more energy to perform physical activities.

- helps you lose weight.

Resposta correta: helps you lose weight.

2. Listen again and choose the words from the box to complete the paragraph
below. Use your notebook to do that.

Box:

convert - white - fat - brown

End of box.

There are two types of ____ cells: brown and white. ____ cells are bad and
____ cells are good. The researchers identified two compounds that can ____
white cells into brown ones.

Resposta: fat; white; brown; convert

3. When taking those pills, is it necessary to exercise? Justify your answer.

Resposta: Yes. The pill will not replace the benefits of physical activities.

108

AFTER YOU LISTEN

Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

a) Do you think that discovery can help people? Why (not)?

b) Do you think it might have some long-term effects?

c) In your opinion, what other health problems should researchers focus on?

Personal answers.
SPEAKING

1. Read the text below and have a look at some of the greatest modern
inventions pointed out by a website.

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que a palavra ingenious é um falso


cognato, que não significa "ingênuo", mas sim "engenhoso, inventivo, criativo".
Para dizer "ingênuo" em inglês usamos naive ou ingenuous, palavra muitas
vezes confundida com ingenious. Fim da observação.

Some of the Greatest Modern Inventions

We humans are ingenious groups in this world. Right from the moment when
someone rubbed two stones to light a fire, or bashed a rock to make the first
tool, to the development of Internet and Mars rovers, we have already made
some revolutionary advancements in several areas of science and technology.
Let us look at some of the greatest modern inventions.

LEGENDA: Robots, artificial intelligence

FONTE: Baloncici/Shutterstock

LEGENDA: The light bulb

FONTE: Somchai Som/Shutterstock

LEGENDA: Camera

FONTE: FLariviere/Shutterstock

LEGENDA: Calculator, telephone and smartphone

FONTE: sittipong/Shutterstock; fotoret/Shutterstock; Maxx-Studio/Shutterstock

LEGENDA: Automobile, airplane

FONTE: Perry Correll/Shutterstock; Dennis Steen/Shutterstock


f

LEGENDA: Radio, television and the Internet

FONTE: jakkapan/Shutterstock;Luisa Leal Photography/Shutterstock

Available at: www.elist10.com/top-10-greatest-modern-inventions/. Accessed


on: January 26, 2016. (Fragment).

2. Which invention do you think is the most important? Choose from the ones
shown above. Talk to a classmate about that. Justify your answer. Take a look
at the box below with some expressions you can use when talking to your
classmate.

Box:

I couldn't live without... - The best invention ever is... - I'd say that... is the best
because... - After much thought, I believe that...

End of box.

Personal answers.

3. Discuss these questions with a classmate.

a) Do you think artificial intelligence can be a menace to humanity? Why (not)?

b) Could you do without television? What about the Internet?

c) Do you use a camera to take pictures or do you use a smartphone for that?

d) Do you use your mind to do simple calculations or do you use a calculator for
that?

Personal answers.

109

THINK ABOUT IT

Read the text below and discuss the following questions with a classmate.

Future of Science: 'We Will Have the Power of the Gods'

According to the theoretical physicist Professor Michio Kaku of the City College
of New York, we are entering an empowered new era: "We have unlocked the
secrets of matter. We have unravelled the molecule of life, DNA. And we have
created a form of artificial intelligence, the computer. We are making the historic
transition from the age of scientific discovery to the age of scientific mastery in
which we will be able to manipulate and mould nature almost to our wishes."

Among the technologies he believes will change our lives in the coming
decades are cars that drive themselves, lab-grown human organs, 3D
television, robots that can perform household tasks, eyeglasses that double as
home-entertainment centres, the exploitation of genes that alter human ageing
and the possibility of invisibility and forms of teleportation.

Available at: www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/3311478/Future-


of-science-We-will-have-the-power-of-the-gods.html. Accessed on: January 26,
2016. (Fragment).

a) What recent discoveries and inventions are mentioned in the first paragraph?

Resposta: The molecule of life, DNA, and a form of artificial intelligence, the
computer.

b) According to professor Michio Kaku, we are making a transition from the age
of scientific discovery to the age of scientific mastery. How does he describe the
age of scientific mastery?

Resposta: An age in which we will be able to manipulate and mould nature


almost to our wishes.

c) What inventions will change our life in a near future, according to the
professor?

Resposta: Cars that drive themselves, lab-grown human organs, 3D television,


robots that can perform household tasks, eyeglasses that double as home-
entertainment centres, the exploitation of genes that alter human ageing and
the possibility of invisibility and forms of teleportation.

d) Have you heard of any of those inventions? Do you think they are useful? Do
you think those inventions will be available to everybody?

Personal answers.

Observação: ageing (UK) = aging (USA): the process of becoming old. Fim da
observação.
Atenção professor: Incentive os alunos a preencher o quadro abaixo refletindo
a respeito de sua aprendizagem, da execução das atividades e do seu
desempenho em aula. Fim da observação.

SELF-ASSESSMENT

1. Evaluate your performance in this Unit. In your notebook, give yourself a


score from 1 to 5 for each of the topics below.

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

I can...

a) read and understand a magazine article.

b) understand and use the Present Perfect and superlative


adjectives.

c) write a news summary.

d) understand some breaking news about a scientific discovery.

e) talk about the most important modern inventions.

1. poor

2. not so good

3. good

4. very good

5. excellent

2. Take a look at the items in activity 1 in which you gave yourself a score of 1
or 2. Talk to a classmate and think of what you can do to improve your
performance. Then discuss your ideas with your teacher.

Atenção professor: Ao discutir com os alunos o que pode ser feito para a
melhoria do desempenho em aula, conscientize-os de que com a autoavaliação
é possível obter um diagnóstico mais preciso em relação ao aproveitamento
deles quanto ao conteúdo e às habilidades trabalhadas. Fim da observação.
KEEP EXPLORING

Book: DAWKINS, Richard. The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing.


Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Movie: THE THEORY of Everything [A teoria de tudo]. Directed by: James


Marsh. Production: Tim Bevan, Eric Fellner, Anthony McCarten. United
Kingdom: Working Title Films, 2015. 1 DVD.

Website: Sci-News: www.sci-news.com. Accessed on: February 5, 2016.

110

UNIT 7 - Have You Ever Heard of Banksy?

Nesta Unidade você vai:

- Discutir e refletir a respeito de manifestações artísticas;

- Compreender e praticar os diferentes usos do Present Perfect;

- Explorar quizzes acerca de arte;

- Relacionar os conteúdos com a disciplina de Arte.

111

FONTE: Kathy Dewitt/Alamy/Latinstock

Look at the picture below and discuss the following questions with your
classmates.

a) Do you like art?

b) What forms of artwork do you know?

c) The graffiti in the picture was created by an artist called Banksy. Have
you ever heard of him?

d) Do you like that graffiti? Why (not)?

Personal answers.

Atenção professor: Leve os alunos a refletir acerca das diferentes formas de


expressão artística (pintura, fotografia, escultura, dança, teatro, artesanato
etc.). Diga a eles que Banksy é o artista focalizado no texto principal desta
Unidade. Fim da observação.
112

LET'S START

1. Observe the different kinds of artwork in the pictures below. Then, in your
notebook, match each work of art to its description.

FONTE: Fabio Colombini/Acervo do fotógrafo

FONTE: Antonio Scorza/Agência France-Presse

FONTE: The Bridgeman Art Library/Keystone/Museu do Louvre, Paris, França.

FONTE: The Bridgeman Art Library/Keystone/Museu Rodin, Paris, França.

FONTE: Reprodução/Museu do Louvre, Paris, França.

FONTE: Corbis/Latinstock

1) Painting by Leonardo da Vinci (Mona Lisa, early 16th century).

2) Photograph by Fabio Colombini (Rede de pesca e oca - Xingu, 2011).

3) Sand Castle on Copacabana Beach.

4) Hand-painted pottery made in Pakistan.

5) Sculpture by Auguste Rodin (The Thinker, 1880).

6) Drawing by Rembrandt (Lion resting, 1652).

Resposta: a) 2); b) 3); c) 6); d) 5); e) 1); f) 4)

Atenção professor: Veja informações a respeito de alguns dos artistas e obras


aqui mencionados nas seções Cultural Notes e Language in Use no Manual do
Professor. Fim da observação.

2. Which work of art from the previous activity do you like best? Why?

Personal answers.

3. Read the text below, observe its title and format. Then do the following
activities in your notebook.

a) Do you usually take quizzes?

Personal answer.

b) What are quizzes usually about?


Possible answers: music, history, sports, art, dating, etc.

c) Where can people usually find quizzes?

Possible answers: magazines, websites.

113

4. How about a quiz to find out the kind of art you like? Take the quiz below,
compare your answers with a classmate's and then check the result. Is your
result similar to your classmate's?

Personal answer.

Atenção professor: Explique aos alunos que neste quiz não há respostas
"certas" ou "erradas". Eles devem responder de acordo com a própria opinião e
depois verificar o resultado. Fim da observação.

What Kind of Art do You Like?

Not sure what kind of art you like? This quiz can help you find your primary style
and start you on your journey to being a more artistic individual.

1. When you see a painting with no recognizable person, place, or thing, you
think...

a) What's the point of this so-called "art"?

b) I don't know what to think! It amazes and confuses me.

c) It's a beautiful mess of colors and shapes.

2. When you see a painting of people or places in everyday life with everyday
colors, you think...

a) This is what art should look like!

b) It depends on what people and what places are in the painting.

c) This is boring, but has artistic merit.

3. When you see a painting that seems blurry, with lots of dots of color, you
think...

a) Why didn't this artist learn how to "color in the lines"?

b) This is a beautiful impression of what was seen by the artist.


c) This is the beginning of abstraction.

4. How do you feel about graffiti art?

a) It's totally illegal and distasteful to put your "mark" on someone else's
property.

b) It brings art to the masses.

c) It should be displayed in galleries too.

5. What do you think about trying to capture a dream in a painting?

a) It can't be done - dreams are too complicated.

b) I love it when artists do this!

c) Art is always an attempt to capture the essence of something.

result

Mostly A: You have a traditional and classical approach to art. You love
depictions of people and places with colors and settings that are beautiful, yet
accurate.

Mostly B: You approach art the same way you would a dream. You like to
interpret things and prefer art with symbolic meaning.

Mostly C: You approach art with an open mind and have a high sense of
creativity yourself. You love color and shape, and could get lots of them for
hours.

FONTE: Adapted from: www.gotoquiz.com/what_kind_of_art_do_you_like.


Accessed on: August 30, 2015. CRÉDITOS: emka74/Shutterstock

114

READING

BEFORE YOU READ

1. Look at the picture below. What kind of art is that? Do you like it? What do
you think it represents?

FONTE: Picture Hooked/Loop Images/Corbis/Latinstock

Resposta: It's graffiti. Personal answers.


2. That graffiti was created by an artist called Banksy. Take a look at the title of
the text below, its picture and the source. Then answer the following questions.

a) Have people in general ever seen Banksy's face?

Resposta: No, they haven't.

b) Where is this text probably from?

- A museum guide.

- A book about art.

- An international newspaper.

Resposta correta: A book about art.

3. Why do you think the artist won't reveal his identity? Make your predictions.

Personal answer.

AS YOU READ

Now read the following text and check your predictions.

Who Is Banksy?

He comes secretly in the night. He paints graffiti on walls and the sides of
houses throughout the world. He smuggles his own images into the largest
museums. But no one has ever seen him. He has left traces in Australia,
Germany, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Cuba, Mali, Mexico, Palestine, Spain, and the
United States.

Banksy was probably born in 1974 in Bristol, England. His real name might be
Rob, Robin, or Robert Banks. After finishing school, Banksy is said to have
trained to be a butcher. Supposedly not even his parents know that he is a
famous artist. In 2008 an English newspaper claimed to have solved the
mystery of Banksy's true identity. His name was Robin Gunningham, he came
from an affluent family, and he had gone to an expensive private school. Yet
there was no comment from Banksy, and the newspaper could not prove his
story.
[...] In 2009, the Bristol Museum in England invited Banksy to create a "real" art
exhibit. In this show, the artist revealed many strange creations. One of them
showed sausages that had motor engines and could move on their own!

In the meantime, Banksy's works sell for high prices at auctions. But the sale of
his graffiti sprayed onto walls has posed problems: The buyer also has to
purchase the house on which the art is painted! In London, one graffiti by
Banksy of a spray-painted rat was stolen in 2007 by simply chipping it off the
wall. A few weeks later the painting was offered for sale on the Internet for
30,000 British pounds.

Banksy must avoid becoming known at any price. Otherwise he could no longer
carry out secret actions. And also, not everyone values his art; if anything, some
people want to put him on trial for trespassing and property damage. Yet the
mystery surrounding Banksy's identity has made him world-famous and driven
up the prices of his art. So the world will probably continue to ask itself: Who is
Banksy?

Scene from the film Exit Through the Gift Shop

Banksy, 2010

Banksy has just shot his first film, Exit Through the Gift Shop , about a director
who wants to make a film about Banksy. But here too, the street artist's face is
never seen and his voice is distorted.

FONTE: WENZEL, Angela. 13 Art Mysteries Children Should Know. Munich:


Prestel Publishing, 2011. p. 40-43. (Fotografia) Reprodução/Cena do filme Exit
Through the Gift Shop

115

General Comprehension

What is the main purpose of the text?

- To help the readers identify the street artist.

- To give the readers specific information about a famous, yet unidentified street
artist.

- To raise public awareness of the value of graffiti as an art form.


Detailed Comprehension

1. When did the following happen?

a) When was one of the artist's graffiti stolen?

b) When did a newspaper reveal Banksy's supposed identity?

c) When did a museum invite Banksy to create an art exhibit?

2. What's the problem for those who buy Banksy's graffiti on a wall?

3. Why does Banksy want to keep his face unknown?

4. What is Exit Through the Gift Shop?

AFTER YOU READ

Discuss the following questions in small groups.

a) Why do you think not everyone values Banksy's art?

b) What other kind of street artists do you know?

c) Are there any street artists in your neighborhood or town?

d) In your opinion, should people value street art? Justify your answer.

Boxe complementar:

Pronunciation Tips

1. Look at the words in the columns below. They can all be found in Who's
Banksy? Some of the vowel sounds in those words are underlined. Copy the
table in your notebook and match a word from column A that has the same
underlined sound as another word in column B.

Example: any - ever

Column A

any

Underlined vowel: a.

sausage

Underlined vowels: au.

secretly
Underlined vowel: e.

butcher

Underlined vowel: u.

private

Underlined vowel: i.

museum

Underlined vowel: u.

auction

Underlined vowels: au.

engines

Underlined vowel: i.

create

Underlined vowel: a.

trial

Underlined vowel: i.

move

Underlined vowel: o.

stolen

Underlined vowel: o.

Column B

sale

Underlined vowel: a.

identity

Underlined vowel: i.

known

Underlined vowel: o.
wall

Underlined vowel: a.

ever

Underlined vowel: e.

put

Underlined vowel: u.

driven

Underlined vowel: i.

off

Underlined vowel: o.

values

Underlined vowels: ue.

true

Underlined vowels: ue.

even

Underlined vowel: e.

might

Underlined vowel: i.

2. Compare your answers with a classmate's. Then listen and check them.
Practice saying those words aloud.

Fim do complemento.

116

MORE FOOD FOR THOUGHT

Read the texts below and, in your notebook, answer the following questions.

Text 1

Report Shows Arts Engagement Static


Visitor numbers at museums and galleries have grown by ten percentage points
since 2005, however engagement with the arts across England as a whole has
been static during this period. [...] The definition of 'engagement' includes both
arts attendance and participation, and respondents are asked if they have
participated in a given list of arts activities, such as practicing circus skills,
painting or attending events such as live music performances or plays.

Available at: www.artsprofessional.co.uk/news/taking-part-report-shows-arts-


engagement-static. Accessed on: September 1, 2015. (Fragment).

Text 2

What Do You Know About Art?

Have you ever gone to an art gallery or exhibition and while viewing the art
wondered, "What am I supposed to think about this?". If so, the exhibition
interactions at the Leonard and Bina Ellen Art Gallery is the place you're meant
to be.

Conceptualized with the aim to expose the gap between art and the public, the
exhibit combines contemporary art pieces with verbal and written interpretations
by people of the public and art domain. The exhibit is set up so that each piece
of art is accompanied by a written response to the piece as well as video
response from among the thirty people who participated in this project. What
this does is allow a gallery visitor to not only experience the contemporary art
on display for themselves, but to also experience the art through the
interpretations of others.

Available at: http://theconcordian.com/2012/09/what-do-you-know-about-art/.


Accessed on: September 1, 2015. (Fragment).

a) According to text 1, what has happened to the number of visitors at museums


and galleries in England since 2005?

Resposta: The number has grown by ten percentage points.

b) What are some examples of "arts engagement" in text 1?

Resposta: Practicing circus skills, painting or attending events such as live


music performances or plays.
c) What's different about the exhibition pointed out in text 2?

Resposta: The visitors can read the interpretation of the art pieces written by
other people (of the public and art domain).

d) Would you like to go to an art exhibition like the one described in text 2? Why
(not)?

Personal answer.

e) Do you think Brazilians are engaged in arts?

Personal answer.

f) Are you engaged in arts? If so, how? If not, would you like to?

Personal answer.

g) Are there any arts activities in your city?

Personal answer.

WORD STUDY

False Cognates

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que parentes em inglês se diz


relatives e que êxito em inglês se diz success. Fim da observação.

Read these sentences from the text Who Is Banksy? again, observe the words
in bold, pay close attention to the context and find out their true meaning. Then
write down each correct option in your notebook.

a) "Supposedly not even his parents know that he is a famous artist."

Word in bold: parents.

- parentes

- pais

- pares

Resposta correta: pais.

b) Scene from the film Exit Through the Gift Shop

Word in bold: exit.


- saída

- êxito

- entrada

Resposta correta: saída.

Observação: Na página 157 há uma lista com alguns falsos cognatos que
aparecem neste volume. Vá até lá e interaja com a atividade que deverá ser
realizada ao longo do ano. Fim da observação.

Atenção professor: Oriente os alunos a transcrever a lista de falsos cognatos


da página 157 para o caderno. Ao final de cada Unida de eles devem
preencher a lista com os significados dos falsos cognatos registrados. Essa é
uma tarefa a ser realizada ao longo do ano e servirá ao aluno como fonte de
consulta. Fim da observação.

117

Function Words

Function words are used for expressing relationships between other words in a
sentence. Observe the function words highlighted in bold in the following
sentences (a-g). In your notebook, after each sentence, write down the
numbers that correspond to each use. Examples of two of those uses can be
seen in more than one sentence.

a) "Have you ever heard of Banksy?"

Word in bold: ever.

b) "[...] Supposedly not even his parents know that he is a famous artist."

Word in bold: not even.

c) "No one has ever seen him."

Word in bold: ever.

d) "[...] Yet there was no comment from Banksy."

Word in bold: yet.

e) "[in 2010] Banksy has just shot his first film."


Word in bold: just.

f) "[...] Otherwise he could no longer carry out secret actions."

Words in bold: no longer.

g) "[...] Yet the mystery surrounding Banksy's identity has made him world
famous."

Word in bold: yet.

1) used for talking about a situation that has ended.

2) used for expressing the same as "at any time, until now".

3) used to refer to a very recent action.

4) used for emphasizing something that seems surprising.

5) used for introducing an idea that contrasts with what has just been
mentioned.

Resposta: a) 2); b) 4); c) 2); d) 5); e) 3); f) 1); g) 5)

Definitions

Match the definitions with the words in the box. All those words can be found in
Who Is Banksy?.

Box:

smuggle - affluent - auction - trial - on their own - sale - purchase - butcher

End of box.

a) It's someone who sells meat in a shop.

Resposta: butcher

b) It means the same as rich.

Resposta: affluent

c) It's the public occasion when things are sold to someone who pays the most
money for them.

Resposta: auction

d) It's the process of selling things for money.


Resposta: sale

e) It's the same as buy.

Resposta: purchase

f) It's the process of examining a case in a court of law.

Resposta: trial

g) It means the same as take to or from a place secretly and illegally.

Resposta: smuggle;

h) It's the same as alone, without any help.

Resposta: on their own

Atenção professor: Incentive os alunos a ver as palavras em seu contexto de


modo a facilitar a inferência de seus significados. Fim da observação.

LANGUAGE STUDY

Uses of the Present Perfect

1. Read the sentences below and, in your notebook, write down the correct
options.

"Have you ever heard of Banksy?"

"Have you ever gone to an art gallery or exhibition?"

"The mystery surrounding Banksy's identity has made him world-famous."

"But no one has ever seen him."

- The Present Perfect is used in those sentences to talk about an action,


situation or event in one person's life, up to the present time. We don't know if
or when those things happened.

- We know exactly when those actions and situations happened.

- The adverb ever is not commonly used with the Present Perfect.

- In those sentences, the adverb ever means at any time.

Resposta correta: The Present Perfect is used in those sentences to talk about
an action, situation or event in one person's life, up to the present time. We
don't know if or when those things happened;In those sentences, the adverb
ever means at any time.

FONTE: Casé Rocha/Arquivo da editora; McVectors/Shutterstock

118

2. Compare the use of the Present Perfect with the Simple Past in the
sentences below and, in your notebook, write down the correct options.

I. "Banksy has painted graffiti on walls and the sides of houses throughout the
world."

II. "He has left traces in Australia, Germany, Israel [...]"

III. "In 2009, the Bristol Museum in England invited Banksy to create a 'real' art
exhibit. In this show, the artist revealed many strange creations."

a) In sentences I and II, the actions are part of Banksy's life. He did them just
once/ has done them several times.

Resposta: has done them several times

b) In sentence III, the Simple Past was used because we know when those
things happened/the actions have not finished.

Resposta: we know when those things happened

3. Read the sentences below and choose the correct options.

"Banksy has just shot his first film [...]"

Has Banksy painted any graffiti this year? (This year is not yet finished.)

Have you seen his film yet?

I haven't seen Exit Through the Gift Shopyet.

a) The Present Perfect is used in the sentences above to refer to an action in


progress at the moment of speaking.

b) The Present Perfect is used in the sentences above to talk about an action,
situation or event in a limited or unfinished period of time, or (with just) to talk
about a very recent action.

c) The adverb yet is only used in questions and affirmative sentences.


d) The adverb yet is used in questions and negatives, referring to something
until now, up to the present time.

Resposta correta: b; d.

Atenção professor: Chame a atenção dos alunos para o fato de que yet pode
ser tanto um advérbio (como aparece nesta atividade), como uma conjunção,
que introduz um contraste de ideias, correspondendo a no entanto, como visto
anteriormente, em Function Words. Lembre aos alunos que, em inglês, para
dizer já, há três palavras muito frequentemente usadas com o Present Perfect,
cada uma com seu uso e posição na frase. São elas: already, usada
basicamente em afirmações, posicionada entre o verbo auxiliar e o principal,
como em: Banksy has already made a film. Ever, muito usada em perguntas a
respeito de ações, situações ou eventos fora do cotidiano, que podem ou não
ter acontecido, correspondendo a já, alguma vez?, como em Have you ever
heard of Banksy?; e yet, usada no final de perguntas a respeito de ações,
situações ou eventos comuns, cotidianos, gerais, que mais cedo ou mais tarde
deverão acontecer, como em Have you done your homework yet?. Lembre aos
alunos que yet pode também ser usado em negações, junto a not ou no final de
frase, com o sentido de ainda não. Fim da observação.

4. Read the sentences below and write down the correct options in your
notebook. Pay close attention to the words in italics.

"Visitor numbers at museums and galleries have grown by ten percentage


points since 2005."

"Banksy has produced his graffiti for many years."

"He has left traces of his art on the streets of many countries for a long time."

- The actions described in the sentences above started in the past and continue
up to the present time.

- The actions described in the sentences above happened at a definite time in


the past.

- All the sentences in the examples above contain time expressions.


Resposta correta: The actions described in the sentences above started in the
past and continue up to the present time; All the sentences in the examples
above contain time expressions.

5. Read the sentences from the previous activity again. Then complete the
sentences below using for and since.

The words since and for are common with the Present Perfect.

a) ____ is followed by an expression of quantity of time: ____ many years, ____


a week, ____ three months, ____ two centuries.

Resposta: For, for, for, for, for

b) ____ is used with a point in time, to say when the action, situation or event
started: ____ last year, ____ 2009, ____ he started painting graffiti.

Resposta: Since, since, since, since

Observação: To learn more about the Present Perfect, go to page 149. Fim da
observação.

Modal Verbs Review: Might, Could, Must, Will

Read the following sentences, taken from the text on page 114. Then choose
the correct option to indicate each idea expressed by the modal verbs in bold.
Write down your answers in your notebook.

a) "His real name might be Rob, Robin, or Robert Banks."

Modal verb in bold: might.

- necessity

- possibility

- strong obligation

Resposta correta: possibility.

119

b) "Yet there was no comment from Banksy, and the newspaper could not
prove his story."

Modal verb in bold: could not.


- order

- no possibility

- no permission

Resposta correta: no possibility.

c) "One of them showed sausages that had motor engines and could move on
their own!"

Modal verb in bold: could.

- capacity

- permission

- prohibition

Resposta correta: capacity.

d) "Banksy must avoid becoming known at any price."

Modal verb in bold: must.

- necessity

- logical deduction

- order

Resposta correta: necessity.

e) "Otherwise he could no longer carry out secret actions."

Modal verb in bold: could.

- logical deduction

- advice

- capacity

Resposta correta: capacity.

f) "So the world will probably continue to ask itself: Who is Banksy?"

Modal verb in bold: will.

- permission
- advice

- prediction

Resposta correta: prediction.

LET'S PRACTICE

1. Read the text below and, in your notebook, complete it using the verbs in the
box in the Present Perfect or Simple Past, as appropriate.

Box:

travel - abandon - switch

End of box.

Sebastião Salgado Retrospective Exhibition: Powerful Images by Brazilian


Photographer

Powerful black-and-white images by one of the world's most important


photographers are going on show in London. Sebastião Salgado was born in
Aimorés, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil in 1944. He (I) his career as an
economist and (II) to photography in 1973. Over the last 40 years, he (III) the
world, from the ship-breaking yards of Bangladesh to the frozen wastelands of
the Arctic.

Available at: www.ibtimes.co.uk/sebastiao-salgado-retrospective-exhibition-


powerful-images-by-brazilian-photographer-1467040. Accessed on: September
1, 2015. (Fragment).

Resposta: (I) abandoned; (II) switched; (III) has traveled

2. In your notebook, complete the profile below using the information from the
text in the previous activity.

FONTE: Sergi Escribano/Demotix/Corbis/Latinstock

Name:

Year of birth:

Place of birth:

Occupation:
Previous occupation:

Year he started working as a professional photographer:

Characteristics of his photographs:

Resposta: Sebastião Salgado; 1944; Aimorés, Minas Gerais, Brazil;


photographer; economist; 1973; black and white

3. Complete the sentences below about Sebastião Salgado using since, for,
already or yet.

a) Sebastião Salgado has been into photography ____ 1973.

Resposta: since

b) His photographs have ____ been on show in London.

Resposta: already

c) He has been a photographer ____ more than 40 years.

Resposta: for

d) He continues to be active in photography. He hasn't retired ____.

Resposta: yet

120

SPEAKING

Have You Ever Done That?

Atenção professor: Explique a atividade aos alunos. Peça que circulem pela
sala de aula e procurem por colegas que já tenham realizado as atividades da
lista. Diga-lhes que, ao encontrar um colega que responda positivamente à sua
pergunta, continue a conversa, perguntando a respeito daquela experiência,
como sugerido no quadro abaixo. Fim da observação.

We have been talking about art throughout this Unit. Now it's time to find out
about your classmates' experiences. Take a look at the list below. Walk around
the class and talk to your classmates.

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.


Find Someone Who...

a) has been to an art exhibition.

b) has visited an art museum.

c) has taken art classes.

d) has created a work of art.

e) has met a street artist.

f) has read about famous painters.

g) has painted graffiti on a wall.

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

Asking Questions to a
Answering a Classmate
Classmate

Have you ever been to an art


exhibition? Yes, I have.
That's nice! No, I have never been to an art
Really? Me too. exhibition.

Where did you go? Oh, it was last year...

When did it happen?

LISTENING

BEFORE YOU LISTEN

The painting reproduced below, called The Starry Night, was painted by Vincent
van Gogh in 1889. It has been in the permanent collection of the Museum of
Modern Art (MoMA) in New York City since 1941. Observe the painting, read
the quotation and discuss the following questions with a classmate.

"I dream my painting, and then I paint my dream."

Vincent van Gogh

FONTE: Reprodução/Museu de Arte Moderna, Nova York, EUA.

a) What can you see in that painting?

b) How do you like it? Justify your answer.

Personal answers.

c) Would you say Van Gogh dreamed about that starry night before he painted
it? If so, what was it that impressed him most?

Personal answer. Possible answer: The sky and the stars. Van Gogh depicted
the sky as turbulent/excited/nervous/worked up.

121

AS YOU LISTEN

1. Listen to a museum audio guide about that painting and do the following
activities in your notebook.

Atenção professor: Ao verificar as respostas da atividade, peça aos alunos que


justifiquem (oralmente) as alternativas que não estão corretas. Fim da
observação.

a) Check the correct options according to what you hear.

- Van Gogh depicted reality in his paintings.

- In the artist's opinion, the night is more alive and richly colored than the day.

- The village depicted in the painting is the artist's birthplace.

- Van Gogh made many paintings while he was in a mental hospital.

Resposta correta: In the artist's opinion, the night is more alive and richly
colored than the day; Van Gogh made many paintings while he was in a mental
hospital.

b) Choose the appropriate option to complete each sentence below.


- The village depicted in the picture is in the south/north of France.

- Van Gogh spent many years/a year in a mental hospital.

- In many of his paintings, Van Gogh depicted his room in the hospital/the
landscape surrounding the hospital.

Resposta: south; a year; the landscape surrounding the hospital

2. Write down at least three adjectives the female speaker uses to describe the
night sky in Van Gogh's painting.

Possible answers: turbulent, vibrant, excited, agitated.

Observação: The borrowing from or allusion to a previous text - in that case, a


visual text - is called intertextuality. It is a literary device that creates an
interrelationship between texts. Fim da observação.

AFTER YOU LISTEN

Discuss the following questions in small groups.

a) Do you agree with the speaker's description of Van Gogh's night sky?

b) Would you like to visit one of Van Gogh's exhibitions? Why (not)?

Personal answers.

c) Do you know of any other famous paintings by Van Gogh?

Atenção professor: Diga aos alunos que, entre algumas das obras mais
famosas do pintor, estão The Potato Eaters (Os comedores de batatas), de
1885, The Bedroom (Quarto em Arles), de 1888, Twelve Sunflowers in a Vase
(Doze girassóis numa jarra), de 1889, além de muitos autorretratos, pintados
entre 1886 e 1890. Mais informações podem ser encontradas em:
www.vangoghgallery.com/painting/ (acesso em: 7 mar. 2016). Fim da
observação.

d) Look at the image below. It's a poster of the movie Midnight in Paris, written
and directed by Woody Allen and released in 2011. Have you seen that movie?
If so, did you like it?

FONTE: Reprodução/Mediapro
e) Can you see any similarity between the movie poster and Van Gogh's
painting? Do you think this similarity was on purpose? Why (not)?

Possible answer: The sky depicted in the poster is the same as in Van Gogh's
painting. The similarity is on purpose. The movie is set in France; the village
depicted in Van Gogh's painting is in France too. The similarity is also a form of
drawing people's attention to the movie.

WRITING

1. Based on your knowledge about quizzes and about the quiz you took on
page 113, use your notebook to write down the appropriate definition of the
word quiz.

- It's a kind of game with questions and answers about a certain topic.

- It's a formal test used to understand a person's personality.

- It's an online survey in order to find out people's opinion about a certain issue.

Resposta correta: It's a kind of game with questions and answers about a
certain topic.

Atenção professor: Se achar conveniente, peça aos alunos que façam o quiz
online no laboratório da escola ou em casa, usando ferramentas gratuitas para
a criação dessas atividades, como o www.poll-maker.com/QuizMaker (acesso
em: 8 fev. 2016). Comente com eles a importância de fazer um rascunho
quando se escreve um texto. Nesse rascunho, podem-se inserir as ideias mais
básicas e algumas palavras-chave que serão desenvolvidas futuramente. Diga-
lhes que, depois de pronto, é interessante partilhar com os colegas e receber
um retorno deles e do professor. Comente também que, após a reescrita do
texto, deve-se revisar o trabalho para evitar erros e, por fim, passá-lo a limpo.
Lembre aos alunos que a troca de rascunhos e o retorno com as impressões
entre eles é uma oportunidade de colaboração, em que todos partilham
conhecimentos e um contribui para enriquecer o trabalho do outro. Dessa
forma, eles passam a perceber que o professor não é a u'nica pessoa a quem
podem recorrer para pedir ajuda. Fim da observação.

2. There are different quiz types. In your notebook, write down the type that
corresponds to the quiz you took on page 113.
- There are no right or wrong answers; the result describes something about
your personality, according to the answers you chose.

- There are right and wrong answers; the score is based on how many correct
answers you got.

Resposta correta: There are no right or wrong answers; the result describes
something about your personality, according to the answers you chose.

3. Now it's your turn to create your own quiz. The theme is Art and the objective
is to check your classmates' knowledge about the topic. So, you are creating a
quiz with right and wrong answers (the score is based on the number of correct
answers the respondent gets). Follow the guidelines.

122

Creating the Quiz

- Get together in small groups and decide what kind of questions you will
include in your quiz. You can think of questions related to information you find in
this Unit or you can do some research on books, magazines, newspapers or the
Internet. Take a look at the quiz on page 113 to check some examples of quiz
questions.

- Write down a draft of your quiz. Don't forget to include a title and the result.

- Make sure you keep the answers on a separate piece of paper.

- Ask some classmates to read your draft. Get some feedback.

- Rewrite your quiz using the feedback you had as a basis and make any
improvements or necessary corrections.

- Proofread your work.

Taking the Quiz

- Exchange quizzes with another group. Take their quiz.

What is your score? What about the group that took the quiz you created? What
is their score?

THINK ABOUT IT
1. Have you ever heard of the Afro Brasil Museum? Have you visited it? What
do you know about it?

Personal answers.

Atenção professor: O Museu Afro Brasil está localizado no Parque do


Ibirapuera, em São Paulo, e destaca a perspectiva africana na formação do
patrimônio, da identidade e da cultura brasileira, celebrando a memória, a
história e a arte brasileira e afro-brasileira. Para saber mais a respeito do
museu, visite o site www.museuafrobrasil.org.br, ou sua versão em inglês,
disponível em: www.museuafrobrasil.org.br/en/the-museum (acesso em: 7 mar.
2016). Fim da observação.

2. The text below is from the introduction to the museum guide. Read it and do
the activities that follow.

Atenção professor: Pergunte aos alunos se eles já foram a algum museu e, em


caso afirmativo, pergunte se eles pegaram o guia do museu, que, em geral, é
distribuído gratuitamente na entrada. Pergunte para que serve um guia de
museu e que informações podemos encontrar nesse tipo de texto. Comente
que os guias ajudam os visitantes a conhecer melhor o museu e a montar o
seu roteiro de visita, pois geralmente apresentam suas principais obras,
informações a respeito de alguns artistas, o mapa do museu etc. Fim da
observação.

The creation of Afro Brasil Museum is the result of more than two decades of
research and exhibitions, showing the black ancestry of the people who
effectively were and are black in Brazil, from past centuries to our days. It was
yet another moment in the ongoing process of rediscovering the African roots of
Brazilian culture.

To begin with, this history could not possibly be told from a deceiving official
perspective, which minimizes the African contribution to the national identity,
ignoring more than five centuries of history and 10 million Africans who died to
construct this country.

Afro Brasil Museum unites History, Memory, Art, and Contemporaneity, weaving
together all these dimensions in one single discourse, in order to tell a heroic
African saga, stretching from before the tragedy of the slave trade to the
present days, and including all possible contributions of African-Brazilians, their
whole legacy, their participation, the rebellions, screams and whispers that took
place in Brazil and, more broadly, in the circuits of the Atlantic communities.

It is a museum that presents a heritage in which blacks can see themselves


reflected as in a mirror, strengthening the self-esteem of a marginalized
population with a shattered identity. For them, the reconstruction of self-image
represents a way to obtain the strength to overcome all hindrances to their
inclusion in a society whose cornerstone was laid down by their ancestors.

It is a museum of art, both from the past and present, which shows appreciation
for the popular recreation of tradition and reaffirms the talent of the educated
blacks in the visual arts, theater, music and dance.

Above all, Afro Brasil Museum is a contemporary museum, in which black


people today can recognize themselves. It incorporates in its museological
program the wants and needs of the poor black youth, contributing to its
educational and artistic formation, as well as to the intellectual and moral
formation of black and white Brazilian citizens, for the benefit of the generations
to come.

Emanoel Araujo Head Curator

FONTE: Available at: www.museuafrobrasil.org.br/docs/default-


source/publicacoes/guia_ingles_bx.pdf. Accessed on: March 7, 2016.
(Fotografia) G. Evangelista/Opção Brasil Imagens. CRÉDITOS:
Reprodução/Museu Afro Brasil

123

3. Identify the statements (more than one) that are correct according to the text
you just read.

- The museum collections are all about works of art made by Afro-Brazilians in
the past centuries.

- The museum shares the official historical perspective, by minimizing the


African contribution to the Brazilian national identity.
- Afro Brasil Museum weaves Art, History and Memory, presenting the African
roots of Brazilian culture and showing how important the African legacy has
been for the construction of the nation.

- By visiting the museum, one can learn a great deal about the African saga in
Brazil.

- By visiting the museum, one can appreciate Afro-Brazilian works in the area of
visual arts, theater, music and dance.

- The museum aims at contributing to the education of Brazilian citizens, no


matter what their skin color is.

Resposta correta: Afro Brasil Museum weaves Art, History and Memory,
presenting the African roots of Brazilian culture and showing how important the
African legacy has been for the construction of the nation. By visiting the
museum, one can learn a great deal about the African saga in Brazil. By visiting
the museum, one can appreciate Afro-Brazilian works in the area of visual arts,
theater, music and dance. The museum aims at contributing to the education of
Brazilian citizens, no matter what their skin color is.

4. Discuss the following questions in small groups.

a) Would you like to visit the museum (again)? Why (not)?

Personal answers.

b) What kind of artwork do you expect to find in that museum?

Possible answers: sculptures, masks, paintings, costumes, instruments, etc.

c) What important figures in the Afro-Brazilian culture and history do you think
are honored in the museum?

Possible answers: Lui's Gama, André Rebouças, Teodoro Sampaio, Juliano


Moreira, Carolina Maria de Jesus, Antonio Francisco Lisboa (Aleijadinho), José
Teófilo de Jesus, etc.

d) In your opinion, why are museums important?

e) What other art museums do you know of?

Personal answers.
f) Do you know of any other institutions that also celebrate the Afro-Brazilian
culture and history?

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que, além do Museu Afro Brasil,
em São Paulo, há outros espalhados pelo país, como o Mucane, em Vitória
(ES), o Muncab, em Salvador (BA), o Museu do Negro, no Rio de Janeiro e o
Museu Treze de Maio Afro Brasileiro, em Santa Maria (RS). Fim da
observação.

Atenção professor: Se for possível, mostre aos alunos o restante do guia do


museu, disponível em: www.museuafrobrasil.org.br/docs/default-
source/publicacoes/guia_ingles_bx.pdf (acesso em: 7 mar. 2016). Peça a eles
que observem as seções do museu (Africa: Diversidade e Persistência, Arte e
Religiosidade Afro-brasileira, Festas: O Sagrado e o Profano, Arte Africana,
Arte, Adorno, Design e Tecnologia no Tempo da Escravidão, A Mão Afro-
brasileira nas Artes Visuais), indiquem aquelas que mais lhes interessaram e
sugiram um roteiro de visita. Por meio da exploração do guia, os alunos
também podem conhecer um pouco mais a respeito de algumas figuras
importantes da história e cultura afro-brasileiras. Fim da observação.

SELF-ASSESSMENT

1. Evaluate your performance in this Unit. In your notebook, give yourself a


score from 1 to 5 for each of the topics below.

Atenção professor: Incentive os alunos a refletir a respeito de sua


aprendizagem, da execução das atividades e do seu desempenho em aula.
Fim da observação.

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

I can...

a) read and understand part of a book about arts.

b) understand and use the Present Perfect with ever, since, for,
already and yet.
c) create a quiz about arts.

d) listen to and understand some information about one of Van


Gogh's paintings.

e) talk about my experiences with arts.

1. poor

2. not so good

3. good

4. very good

5. excellent

2. Take a look at the items in activity 1 in which you gave yourself a score of 1
or 2. Talk to a classmate and think of what you can do to improve your
performance. Then discuss your ideas with your teacher.

Atenção professor: Ao discutir com os alunos o que pode ser feito para a
melhoria do desempenho em aula, conscientize-os de que com a autoavaliação
é possível obter um diagnóstico mais preciso em relação ao aproveitamento
deles quanto ao conteúdo e às habilidades trabalhadas. Fim da observação.

KEEP EXPLORING

Book: CHILVERS, Ian. História ilustrada da Arte. São Paulo: Publifolha, 2014.

Movie: A OBRA de arte. Direção de Marcos Ribeiro. Produção: Helena Lara


Resende. Brasil: TV Imaginária, 2009. 1 DVD.

Websites: Museu de Arte de São Paulo: http://masp.art.br/masp2010/; Museu


da Imagem e do Som: http://www.mis-sp.org.br; Museum of Modern Art:
www.moma.org. Acesso em: 15 fev. 2016.

124

UNIT 8 - We Have Been Talking About That for Decades

Nesta Unidade você vai:


- Discutir e refletir a respeito da escassez de água em diferentes partes do
mundo;

- Compreender e usar o Present Continuous e a expressão verbal used to;

- Relacionar os conteúdos com as disciplinas de Geografia e Biologia.

125

FONTE: Available at: http://adsoftheworld.com/media/print/ouro_azul_face_2.


Accessed on: May 7, 2016. CRÉDITOS: Reprodução/Ouro Azul

Look at the image below and discuss the following questions with your
classmates.

a) What is the focus of the campaign ad?

Resposta: Water.

b) According to that slogan, what happens to us when the water goes?

Resposta: We dry.

c) Why do you think the girl's face seems to be cracked?

Possible answer: Because it's representing drought, a long period without


water.

d) Observe the title of this Unit. What is it we have been talking about for
decades, can you guess?

Possible answers: The importance of water/of saving water; The problem of


water scarcity.

e) How important is water for human life?

Possible answer: Water is essential for the human body to function and for
people's hygiene. Water makes up more than two thirds of the human body
weight, without water we would die in a few days. Drinking water every day is
essential to keep healthy.

126

LET'S START
Look at the pictures below and read their captions. Working with a classmate,
decide if the actions shown in the pictures are good or bad ideas for saving
water.

LEGENDA: Washing the dishes quickly.

FONTE: Singkham/Shutterstock

Resposta: GI

LEGENDA: Using half-flush in the toilet.

FONTE: Rasulov/Shutterstock

Resposta: GI

LEGENDA: Using a watering can to water the plants.

FONTE: Ditty_about_summer/Shutterstock

Resposta: GI

LEGENDA: Using a hose to wash the sidewalk.

FONTE: Mauricio Simonetti/Pulsar Imagens

Resposta: BI

LEGENDA: Turning off the faucet while brushing your teeth.

FONTE: 3445128471/Shutterstock

Resposta: GI

LEGENDA: Taking long showers.

FONTE: Andrey tiyk/Shutterstock

Resposta: BI

LEGENDA: Fixing a leaky faucet.

FONTE: Photoonlife/Shutterstock

Resposta: GI

127

READING

BEFORE YOU READ


Observe the title of the text, the factsheet, its picture and its source. Then
choose the best option to complete each sentence.

a) The text and the factsheet are from

- an online newspaper.

- the United Nations (UN) website.

Resposta correta: the United Nations (UN) website.

b) They both focus on

- an issue that concerns the whole world.

- a problem people are facing only in developing countries.

Resposta correta: a problem people are facing only in developing countries.

AS YOU READ

Now read the text and the factsheet and do the following activities in your
notebook.

Water Scarcity

Water scarcity already affects every continent. Around 1.2 billion people, or
almost one-fifth of the world's population, live in areas of physical scarcity, and
500 million people are approaching this situation. Another 1.6 billion people, or
almost one quarter of the world's population, face economic water shortage
(where countries lack the necessary infrastructure to take water from rivers and
aquifers).

Water scarcity is among the main problems to be faced by many societies and
the World in the twentyfirst century. Water use has been growing at more than
twice the rate of population increase in the last century, and, although there is
no global water scarcity as such, an increasing number of regions are
chronically short of water.

Water scarcity is both a natural and a human-made phenomenon. There is


enough fresh water on the planet for seven billion people but it is distributed
unevenly and too much of it is wasted, polluted and unsustainably managed.
FONTE: Available at: www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/scarcity.shtml. Accessed
on: January 27, 2016. (Fotografia) Reprodução/www.un.org

General Comprehension

What is the purpose of the text above?

- To warn some countries' governments of the necessity of taking more water


from rivers and aquifers.

- To increase public awareness of the need we all have to cope with water
scarcity.

- To warn developed countries that they could soon be chronically short of


water.

Resposta correta: To increase public awareness of the need we all have to


cope with water scarcity.

128

Detailed Comprehension

1. Scan the text and the UN factsheet and find the answers to these questions.

a) How many people will be suffering from water scarcity by 2025?

Resposta: 1.8 million people.

b) Which continents does water scarcity affect?

Resposta: (It affects) Every continent.

c) Who is responsible for water scarcity?

Resposta: Both nature and humans.

2. Check True (T) or False (F), in your notebook, according to the text.

a) Almost 20 percent of the world population have been living in areas of


physical water scarcity.

Resposta: T

b) Almost 25 percent of the world population have been facing water shortage.

Resposta: T

c) 500 million people have been living with no water.


Resposta: F

d) The rate of population increase has been smaller than that of water use.

Resposta: T

Atenção professor: Chame a atenção dos alunos para o fato de que eles
precisarão fazer uso de alguns conhecimentos básicos de matemática
(transformação de fração em porcentagem) para fazer a atividade (one-fifth
[1/5] = 20 percent; one quarter [1/4] = 25 percent). Fim da observação.

3. According to the text, there is enough water on the planet to supply all of us.
So why have we been facing water problems?

Resposta: Because water is distributed unevenly and too much of it is wasted,


polluted and unsustainably managed.

AFTER YOU READ

Discuss the questions below in small groups.

a) According to the text, water scarcity is one of the main problems society has
been facing in the 21st century. Do you agree with that? Why (not)?

Personal answers.

b) Is water scarcity a big issue in Brazil? What regions of Brazil are especially
affected by that problem? Does it affect the region where you live?

Possible answers: Yes, it is. The Northeast. Personal answer.

c) What other global issues have we been talking about for a long time?

Possible answers: Pollution, poverty, animal extinction, global warming, etc.

Boxe complementar:

Project

This activity's content could be useful for Project 2, on page 143. You may start
taking notes and developing your ideas about it.

Fim do complemento.
Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que eles já podem começar a
pensar em ideias para o Project 2. Vá até a página 143 e explique-lhes
brevemente o projeto. Fim da observação.

MORE FOOD FOR THOUGHT

1. Take a look at the title, the lead and the picture of the text below. Do you
think the story you're about to read has a happy ending or a sad one?

Resposta: The story has a happy ending.

2. Read the story and, working with a classmate, answer the questions about it.

Atenção professor: A palavra dream e o trecho "becomes reality", que


aparecem no título, podem ajudar os alunos a responder a essa pergunta. Fim
da observação.

For Zambian Mother, Dream of Clean Water Becomes Reality

March 22 is World Water Day. Here's the story of one mother in a Zambian
village who faced deep hardship because her family didn't have access to clean
water until a non-profit organization began working in her community.

"I have lived here since my childhood, but my mouth has never tasted clean
water fetched with my own hands into my own house," says Perhaps Hamundi,
a mother who lives in southern Zambia.

"I used to wake up very early in the morning, when other people were fast
asleep, just to rush so that I didn't find that the water was finished at the well,"
she remembers. "I used to spend long hours waiting for water at the well. We
were sharing the same water with animals."

But Perhaps says her family's life has now changed for good and not just
because they have safe water to drink.

"Now, we are living a healthy life. We eat three times a day, unlike before,"
Perhaps says proudly.

"This was not because we did not have food, but because I lacked time to
prepare the food for my family. My family used to eat very late every day,
because I used to spend much of the time fetching water."
FONTE: Available at: www.worldvision.org/news-stories-videos/zambian-
mother-dream-clean-water-becomes-reality. Accessed on: January 27, 2016.
(Fragment). (Fotografia) Wolfgang Kaehler/LightRocket/Getty Images

129

a) What problem did the Zambian mother use to face before she had some help
from a non-profit organization?

Resposta: She didn't have access to clean water.

b) What were the Zambian mother's habits before she got help from that
organization? Transcribe all the correct options in your notebook.

- Eat late.

- Drink safe water.

- Wake up very early.

- Eat three times a day.

- Fetch water from the well.

- Share water with animals.

Resposta correta: Eat late; Wake up very early; Fetch water from the well;
Share water with animals.

c) How has the Zambian mother's life changed?

Resposta: She is living a healthy life now.

d) Is access to clean water a problem in your community? If so, how do people


handle it? If not, is there any way you could help people who face that problem?

Personal answers.

Observação: Zambia is a country in Southern Africa, neighboring Tanzania,


Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Angola and other countries. It has several major
Indigenous languages, all of them of the Bantu family, together with English,
which is the official language. Fim da observação.

Atenção professor: Se achar oportuno, mostre aos alunos que a diferença entre
fetch, bring e take é uma questão de ponto de referência. Isso pode ser
demonstrado pedindo a um deles que está no fundo da sala que lhe entregue
um livro enquanto você está na frente da turma (Please bring me your book.).
Depois peça a esse aluno que o leve de volta (Now take it back to your desk.).
Finalmente, peça a um aluno próximo a você que vá lá, pegue o livro do colega
e o traga até você (Please fetch that book for me.). Bring = trazer (até aqui);
take = levar (até lá); fetch = ir (lá), pegar e trazer (até aqui). Fim da observação.

Boxe complementar:

Pronunciation Tips

1. This activity is about word stress on two-syllable words. All the words in the
box below can be found in the texts of this Unit. Generally, the stress on two-
syllable words falls on the first syllable, but three of the words below do not
follow the rule.

Listen to all of them and, in your notebook, write down the words on which the
stress falls not on the first syllable, but on the second one.

Box:

regions

hardship

almost

prepare

asleep

shortage

access

enough

village

childhood

End of box.

Resposta: asleep; prepare; enough

2. Now listen again and check your answers.

Fim do complemento.
WORD STUDY

Atenção professor: Incentive os alunos a retornar ao texto a fim de verificar as


palavras em seus contextos e, a partir daí, inferir seus significados. Fim da
observação.

Definitions

Match the words from the texts on pages 127 and 128 to their definitions.

a) rate

b) withdrawals

c) approaching

d) shortage

e) lack

f) aquifers

g) unevenly

h) unsustainably

i) for good

j) hardship

1) processes of taking out

2) in a way that is bad for the environment

3) not equally balanced

4) layers of rock or earth that contain water

5) the number of times something happens

6) getting near

7) scarcity, a lack of something you need

8) to be without something you need

9) difficult life situation

10) permanently

Resposta: a) 5); b) 1); c) 6); d) 7); e) 8); f) 4); g) 3); h) 2); i) 10); j) 9)
130

Function Words

1. Observe the words in bold in the sentences below, taken from the text on
page 127, paying close attention to their position in each sentence. Then
choose each correct option to complete the statements about them. Use your
notebook to write them down.

"There is enough fresh water on the planet for seven billion people but it is
distributed unevenly and too much of it is wasted, polluted and unsustainably
managed."

"[...] although there is no global water scarcity as such, an increasing number of


regions are chronically short of water."

But and although are used to join two ideas when the second statement (a) is
the same as/contrasts with the first one. They have similar meanings, but
their use and (b) idea/position are different. Although introduces a concessive
clause, one that contains a fact or idea that seems to (c) confirm/oppose the
information in the rest of the sentence.

Words in bold: (a) is the same as/contrasts with; (b) idea/position; (c)
confirm/oppose

Resposta: (a) contrasts with; (b) position; (c) oppose

2. Combine sentences from box 1 with contrasting sentences from box 2. Then,
in your notebook, write down compound sentences using either but or
although.

Tabela: equivalente textual a seguir.

Box 1 Box 2

a) The Zambian mother had


Her dream of clean water has become
lived in that village since her
reality.
childhood.

b) Life may still be hard for She had never had access to clean
that Zambian mother. water until a non-profit organization
began working in her community.

c) Perhaps' family had


The water was finished at the well.
enough food.

d) Sometimes Perhaps They didn't eat three times a day


woke up early in the because Perhaps didn't have time to
morning. prepare the food for her family.

a) Possible answers: Although the Zambian mother had lived in that village
since her childhood, she had never had access to clean water until a non-profit
organization began working in her community./The Zambian mother had lived in
that village since her childhood, but she had never had access to clean water
until a non-profit organization began working in her community. b) Possible
answers: Life may still be hard for that Zambian mother, but her dream of clean
water has become reality./ Although life may still be hard for that Zambian
mother, her dream of clean water has become reality. c) Possible answers:
Although Perhaps' family had enough food, they didn't eat three times a day
because Perhaps didn't have time to prepare the food for her family./Perhaps'
family had enough food, but they didn't eat three times a day because Perhaps
didn't have time to prepare the food for her family. d) Sometimes Perhaps woke
up early in the morning, but the water was finished at the well.

LANGUAGE STUDY

Present Perfect vs. Simple Past (Revision)

We have been talking about the difference between those verb tenses since
Unit 5. In the text For Zambian Mother, Dream of Clean Water Becomes Reality
we can find some more examples. Observe the verb tenses in bold in the
following sentences and then choose the best options in a, b or c to complete
the grammar rules about them.

"[...] her family didn't have access to clean water until a non-profit organization
began working in her community."

Verb tense in bold: didn't have.


"'I have lived here since my childhood but my mouth has never tasted clean
water [...]'"

Verb tense in bold: has; tasted.

"But Perhaps says her family's life has now changed for good."

Verb tense in bold: has; changed.

"'This was not because we did not have food, but because I lacked time to
prepare food for my family.'"

Verb tense in bold: did not have; lacked.

The Present Perfect (as in the second and third sentences) is used to talk about

- a situation, action or state that started in the past and is (a) still/no longer
continuing.

- an unfinished situation, action or state that has a result (b) at the present
time/in the past.

The Simple Past (as in the first and fourth sentences) refers to

- situations, actions or states that happened in the past and are now (c)
finished/continuing.

Resposta: a) still; b) at the present time; c) finished

131

Present Perfect Simple vs. Present Perfect Continuous

1. Read the sentences below, taken from the texts on pages 127 and 128,
paying close attention to the words in bold. Then choose each correct option to
complete the statements about them.

"Water use has been growing at more than twice the rate of population increase
in the last century [...]"

Words in bold: has been growing.

"I have lived here since my childhood [...]"

Words in bold: have lived.


- The first sentence describes a continuing situation, something that is still
happening, and that we consider (a) permanent/temporary. The focus is on
the (b) duration/result of the activity.

- The second sentence describes a situation that started in the past and is still
continuing in the present. We think of it as (c) permanent/temporary. The
focus is on the (d) duration/result of the activity.

Resposta: (a) temporary; (b) duration; (c) permanent; (d) result

Observação: To learn more about the Present Perfect Continuous, go to page


150. Fim da observação.

2. Read both sentences again and complete the grammar rules below.

a) The Present Perfect has a Simple form ( ____ + Past Participle of the main
verb) and a Continuous form (have/has + ____ + -ing form of the main verb).

Resposta: have/has, been

b) We use the ____ form of the Present Perfect to talk about permanent facts or
situations that continue for a long time. For example:

Perhaps (a Zambian mother) says her family's life has now changed for good.

"[...] 'my mouth has never tasted clean water fetched with my own hands, [...]'
says Perhaps."

Resposta: Simple

c) We use the ____ form of the Present Perfect to talk about recent long actions
and situations. For example:

We've been talking about water scarcity around the world. It's an important
issue, a continuing bad situation.

Resposta: Continuous

Used to

1. Read the sentence below, taken from the text on page 128, paying close
attention to the words in bold.

Observação: To learn more about Used to, go to page 150. Fim da observação.

"I used to wake up very early in the morning [...]"


Words in bold: used to wake up.

Now check the correct options. The Zambian mother

- usually wakes up very early.

- has never woken up very early.

- woke up very early regularly in the past.

- doesn't wake up very early at the present time.

Resposta correta: woke up very early regularly in the past; doesn't wake up very
early at the present time.

2. Read the sentence in activity 1 again and complete the explanation below.
Use your notebook to do that.

a) We use ____ + infinitive of the main verb to talk about past habits, actions or
situations that happened ____ in the past but no longer happen now.

Resposta: used to, regularly

b) Used to only refers to the past. To talk about habits at the ____ time, we use
the Simple Present tense. For example:

"'We eat three times a day, unlike before,' Perhaps says proudly."

Resposta: present

3. Scan the text For Zambian Mother, Dream of Clean Water Becomes Reality
and find other habits she had in the past and no longer has. Write down those
sentences in your notebook.

Resposta: "I used to spend long hours waiting for water at the well."; "My family
used to eat very late every day, because I used to spend much of the time
fetching water."

132

LET'S PRACTICE

1. Complete the text below with the appropriate verb forms, choosing from
those listed below. Write them down in your notebook.

Box:
saw - are struggling - have been reporting - have dominated - receives

End of box.

FONTE: Nixx Photography/Shutterstock

Megacity Drought: Sao Paulo Withers After Dry 'Wet Season'

June 26, 2015 6.07 am EDT

Exceptional drought, extreme temperatures, unprecedented drops in reservoir


levels and threatening water shortages for millions of people (I) headlines in
California in recent years. Unfortunately, Californians are not the only people
being stressed with the "water crisis".

Citizens of one of the most densely populated areas in South America - the Sao
Paulo metropolitan area (SPMA) in southeastern Brazil - (II) with one of the
nastiest water crises in decades.

With over 20 million people and the main financial and economic center of
Brazil, this region is under the influence of the South American monsoon
system and (III) the largest fraction of its precipitation during the Austral
summer, from October to March. Yet in the last four years, rain gauge stations
near the most important reservoirs supplying water to the city (IV) growing
deficits in precipitation. Last year (V) the worst since at least 1961, which has
been followed by another dry year.

Available at: http://theconversation.com/megacity-drought-sao-paulo-withers-


after-dry-wet-season-42799. Accessed on: January 28, 2016.

Resposta: (I) have dominated; (II) are struggling; (III) receives; (IV) have been
reporting; (V) saw

2. Choose the number that corresponds to each verb form you used in order to
fill in the blanks in the previous activity that was used to talk about

a) a situation that is happening now.

Resposta: II

b) a situation completed at a known time in the past.

Resposta: V
c) a permanent state, something that is always true.

Resposta: III

d) a situation that has happened in an unfinished period of time.

Resposta: I

e) an activity that began in the past and has continued up to the present time,
with a focus on the duration of that activity.

Resposta: IV

3. Read the text below and do the following activities.

Thousands of litres of pure fresh water are wasted every day by bad habits we
have all developed. While the water we use at home may seem trivial, its
conservation is a step toward increasing our knowledge and respect for this
precious, life-giving resource - a resource all the living systems around us also
rely on, and that we waste at their cost.

Available at: http://sustainability.hawkesbury.nsw.gov.au/house/cultivate-water-


saving-habits. Accessed on: January 28, 2016.

Observação: litre (AU, UK) = liter (USA). Fim da observação.

a) How is water described in the text?

Resposta: A precious, life-giving resource.

b) What are the consequences of some bad habits people have developed?

Resposta: Thousands of litres of pure fresh water are wasted every day.

c) Write down, in your notebook, some sentences about bad habits you/your
family used to have (as to wasting water), but don't have anymore.

Atenção professor: Oriente os alunos a escrever frases com used to ou didn't


use to para falar de hábitos que eles tinham (ou não). Sugira a eles que voltem
à atividade do Let's Start para revisar o vocabulário. Fim da observação.

d) Now interview a classmate about her/his past habits (as to wasting water).
Ask questions like "Did you use to...?" Were her/his habits the same as yours?

Personal answers.
133

LISTENING

BEFORE YOU LISTEN

Answer the following questions.

a) Do you save water at home? If so, what do you usually do?

Personal answers.

b) Why is it important to save water?

Possible answer: Because the world has been facing water scarcity and it will
probably get worse in the future.

AS YOU LISTEN

Listen to some tips on how to save water and do the following activities in your
notebook.

1. Number the tips below from 1-7, according to what you hear. There are two
extra tips.

a) Fix leaks.

Resposta: 4

b) Take short showers.

Resposta: 6

c) Do not wash the sidewalk.

Resposta: Ø

d) Do not throw paper in the toilet.

Resposta: 5

e) Turn off the faucet while shaving.

Resposta: 2

f) Turn off the faucet while brushing your teeth.

Resposta: 1

g) Place a milk jug filled with stones in the toilet tank.


Resposta: 3

h) Water the plants early in the day or late at night to reduce evaporation.

Resposta: Ø

i) Keep the water that is wasted while you wait for it to get warm for your bath
and use it to water plants.

Resposta: 7

2. Look at the picture below. Which of the tips given in the previous activity is it
showing?

FONTE: Reprodução/video.nationalgeographic.com

Resposta: Tip number 3 (item g).

AFTER YOU LISTEN

Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

a) Which of those tips do you follow?

b) Which ones will you start following?

c) Do you agree with the statement "If everyone plays their part, we can have a
better planet"? Why (not)?

Personal answers.

134

SPEAKING

You know that our planet has been facing water scarcity and that this problem
will probably become worse in the near future. So we all need to take action.
How about having your school take action too? Get together in small groups
and discuss the following question. After the discussion, present your ideas to
the class.

How can our school save water?

FONTE: BlueRingMedia/Shutterstock

Atenção professor: Oriente os alunos a pensar em como a comunidade escolar


pode contribuir para a economia de água na escola e quais medidas podem ser
tomadas pelos alunos, professores, direção e pais para essa finalidade. Depois
da discussão em pequenos grupos, peça a cada um deles que apresente suas
ideias para a turma. Sugira que as informações sejam partilhadas com outras
turmas e com a direção para que, de fato, a escola possa economizar água.
Fim da observação.

WRITING

1. Take a look at the format of the text below. What is it?

- A newspaper article.

- A letter.

- An invitation.

Resposta correta: A letter.

2. Now read the text and do the following activities.

Dear Editor,

I would like to draw attention of the municipal authorities towards the scarcity of
water in our locality. In our locality, there is no fixed time for the supply of water.
Sometimes the water is not supplied at all, consecutively for four-five days,
while other times it is for a very shorts time.

Moreover, the water is dirty, muddy, polluted and worms can be seen floating in
the water. Although several complaints were made to the municipality, they
have fallen on deaf ears of the authorities. The authorities have not taken any
concrete steps to solve our water problem.

I shall be thankful to you if our complaints are published in the columns of your
esteemed daily.

Sincerely,

(Signature)

FONTE: Available at: www.a1letters.com/editor/el1020.html. Accessed on:


January 27, 2016.

135

a) What is the writer's complaint?


- The writer's locality has been suffering with floods.

- People have been polluting the water in the writer's locality.

- The writer's locality has been facing problems with the supply and the quality
of water.

Resposta correta: The writer's locality has been facing problems with the supply
and the quality of water.

b) Who is the letter addressed to?

- Local authorities.

- A newspaper editor.

- A non-profit organization.

Resposta correta: A newspaper editor.

c) Why is the writer sending the letter?

- Because she/he wants people to start a campaign against water scarcity.

- Because she/he wants the editor to publish it and draw the people's and the
authorities' attention to the problem.

- Because she/he wants to make that problem public and persuade people to
sign a petition.

Resposta correta: Because she/he wants the editor to publish it and draw the
people's and the authorities' attention to the problem.

3. The table below contains some words and expressions commonly used to
write formal letters of complaint. Read the text again and identify words or
expressions related to each of the columns below. Write them down in your
notebook.

Tabela: equivalente textual a seguir.

Introducing Thanking in
Reason for Ending
Greetings Further Advance for
Writing the Letter
Information the Help
I would be
grateful if...
I am writing In addition to
I would like to Yours
Dear Sir, in order to... this,
thank you in faithfully,
Dear I am writing In the second
advance for... Yours
Madam, to complain place,
I would truly,
about... Besides that,
appreciate it if
you could...

Resposta: Greetings: Dear Editor; Reason for writing: I would like to draw
attention of; Introducing further information: Moreover; Thanking in advance for
the help: I shall be thankful to you if; Ending the letter: Sincerely

4. Now it's your turn to write a letter to the editor of a local newspaper, reporting
a problem your city or neighborhood has been facing. Follow the guidelines.

- Think of a problem your city or neighborhood has been facing.

- Write down a draft of your letter.

- Ask some classmates to read your draft. Get some feedback.

- Rewrite your letter using the feedback you had as a basis and make any
improvements or necessary corrections.

- Proofread your work.

- Display your letter on the classroom bulletin board.

- Read your classmates' letters and discuss: What are the most common
problems?

Atenção professor: Se possível, peça aos alunos que formem pequenos grupos
e discutam os problemas que sua comunidade vem enfrentando. Em seguida,
cada um decide o problema acerca do qual quer discorrer na carta. Comente
com eles a importância de fazer um rascunho quando se escreve um texto.
Nesse rascunho, podem-se inserir as ideias mais básicas e algumas palavras-
chave que serão desenvolvidas futuramente. Diga a eles que, depois de pronto,
é interessante partilhar com os colegas e receber um retorno deles e do
professor. Comente também que, após a reescrita do texto, deve-se revisar o
trabalho para evitar erros e, por fim, passá-lo a limpo. Lembre aos alunos que a
troca de rascunhos e o retorno com as impressões entre eles são
oportunidades de colaboração, em que compartilham conhecimentos e um
contribui para enriquecer o trabalho do outro. Dessa forma, eles passam a
perceber que o professor não é a única pessoa a quem eles podem recorrer
para pedir ajuda. Fim da observação.

THINK ABOUT IT

1. Observe the cartoon below and answer the following questions together with
a classmate.

FONTE: Available at: http://politicalhumor.about.com/od/globalwarming/ig/


Global-Warming-Cartoons/Global-Warming-Myth.05VG.htm# step-heading.
Accessed on: April 29, 2016. CRÉDITOS: © 2008 Walt Handelsman/Tribune
Content Agency

a) Hogwash is an informal word for nonsense. Is the man in the first frame
worried about global warming?

Resposta: No, he isn't worried about it.

b) Does he believe global warming is a fact or does he deny it?

Resposta: He denies it.

c) What gradually happens to that man?

Resposta: He becomes smaller and smaller/He disappears.

d) What do the others say happened to him?

Resposta: He melted...

e) What does the cartoonist suggest?

Resposta: That global warming melted the man down.

f) Is there a connection between global warming and water scarcity? What is it?

Resposta: Yes, there is. Water scarcity is one of the main effects of global
warming.

136
2. Read the infographic below and do the following activities with a classmate.

FONTE: Adapted from: http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/road-to-rio/secret-life-


drinking-water/. Accessed on: February 5, 2016. CRÉDITOS: Banco de
imagens/Arquivo da editora

Resposta: Nairobi é a capital da Nigéria.

137

3. Say whether the following sentences are True (T) or False (F).

a) 12% of urban residents in Brazil don't have access to safe drinking water.

Resposta: T

b) Bad quality water is the cause of most of the diseases in developing


countries.

Resposta: T

c) Water is more expensive in developed countries than in developing ones.

Resposta: F

d) Leaks are the cause of up to half the loss of water in cities in the developing
world.

Resposta: T

e) 70% of the water in the world is fit for human consumption.

Resposta: F

f) 25% of the city residents of the world have no access to safe water.

Resposta: T

g) Less than 3% of all water on Earth does not contain any salt.

Resposta: T

h) Tons of human waste are thrown in water supply every day.

Resposta: T

Atenção professor: Comente com os alunos que eles deverão fazer uso de
alguns conhecimentos básicos de matemática para resolver alguns itens
(Brazil: 88% of urban residents are connected to safe drinking water, so 12% of
them don't have access to safe drinking water; 1 in 4 city residents doesn't have
access to safe water, so it's 25% of them.). Fim da observação.

4. Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

a) Every 20 seconds one child dies due to poor sanitation. Could those deaths
be prevented?

b) How important for human health are basic sanitation and safe drinking
water?

c) Do you have that kind of problem in your community? If so, how can you help
solve it or at least alleviate it?

Personal answers.

SELF-ASSESSMENT

1. Evaluate your performance in this Unit. In your notebook, give yourself a


score from 1 to 5 for each of the topics below.

Atenção professor: Incentive os alunos a refletir a respeito de sua


aprendizagem, da execução das atividades e do seu desempenho em aula.
Fim da observação.

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

I can...

a) read and understand some articles about water scarcity.

b) understand and use the Present Perfect Continuous and Used to.

c) write a letter to an editor of a local newspaper to report a problem


in my city or neighborhood.

d) listen to and understand some tips on how to save water.

e) talk about ways of saving water at school.

1. poor

2. not so good
3. good

4. very good

5. excellent

2. Take a look at the items in activity 1 in which you gave yourself a score of 1
or 2. Talk to a classmate and think of what you can do to improve your
performance. Then discuss your ideas with your teacher.

Atenção professor: Ao discutir com os alunos o que pode ser feito para a
melhoria do desempenho em aula, conscientize-os de que com a autoavaliação
é possível obter um diagnóstico mais preciso em relação ao aproveitamento
deles quanto ao conteúdo e às habilidades trabalhadas. Fim da observação.

KEEP EXPLORING

Book: RAMOS, Graciliano. Vidas secas. 89ª ed. São Paulo: Record, 2003.

Movie: INTERSTELLAR. Directed by Christopher Nolan. Production: Lynda


Obst and Christopher Nolan. USA: Lynda Obst Productions, Legendary
Pictures, Syncopy, Warner Bros., Paramount Pictures, 2014. 1 DVD.

Videos: WORLD Water Day: Animated short. Silver Spring, 2013:


www.youtube.com/watch?v=AxfEVXNm_-4; WATER - Our Most Precious
Resource, Rotterdam, 2014: www.youtube.com/watch?v=VIaw5mCjHPI;
WATER Conservation Animation, 2013:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=B4ZR53n0D8I. Accessed on: March 8, 2016.

Websites: UN Water: www.unwater.org; Save Our Water:


http://saveourwater.com/what-you-can-do/tips/; Water Crisis News:
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/water-crisis/. Accessed on: March 8, 2016.

138

CHECK YOUR ENGLISH 2

Atenção professor: A cada quatro Unidades apresentamos o Check Your


English, para o aluno rever o conteúdo estudado, pôr em prática as estratégias
de leitura apresentadas e solucionar possíveis dúvidas. Fim da observação.
1. Transcribe the following quotations in your notebook completing them with
the adjectives in parentheses, either in the comparative or in the superlative
degree.

a) "Imagination is ____ (important) than knowledge."

Albert Einstein

Resposta: more important

b) "A good example is the ____ (good) sermon."

Benjamin Franklin

Resposta: best

c) "Even the ____ (dark) night will end and the sun will rise."

Victor Hugo

Resposta: darkest

d) "It is ____ (good) to light a small candle than to curse the darkness."

Confucius

Resposta: better

e) "The two ____ (powerful) warriors are patience and time."

Leo Tolstoy

Resposta: most powerful

2. Go back to the previous activity, scan the quotations and answer these
questions.

a) In one of those statements the author makes a prediction. Which one?


What's the author's name?

Resposta: statement c, Victor Hugo

b) In which of those statements does the author exalt the value of creativity?
Who said that?

Resposta: statement a, Albert Einstein

c) Hope is a very important virtue. In which of those statements can we infer the
idea of "hope"?
Resposta: statement c

d) Which of those statements contains a word that is used in a context opposite


to "peace"?

Resposta: statement e (warriors)

e) In which of those statements are we advised not to hurry?

Resposta: statement e

3. Nelson Mandela was the most respected and probably the most loved of all
world leaders in the late 20th century. He said the words below years before he
died, on December 5, 2013. Read them and do the activities that follow.

FONTE: Georges De Keerle/Getty Images

"During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African


people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black
domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which
all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal
which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I
am prepared to die."

Nelson Mandela

Available at: www.goodreads.com/quotes/22390-during-my-lifetime-i-have-


dedicated-myself-to-this-struggle. Accessed on: February 22, 2016.

a) The first three sentences in the quotation show some examples of the use of
a verb tense. Which is it?

- Simple Present.

- Simple Past.

- Present Perfect Simple.

- Present Perfect Continuous.

- Present Continuous.

Resposta correta: Present Perfect Simple.

b) Use your notebook to write down the verb forms in that tense, as used in the
quotation from Nelson Mandela.
Resposta: I have dedicated; I have fought; I have fought; I have cherished

c) Nelson Mandela used that verb tense in the quotation to talk about

- some actions he had done at some specific period in the past.

- some actions he used to do when he was younger but he no longer did.

- some situations that he had completed a short time before he said that.

- the duration of some actions that he had already completed.

- some important past experiences in his life.

Resposta correta: some important past experiences in his life.

139

4. Read the text below and do the following activities.

The Never-Ending Quest

At the risk of incurring the fate of Prometheus, who stole fire from the ancient
gods for human use, I believe we can, and should, try to explore and
understand the Universe. Our knowledge of the Universe is constantly
expanding, due in large part to our ever-improving technology.

In the last hundred years, we have made spectacular advances in our


understanding, and probed deeper and deeper into space in order to further our
knowledge. We have put men on the Moon, landed robots on Mars and sent
probes out to the farthest reaches of our solar system. Voyager 1, for example,
has been traveling for more than 27 years, and is now sending images back to
us from approximately eight billion miles (13 billion km) away. This quest for
information is key to our advancement, and the data these probes and satellites
send us is not only informative, but deeply inspiring.

I do not believe we will ever reach the end of our quest for a complete
understanding of the Universe, and in a way, I'm glad. Science after finding all
the answers would be like mountaineering after Everest. The human race needs
an intellectual challenge. It would be boring to have nothing left to discover.

FONTE: HAWKING, Stephen. What's Out There. London: Duncan Baird


Publishers, 2005. p. 7. (Fotografia) Leon Neal/Agência France-Presse
a) Choose the correct answers (more than one) according to the text.

- The author compares the Universe to the Everest.

- The author lists some important scientific achievements.

- The author believes that the Universe was created by ancient gods.

- The author believes that science will always have something to discover.

- Technology has been helping scientists to expand their knowledge about the
Universe.

Resposta correta: The author lists some important scientific achievements; The
author believes that science will always have something to discover;
Technology has been helping scientists to expand their knowledge about the
Universe.

b) Scan the first paragraph and find two modal verbs. Write them down in your
notebook. Then scan the last paragraph to find two other modal verbs. What
does each of them express? Choose from the box. Three of those items will not
be necessary.

Box:

logical deduction - result of a hypothetical situation - ability - permission - moral


obligation - prohibition - prediction

End of box.

Resposta: "Can" expresses ability; "should" expresses moral obligation; "will"


expresses prediction; "would" expresses result of a hypothetical situation

c) Now scan the second paragraph and find two sentences in which the verbs
were used in the Present Perfect Simple. Transcribe them in your notebook.

Resposta: We have made [...] and probed [...]; We have put [...] landed [...] and
sent [...]

d) Why was the Present Perfect Simple used in those sentences?

- To talk about actions completed in a definite period of time.

- To talk about actions that happened in an unfinished period of time, with


relevant results at the present time.
Resposta correta: To talk about actions that happened in an unfinished period
of time, with relevant results at the present time.

e) Continue scanning the second paragraph and find a verb in the Present
Perfect Continuous. Transcribe it in your notebook.

Resposta: has been traveling

f) Why was the Present Perfect Continuous used in that sentence?

- To focus on the duration of an action that started in the past and is still going
on.

- To focus on the specific time when that action began.

Resposta correta: To focus on the duration of an action that started in the past
and is still going on.

140

5. Read the text below and complete it with the verb to walk, in the appropriate
tense (Present Continuous, Simple Past, Present Perfect Simple or Present
Perfect Continuous).

Man Walking Around the World Is Currently Crossing the U.S.

Karl Bushby (I) for 15 years, and he has 16,000 miles left to go.

On the first day of November in 1998, 29-year-old Karl Bushby left Punta
Arenas, Chile, to walk around the world. Fifteen years later, he (II) 20,000 of the
36,000 miles needed to complete his epic odyssey.

The British-born Bushby (III) from the southern tip of South America up through
North America and across the Bering Strait. He (IV) 2,000 miles into Siberia
before being banned from Russia. Now he (V) across America, from Los
Angeles to the Russian Embassy in Washington, D.C., where he hopes to
convince the Russian government to grant him a visa so he can complete his
stunning feat of perambulation.

FONTE: Available at: www.mnn.com/lifestyle/eco-tourism/stories/man-walking-


around-the-world-is-currently-crossing-the-us. Accessed on: January 22, 2016.
(Fragment). (Fotografia) Megan Morr/For the Washington Post/Getty Images
Resposta: (I) has been walking; (II) has walked; (III) has walked; (IV) walked;
(V) is walking

6. Use your notebook to transcribe the sentences below (about the text in the
previous activity). Complete them with already, yet, for and since.

a) The man has been walking ____ 1998.

Resposta: since

b) He has been on his journey ____ more than a decade.

Resposta: for

c) By the time that article was published, he hadn't been allowed to enter Russia
____.

Resposta: yet

d) He has ____ been to South America.

Resposta: already

7. Read the quote below and do the following activities.

FONTE: Samir Hussein/WireImage/Getty Images

"My father used to say, 'Don't raise your voice, improve your argument.'"

Archbishop Desmond Tutu

Available at: http://svkquotes.tumblr.com/post/92117339699/my-father-used-to-


say-dont-raise-your-voice. Accessed on: February 23, 2016.

Observação: Desmond Tutu is a South African social rights activist and retired
Anglican bishop. Fim da observação.

a) In the quote above, Archbishop Desmond Tutu is talking about

- something his father usually says to him.

- an order his father had to follow in the past.

- a piece of advice his father regularly gave him in the past.

Resposta correta: a piece of advice his father regularly gave him in the past.

b) Judging from the quote, we can infer that the Archbishop's father
- was a peaceful wise man.

- used to have strong arguments with his son.

- always raised his voice in moments of anger.

Resposta correta: was a peaceful wise man.

c) Did anyone use to give you advice when you were younger? What did that
person use to tell you?

Personal answers.

141

DE OLHO NO ENEM

A estratégia de Making Inferences (descobrir ideias ou mensagens que não


aparecem explicitamente no texto) pode e deve muitas vezes ser aplicada para
resolver questões como as da prova do Enem. Antes de vermos as questões
propriamente ditas, vamos contextualizar o tema da primeira que será
apresentada, em uma abordagem que chamamos Resposta ao Poeta.

Walt Whitman (1819-1892), poeta norte-americano, branco, é um ícone da


literatura dos Estados Unidos. Em 1855, Whitman publicou um livro de poesia
chamado Leaves of Grass. Entre os poemas desse livro está I Hear America
Singing, em que Whitman destaca a contribuição do trabalhador, homem ou
mulher comum - costureira, mecânico, pedreiro, carpinteiro etc. - na construção
da nação americana.

Quase setenta anos mais tarde, outro poeta, também norte-americano, negro,
chamado Langston Hughes (1902-1967), escreveu I, Too. Na época em que
Hughes escreveu esse poema, o preconceito racial ainda grassava como
epidemia, especialmente nos estados do sul daquele país. No primeiro verso
do poema (I, too, sing America) Hughes faz alusão ao poema de Whitman e
corrige a omissão quanto ao valor do trabalho do negro para a construção dos
Estados Unidos. Hughes fala também de um dia em que brancos e negros se
sentarão "at the table" como irmãos, celebrando a fraternidade dos cidadãos de
um país fundado justamente nos princípios da igualdade e da liberdade. O uso
de too no próprio título deixa implícito que o eu lírico chama a si, também, o
direito de exaltar o valor do seu povo no trabalho de construção do seu país.
Conhecido esse contexto, podemos inferir com mais clareza a mensagem do
poema de Langston Hughes para depois, aplicando a estratégia de Making
Inferences, resolver uma questão proposta no Enem 2012, apresentada a
seguir.

I, Too

I, too, sing America.

I am the darker brother.

They send me to eat in the kitchen

When company comes,

But I laugh,

And eat well,

And grow strong.

Tomorrow,

I'll be at the table

When company comes.

Nobody'll dare

Say to me,

"Eat in the kitchen,"

Then.

Besides,

They'll see how beautiful I am

And be ashamed.

I, too, am America.

HUGHES, L. In: RAMPERSAD, A.; ROESSEL, D. (Ed.). The collected poems of


Langston Hughes. New York: Knopf, 1994.

1. Langston Hughes foi um poeta negro norte-americano que viveu no século


XX e escreveu I, Too em 1932. No poema, a personagem descreve uma
prática racista que provoca nela um sentimento de
a) coragem, pela superação.

b) vergonha, pelo retraimento.

c) compreensão, pela aceitação.

d) superioridade, pela arrogância.

e) resignação, pela submissão.

Resposta correta: a.

142

Observando as provas do Enem, podemos dizer que war and peace são temas
recorrentes. Em 2011, uma questão da prova do Enem apresentou a letra de
War, escrita por Bob Marley. Leia o texto e resolva a questão. Compare-o com
o tema a seguir.

War

Until the philosophy which holds one race superior

And another inferior

Is finally and permanently discredited and abandoned,

Everywhere is war - Me say war.

That until there is no longer

First class and second class citizens of any nation,

Until the color of a man's skin

Is of no more significance than the color of his eyes -

Me say war. [...]

And until the ignoble and unhappy regimes

That hold our brothers in Angola, in Mozambique,

South Africa, sub-human bondage have been toppled,

Utterly destroyed -

Well, everywhere is war - Me say war.

War in the east, war in the west,


War up north, war down south -

War - war - Rumors of war.

And until that day, the African continent will not know peace,

We Africans will fight - we find it necessary -

And we know we shall win

As we are confident in the victory [...]

Disponível em: www.sing365.com/music/lyric.nsf/War-lyrics-Bob-


Marley/833C73B9C3BD7D1D48256945000D0CDD. Acesso em 22 fev. 2016.
(Fragmento).

FONTE: Marish/Shutterstock

2. Bob Marley foi um artista popular e atraiu muitos fãs com suas canções.
Ciente de sua influência social, na música War, o cantor se utiliza de sua arte
para alertar sobre

a) a inércia do continente africano diante das injustiças sociais.

b) a persistência da guerra enquanto houver diferenças raciais e sociais.

c) as acentuadas diferenças culturais entre os países africanos.

d) as discrepâncias sociais entre os moçambicanos e angolanos como causa


de conflitos.

e) as fragilidades das diferenças raciais e sociais como justificativas para o


início de uma guerra.

Outra questão do Enem, de 2012, com base nas palavras de um artista


popular, também músico, destaca a necessidade de uma palavra: peace.
Embora com abordagens diferentes, o tema dos textos de Hendrix e de Marley
está interligado.

"When the power of LOVE overcomes the love of POWER, the world will know
peace."

Jimi Hendrix

Resposta correta: b.
3. Essa questão foi apresentada no volume 1 desta coleção. O que queremos
agora é destacar a importância dada nas provas do Enem a certos temas
recorrentes. Observando os dois textos, assinale os aspectos que os dois têm
em comum.

a) O tema é a fatalidade da paz mundial.

b) São mensagens de protesto.

c) Ambos contestam o valor exagerado que se dá ao poder e à forma como ele


é exercido pelos que o detêm.

Respostas corretas: b; c.

143

PROJECT 2

Poetry Board

1. There are many forms of art, and poetry is one of them. Read the poems
below and answer the following questions in your notebook.

Be happy, be happy!

Unless you are happy,

Your outer life will not succeed

And your inner life will not proceed.

Sri Chinmoy

Available at: www.srichinmoypoetry.com/selected-poems/poems-happiness/.


Accessed on: February 22, 2016.

All people dream, but not equally.

Those who dream by night in the dusty recesses of their mind,

Wake in the morning to find that it was vanity.

But the dreamers of the day are dangerous people,

For they dream their dreams with open eyes,

And make them come true.

D. H. Lawrence
Available at: www.poemhunter.com/poems/dream/page-/413151/. Accessed on:
February 22, 2016.

Observação: Sri Chinmoy (1931-2007) was an Indian spiritual master, author,


artist, poet, and musician. He also held public events such as concerts and
meditations on the theme of inner peace after moving to New York City in 1964.

David Herbert Richards Lawrence (1885-1930) was an English novelist, poet,


playwright, essayist, literary critic and painter who published as D. H. Lawrence.
Fim da observação.

a) What is each poem about?

Resposta: The first poem is about happiness, the second one is about dreams.

b) Which one has rhymes?

Resposta: The first one (happy/happy; succeed/proceed).

2. Identify the characteristics of a poem.

- It's usually written in verses.

- It's a literary text.

- It's always written in the first person.

- It expresses the author's feelings and thoughts.

Resposta correta: It's usually written in verses; It's a literary text; It expresses
the author's feelings and thoughts.

3. Which of the two poems above did you like better? Why?

Personal answers.

4. Do you usually write to express your feelings? If not, how about giving it a
try? Let's get ready for a Poetry Board.

Atenção professor: Este projeto busca gerar impactos na comunidade escolar e


em seu entorno e está relacionado aos temas abordados nas Unidades
anteriores. Por ser de natureza interdisciplinar, ele pode contar com a
participação de professores de outras disciplinas, como Literatura, Língua
Portuguesa e Sociologia. Fim da observação.

Planning Your Project


1. Write down a short poem about one of the topics below.

Box:

happiness - love - social problems - humanity - dreams

End of box.

2. Bring your poem to the class. Share it with your teachers and some
classmates and ask for feedback.

3. Rewrite your poem making the necessary improvements.

Atenção professor: Peça aos alunos para elaborarem o poema em casa.


Marque uma aula para que eles tragam seus rascunhos e mostrem aos seus
colegas e a você, para que recebam feedback. Marque uma outra aula para o
recital de poesia. Fim da observação.

Presenting Your Project

On the agreed date, recite it to your classmates and your teacher.

Atenção professor: Prepare um mural (que pode ser intitulado Poetry Board) na
sala de aula ou em outro local da escola para que os alunos coloquem seus
poemas. Se possível, convide outras turmas para ler os poemas do mural. Fim
da observação.

Sharing Your Project

Make your project available to the world. Display your poem on the Poetry
Board in your classroom, at the school hall or on an online bulletin board. Your
poems can be an inspiration for other people.

Atenção professor: Incentive os alunos a compartilhar o projeto na internet por


meio de um mural virtual, como o site http://pt-br.padlet.com (acesso em: 9
mar. 2016). Após a apresentação e o compartilhamento dos projetos, incentive-
os a comentar suas impressões em relação aos seus poemas e aos dos
colegas. Pergunte o que eles puderam aprender com essa experiência e como
acreditam que os poemas podem contribuir para a comunidade. Fim da
observação.

144

Grammar Reference
Os tópicos gramaticais trabalhados ao longo das Unidades são aqui explicados
em português, de modo a esclarecer eventuais dúvidas dos alunos e servir
como material de estudo em casa.

Modal Auxiliary Verbs: Introduction

Os verbos auxiliares modais can, may, could, will, shall, would, should, might e
ought são verbos de características especiais, usados junto a um verbo
principal para expressar capacidade, possibilidade, permissão, certeza,
obrigação, necessidade, sugestão, conselho etc. Veja a seguir algumas
características comuns a esses verbos.

Têm forma única para todas as pessoas.

I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they can/may/could, etc. do that.

Forma negativa: usa-se not após o verbo.

I cannot/you may not/he could not/she will not/it would not, etc. do that.

Forma interrogativa: o verbo vai para o início da pergunta, sem o uso de


do/does/did.

São usados com outros verbos sempre no infinitivo sem to. O único modal
auxiliary verb seguido de infinitivo com to é ought.

Maria can speak English. She ought to study Spanish too.

São verbos defectivos, sem infinitivo, sem particípio passado, sem forma
terminada em -ing e sem tempo futuro. Nesses casos são substituídos por
verbos ou locuções verbais com o mesmo sentido. Assim, para dizer, por
exemplo:

poder, ser capaz de: to be able to (como infinitivo de can)

eu tive de: I had to (como passado de must)

ele poderá, terá permissão de: He will be allowed to (como futuro de may)

Quase todos os modal auxiliary verbs expressam mais de um sentido, exigindo


estudo em separado, o que faremos a seguir.

Modal Auxiliary Verbs: Can, Could


O significado básico desses verbos, em português, é poder ou saber. Assim,
para expressar capacidade, possibilidade, habilidade (natural ou aprendida) e
também para permissão, usamos: can (presente) ou could (passado;
condicional).

I cannot raise the piano. It's too heavy.

Birds in general can fly, but penguins can't (and they are birds too).

Pelé could play soccer very well.

The ancient Romans could build good roads and bridges.

The world could be a better place to live in if people respected one another.

Can/Could I give you a kiss?

Can e could são também usados em perguntas e para fazer pedidos (could é
mais polido do que can):

Can/Could you give us some information, please?

Can e could podem ainda ser usados em perguntas, para pedir permissão. Na
resposta, para dar permissão, usa-se can. Para negar permissão, usa-se
cannot ou can't.

Can/Could I use your computer for a moment?

Yes, of course you can.

No, I'm sorry but you can't.

May, outro verbo modal que estudaremos adiante, é usado com o mesmo
sentido de permissão, em linguagem mais formal.

Could é usado para expressar capacidade geral, no passado, equivalendo em


português a "podia", "sabia".

Beethoven could compose almost perfect music, although he could not hear it
perfectly.

Mas, quando nos referimos a uma ocasião específica no passado em que a


capacidade potencial de uma pessoa foi utilizada, quando essa pessoa de fato
"pôde, conseguiu" fazer algo, nas frases afirmativas não se usa could. Nesse
caso, em lugar de could, usa-se was/were able to, managed to ou succeeded in
+ verbo na forma -ing.

Compare:

Beethoven was a genius. He could write powerful symphonies even when he


began to lose hearing.

could - (Capacidade potencial e geral, no passado.)

Once he was able to/managed to write a symphony in a couple of days.

was able to/managed to - (Capacidade de fato posta em prática, numa certa


ocasião do passado.)

A restrição ao uso de could é só para frases afirmativas. Nas negações, para


expressar que a pessoa não pôde, não conseguiu fazer algo naquela ocasião,
usa-se normalmente could not ou couldn't.

Veja mais um exemplo:

It was Carnival in Rio and all the hotels were full. Luckily we were able to
find/managed to find/succeeded in finding a room in a guest house in
Copacabana.

e não ... luckily we couldfind a room...

Para expressar capacidade ou possibilidade em relação a situações no


passado, usa-se could + have + particípio passado do verbo principal.

She could have written to me, but apparently she didn't want to.

145

Modal Auxiliary Verbs: May, Might

O significado básico desses verbos, em português, é "poder", expressando


probabilidade ou possibilidade (presente ou futura), e também, na linguagem
formal, para permissão. Quando usado para indicar que algo pode acontecer,
may indica uma probabilidade ou possibilidade maior do que a indicada por
might. Compare:

It's cold and it may rain.

It's very cold. It might even snow.


Veja mais exemplos:

Com boa possibilidade de acontecer:

Bill is a good man. He may lend you the money.

He is a rich man. He might even give you the money.

Outro uso de may, próprio da linguagem formal, é para pedir permissão.


Compare-o com can.

Respeitoso, formal:

May I sit down? Yes, you may./No, you may not.

Comum, informal:

Can I sit down?

Yes, you can. No, you cannot/can't.

Might é pouco usado para indicar permissão, a não ser em relatos do discurso
indireto.

I asked Mr. Smith if I might sit down.

Para expressar probabilidade ou possibilidade no passado, usa-se may/might +


have + particípio passado do verbo principal.

She may/might have written to me, but I didn't get any letter.

Modal Auxiliary Verbs: Will, Shall, Would

Will e shall são usados como verbos auxiliares nas expressões de tempo
futuro. Quando o sujeito é da primeira pessoa singular (I) ou plural (we), na
linguagem formal ou poética é possível usar shall, mas, em inglês moderno,
usa-se will mesmo nesses casos.

Na linguagem informal, pode-se usar a forma contrata, que é a mesma para will
ou shall: 'll. Compare:

"I will come to the party tomorrow."

"I'll be there too."

"I shall always be a flower girl to Professor Higgins."


Frase extraída do musical My Fair Lady, adaptado da peça Pygmalion, de
George Bernard Shaw.

Em perguntas, will you ...? expressa um pedido:

Will you come here, please?

Wouldyou ...? é usado com o mesmo sentido, mas mais polidez.

Would you come here, please?

Shall I ...? equivale a "você quer que eu (faça isso) ...?"

Shall I close the window?

Shall we ...? é usado em convites ou sugestões, equivalendo a "vamos fazer


isto?".

Shall we go now?

Se a pessoa aceitar o convite ou a sugestão, vai usar let's na resposta:

Yes, let's go.

Não é natural nem idiomático, portanto, usar let's na pergunta, já que a


expressão é basicamente afirmativa. Não se diz, portanto,

Let's go now?.

Wouldyou é muito comum nas perguntas com like, quando se oferece algo:

Would you like a piece of cake?

Would é usado com relatos do discurso indireto, com frases no futuro. Nesses
casos, substitui will.

John will go to the party.

John said that he would go to the party.

Would é também usado em frases condicionais hipotéticas, indicando o que


aconteceria se determinada condição fosse real, se existisse de fato:

The world would be a better place to live in if people respected one another.

Would tem ainda outro uso, de sentido bem diferente, indicando uma ação ou
estado habitual no passado. Esse uso, próprio do estilo narrativo, corresponde
ao pretérito imperfeito, em português.
My grandmother used to tell stories every evening. She would tell us to sit
down around her. She would open an old book and she would tell us to be
quiet.

Para expressar hipoteticamente o que teria acontecido, usa-se would + have +


particípio passado do verbo principal.

She would have written to me if she had really wanted to.

146

Modal Auxiliary Verbs: Should, Ought, Must

Em português, o sentido básico desses verbos corresponde a dever, mas eles


têm seus usos próprios.

Should e ought (este último sempre seguido de to) são usados para expressar
obrigação moral, conselho, recomendação, aquilo que a pessoa deve fazer,
porque é o certo.

Maggie looks sick. She should/ought to see a doctor.

She knows that she should/ought to get help, but she is just too lazy.

Must é usado para expressar necessidade, obrigação imperiosa, ordem. Para


esses sentidos, também é possível usar have/has to, que, a rigor, não é um
verbo modal.

We must/have to eat to live.

I must/have to lose weight. I'm overweight.

Compare os modal auxiliary verbs em destaque nestas frases:

The doctor: You must stop eating fatty food immediately.

must - (uma ordem)

A friend: You know you should/ought to stop eating fatty food. It's bad for you.

should/ought to - (um conselho)

Para expressar necessidade ou obrigação em relação a situações no passado,


em vez de must usa-se had to. E, em relação ao futuro, usa-se will have to.

I had to work until late yesterday.


Tomorrow I will have to work until late again.

As formas negativas must not (mustn't, na forma contrata) e do not/does not


(don't e doesn't, nas formas contratas) têm sentidos claramente diferentes:

You must/have to speak up and say what you think. But you mustn't talk loud
when you are in a library.

must/have to - (ordem)

mustn't - (proibição)

You must/have to look up those words in a good dictionary. But you don't
have to go to the library, I'll lend you my dictionary.

must/have to - (ordem)

don't have to - (ausência de necessidade)

Must também é usado, muito comumente antes do verbo be, quando


expressamos uma conclusão ou dedução lógica, algo que deve ser verdade em
face das evidências.

My son is three years old and he can speak three foreign languages.

He must be very clever. Or you must be a big liar.

O sentido contrário ao de must, nesse caso, é dado por can't.

He can't be stupid.

Para expressar dever em relação a situações no passado, o que deveria ter


sido feito, usa-se should/oughtto + have + particípio passado do verbo principal.

She should/ought to have written to me, it would have been a nice thing to do.

Para expressar dever como dedução lógica quanto a situações no passado,


usa-se must + have + particípio passado do verbo principal.

She must have written to me, but she probably wrote to the wrong address.

Possessive Pronouns

Observe os pronomes na tabela abaixo e os seus respectivos significados.

Tabela: equivalente textual a seguir.


Pronomes Pronomes
Pronomes
Possessivos Possessivos Tradução
Pessoais
(adjetivos) (substantivos)

I my mine meu(s)/minha(s)

seu(s)/sua(s) - de
you your yours
você

seu(s)/sua(s) -
he his his
dele

seu(s)/sua(s) -
she her hers
dela

Essa forma (its),


como pronome seu(s)/sua(s) -
it its
possessivo, é dele/dela
raramente usada.

we our ours nosso(s)/nossa(s)

seu(s)/sua(s) - de
you your yours
vocês

seu(s)/sua(s) -
they their theirs
deles/delas

147

Os pronomes possessivos com função adjetiva vêm antes do substantivo.

Is this your baggage? Are these your bags?

Os pronomes possessivos com função de substantivo vêm no lugar dele.

That baggage is not mine. Those bags are not mine. Are they yours?
É importante observar que, em inglês, diferentemente do que acontece em
português, os possessivos têm forma única para o masculino e para o feminino,
no singular e no plural, concordando com o possuidor e não com o que é
possuído.

John and his father/mother/brothers/sisters.

Os possessivos não são usados com o artigo definido.

My sister and her friends went to our club yesterday.

The Structure: Subject + Verb + Object + Infinitive

Observe a estrutura em destaque nesta frase:

Henry: I'll do whatever you want me to do!

Certos verbos em inglês, como want, need, advise, expect etc., são usados em
uma estrutura que, quando comparada com a que usamos em português nos
mesmos contextos, nos induz a erro, já que em inglês a estrutura evita a
conjunção that (correspondente a 'que', em português). Para dizer, por
exemplo, "ela quer que eu vá", em inglês, diríamos:

She wants me to go.

she - (sujeito)

wants - (verbo)

me - (objeto)

to go - (infinitivo)

e não: She wants that I go.

Veja mais alguns exemplos:

They want her to show them how to use that device.

I advised him to rest for a while.

He expects you to marry him.

She needs me to help her with the homework.

Question Tags

Observe a estrutura destacada nesta frase:


Monica: I mean, inside he's like all the rest, isn't he?

Isn't he é uma question tag. As question tags são perguntas curtas, feitas ao
final de frases afirmativas ou negativas, quando

queremos confirmar se algo é verdade ou quando pedimos à pessoa que


concorde com o que estamos dizendo.

You are living in São Paulo, aren't you? São Paulo is a great city, isn't it?

As question tags são feitas com o mesmo verbo auxiliar que aparece na
primeira parte da frase. Em frases positivas, a question tag

é feita na forma negativa; quando a frase for negativa, a question tag será na
forma positiva.

John was in São Paulo last week, wasn't he? He won't be there next week, will
he?

Quando a primeira parte da frase não contiver um verbo auxiliar, a question tag
será feita com do, does (em contextos de tempo

presente) ou did (em contextos de tempo passado).

John likes São Paulo, doesn't he?

You love him, don't you?

You saw him there, didn't you?

Comparatives and Superlatives

Adjetivos curtos, de uma sílaba, fazem o comparativo de superioridade com o


acréscimo de -er e o superlativo com o acréscimo de -est:

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

long longer longest

old older oldest

Adjetivos longos, de mais de duas sílabas, fazem o comparativo e o superlativo


de superioridade antepondo-se respectivamente more e most ao adjetivo.

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.


intelligent more intelligent most intelligent

comfortable more comfortable most comfortable

148

Com adjetivos de duas sílabas em alguns casos usa-se o acréscimo de -er e -


est, mas também é possível a formação com more e most. Assim:

Os dissilábicos em geral e os que terminam em sufixo (-ful,-less,-ing,-ed) fazem


o comparativo com more e o superlativo com most.

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

modern more modern most modern

famous more famous most famous

careful more careful most careful

careless more careless most careless

charming more charming most charming

surprised more surprised most surprised

Os dissilábicos terminados em -y seguem a regra dos adjetivos curtos,


trocando-se o y por i antes de se acrescentar -er ou -est:

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

easy easier easiest

busy busier busiest

funny funnier funniest

Mas é possível encontrar alguns dissilábicos terminados em -y (happy, friendly,


lovely, likely) que aceitam as duas formas:
Brazilians are one of the friendliest peoples in the world.

(Mais comum do que the most friendly.)

People are happier in times of peace.

(Mais comum do que more happy.)

Mas, por razões de estilo, a forma com more pode aparecer em uma frase
como esta:

People prefer to live in a more happy and peaceful environment.

Existem outros adjetivos dissilábicos bem comuns que podem fazer isso das
duas formas.

Terminados em -ow:

narrow; shallow

Terminados em -le:

simple; gentle; humble

Terminados em -er:

clever; tender

Com várias terminações:

common; pleasant; polite; handsome; cruel; quiet; stupid

É mais provável encontrarmos as formas -er e -est em alguns dos dissilábicos


citados:

Are women cleverer than men?

(Mais comum do que more clever.)

Living in the country is quieter than in a big city.

(Mais comum do que more quiet.)

Em contrapartida, em alguns desses dissilábicos a forma com more e most é


uma tendência atual. Isso acontece, por exemplo, com os dissilábicos mais
longos, como pleasant e handsome.

Living in the country is also more pleasant than in a big city, in my view.
(Mais comum do que pleasanter.)

Most women would agree that George Clooney is one of the most handsome
actors in the world.

(Mais comum do que handsomest.)

Notas ortográficas

Quando o adjetivo terminar em -e, acrescenta-se apenas -r e -st:

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

wide wider widest

late later latest

Quando o adjetivo monossilábico terminar em -y precedido de consoante,


troca-se o y por i, antes de -er ou -est, como acontece com os dissilábicos:

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

dry drier driest

dirty dirtier dirtiest

Mas shy pode ter as duas formas: shyer/shyest ou shier/shiest.

Quando o adjetivo tiver como últimas letras a sequência consoante - vogal -


consoante, dobra-se a consoante final antes do acréscimo de -er ou -est.

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

hot hotter hottest

thin thinner thinnest

big bigger biggest

149

Formações irregulares
Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

good better best

bad worse worst

far farther/further* farthest/furthest

*Farther ou further são formas opcionais, quando o sentido for de "distância".


Por exemplo: It was much farther/further to the beach than I had expected. Mas
apenas further é usado no sentido de "adicional". Como: Further
details/information will be given if necessary.

Present Perfect

O Present Perfect (have/has + particípio passado do verbo principal) tem vários


usos. Veja a seguir:

Ação repetida em um passado não determinado.

I have seen the Pope on TV several times.

Ação que ocorreu em um passado indeterminado, com reflexos no momento


presente.

The Pope has been to Brazil. Many people still remember that occasion.

Ação iniciada no passado e ainda acontecendo no presente.

Jorge Mario Bergoglio has been Pope Francis since March 2013.

Quando a ação repetida tiver acontecido em um passado determinado, usa-se


o verbo no Simple Past.

I saw the Pope on TV several times last week.

Quando se determina o momento em que a ação aconteceu, usa-se o Simple


Past, e não o Present Perfect.

He came in July 2013, as he began his first trip abroad since he became the
head of the Catholic Church.

Para falar de uma ação iniciada no passado e ainda acontecendo no presente,


usa-se o Present Perfect com since (desde) ou com for (por, há ..., faz...
[tempo]), indicando ou o início da ação (uso de since) ou há quanto tempo ela
vem sendo praticada (uso de for). Vale observar que, em português, usa-se o
presente do indicativo nesse caso, o que em inglês não acontece. Compare:

Jorge Mario Bergoglio is Pope Francis.

He has been Pope Francis since July 2013/for a few years.

Advérbios que acompanham o Present Perfect

Os advérbios que indicam tempo de modo vago, indefinido, geralmente


acompanham o verbo no Present Perfect.

Already: já

I'm not hungry. I have already eaten.

Already é basicamente uma palavra de sentido afirmativo, mas pode também


aparecer em algumas perguntas, quando, além do sentido de "já", houver outro
sentido implícito.

Quando a pergunta revela espanto, surpresa: nesses casos already aparece no


final da pergunta.

Have you eaten already?! It's only 6 o'clock!

Quando, pelo contexto, se espera que a resposta seja afirmativa: nesse caso
already antecede o verbo principal.

Have you already eaten? I can see that.

Compare esses usos de already em perguntas com o uso de yet a seguir:

Yet: já...?; ainda (não)

Have you eaten yet?

Yet é usado em perguntas a respeito de ações comuns, corriqueiras (a serem


praticadas mais cedo ou mais tarde) e quando não se antecipa o tipo de
resposta, que poderá ser yes ou no.

Yet é também usado em orações negativas, acompanhado de not, e nesse


caso o sentido é de "ainda (não)":

No, I haven't eaten yet.


Além desses usos, yet pode também aparecer como conjunção, muitas vezes
depois da palavra and, no início de uma oração, com o mesmo sentido de but:

I haven't eaten, and yet I'm not hungry.

150

Ever: já, alguma vez ...?

Esse advérbio é usado em perguntas que destacam a ocasião ou oportunidade


em que a ação (geralmente pouco comum) pode ou não ter sido praticada.

Have you ever eaten raw fish?

Ever tem outros usos, menos comuns.

Em afirmações ou palavras compostas = sempre:

I will remember that meal for ever.

Com superlativo = já:

The best vatapá I have ever eaten.

Com comparativo = nunca:

As a cook, she is better than ever.

Just: não tem tradução própria. É usado no Present Perfect, entre have/has e
o particípio passado do verbo principal para indicar uma ação que acabou de
acontecer.

I have just eaten.

Never: nunca

É usado em orações negativas que dispensam o not. É uma palavra


essencialmente negativa.

She has never eaten raw fish.

Present Perfect Continuous

Para enfatizar a continuidade e a duração de uma atividade, começada no


passado e ainda acontecendo no presente, usamos a forma progressiva ou
contínua do Present Perfect, chamada Present Perfect Continuous (ou
Progressive), composta por have/has + been + -ingform do verbo principal.
It has been raining since yesterday. The streets are already flooded.

É bom observar que, em português, nesses casos, usa-se o mesmo tempo


verbal quando apenas se menciona a ação ou quando também se diz há
quanto tempo essa ação vem acontecendo. Compare:

It's raining.

It has been raining for an hour.

I am waiting.

I have been waiting since 3 o'clock.

Agora veja este exemplo de um outro uso do Present Perfect Continuous:

You look tired.

Yes, I've been working all day.

Nesse caso, o Present Perfect Continuous é usado para expressar uma ação
começada há algum tempo e feita até bem recentemente, já terminada, mas
cujos efeitos são ainda visíveis. Outro exemplo desse uso:

Look at those cats. What's happened to them?

Well, they have been fighting.

Used to

A estrutura used to + infinitivo do verbo principal expressa uma atividade que


era habitualmente desenvolvida no passado, mas que não ocorre mais.

I used to play soccer on the beach when I was younger.

Em textos narrativos, para indicar ações que ocorriam habitualmente no


passado, pode-se usar would + infinitivo (sem to) do verbo principal. Essa
estrutura equivale ao Pretérito Imperfeito, em português. Assim:

I used to go to the beach early in the morning. I would take my beach umbrella,
some sunscreen, and a radio or a book. I would lie down on the sand...

A expressão used to (costumava) só se refere ao passado e não deve ser


confundida com be used to (estar acostumado a), que indica hábito no
presente, nem com get used to (acostumar-se a), expressões que devem ser
seguidas de um verbo com final -ing. Compare:
She used to eat junk food, but now she only eats healthy food.

I am used to getting up early, and I like it.

I got used to getting up early when I was a boy.

151

Irregular Verbs

Atenção professor: Esta seção apresenta verbos irregulares agrupados por


ordem alfabética e por semelhança de forma. Fim da observação.

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

Forma Particípio
Presente Passado Tradução
Básica Passado

be am/are/is was/were been ser; estar

bater;
beat beat/beats beat beaten
derrotar

become become/becomes became become tornar-se

begin begin/begins began begun começar

curvar(-
se);
bend bend/bends bent bent
dobrar(-
se)

bet bet/bets bet bet apostar

bite bite/bites bit bitten morder

bleed bleed/bleeds bled bled sangrar

blow blow/blows blew blown soprar


break break/breaks broke broken quebrar

bring bring/brings brought brought trazer

build build/builds built built construir

burn burn/burns burned/burnt1 burned/burnt1 queimar

burst burst/bursts burst burst estourar

buy buy/buys bought bought comprar

pegar;
catch catch/catches caught caught
agarrar

choose choose/chooses chose chosen escolher

come come/comes came come vir; chegar

cost cost/costs cost cost custar

cut cut/cuts cut cut cortar

lidar;
deal deal/deals dealt dealt tratar;
negociar

cavar;
dig dig/digs dug dug
escavar

do do/does did done fazer

desenhar;
draw draw/draws drew drawn sacar;
puxar
dream dream/dreams dreamed/dreamt2 dreamed/dreamt2 sonhar

drink drink/drinks drank drunk beber

drive drive/drives drove driven dirigir

eat eat/eats ate eaten comer

fall fall/falls fell fallen cair

alimentar(-
feed feed/feeds fed fed
se)

feel feel/feels felt felt sentir(-se)

lutar;
fight fight/fights fought fought
combater

achar;
find find/finds found found
encontrar

caber;
servir;
fit fit/fits fit/fitted fit/fitted
ajustar(-
se)

fugir;
flee flee/flees fled fled
escapar

1. As duas formas são possíveis.

1. As duas formas são possíveis.

2. A forma dreamt pronuncia-se /dremt/.

2. A forma dreamt pronuncia-se /dremt/.

152
Forma Particípio
Presente Passado Tradução
Básica Passado

fly fly/flies flew flown voar; pilotar

forbid forbid/forbids forbade forbidden proibir

forget forget/forgets forgot forgotten esquecer

forgive forgive/forgives forgave forgiven perdoar

freeze freeze/freezes froze frozen congelar

obter;
get get/gets got got/gotten3 arranjar;
pegar

give give/gives gave given dar

go go/goes went gone ir

crescer;
grow grow/grows grew grown
cultivar

hang hang/hangs hung4 hung4 pendurar

have have/has had had ter

hear hear/hears heard heard ouvir

esconder(-
hide hide/hides hid hidden
se)

bater;
hit hit/hits hit hit
acertar
segurar;
hold hold/holds held held
realizar

ferir;
hurt hurt/hurts hurt hurt machucar;
doer

guardar;
keep keep/keeps kept kept conservar;
continuar

kneel kneel/kneels knelt knelt ajoelhar(-se)

saber;
know know/knows knew known
conhecer

lay lay/lays laid laid pôr; colocar

levar;
lead lead/leads led led conduzir;
liderar

leap leap/leaps leaped/leapt5 leaped/leapt5 saltar; pular

learn learn/learns learned/learnt6 learned/learnt6 aprender

deixar; sair
leave leave/leaves left left
(de)

lend lend/lends lent lent emprestar

deixar;
let let/lets let let
permitir

lie lie/lies lay7 lain7 deitar-se;


situar-se

iluminar;
light light/lights lit lit
acender

lose lose/loses lost lost perder

make make/makes made made fazer

significar;
mean mean/means meant meant
tencionar

encontrar
meet meet/meets met met
(pessoa)

pay pay/pays paid paid pagar

put put/puts put put pôr; colocar

deixar,
quit quit/quits quit quit
desistir (de)

read read/reads read8 read8 ler

montar;
ride ride/rides rode ridden
andar de

3. A forma gotten é usada em inglês estadunidense.

4. Não confundir com as formas regulares hang - hanged - hanged: enforcar.

4. Não confundir com as formas regulares hang - hanged - hanged: enforcar.

5. A forma leapt pronuncia-se /lept/ e rima com kept.

5. A forma leapt pronuncia-se /lept/ e rima com kept.

6. As duas formas (learned ou learnt) pronunciam-se /lərnt/, rimando com


burned/burnt.
6. As duas formas (learned ou learnt) pronunciam-se /lərnt/, rimando com
burned/burnt.

7. Não confundir com as formas regulares lie - lied - lied: mentir.

7. Não confundir com as formas regulares lie - lied - lied: mentir.

8. No presente, read rima com need; no passado e no particípio passado, rima


com bed.

8. No presente, read rima com need; no passado e no particípio passado, rima


com bed.

153

Forma Particípio
Presente Passado Tradução
Básica Passado

ring ring/rings rang rung tocar; soar

subir;
rise rise/rises rose risen levantar(-
se)

run run/runs ran run correr

say say/says said said dizer

see see/sees saw seen ver

buscar;
seek seek/seeks sought sought
procurar

sell sell/sells sold sold vender

mandar;
send send/sends sent sent
enviar

set set/sets set set pôr;


colocar

sew sew/sews sewed9 sewn/sewed9 costurar

sacudir;
shake shake/shakes shook shaken
tremer

shine shine/shines shone10 shone10 brilhar

disparar;
shoot shoot/shoots shot shot balear;
rematar

show show/shows showed shown mostrar

encolher(-
shrink shrink/shrinks shrank shrunk
se)

shut shut/shuts shut shut fechar

sing sing/sings sang sung cantar

sink sink/sinks sank sunk afundar

sit sit/sits sat sat sentar(-se)

sleep sleep/sleeps slept slept dormir

slide slide/slides slid slid deslizar

smell smell/smells smelled/smelt11 smelled/smelt11 cheirar

speak speak/speaks spoke spoken falar

gastar;
spend spend/spends spent spent
passar
(tempo)

spin spin/spins spun spun girar; fiar

rachar;
split split/splits split split separar(-
se)

spread spread/spreads spread spread espalhar

estar de
stand stand/stands stood stood pé;
aguentar

steal steal/steals stole stolen roubar

grudar(-
stick stick/sticks stuck stuck
se); enfiar

feder,
stink stink/stinks stank/stunk stunk
cheirar mal

bater em;
strike strike/strikes struck struck
atingir

esforçar-se
strive strive/strives strove striven
por

jurar;
swear swear/swears swore sworn
xingar

sweep sweep/sweeps swept swept varrer

swim swim/swims swam swum nadar

swing swing/swings swung swung balançar(-


se)

9. Sew pronuncia-se /soʊ/, rimando com go.

9. Sew pronuncia-se /soʊ/, rimando com go.

10. Não confundir com as formas regulares shine - shined - shined: polir,
lustrar.

10. Não confundir com as formas regulares shine - shined - shined: polir,
lustrar.

11. As duas formas são possíveis.

11. As duas formas são possíveis.

154

Forma Particípio
Presente Passado Tradução
Básica Passado

tomar;
take take/takes took taken pegar;
levar

teach teach/teaches taught taught ensinar

tear tear/tears tore torn rasgar

dizer a;
tell tell/tells told told
contar

pensar;
think think/thinks thought thought achar
(opinião)

atirar;
throw throw/throws threw thrown
lançar
understand understand/understands understood understood entender

chatear;
upset upset/upsets upset upset
perturbar

wake wake/wakes woke woken acordar

usar;
wear wear/wears wore worn
vestir

weave weave/weaves wove woven tecer

weep weep/weeps wept wept chorar

vencer;
win win/wins won won
ganhar

write write/writes wrote written escrever

Verbos irregulares - classificação por grupos de formas semelhantes

O estudo das formas do presente, do passado e do particípio passado dos


verbos irregulares fica mais simples quando os vemos por grupos, classificados
por formas semelhantes de grafia e pronúncia. Confira lendo em voz alta e
trabalhando os vários grupos gradualmente.

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.

Forma Particípio
Presente Passado Tradução
Básica Passado

bring bring/brings brought brought trazer

buy buy/buys bought bought comprar

fight fight/fights fought fought lutar; combater


pensar; achar
think think/thinks thought thought
(opinião)

seek seek/seeks sought sought buscar; procurar

catch catch/catches caught caught pegar; agarrar

teach teach/teaches taught taught ensinar

155

Forma Particípio
Presente Passado Tradução
Básica Passado

begin begin/begins began begun começar

ring ring/rings rang rung tocar; soar

sing sing/sings sang sung cantar

swing swing/swings swung swung balançar(-se)

drink drink/drinks drank drunk beber

sink sink/sinks sank sunk afundar

shrink shrink/shrinks shrank shrunk encolher(-se)

feder, cheirar
stink stink/stinks stank/stunk stunk
mal

swim swim/swims swam swum nadar

blow blow/blows blew blown soprar

grow grow/grows grew grown crescer;


cultivar

saber;
know know/knows knew known
conhecer

throw throw/throws threw thrown atirar; lançar

fly fly/flies flew flown voar; pilotar

drive drive/drives drove driven dirigir

montar; andar
ride ride/rides rode ridden
de

subir;
rise rise/rises rose risen
levantar-se

write write/writes wrote written escrever

break break/breaks broke broken quebrar

choose choose/chooses chose chosen escolher

freeze freeze/freezes froze frozen congelar

speak speak/speaks spoke spoken falar

steal steal/steals stole stolen roubar

curvar(-se),
bend bend/bends bent bent
dobrar(-se)

lend lend/lends lent lent emprestar

mandar;
send send/sends sent sent
enviar
gastar; passar
spend spend/spends spent spent
(tempo)

sacudir;
shake shake/shakes shook shaken
tremer

tomar; pegar;
take take/takes took taken
levar

sell sell/sells sold sold vender

tell tell/tells told told dizer a; contar

lay lay/lays laid laid pôr; colocar

pay pay/pays paid paid pagar

say say/says said said dizer

guardar;
keep keep/keeps kept kept
conservar

sleep sleep/sleeps slept slept dormir

sweep sweep/sweeps swept swept varrer

weep weep/weeps wept wept chorar

156

Forma Particípio
Presente Passado Tradução
Básica Passado

bet bet/bets bet bet apostar

burst burst/bursts burst burst estourar


cost cost/costs cost cost custar

cut cut/cuts cut cut cortar

caber;
fit fit/fits fit/fitted fit/fitted servir;
ajustar-se

bater;
hit hit/hits hit hit
acertar

hurt hurt/hurts hurt hurt ferir; doer

deixar;
let let/lets let let
permitir

iluminar;
light light/lights lit lit
acender

pôr;
put put/puts put put
colocar

deixar;
quit quit/quits quit quit desistir
(de)

pôr;
set set/sets set set
colocar

shut shut/shuts shut shut fechar

rachar;
split split/splits split split
separar

spread spread/spreads spread spread espalhar


chatear;
upset upset/upsets upset upset
perturbar

forbid forbid/forbids forbade forbidden proibir

forgive forgive/forgives forgave forgiven perdoar

give give/gives gave given dar

become become/becomes became become tornar-se

come come/comes came come vir; chegar

estar de
stand stand/stands stood stood pé;
aguentar

understand/
understand understood understood entender
understands

forget forget/forgets forgot forgotten esquecer

obter;
get get/gets got got/gotten arranjar;
pegar

grudar(-
stick stick/sticks stuck stuck
se); enfiar

bater em;
strike strike/strikes struck struck
atingir

jurar;
swear swear/swears swore sworn
xingar

tear tear/tears tore torn rasgar


bleed bleed/bleeds bled bled sangrar

alimentar(-
feed feed/feeds fed fed
se)

fugir;
flee flee/flees fled fled
escapar

lidar;
deal deal/deals dealt dealt tratar;
negociar

feel feel/feels felt felt sentir(-se)

ajoelhar(-
kneel kneel/keels knelt knelt
se)

burn burn/burns burned/burnt burned/burnt queimar

learn learn/learns learned/learnt learned/learnt aprender

157

False Cognates

Atenção professor: Esta seção retoma os falsos cognatos trabalhados ao longo


das Unidades. Fim da observação.

Algumas das palavras que encontramos nos textos principais deste volume são
falsos cognatos. Palavras que parecem, mas não são. Elas têm forma
semelhante a outras em português, mas o seu significado é outro.

Em seu caderno, transcreva a tabela dos falsos cognatos encontrados nos


textos deste volume. Deixe um espaço para a terceira coluna: "O que significa".
Essa coluna deverá ser preenchida em seu caderno ao longo do ano. Ao final
de cada Unidade, vá até a sua lista e complete-a com o significado dos
cognatos registrados.

Quadro: equivalente textual a seguir.


Falso Onde O que E como se
Contexto
Cognato encontrar significa diz...?

And now,
scientists are
____.
beginning to Adição, em
Unit 1 - As Resposta:
addiction wonder if our inglês, se diz
You Read dependência,
tech addiction is addition.
vício
giving a leg up
[...]

Livraria, em
inglês
[...] without
____. britânico, se
Unit 1 - As cracking a book
library Resposta: diz bookshop;
You Read or trucking to
biblioteca em inglês dos
the library.
EUA, se diz
bookstore.

Aditivo, como
____. Technology is
Unit 1 - As substantivo,
addictive Resposta: very addictive
You Read em inglês, se
viciante [...]
diz additive.

No contexto de
"realizar um
[...] it's sonho, uma
____. important to meta, uma
Unit 1 - As Resposta: realize that your ambição",
realize
You Read perceber, phone could be realize significa
compreender getting in the realizar, não
way [...] sendo, por
isso, falso
cognato nesse
contexto
menos comum.

Whether it's
based on race,
gender, sexual
____. Prejudicar, em
Unit 2 - As orientation, or
prejudice Resposta: inglês, se diz
You Read species,
preconceito harm.
prejudice is
morally
unacceptable.

All animals have


the ability to
____. suffer in the Degrau, em
Unit 2 - As
degree Resposta: same way and inglês, se diz
You Read
grau to the same stair, step.
degree that
humans do.

The Earth
should not be
Inabitado/a,
cut up into
em inglês, se
hundreds of
____. diz uninhabited
Unit 3 - As different
inhabited Resposta: ou desert. Uma
You Read sections, each
habitado/a ilha inabitada é
inhabited by a
uma desert
self-defined
island.
segment of
humanity [...]

This of Sorte,
sort em
Unit 3 - As ____.
sort thing, however, inglês, se diz
You Read Resposta:
should remain luck.
tipo cultural and
benign.

158

Falso Onde O que E como se


Contexto
Cognato encontrar significa diz...?

General como
____.
Unit 3 - Once people substantivo, alta
Resposta:
More establish their patente militar,
general geral, comum
Food For general em inglês,
a todos, não
Thought judgment [...] também se diz
específico/a
general.

Particular, no
Unit 3 - ____. [...] about one
sentido de
More Resposta: particular
particular privado/a, em
Food For determinado/a, group of
inglês, se diz
Thought específico/a people [...]
private.

Em inhabitants
[...] big
o prefixo in-
cultural
Unit 3 - indica interior, e
____. differences
More não negação.
inhabitants Resposta: between you
Food For Não existe, em
habitantes and the
Thought inglês, a palavra
inhabitants of
habitants, sem o
that country.
prefixo.

____. Although
Eventualmente,
Unit 4 - Monica is
Resposta: por em inglês, se
eventually Word initially
fim, acabando diz occasionally,
Study frightened of
por, finalmente possibly.
David, she
eventually
warms up
enough to
him to
activate his
imprinting
protocol [...]

Ordinário, no
[...] living on a
sentido de
Unit 6 - ____. tiny planet
vulgar, em
ordinary As You Resposta: orbiting an
inglês, se diz
Read comum ordinary star
rude, vulgar,
[...]
gross.

Assumir, no
[...] and had
sentido de
Unit 6 - ____. only just
passar a ter, em
assuming As You Resposta: stopped
inglês, se diz
Read acreditar assuming that
acquire, take
the sun [...]
over.

Bacteria and Bactéria, no


Unit 6 - ____.
Brontosaurus. singular, em
bacteria As You Resposta:
Oxygen and inglês, se diz
Read bactérias
octane. bacterium.

Supposedly
Unit 7 - not even his Parentes, em
____.
parents As You parents know inglês, se diz
Resposta: pais
Read he is a relatives.
famous artist.

exit Unit 7 - ____. Scene from Êxito, em


As Your Resposta: the film Exit inglês, se diz
Read saída Through the success.
Gift Shop.

159

Glossary

Atenção professor: Explique aos alunos que algumas das palavras aqui listadas
podem, em outros contextos, ter outras acepções. Fim da observação.

Aqui estão registrados apenas os significados que as palavras têm nos textos
deste volume.

able: capaz

be able to: ser capaz de, poder

above: (adv.) acima; (prep.) acima de

abuse: (s.) abuso, maus-tratos; (v. p. e pp. abused) infligir maus-tratos a

according to: de acordo com

account: conta

take into account: levar em conta, em consideração

achievement: realização, conquista

actually: realmente, de fato, na verdade

add: (p. e pp. added) acrescentar

addiction: dependência, vício

addressed (to): endereçado/a (a), dirigido/a; atendido/a

advice: conselho(s)

advise: (p. e pp. advised) aconselhar

affluent: rico/a

afford: (p. e pp. afforded) proporcionar

cannot afford: não poder dar-se ao luxo de


ago: há, atrás (tempo)

agree: (p. e pp. agreed) concordar

ahead (of): adiante, à frente (de)

alike: (adv.) iguais; igualmente

alive: vivo/a, com vida

allow: (p. e pp. allowed) permitir

almost: quase

alone: sozinho/a

already: já

although: embora, apesar de que

always: sempre

amazing: incrível, impressionante

among: entre (vários/as)

amount: quantidade

aquifer: aquífero

argue: (p. e pp. argued) discutir

argument: argumento, discussão

arrival: chegada

as: como, da mesma forma que; como, na função de; quando; enquanto;
porque

as if/though: como se

ascribe: (p. e pp. ascribed [to]) atribuir (a)

ask: (p. e pp. asked) perguntar

ask for: pedir

assault: agressão

assessment: avaliação
at least: pelo menos

attempt: (s.) tentativa; (v. p. e pp. attempted) tentar

attend: (p. e pp. attended) frequentar, cursar

auction: leilão

avail: (p. e pp. availed) servir, ser útil a

to no avail: em vão, sem sucesso

available: disponível, acessível

avarice: avareza, ganância (por dinheiro)

avoid: (p. e pp. avoided) evitar

award: (s.) prêmio; (p. e pp. awarded) premiar

aware (of): ciente, consciente, com conhecimento (de)

awareness: ciência, consciência, conhecimento

back: (s.) costas; fundos; parte de trás; (adv.) para trás

background: de fundo, anterior

battery cage: gaiola para galinha criada em granja

become: (p. became; pp. become) tornar-se; (com adj.) ficar

bedlinen: roupa de cama

begin: (p. began; pp. begun) começar

behavior (EUA), behaviour (RU), (AU): comportamento

behind: (adv.) atrás; (prep.) atrás de

belief: (pl. beliefs) crença

believe: (p. e pp. believed) acreditar

belong (to): (p. e pp. belonged [to]) pertencer (a)

below: (adv.) abaixo

bend: (p. e pp. bent) dobrar(-se), curvar(-se)


benefit: (s.) benefício; (v. p. e pp. benefited ou benefitted) beneficiar(-se)

beside: do lado de

between: (prep.) entre (dois)

beyond: (para) além (de)

bidding: (s.) ordem, aquilo que se manda fazer

bigotry: intolerância, preconceito

biochemistry: bioquímica

blank: em branco

bless: (p. e pp. blessed) abençoar

blight: (p. e pp. blighted) causar desgraça a

body: (pl. bodies) corpo

boil: (p. e pp. boiled) (an egg) cozer (um ovo)

bold: negrito (tipo de letra)

border: fronteira

bored: entediado/a

boring: tedioso/a, chato/a, monótono/a

born: nascido/a

be born: nascer

both: ambos/as

both ... and ...: tanto ... quanto ...

bounty: (pl. bounties) recompensa

160

bowel: intestino

brain: cérebro

breathe: (p. e pp. breathed) respirar

brew: (p. e pp. brewed) (tea) fazer infusão de (chá)


bring: (p. e pp. brought) trazer

broad: largo/a, amplo/a, vasto/a

broth: caldo, sopa

build: (p. e pp. built) construir

building: construção; edifício; prédio

burn: (p. e pp. burned ou burnt) queimar

but: (conj.) mas

butcher: açougueiro/a

buy: (p. e pp. bought) comprar

cage: gaiola, jaula

can: (v. aux.) poder, ter capacidade para; saber (fazer algo); ter permissão
para; ser possível

canvas: tela (de pintura)

caption: legenda (de foto, ilustração)

care: (p. e pp. cared) cuidar de

career: carreira

carry out: (p. e pp. carried out) realizar, executar

century: (pl. centuries) século

challenge: (s.) desafio; (v. p. e pp. challenged) desafiar

change: (s.) mudança; (v. p. e pp. changed) mudar, trocar

character: caráter; personagem (de história, conto, quadrinhos etc.)

childhood: infância

choice: escolha

choose: (p. chose; pp. chosen) escolher

citizen: cidadão/cidadã
claim: (p. e pp. claimed) afirmar; reclamar, reivindicar

clean: (adj.) limpo/a; (v. p. e pp. cleaned) limpar

clever: inteligente; esperto/a

clown: palhaço/a

coax: (p. e pp. coaxed) persuadir, tentar convencer

come: (p. came; pp. come) vir; chegar

community: (pl. communities) comunidade

companion: companheiro/a

complaint: reclamação, queixa

concerned: preocupado/a

constipation: prisão de ventre

cost: (s.) custo; (v. p. e pp. cost) custar

country: (pl. countries) país

couple: casal

cranky: irritadiço/a, resmungão/resmungona

cruelty: crueldade

cull: (p. e pp. culled) matar (animals) de forma deliberada para controle de
população

customer: freguês/freguesa

cut: (p. e pp. cut) cortar

cut up: cortar em pedaços

Czech: tcheco/a

daffodil: narciso (flor)

damage: (s.) estrago, dano; (v. p. e pp. damaged) danificar, causar estrago(s)

danger: perigo
dangerous: perigoso/a

darkness: escuridão

daughter: filha

dawn: aurora, alvorada

deal (with): (p. e pp. dealt) lidar (com)

death: morte

deep: profundo/a

defeat: (s.) derrota; (v. p. e pp. defeated) derrotar

deliver: (p. e pp. delivered) entregar

demand: (s.) exigência; (v. p. e pp. demanded) exigir

demote: (p. e pp. demoted) rebaixar

deny: (p. e pp. denied) negar

deserve: (p. e pp. deserved) merecer

despise: (p. e pp. despised) desprezar

despite: a despeito de, apesar de

develop: (p. e pp. developed) desenvolver

development: desenvolvimento

device: dispositivo; aparelho

die: (p. e pp. died) morrer

dinner: jantar

dirty: sujo/a

discourse marker: marcador discursivo

discover: (p. e pp. discovered) descobrir

discovery: (pl. discoveries) descoberta

disease: doença

disgusted: enojado/a
disgusting: nojento/a

distracted: distraído/a

distracting: que causa distração

doubt: (s.) dúvida; (v. p. e pp. doubted) duvidar

draft: rascunho

drawing: desenho

dream: (s.) sonho; (v. p. e pp. dreamed ou dreamt) sonhar

drink: (s.) bebida; (v. p. drank; pp. drunk) beber

drought: seca, estiagem

during: durante

161

each: cada um/a

each other: um/a ao/à outro/a, uns/umas aos/às outros/as

earth: (tb. Earth) (planeta) Terra; (Geologia) terra

eastern: oriental

eat: (p. ate; pp. eaten) comer

effort: esforço

either: também não; tampouco

either ... or ...: ou ... ou ...

elder care: cuidados aos idosos

empower: (p. e pp. empowered) empoderar, dar poder a

enable: (p. e pp. enabled) possibilitar, capacitar, tornar capaz

endangered: em perigo

endless: sem fim

enforce: (p. e pp. enforced) colocar em prática, em vigor


engine: máquina

motor engine: motor de veículo

enjoy: (p. e pp. enjoyed) gostar, apreciar; desfrutar; (com pron. reflexivo)
divertir-se

enjoyable: agradável

enough: bastante, suficiente

enslave: (p. e pp. enslaved) escravizar

enthrone: (p. e pp. enthroned) colocar no trono

environment: meio ambiente

environmental: ambiental

equal: igual

equality: igualdade

gender equality: igualdade entre mulheres e homens

even: até, até mesmo

even though: muito embora

not even: nem mesmo

eventually: por fim, finalmente (e como consequência)

ever: (adv.) (em perguntas) já, alguma vez; (em afirmações, depois de for)
sempre; (com comparativos, seguidos de than) nunca

excerpt: fragmento, trecho (extraído de livro, revista etc.)

exit: saída

expect: (p. e pp. expected) esperar, ter uma certa expectativa

experiment: (s.) experiência (científica etc.); (v. p. e pp. experimented) fazer


uma experiência (científica etc.)

exploit: (p. e pp. exploited) explorar, tirar proveito de

exploitation: exploração (para ter proveito, lucro, vantagem)

exploration: exploração (para saber mais a respeito de algo)


explore: (p. e pp. explored) explorar (para conhecer melhor)

face: (s.) face, rosto; (v. p. e pp. faced) enfrentar

factory: (pl. factories) fábrica

factsheet: folheto explicativo

fairy tale: conto de fadas

famine: fome (geral, coletiva)

farmer: fazendeiro/a

fat: (s.) gordura; (adj.) gordo/a

fear: (s.) medo, receio

feature: característica

feel: (p. e pp. felt) sentir

feeling: sentimento; sensação

feet: (pl. de foot) pés

female: fêmea; feminino/a

fertilize: (p. e pp. fertilized) fertilizar, adubar

fetch: (p. e pp. fetched) ir buscar

few: poucos/as

a few: alguns/algumas

fight: (s.) luta; (v. p. e pp. fought) lutar, combater; brigar

find: (p. e pp. found) achar, encontrar

find out: descobrir

fingertip: ponta do dedo

at your fingertips: muito perto

finish: (p. e pp. finished) terminar


fit: (adj.) apto/a, em boas condições, em (boa) forma física; (v. p. e pp. fitted ou
fit) encaixar(-se)

flood: (s.) inundação, enchente; (v. p. e pp. flooded) inundar

fly: (p. flew; pp. flown) voar

fondest: mais querido/a, mais amado/a

food: comida, alimento

food for thought: assunto que faz pensar

forage: (p. e pp. foraged) (ave) ciscar, procurar (comida)

foreign: (adj.) estrangeiro/a

foreigner: (s.) estrangeiro/a

forget: (p. forgot; pp. forgotten) esquecer

fortunately: felizmente

frantic: frenético/a

free: livre

freedom: liberdade

friendship: amizade

frightened (of): com medo (de)

full: cheio/a; total, completo/a

gather: (p. e pp. gathered) reunir, juntar

gender: gênero, sexo (feminino ou masculino)

general: geral

genre: gênero

gesture: gesto

gift: presente

gift shop: loja de presentes


go: (p. went; pp. gone) ir

goal: meta, objetivo

God: Deus

good: bom

for good: para sempre, em definitivo

government: governo

162

grant: (p. e pp. granted) conceder

take for granted: ter (algo) como certo, garantido

grapple: (p. e pp. grappled) (with) lutar (com)

greed: ganância

ground: chão; solo

grow: (p. grew; pp. grown) crescer

grow up: crescer, ficar adulto/a

growth: crescimento

guinea pig: porquinho-da-índia

hand: (s.) mão; (v. p. e pp. handed) entregar

on the other hand: por outro lado

handle: (p. e pp. handled) manusear, manejar

handmaiden: criada, serva

handsome: (adj.) bonito

happiness: felicidade

happy: feliz

hardship: privação, dificuldade (geralmente financeira)

harmless: inofensivo/a
hay: feno

head: cabeça

headline: manchete

health: saúde

healthy: sadio/a, saudável

hear: (p. e pp. heard) ouvir

heartbeat: batimento cardíaco

heat: calor

hen: galinha

heritage: patrimônio, herança

hermit: eremita

hidden: (pp. de hide; adj.) escondido/a

hold: (p. e pp. held) segurar; realizar

hope: (s.) esperança; (v. p. e pp. hoped) ter esperança

household: (adj.) doméstico/a

however: contudo, no entanto

huge: enorme

human being: ser humano

humanity: humanidade

humble: humilde

improve: (p. e pp. improved) melhorar

improvement: melhoria; melhoramento

increase: (s.) aumento; (p. e pp. increased) aumentar

infer: (p. e pp. inferred) inferir, deduzir, concluir

instead: em vez disso


instead of: em vez de

invite: (p. e pp. invited) convidar

iron: ferro

issue: questão, assunto importante para debate

jail: cadeia

job: emprego; trabalho, serviço

joey: filhote de canguru

Johnny-come-lately: novato/a

joy: alegria

judg(e)ment: julgamento, juízo, opinião formada

kill: (p. e pp. killed) matar

kind: tipo, espécie

know: (p. knew; pp. known) saber, conhecer

knowledge: conhecimento(s)

label: (s.) rótulo; (v. p. e pp. labeled ou labelled) rotular; chamar de

lack: (s.) falta, carência; (v. p. e pp. lacked) ter falta de, não ter

land: (s.) terra; (v. p. e pp. landed) aterrissar

landscape: paisagem

language: língua, idioma; linguagem

large: grande

last: (adj.) último/a; (v. p. e pp. lasted) durar; resistir, aguentar

late: (adj.) atrasado/a; final; (adv.) tarde

law: lei
lead: (p. e pp. led) levar, conduzir (a)

leadership: liderança

learn: (p. e pp. learned ou learnt) aprender

leather: couro

leave: (p. e pp. left) deixar; sair, partir (de)

leg: perna

give someone a leg up: ajudar alguém

legacy: legado

less (than): (comp. de little) menos (de/do que)

lessen: (p. e pp. lessened) diminuir

level: nível

library: (pl. libraries) biblioteca

life: (pl. lives) vida

lift: (p. e pp. lifted) levantar

light: (s.) luz; (adj.) claro/a; leve

like: (v. p. e pp. liked) gostar de; (prep.) como, igual a, como se fosse

likely: provável; propenso/a

link: (s.) elo; ligação; (v. p. e pp. linked) ligar; relacionar

little: (adj.) pequeno/a; (pron. indef.) pouco/a

a little: um pouco

163

lives: (pl. de life) vidas

locked: trancado/a

loneliness: solidão

lonely: solitário/a

look: (s.) olhar: (v. p. e pp. looked) olhar


look for: procurar

look up: procurar em lista, dicionário etc.

lose: (p. e pp. lost) perder

lust: (p. e pp. lusted) ( for) desejar ardentemente, querer muito

machine: máquina

main: principal

make: (p. e pp. made) fazer

male: (s.) macho; (adj.) masculino/a

mammal: mamífero

manage: (p. e pp. managed) conseguir; gerir, administrar

mankind: humanidade

manner: maneira

masterpiece: obra-prima

meaningless: sem significado

mind: mente

mood: disposição; humor

moreover: além do mais, além disso

mouse: (pl. mice) camundongo

mud: lama

murder: (s.) assassinato; (v. p. e pp. murdered) assassinar

nature: natureza

nearly: quase

need: (s.) necessidade; (v. p. e pp. needed) precisar (de)

neglect: falta de atenção; desleixo; abandono


neighbor (EUA), neighbour (RU): vizinho/a

neighborhood (EUA), neighbourhood (RU): vizinhança; bairro

neither ... nor: nem ... nem

never: nunca

next: próximo/a; seguinte

next to: ao lado de, junto a

no longer: não mais (no tempo)

nowadays: hoje em dia

occur: (p. e pp. occurred) ocorrer

offer: (s.) oferta; (v. p. e pp. offered) oferecer

offspring: prole, filhos

often: frequentemente

once: (adv.) uma vez; certa vez; (conj.) uma vez que

only: só, apenas

the only: o/a único/a

onslaught: ataque (feroz e em massa)

open: (adj.) aberto/a; (v. p. e pp. opened) abrir

otherwise: senão; do contrário; de outra forma

outstretched: estendido/a

over: sobre, por cima de; mais de

be over: estar terminado/a

owner: dono/a, proprietário/a

oyster: ostra

pain: dor
paint: (p. e pp. painted) pintar

painting: pintura

pants: calça(s)

paramount: primordial

parents: pais

partner: sócio/a, associado/a

passionate: apaixonado/a

past: passado

path: trilha, caminho

pay: (p. e pp. paid) pagar

peaceful: pacífico/a

pearl: pérola

pebble: seixo, pedra de rio ou praia

pen: (p. e pp. penned) escrever, ser o/a autor/a de (livros)

perch: (p. e pp. perched) (ave) pousar, empoleirar-se

physical: (adj.) físico/a

physicist: (s.) físico/a

physics: (s.) Física

playwright: dramaturgo/a

pleasure: prazer

plenty: abundância, fartura

plenty of: muito/a

poetry: poesia

pottery: (objetos de) cerâmica

pound: libra (moeda inglesa); unidade de peso (454 gramas)

poverty: pobreza
power: força, poder

powerful: poderoso/a

prejudice: preconceito

pretty: (adj.): bonito/a

prettier: mais bonito/a

prevent: (p. e pp. prevented) impedir; prevenir

previous: prévio/a, anterior

price: preço

pride: orgulho

164

prize: prêmio

probe: (s.) sonda; (v. p. e pp. probed) sondar; investigar

profit: proveito, lucro

property: (pl. properties) propriedade

provide: (p. e pp. provided) prover, fornecer

pumpkin: abóbora

purchase: (s.) compra; (v. p. e pp. purchased) comprar

purpose: propósito, finalidade

pursuit: (s.) busca; (v. p. e pp. pursuit) buscar, procurar

quarrel: (s.) briga, discussão; (v. p. e pp. quarreled) brigar, discutir

quest: busca

quit: (p. e pp. quit) deixar, parar de, abandonar, desistir

quotation/quote: citação

race: corrida; raça


raise: (p. e pp. raised) levantar

raise your voice: levantar a voz

reality: (pl. realities) realidade

realize: (p. e pp. realized) perceber, compreender, dar-se conta de

reason: (s.) razão; raciocínio; (v. p. e pp. reasoned) raciocinar

recognize: (p. e pp. recognized) reconhecer

refer (to): (p. e pp. referred[to]) referir-se (a)

regarding: quanto a

related to: relacionado/a com, ligado/a a

release: (p. e pp. released) soltar, liberar

remain: (p. e pp. remained) ficar, permanecer

remember: (p. e pp. remembered) lembrar-se de

replace: (p. e pp. replaced) substituir

request: (s.) pedido; (v. p. e pp. requested) pedir

research: (s.) pesquisa

do research: fazer pesquisa(s); (v. p. e pp. researched ) pesquisar

resemble: (p. e pp. resembled) parecer-se com

resource: recurso

return: (p. e pp. returned) retornar, devolver

rise: (p. rose; pp. risen) subir

rising oceans: subida de nível dos oceanos

river: rio

role: papel, função

root: raiz

sacred: sagrado/a
sad: triste

safe: (adj.) seguro/a

safety: segurança

sale: venda

same (the same as): (o/a) mesmo/a (que)

sand: areia

sandcastle: castelo de areia

sap: (p. e pp. sapped) enfraquecer, tirar a energia de

sausage: salsicha; linguiça

scarcely: mal; dificilmente

scarcity: escassez

scorn: (s.) desprezo; (v. p. e pp. scorned) desprezar

seashore: praia, litoral

security: segurança

see: (p. saw; pp. seen) ver

seed: semente

seem: (p. e pp. seemed) parecer

seize: (p. e pp. seized) segurar, agarrar

seize the day: aproveitar o momento presente

selfish: egoísta

send: (p. e pp. sent) mandar, enviar

sense: senso, sentido

servitude: servidão, escravatura

set: (p. e pp. set) pôr

set up: montar, armar

setting sun: sol poente


several: diversos/as, vários/as

shack: barracão

share: (p. e pp. shared) compartilhar

shell: concha

shoot: (p. e pp. shot) atirar com arma de fogo

shortage: escassez

shortcut: atalho

shot: (s.) tiro; (pp. de shoot) baleado/a

was shot: foi baleado/a

shower: banho (de chuveiro)

side: lado

sigh: (s.) suspiro; (v. p. e pp. sighed) suspirar

silicon: silício

Silicon Valley: Vale do Silício

silk: seda

similar (to): semelhante (a)

simple: simples

simply: simplesmente

single: um/a só, único/a; solteiro/a

single-celled: unicelular

sink: (p. sank; pp. sunk) afundar

size: tamanho

skill: habilidade

sky: (pl. skies) céu

165

slang: gíria
slaughter: (p. e pp. slaughtered) matar em grandes números

slaughterhouse: matadouro

slave: escravo/a

sleep: (p. e pp. slept) dormir

slice: fatia

slow: lento/a, vagaroso/a

smart: esperto/a, vivo/a; inteligente

smile: (s.) sorriso; (v. p. e pp. smiled) sorrir

smoother: mais liso/a

smuggle: (p. e pp. smuggled) contrabandear

snow: (s.) neve; (v. p. e pp. snowed) nevar

so: (adv.) tão; (conj.) por isso, portanto

so many: tantos/as

so much: tanto/a

so that: para que, de modo que

solely: unicamente

solve: (p. e pp. solved) resolver, solucionar

son: filho

soon: logo

as soon as: assim que

soon after: logo depois que

soul: alma

soup: sopa

source: fonte, origem

speech: fala; discurso

spend: (p. e pp. spent) gastar; (tempo) passar


spoil: (p. e pp. spoiled ou spoilt) estragar

spoon: colher

spread: (p. e pp. spread) espalhar(-se)

square: (s.) quadrado; (adj.) quadrado/a

stand: (p. e pp. stood) ficar de pé

take a stand for: tomar posição a favor de

stare (at): (p. e pp. stared) fitar, ficar olhando (para)

starry: estrelado/a

state: (s.) estado; (v. p. e pp. stated) afirmar

statement: afirmação

stay: (p. e pp. stayed) ficar

steal: (p. stole; pp. stolen) roubar

stew: (s.) cozido

still: ainda

stole: (p. de steal) roubou

stolen: (pp. de steal) roubado/a

store: (v. p. e pp. stored) acumular, armazenar

struggle: (s.) luta; grande esforço; (v. p. e pp. struggled) lutar; esforçar-se
muito para

stuff: coisa(s)

succeed: (p. e pp. succeeded) conseguir, ter sucesso

successful: bem-sucedido/a

such as: tal/tais como

suddenly: de repente

suffer: (p. e pp. suffered) sofrer

suffering: sofrimento
sum up: (p. e pp. summed up) resumir

sunflower: girassol

sunrise: nascer do sol

sunset: pôr do sol

support: (s.) apoio; (v. p. e pp. supported) apoiar; sustentar (financeiramente)

sure: certo/a, com certeza

surface: superfície

surround: (p. e pp. surrounded) cercar

survey: (s.) pesquisa, levantamento; (v. p. e pp. surveyed) pesquisar,


investigar

survival: sobrevivência

survive: (p. e pp. survived) sobreviver

sweep: (p. e pp. swept) varrer

take: (p. took; pp. taken) tomar; pegar; tirar

take place: acontecer

tale: conto, história

target: alvo

target audience: público-alvo

task: tarefa

teach: (p. e pp. taught) ensinar

tear: lágrima

than: do que

therefore: portanto, por isso

though: embora, apesar de

thought: (s.) pensamento; (v. p. e pp. de think) pensei; pensou


thousand: mil

threat: ameaça

threaten: (p. e pp. threatened) ameaçar

through: através de, por meio de

thus: assim, deste modo

tiny: minúsculo/a

tip: dica

tired: cansado/a

together: juntos/as

too: também; demais

too late: tarde demais

tool: ferramenta

tough: duro/a

toward (EUA), towards (RU), (AU): em direção a

travel: (p. e pp. traveled ou travelled) viajar

trespassing: invasão de domicílio

166

trial: julgamento (em tribunal)

trinket: bugiganga, quinquilharia

trip: viagem

try: (p. e pp. tried) tentar; experimentar

turn: (p. e pp. turned) virar

turn into: transformar(-se) em

unable: incapaz

under: sob, debaixo de


underline: (p. e pp. underlined) sublinhar

understand: (p. e pp. understood) entender, compreender

unevenly: de forma desequilibrada

unless: a menos que, a não ser que

unlike: diferentemente de, ao contrário de

until: (prep.) até; (conj.) até que

not until: só depois de

upon: em, sobre

useful: útil

usually: usualmente, geralmente

vacation: férias

value: (s.) valor; (v. p. e pp. valued) valorizar

vanish: (p. e pp. vanished) desaparecer

vegan: vegano/a

voice: voz

wake up: (p. woke[up]; pp. woken[up]) acordar, despertar

walk: (s.) caminhada; (v. p. e pp. walked) andar, caminhar

wander: (p. e pp. wandered) vagar, andar sem rumo; (mente) divagar

war: guerra

warm: quente

warming: aquecimento

global warming: aquecimento global

waste: (s.) desperdício; lixo; (v. p. e pp. wasted) desperdiçar

way: caminho; modo, maneira


wealth: riqueza

weapon: arma

wear: (p. wore; pp. worn) usar (no corpo), vestir

weather: tempo (atmosférico)

weight: peso

weird: estranho/a

welfare: bem-estar

well: (s.) poço; (adv.) bem

went: (p. de go) foi

went on: continuou

western: ocidental

whale: baleia

whatever: qualquer coisa que, tudo aquilo que

whenever: sempre que

whether ... (or): ... se .... (ou não)

while: (s.) (um) tempo; (conj.) enquanto, ao mesmo tempo que

whilst: enquanto, ao mesmo tempo que

whisper: (s.) sussurro; (v. p. e pp. whispered) sussurrar

whole: inteiro/a, todo/a

whose: (pron. interrogativo) de quem ...?; (pron. relativo) cujo(s)/cuja(s)

wild: selvagem

in the wild: (animal) à solta, na natureza

willing: disposto/a, com vontade de

win: (p. e pp. won) vencer, obter vitória; ganhar (por sorte)

wind: vento

wing: asa
winner: vencedor/a

winter: inverno

wipe out: (p. e pp. wiped out) exterminar, acabar com

wire mesh floor: chão de arame

wisdom: sabedoria

wise: sábio/a

withdrawal: retirada

within: dentro de (tempo ou espaço)

without: sem

witness: testemunha

won: (p. e pp. de win) venceu; ganhou

wonder: (s.) admiração; surpresa; (v. p. e pp. wondered) indagar, querer saber

wool: lã

workings: funcionamento

worldwide: mundial

worry: (p. e pp. worried) preocupar-se

worse (than): (comp. de bad) pior (do que)

worship: (s.) adoração; (v. p. e pp. worshipped) adorar

worst: (superl. de bad) (o/a) pior

wretchedness: miséria; infelicidade

write: (p. wrote; pp. written) escrever

yawn: (s.) bocejo; (v. p. e pp. yawned) bocejar

yet: (adv.) (em perguntas) já; (com not) ainda (não); (conj.) contudo, no entanto

Zionist: sionista
167

Index

Atenção professor: Esta seção apresenta o índice remissivo dos tópicos


trabalhados neste volume da coleção. Fim da observação.

Este índice remissivo registra os tópicos gramaticais e lexicais trabalhados


neste volume.

Adjectives - Comparatives and superlatives, p. 84, 98, 147

Adopted or Adoptive?, p. 69

Adverbs used with the Present Perfect, p. 149

Already, p. 149

Although - Function Words, p. 130

Another Use of the Auxiliary Verb Do, p. 40

Bad - worse - worst, p. 98, 149

But - Function Words, p. 24, 130

Can, p. 25, 40, 56, 84, 144

Comparatives and Superlatives, p. 84, 98, 147

Compound Words, p. 96

Could, p. 25, 56, 118, 144

Despite - Function Words, p. 24

Do - Another Use of the Auxiliary Do, p. 40

Ever - Function Words, p. 117, 150

Exploitation or Exploration?, p. 38

False Cognates, p. 22, 38, 69, 95, 116, 157

Farther, further, p. 149

Foreign or Strange?, p. 83

Function Words, p. 24, 83, 96, 117, 130

Good - better - best, p. 98, 149


Have to, Don't/doesn't have to, p. 70

However - Function Words, p. 24

Irregular Verbs, p. 151, 156

Just - Function Words, p. 117, 150

Like, likely, alike, p. 55

May, p. 25, 145

Might, p. 55, 118, 145

Modal Auxiliary Verbs - Introduction, p. 144

Modal Auxiliary Verbs, p. 25, 40, 55, 56, 70, 83, 84, 118, 144

Must, p. 55, 70, 84, 118, 146

Mustn't, p. 70

Never, p. 150

No longer - Function Words, p. 117

Not even - Function Words, p. 117

Ought to, p. 70, 146

Personal Pronouns, p. 39, 146

Phrasal Verbs, p. 23, 54

Possessive Adjectives, p. 39, 146

Possessive Pronouns, p. 39, 146

Prefix: un-, p. 96

Present Perfect, Simple Past, p. 97, 130, 149

Present Perfect - Uses of, p. 117

Present Perfect Simple vs Present Perfect Continuous, p. 131

Present Perfect Continuous, p. 131, 150

Question Tags, p. 71, 147

References - Understanding references, p. 38


Shall, p. 145

Should, p. 40, 56, 146

Simple Past, Present Perfect, p. 97, 130

Still - Function Words, p. 96

(The Structure) Subject + Verb + Object + Infinitive, p. 71, 147

Suffixes

-able, p. 54

-al, p. 54

-ed, p. 22, 96

-ing, p. 22

-less, p. 54

-ly, p. 22, 96

Toward - Function Words, p. 83

Understanding References, p. 38

Used to, p. 131, 150

Uses of the Present Perfect, p. 117

Verb Tenses Revision, p. 40, 84

Whose - Function Words, p. 83

Will, p. 56, 84, 118, 145

Wonder or Wander?, p. 22

Would, p. 40, 56, 83, 145

Word Building: Prefixes and Suffixes un-, -ed, -ly, p. 96

Word Building: Suffixes -al, -less, and - able, p. 54

Word Building: Suffixes -ing and -ed, p. 22

Yet - Function Words, p. 196, 117, 149

168
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Atenção professor: Nesta seção, são apresentados os materiais de apoio


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Classrooms As Centers of Inquiry and Literacy. Portsmouth: Heinemann, 1992.

WELLS, J. C. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. London: Longman, 1990.


WIDDOWSON, H. G. Defining Issues in English Language Teaching. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2003.

169

Manual do Professor

Língua Estrangeira Moderna - Inglês

VOLUME 2

170

Sumário

Apresentação, p. 171

Pressupostos Teórico-Metodológicos, p. 171

Objetivos Gerais, p. 172

A Integração das Habilidades Linguísticas e Multiletramentos, p. 173

Vocabulário e Gramática, p. 177

Organização da Coleção, p. 178

Plano de Curso, p. 179

Descrição das Unidades e Seções, p. 179

Estratégias de Leitura e Compreensão do Texto, p. 181

Avaliação, p. 182

Tests, p. 184

Tests - Answer Key, p. 193

Cultural Notes and Language in Use, p. 194

Atividades Complementares, p. 201

Sugestões de Leitura e de Websites, p. 204

Audio Scripts, p. 206

Referências Bibliográficas, p. 208

Faixas do CD de Áudio, p. 208


171

APRESENTAÇÃO

Esta coleção tem como objetivo o ensino de Inglês a estudantes do Ensino


Médio, com base na exploração de temas relevantes para a educação e
formação dos alunos e sua integração na sociedade em que vivemos.

Acreditamos que a obra será um eficiente instrumento mediador no processo


de ensino-aprendizagem. Sugerimos que o professor utilize também outros
materiais, inclusive alguns que propomos mais adiante neste Manual, de
acordo com a necessidade e interesse de seus alunos. As atividades propostas
na coleção também podem, a critério do professor, ser ajustadas ou adaptadas
para melhor se adequarem aos seus alunos e ao contexto social em que se
inserem. Da mesma forma, os comentários para o professor apresentados ao
longo do livro e neste manual devem ser entendidos como sugestões, não
como recomendações a serem estritamente seguidas. Defendemos a
autonomia e acreditamos na capacidade criativa do professor.

Por ser uma obra não consumível (os alunos deverão devolver os livros ao final
do ano letivo, para que sejam utilizados por outros alunos no ano seguinte), é
essencial o uso de um caderno, juntamente com o livro, durante as aulas de
Inglês. Os alunos farão uso do caderno para responder a algumas atividades e
fazer anotações importantes, registrando principalmente o que lhes pode ser
útil também no futuro, quando já tiverem devolvido o livro. Sugere-se, portanto,
que o professor enfatize aos alunos a necessidade da utilização de um caderno
para a disciplina de Inglês e oriente-os em sua organização.

PRESSUPOSTOS TEÓRICO-METODOLÓGICOS

Esta obra fundamenta-se na visão sociointeracional e na perspectiva dialógica


da linguagem. Nessa visão, os sentidos são construídos por meio da interação
entre sujeitos em determinados contextos de uso, em um determinado
momento histórico-social (BAKHTIN, 2000). Esses sentidos passam a fazer
parte constitutiva da realidade e da história da sociedade em que vivemos. Em
outras palavras, por intermédio do uso das múltiplas manifestações das
linguagens em suas práticas sociais, o ser humano atua sobre sua realidade e
a dos seus grupos sociais, podendo mantê-la, reforçá-la, questioná-la ou
transformá-la.

Busca-se, portanto, nesta obra, envolver o aluno na construção de sentidos


que se dão na prática discursiva, para que ele possa agir no mundo social.
Para isso, as Unidades apresentam temas relevantes ao aluno e à sociedade -
tais como saúde, meio ambiente, ciência, justiça social, educação, tecnologia,
valores e conflitos - e propõem atividades que visam ao desenvolvimento não
apenas de habilidades linguísticas, mas também de competências que tornem
o aluno apto a, por meio do engajamento em atividades de uso da linguagem,
compreender melhor o mundo em que vive e participar dele criticamente,
conforme preconizam os documentos norteadores do Ensino Médio.

Ao assumir a visão sociointeracional da linguagem, entende-se que as práticas


discursivas se manifestam pelos gêneros. Os gêneros textuais não são apenas
"formas textuais, mas formas de vida e ação" (BAZERMAN, 2006, p. 19). Em
outras palavras, agimos na sociedade usando diferentes gêneros textuais. Por
isso, ao longo da obra, os alunos têm contato com diferentes gêneros - tanto
escritos quanto orais -, realizam atividades que exploram suas funções sociais,
características e aspectos contextuais e são convidados a produzir textos que
contemplem alguns dos gêneros estudados. Dessa forma, busca-se preparar o
aluno para práticas de linguagem que lhe permitam uma atuação
sociodiscursiva na sociedade (MARCUSCHI, 2006).

Esta coleção didática também se guia por uma concepção sociointeracional da


aprendizagem de línguas, em que os alunos constroem conhecimento na
interação com o outro - os colegas, o professor e os membros da comunidade
(VYGOSTKY, 1996). Busca-se, ao longo da obra, criar oportunidades de
aprendizagem colaborativa, mediante discussões em grupos (em especial nas
seções After You Read, More Food for Thought, After You Listen e Think About
it), tarefas em duplas (em especial nas seções Let's Start e Let's Practice) e
projetos interdisciplinares (Projects 1 e 2).

172

Nessa abordagem, o professor não é visto como aquele que tem


conhecimentos a transmitir aos alunos, que, por sua vez, devem reproduzir
fielmente o que lhes foi apresentado. O professor atua como mediador do
conhecimento, orientando e incentivando o aluno a assumir o papel de sujeito
de sua própria aprendizagem, a planejá-la e avaliá-la continuamente (como na
seção Self-Assessment, ao final de cada Unidade, e nas Unidades de revisão
Check Your English 1 e 2). O aluno, portanto, não recebe passivamente
conteúdos prontos, mas é encorajado a criar hipóteses, deduzir regras a partir
da observação de diferentes contextos de uso da linguagem e colocá-las em
prática; é incentivado a discutir textos e temas, refletindo quanto à sua posição
diante deles e relacionando-os com conhecimentos de outras disciplinas e com
o mundo em que vive.

Assumindo tais pressupostos, esta coleção propõe um trabalho interdisciplinar


ao longo das Unidades. A interdisciplinaridade promove a expansão da
compreensão de mundo dos alunos e os ajuda a entender as relações entre as
disciplinas pedagógicas e as disciplinas escolares, e delas com a sociedade e
a vida dos alunos. Em vários momentos o aluno é convidado a estabelecer
relações com outras disciplinas, para discutir temas e questões socialmente
relevantes. Tanto os textos principais das Unidades, apresentados na seção
Reading, quanto os textos que aparecem em outras seções, abordam assuntos
que envolvem diferentes áreas de conhecimento. Cada volume propõe também
dois projetos interdisciplinares (Projects 1 e 2), que retomam temas sociais
relevantes abordados nas Unidades e articulam conhecimentos de diferentes
disciplinas.

O ensino da língua inglesa nesta coleção também busca preparar o aluno tanto
para o mercado de trabalho quanto para a continuidade de seus estudos.
Como a língua inglesa é amplamente utilizada para a divulgação científica e a
comunicação internacional, seja em contatos pessoais ou mediados pela
internet, saber usá-la para se comunicar e agir no mundo abre ao indivíduo
maiores possibilidades de qualificação profissional e inserção no mundo do
trabalho, assim como de acesso à universidade, seja para a realização dos
exames de seleção, seja para a leitura de textos em inglês, comum nos cursos
de graduação.

Assim, esta coleção se propõe a levar o aluno a "conhecer e usar a língua


estrangeira moderna como instrumento de acesso a informações e a outras
culturas e grupos sociais", conforme indicado pelos Parâmetros Curriculares
Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCNEM, p. 11), em consonância com as
finalidades atribuídas ao Ensino Médio pela Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da
Educação Nacional (LDBEN, art. 35). Da mesma forma, as Orientações
Curriculares para o Ensino Médio ressaltam a importância do "aprimoramento
do educando como ser humano, sua formação ética, desenvolvimento de sua
autonomia intelectual e de seu pensamento crítico, sua preparação para o
mundo do trabalho e o desenvolvimento de competências para continuar seu
aprendizado" (p. 7).

OBJETIVOS GERAIS

Os objetivos gerais desta obra, listados a seguir, foram estabelecidos com base
nos pressupostos teórico-metodológicos apresentados e nas orientações dos
documentos norteadores do Ensino Médio no Brasil, como os Parâmetros
Curriculares Nacionais para o Ensino Médio (PCNEM), as Orientações
Curriculares para o Ensino Médio, as Orientações Educacionais
Complementares aos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio
(PCN+) e a Matriz de Referência de Linguagens, Códigos e suas Tecnologias
do Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (Enem).

Os objetivos específicos referentes a cada Unidade e seção que compõem o


Livro do Aluno serão apresentados mais adiante neste Manual, no tópico
Descrição das Unidades e Seções.

São objetivos desta obra:

- desenvolver no aluno competências que o tornem apto a construir sentidos,


compreender melhor o mundo em que vive e participar dele criticamente,
fortalecendo a noção de cidadania;

- desenvolver no aluno, de modo integrado, habilidades linguísticas


(compreensão oral e escrita, produção oral e escrita) compreendidas como
práticas sociais e contextualizadas;

- promover, com o trabalho interdisciplinar e contextualizado, a articulação


entre a língua inglesa e outras áreas do conhecimento, na constituição de um
currículo mais amplo e significativo para a vida social do aluno;
- fortalecer o espírito de colaboração do aluno em seu processo de
aprendizagem;

173

- desenvolver estratégias de aprendizagem de leitura, possibilitando a


formação de leitores proficientes, críticos e autônomos;

- levar os alunos a conhecer e usar a língua inglesa como instrumento de


acesso a informações e a outras culturas e grupos sociais;

- levar o aluno a perceber a importância da produção cultural em inglês como


representação da diversidade cultural e linguística;

- incentivar o aluno a atuar como agente corresponsável pelo seu processo de


aprendizagem, desenvolvendo, assim, sua autonomia.

A INTEGRAÇÃO DAS HABILIDADES LINGUÍSTICAS E


MULTILETRAMENTOS

Esta obra, seguindo as Orientações Curriculares para o Ensino Médio, busca


desenvolver no aluno a capacidade de usar a língua inglesa em práticas
socioculturais contextualizadas. Tais práticas envolvem habilidades linguísticas
de forma integrada - compreensão escrita (reading), produção escrita (writing),
compreensão oral (listening) e produção oral (speaking). Em nossas atividades
sociais, por exemplo, fazemos anotações enquanto ouvimos uma palestra,
pedimos informações a respeito de um anúncio que acabamos de ler,
comentamos a foto de um amigo em uma rede social. Ou seja, não usamos
essas habilidades de forma isolada.

Seguindo as Orientações Curriculares para o Ensino Médio, mantemos, nesta


obra, a terminologia tradicional das quatro habilidades, mas entendemos tais
habilidades dentro de uma "visão alternativa de heterogeneidades abertas e
socioculturalmente contextualizadas" (p. 110). Propomos seções intituladas
Reading, Writing, Listening e Speaking, considerando os usos dessas
habilidades em diferentes contextos sociais e suas possíveis formas de
integração. Em outras palavras, essa divisão foi feita apenas para facilitar a
organização das atividades didáticas, pois acreditamos que não é possível
compartimentar as habilidades, seja na prática social ou no processo de
ensino-aprendizagem. Dessa forma, ao longo das Unidades, são propostas
atividades que integram diferentes habilidades: o aluno lê um texto (verbal, não
verbal ou verbo-visual) e discute com seus colegas determinado assunto e, em
seguida, produz um texto; o aluno entrevista um colega ou ouve um áudio e faz
anotações etc.

Há ainda uma preocupação com a questão dos multiletramentos (letramento


crítico, letramento digital e letramento multimodal). No que diz respeito ao
letramento crítico, busca-se promover ações educativas que levem os alunos a
analisar os fatos a partir de diferentes pontos de vista, a assumir uma postura
crítica e ética diante das diferenças, a ir além do senso comum. No que diz
respeito ao letramento digital, busca-se criar oportunidades para o aluno
interagir criticamente com textos disponíveis na internet. Vários textos da
coleção foram retirados de diferentes ambientes virtuais, como blogs, sites de
jornal e revista, páginas instrucionais etc. Ao longo das Unidades, ele também
é convidado a acessar alguns sites ou fazer buscas na internet para ampliar
seus conhecimentos a respeito de determinados assuntos. Ao final de cada
Unidade, são sugeridos alguns sites para o aluno, na seção Keep Exploring.
Além disso, sugerimos ao professor o uso da internet para a produção e
divulgação de algumas atividades da seção Writing e do Project. Nesse
sentido, o aluno passa a se perceber não apenas como receptor de conteúdos
da internet, mas também como autor desses conteúdos, percebendo ainda
mais a sua possibilidade de atuação no mundo em que vive. Finalmente, no
que diz respeito aos textos multimodais, que são aqueles que envolvem escrita,
imagem e áudio, também há um trabalho ao longo da obra. O aluno é
convidado a interagir com textos que expressam sentido por meio dos aspectos
linguísticos e de elementos não verbais que, juntos, formam uma unidade de
comunicação.

A seguir, descrevemos como é realizado o trabalho com cada uma das


habilidades (compreensão escrita, produção escrita, compreensão oral e
produção oral) ao longo da obra.

Compreensão escrita

Em consonância à visão de linguagem aqui adotada, esta obra se fundamenta


em uma concepção sociointeracional da leitura.
174

De acordo com ela, os sentidos não estão no texto para serem assimilados
pelo leitor, mas são construídos a partir da interação entre o leitor e o autor,
sujeitos sociais inseridos em certo momento histórico-social e em contextos de
uso da linguagem, por meio da mediação do próprio texto e, por vezes, de
conversas com outras pessoas quanto ao texto lido.

Para o desenvolvimento da compreensão escrita, este livro apresenta textos a


respeito de temas de relevância sociocultural e de caráter interdisciplinar -
como cidadania, ética, tecnologia, ciência, diversidade, saúde, meio ambiente -
e propõe atividades que envolvem o aluno na construção de sentidos que se
dão na prática discursiva, de modo que ele possa compreender melhor o
mundo em que vive e participar dele criticamente. Entre as disciplinas com as
quais se podem estabelecer relações a partir dos temas abordados nas
Unidades didáticas desta obra, incluem-se: Geografia, História, Biologia,
Educação Física, Arte, Literatura, Ciência e Tecnologia, Sociologia, Filosofia,
Matemática, Física e Química. Adotando o conceito de multiletramentos, esta
obra desenvolve o trabalho com a leitura, como prática social, de forma
integrada às outras habilidades e com vistas a contribuir para a formação ética
do aluno como cidadão.

Em todas as Unidades são apresentados diversos textos. Parte-se de um texto


principal, que é apresentado na seção Reading. Há também outros textos ao
longo da Unidade, em especial nas seções More Food for Thought e Think
About It, que trazem textos mais breves, retomando o assunto apresentado no
texto principal, sob um outro ponto de vista e em outro contexto discursivo.
Dessa forma, são propostas atividades que buscam estabelecer relações de
intertextualidade.

Os textos apresentados são autênticos, selecionados para oferecer temas


relevantes ao aluno e à sua formação como cidadão. Os textos incluídos na
obra são representativos de comunidades falantes da língua inglesa (tanto
nativos quanto não nativos), favorecem o acesso à diversidade cultural, social e
linguística manifestada nessa língua. Os textos contemplam uma variedade de
gêneros discursivos - tais como notícia de jornal ou revista, trecho de livro,
artigo de divulgação científica, crítica de livro, anúncio, campanha, infográfico,
sinopse de livro, pesquisa de opinião, biografia, trecho de diário, tirinha, cartum,
poema, letra de música, manchete, receita, roteiro de filme, entre outros - que
circulam no meio social e são oriundos de diferentes esferas e suportes
representativos das comunidades falantes de língua inglesa.

Alguns textos originalmente longos tiveram trechos retirados, para que se


adequassem ao espaço do livro e às atividades pedagógicas, tendo havido,
naturalmente, um cuidado para que o sentido do texto e suas características
fossem mantidos. Nesses casos, há a sinalização (Fragment) na referência.
Alguns poucos textos sofreram uma leve adaptação. Isso aconteceu em alguns
casos em que foi preciso fazer a redução do tamanho do texto e, para manter a
coesão e coerência, houve necessidade de uma ligeira reescrita do texto, como
nos relatos de diário online da atividade do Let's Start da Unidade 6 do volume
1. Outro caso de leve adaptação ocorreu na legenda da foto de Terezinha
Guilhermina, na Unidade Starter Unit, também do volume 1. Acrescentou-se
uma informação sobre a corredora (the world's fastest blind sprinter), apenas
para que o aluno entendesse melhor quem era a pessoa da foto. Essa
informação está na página de onde a foto foi retirada, mas como o aluno só
teria acesso à foto e à sua legenda para realizar a atividade, optou-se por fazer
tal adaptação. Mais um exemplo é o infográfico da seção Think About It, da
Unidade 8 do terceiro volume. Para que o infográfico coubesse na página, foi
necessário mudar a posição de alguns de seus tópicos, mas as informações
contidas nele foram mantidas.

Para viabilizar pedagogicamente o desenvolvimento da compreensão escrita,


utilizam-se atividades de pré-leitura, leitura e pós-leitura, em que são
exploradas diversas estratégias para melhorar a compreensão e o trabalho
com o texto. Nas Unidades iniciais, essas estratégias de leitura estão
assinaladas para o professor com um breve título em inglês (como Activating
Background Knowledge, Making Predictions, Skimming, Scanning, Guessing
Meaningfrom Context, Making Inferences, entre outras). Tais estratégias estão
detalhadas mais adiante neste Manual, no tópico Estratégias de Leitura e
Compreensão do Texto.

Durante a etapa de pré-leitura, realizada na seção Before You Read, há


perguntas que buscam ativar o conhecimento prévio do aluno e levá-lo a fazer
previsões quanto ao assunto ou tipo de texto a ser lido. As atividades chamam
a atenção dele para o título, subtítulo, informações não verbais, referência e
gênero textual. A partir do levantamento de hipóteses a respeito do texto, o
aluno sente-se mais incentivado a se engajar na construção de sentidos a partir
da atividade de leitura.

175

Na seção As You Read, há um foco na leitura superficial (subseção General


Comprehension) e na leitura detalhada (subseção Detailed Comprehension).
Na primeira subseção, as atividades propostas levam o aluno a buscar uma
compreensão geral do texto e verificar se as hipóteses que formulou durante a
pré-leitura se confirmam. Na segunda subseção, as atividades propostas
levam-no a identificar informações específicas, a compreender as relações
entre ideias do texto e a estabelecer inferências.

A etapa de pós-leitura, realizada na seção After You Read, busca promover a


reflexão crítica do aluno acerca de questões relacionadas ao texto e incentiva-o
a se posicionar criticamente diante dele. A seção More Food for Thought, que
em geral vem em seguida, e a seção Think About It, no final da Unidade,
ampliam essa discussão e também buscam promover a reflexão crítica do
aluno, levando-o a fazer relações entre o tema em questão e a comunidade em
que vive.

Ao longo das atividades que envolvem a compreensão escrita (na seção


Reading e também em outras seções), há uma preocupação com a
contextualização social e histórica dos textos. Além disso, são estabelecidas
relações entre a língua portuguesa e a língua inglesa ao longo das Unidades,
como nas atividades sobre os falsos cognatos (na seção Word Study em
diversas Unidades da coleção e na lista de falsos cognatos ao final do livro) e
em comentários para o professor, que podem, a seu critério, ser partilhados
com os alunos.

Cabe ressaltar que o professor pode optar por realizar algumas discussões -
sejam aquelas propostas nas aberturas das Unidades, na etapa de pré-leitura,
de pós-leitura ou nas discussões nas seções More Food for Thought e Think
About It - em português, de acordo com o que considerar mais apropriado para
sua turma. O uso da língua materna pelo aluno em seu processo de
aprendizagem da língua estrangeira é quase inevitável. Ao aprender uma
língua estrangeira, o indivíduo compara-a com sua língua materna e utiliza o
conhecimento que tem sobre sua língua para fazer inferências, deduções,
formular hipóteses. É importante ressaltar ao aluno, no entanto, que a língua
materna não deve ser usada para traduções de textos, traduções palavra por
palavra ou frase por frase. Em discussões mais complexas, em que o aluno
ainda não tenha conhecimento suficiente da língua inglesa para expressar suas
opiniões e pontos de vista, o uso da língua materna é apropriado, uma vez que
ele ainda assim discute um texto em língua inglesa, o que contribui para o
desenvolvimento de seu pensamento crítico.

Produção escrita

A habilidade de produção escrita é focalizada na seção Writing. A escrita é


entendida como uma prática social que se dá por um processo de interação. As
atividades nessa seção definem o parâmetro comunicativo da produção escrita
proposta ao aluno, ou seja, quem escreve, para quem se destina e com que
propósito.

Como prática social, entende-se que a escrita se manifesta por meio de


diferentes gêneros. Dessa forma, a cada Unidade, propõe-se a produção
escrita de um gênero textual diferente, gênero este já trabalhado em texto(s) da
Unidade que serve(m) de apoio e referência para o aluno. No primeiro volume
da obra, por exemplo, ele é convidado a produzir pôster, manchete de jornal,
pesquisa de opinião, perfil, sinopse de livro, projeto de feira de ciências, entre
outros.

Como um processo de interação, entende-se que a escrita inclui etapas de


preparação e planejamento, a redação propriamente dita e a revisão do texto.
Na etapa de preparação e planejamento, geralmente propõe-se alguma
atividade relacionada ao gênero discursivo em questão, ou uma discussão em
dupla ou em grupo a respeito do assunto que será abordado na escrita.
Também se sugere que o aluno retorne a outros textos da Unidade para revisar
algumas características do gênero ou alguns aspectos linguísticos. Na etapa de
revisão, propõe-se a reescrita do texto com base na avaliação do próprio aluno
e no feedback de colegas e do professor. Entende-se, no entanto, que as
atividades de produção escrita não são necessariamente lineares e que o aluno
pode voltar a qualquer uma delas sempre que necessário.

Sugere-se ao professor que a verificação dos textos escritos pelos alunos não
se limite a apontar erros de formas linguísticas, mas inclua também
comentários de natureza discursiva que possam orientar o aluno a reescrever
seu texto, tornando-o mais adequado ao seu contexto de uso. Encoraja-se
também a troca de redações entre os alunos de modo que os comentários
(feedback) de um colega possam contribuir para o aperfeiçoamento do texto do
outro.

176

Essas estratégias didáticas podem ajudar o aluno a compreender que a


produção escrita deve ser submetida a um constante processo de avaliação e
reelaboração.

Assim como o trabalho realizado com as outras habilidades comunicativas, as


atividades na seção Writing também se desenvolvem a partir dos temas
centrais de cada Unidade, contribuindo para encorajar o desenvolvimento do
aluno na construção de sentidos.

Além de produzir um texto, também é importante fazê-lo circular. Para tanto,


sugerem-se, na maioria das atividades, alguns suportes e formas de circulação
do texto produzido pelo aluno: no mural da turma ou da escola, na biblioteca,
em sites da internet, blogs etc.

A produção escrita também é trabalhada nos dois projetos interdisciplinares


(Project 1 e Project 2) propostos em cada volume. Os projetos geralmente
integram a habilidade de produção escrita e a produção oral e oferecem
oportunidades ao aluno de fazer uso da língua inglesa em práticas sociais que
buscam o desenvolvimento de sua comunidade. Mais uma vez, os parâmetros
comunicativos são destacados e o trabalho com os gêneros é valorizado.
Como exemplos de gêneros desenvolvidos nos projetos, podemos citar
apresentação de slides, receita, roteiro de peça, mural de poesia, entre outros.

Compreensão Oral
Para ser usado como recurso para o desenvolvimento da habilidade de
compreensão oral, cada volume desta coleção é acompanhado de um CD que
contém os textos orais utilizados na seção Listening e o áudio necessário para
a realização das atividades da seção Pronunciation Tips.

O assunto dos textos orais na seção Listening está sempre relacionado aos
temas abordados na Unidade. As gravações dos áudios foram feitas a partir de
textos orais autênticos, ou seja, não foram produzidas especialmente para o
ensino de Inglês, com linguagem manipulada a fim de conter apenas
determinados aspectos linguísticos. Dessa forma, o aluno tem acesso a
contextos reais de uso oral da língua inglesa. Algumas vezes foi necessário
utilizar apenas parte do texto oral, para que seu tamanho se adequasse à
atividade proposta. No entanto, houve cuidado para que as características do
gênero fossem mantidas. A fonte dos textos orais é indicada para o professor,
na seção Audio Scripts deste Manual, que pode, a seu critério, acessar o áudio
completo ou sugerir que os alunos o façam.

Os textos utilizados nas atividades contemplam diferentes gêneros orais, tais


como discurso, documentário, entrevista, podcast, entre outros. Além disso,
também são contempladas diferentes pronúncias e prosódias, uma vez que
participam desses textos orais falantes de gêneros, idades e nacionalidades
diferentes.

A seção Listening inclui etapas de pre-listening (Before You Listen), listening


(As You Listen) e post-listening (After You Listen). Na primeira etapa, o aluno
realiza atividades que têm por objetivo ativar o seu conhecimento prévio quanto
ao assunto, criar hipóteses e contextualizar o áudio que vai ouvir. Na etapa de
listening, são propostas algumas atividades variadas, que incluem
compreensão extensiva (compreensão global) e seletiva (compreensão
pontual). Na etapa de post-listening, o aluno discute algumas perguntas com
um/a colega ou em pequenos grupos, a fim de relacionar o assunto com sua
realidade e refletir de forma crítica a respeito do que ouviu.

A transcrição dos textos orais é apresentada apenas neste Manual do


Professor, na seção Audio Scripts. Dessa forma, o aluno pode perceber que a
capacidade de compreensão oral é desenvolvida gra dativamente, sem ter
necessariamente um suporte escrito. Cumpre destacar para o aluno que, assim
como na compreensão escrita, ele não precisa compreender todas as palavras
utilizadas, mas deve buscar construir sentidos a partir do texto e realizar as
atividades propostas.

A seção Pronunciation Tips busca levar o aluno a perceber, por meio de


exemplos e atividades, alguns aspectos relacionados à pronúncia, acentuação
ou entonação, em especial de palavras ou expressões que costumam causar
dificuldades aos estudantes brasileiros da língua inglesa. As atividades
focalizam a compreensão intensiva de palavras ou expressões utilizadas em
textos da Unidade.

Ainda visando ajudar a desenvolver a habilidade de compreensão oral do


aluno, o professor pode usar, a seu critério, vídeos e filmes sugeridos na seção
Keep Exploring, ao final de cada Unidade.

Produção Oral

A seção Speaking apresenta atividades que focalizam a habilidade de


produção oral e que estão relacionadas ao tema da Unidade.

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Tal relação temática possibilita a utilização de vocabulário, estruturas


linguísticas e outros conteúdos já estudados pelos alunos, proporcionando-lhes
mais confiança ao se expressarem.

Ao longo da coleção, conforme sugerido pelas Orientações Curriculares para o


Ensino Médio, levam-se em consideração contextos de uso com diferentes
graus de complexidade e interação, privilegiando a interação em duplas ou
pequenos grupos. Também buscamos contemplar diferentes gêneros orais,
que possibilitam aos alunos interagir de forma significativa, usando a língua
inglesa. Entre as atividades propostas, incluem-se conversas informais,
expressão de opiniões, entrevistas, e outras.

Em algumas atividades, são apresentados boxes com linguagem que pode


auxiliar os alunos na produção oral proposta. Não se pretende, com isso,
oferecer um modelo de diálogo ou interação que deve ser seguido pelos
alunos, apenas lhes fornecer alguns subsídios para a produção oral que se
aproximem do uso real da língua.
Embora haja uma seção especial para a produção oral, é possível que sua
integração com outras habilidades aconteça ao longo da Unidade, em especial
nas atividades da seção Let's Start, nas discussões em duplas ou em grupos
realizadas nas seções After You Read, More Food for Thought, After You
Listen e Think About It. A critério do professor e tendo em vista o contexto em
que atua, tais discussões podem ser realizadas em português, como já
apontado anteriormente.

VOCABULÁRIO E GRAMÁTICA

O trabalho com o vocabulário se dá ao longo de cada Unidade, no


desenvolvimento de diversas atividades de compreensão e produção, tanto
escritas quanto orais. Dessa forma, o vocabulário é apresentado aos alunos de
forma contextualizada, não de maneira isolada ou como listas de palavras para
se memorizarem. Além disso, há um foco maior nesse aspecto linguístico na
seção Word Study. Nessa seção, são trabalhados itens lexicais que aparecem
no texto principal (Reading) e, algumas vezes, também na seção More Food for
Thought. Desse modo, a obra segue as Orientações Educacionais
Complementares aos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio,
segundo as quais "a forma mais adequada de propiciar a aquisição e a
ampliação do repertório vocabular nesse ciclo é por meio de leitura e
exploração de textos de diversas naturezas, apoiadas em atividades temáticas
e de associação de vocábulos que partem de um determinado contexto e
remetem a outros, por analogia ou antagonismo" (p. 105).

Nas atividades da seção Word Study são exploradas estratégias de inferência


a partir do contexto de uso e aspectos relevantes para o estudo sistemático e
para a ampliação do vocabulário, tais como palavras transparentes, falsos
cognatos, prefixos e sufixos, marcadores discursivos, function words, entre
outros.

A seção Let's Start introduz vocabulário relacionado ao tema que será


desenvolvido na Unidade, ativando o conhecimento prévio do aluno em relação
ao assunto por meio de atividades contextualizadas.

O estudo da gramática é focalizado na seção Language Study. Nessa seção,


são estudadas estruturas gramaticais da língua inglesa de forma
contextualizada, partindo de exemplos de uso da língua retirados do texto da
seção Reading, da seção More Food for Thought, ou de textos curtos a
respeito do tema da Unidade.

Busca-se, a partir da observação e análise das estruturas gramaticais em seu


contexto de uso, levar o aluno a tirar suas próprias conclusões acerca das
regras e empregá-las adequadamente. Em outras palavras, o ensino da
gramática não precede o uso prático da língua; ao contrário, toma esse uso
como ponto de partida. A exemplo das Orientações Curriculares para o Ensino
Médio, esta obra destaca "a importância de analisar, ensinar e fazer aprender
as regras que reestruturam o uso das formas contextualizadas de linguagem,
não de maneira antecipada a essas práticas de linguagem ou isolada delas,
mas sim de forma integrada a elas" (p. 111).

Ao final da seção Language Study, há a subseção Let's Practice, que convida o


aluno a fazer uso, de forma contextualizada ao uso cotidiano da linguagem, das
estruturas gramaticais estudadas. Além disso, tais estruturas também se fazem
presentes em outras seções, nas atividades de compreensão e produção da
linguagem oral e escrita.

Ao final de cada livro que compõe a coleção há ainda a seção Grammar


Reference, que sistematiza os conteúdos gramaticais estudados em cada
Unidade.

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Essa seção serve como instrumento de consulta para o aluno, em caso de


dúvidas, para seu estudo em casa. Ou seja, não deve ser usada em sala de
aula pelo professor, na apresentação do conteúdo, pois seu objetivo é
proporcionar uma minigramática, a ser usada pelo aluno como fonte de
consulta, somente após a apresentação e prática das estruturas gramaticais da
Unidade.

ORGANIZAÇÃO DA COLEÇÃO

Esta é uma coleção didática em três volumes, projetada para os anos letivos
que compõem o Ensino Médio. Cada volume é acompanhado de um CD de
áudio.
Para o Aluno

O livro que o aluno vai receber é composto de uma Unidade de introdução


(Starter Unit), oito Unidades principais (Units 1 to 8), duas Unidades de revisão
(Check Your English 1 e 2), dois projetos interdisciplinares (Projects 1 e 2), as
seções de Glossary, Grammar Reference, Irregular Verbs, uma tabela com
falsos cognatos a ser preenchida pelos alunos ao longo do ano e um índice
remissivo, em um conjunto assim sumarizado:

- Starter Unit: nesta Unidade de introdução são apresentados textos curtos,


autênticos, sob diversos temas e gêneros, que servem de base a questões
visando não só a uma breve revisão de alguns conteúdos básicos trabalhados
no Ensino Fundamental (no caso do livro do 1º ano) e dos conteúdos
trabalhados no ano anterior (no caso dos livros do 2º e do 3º ano), como
também levar os alunos a fazer uso das mais importantes estratégias de leitura
para a resolução das questões.

- Units 1 to 8: oito Unidades principais, apresentadas em dois blocos de quatro


Unidades por semestre letivo (veja detalhamento da estrutura de cada Unidade
no tópico Descrição das Unidades e Seções, neste Manual).

- Check Your English 1 and 2: duas Unidades especiais apresentadas após


cada bloco de quatro Unidades, ao término de cada semestre, com textos,
questões e atividades que visam rever os aspectos gramaticais e lexicais,
temas e gêneros textuais apresentados naquele semestre, além de aplicar as
principais estratégias de leitura para a resolução de questões do Enem e de
questões de vestibulares.

- Grammar Reference: explicação, em português, dos aspectos gramaticais


trabalhados ao longo do livro, para servir de material de consulta e referência
ao aluno.

- Irregular Verbs: duas listas de verbos irregulares (uma por ordem alfabética e
outra por semelhança de forma).

- False Cognates: os principais falsos cognatos vistos nos textos de cada


volume voltam a ser apresentados nesta seção, em forma de tabela a ser
completada pelo aluno.
- Glossary: glossário inglês-português com o vocabulário utilizado em cada
livro, sendo registrados tão somente os significados que as palavras têm nos
textos que compõem as Unidades de cada volume.

Para o Professor

O Manual do Professor tem as seguintes características a destacar:

- Ao longo de cada volume, junto com os textos, seções e atividades, propõe


respostas possíveis às atividades, além de sugestões de estratégias e
encaminhamento para a realização delas e soluções adicionais. Algumas notas
para o professor com a orientação sobre a condução de atividades em
determinadas seções (em especial na abertura, Reading, Listening e Speaking)
aparecem apenas nas três primeiras Unidades, por questão de espaço, mas
valem para todas elas.

- Apresenta os pressupostos teórico-metodológicos que fundamentam a obra,


citando os documentos oficiais que orientaram a sua elaboração.

- Descreve a estrutura e a organização do material, além de oferecer plano de


curso, atividades complementares, testes, sugestões de leitura para o aluno e
para o professor, bem como referências bibliográficas.

- Oferece informações culturais e linguísticas a respeito de usos da língua


inglesa em diferentes países e contextos (no tópico Cultural Notes e Language
in Use), envolvendo assuntos, informações biográficas acerca de personagens
abordadas nos textos da coleção, além de palavras ou expressões
apresentadas nas Unidades.

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- Inclui a transcrição de todos os áudios utilizados na seção de Listening, como


instrumento de apoio ao trabalho do professor.

- Oferece indicações de sites, vídeos, filmes e livros, para uso dos alunos e do
professor.

- A seção Tests oferece sugestões de testes bimestrais que o professor poderá


fotocopiar, a seu critério.

CD de áudio
Contém o material necessário para o trabalho com a compreensão oral:

- Contém os textos orais de diferentes gêneros e variedades linguísticas


usados na seção Listening.

- Apresenta a pronúncia, a acentuação ou a entonação de palavras,


expressões e frases abordadas na seção Pronunciation Tips.

PLANO DE CURSO

Considerando as Unidades que compõem cada livro e a distribuição das aulas


por bimestres, propõe-se a seguinte divisão ao longo do ano letivo:

1º Bimestre

Starter Unit

Unidades 1 e 2

2º Bimestre

Unidades 3 e 4

Check Your English 1

3º Bimestre

Unidades 5 e 6

4º Bimestre

Unidades 7 e 8

Check Your English 2

Pensando no planejamento semanal e considerando que um ano letivo tenha,


em média, 45 semanas, sugere-se que:

- cada Unidade (1 a 8) seja trabalhada em quatro semanas (totalizando 32


semanas);

- a Unidade Starter Unit e as duas unidades Check Your English sejam


trabalhadas em uma semana cada (totalizando 3 semanas).

Em cada Unidade regular (1 a 8) sugere-se a seguinte divisão (cada seção


será descrita mais adiante):

- Semana 1: abertura da Unidade, Let's Start e Reading


- Semana 2: More Food for Thought, Word Study e Language Study

- Semana 3: Let's Practice, Listening e Speaking

- Semana 4: Writing, Think About It, Self-Assessment

As dez semanas restantes devem ser utilizadas para as avaliações formais,


apresentação dos projetos e atividades complementares. Vale ressaltar que
esta é apenas uma sugestão. O professor pode e deve fazer o seu
planejamento de acordo com o calendário escolar de sua escola e as
especificidades de cada turma.

DESCRIÇÃO DAS UNIDADES E SEÇÕES

As Unidades desta obra e as seções que as compõem são descritas a seguir.

Starter Unit

No primeiro volume desta coleção, o objetivo da Unidade Introdutória é rever


alguns pontos básicos estudados no Ensino Fundamental e "preparar o
caminho" para os estudos de Inglês no Ensino Médio. Para isso, são
apresentados textos de diversos temas e gêneros (fragmento de livro, poema,
cartum, anúncio, pôster, legenda de foto etc.) em que os alunos deverão
colocar em prática as estratégias de leitura essenciais para a compreensão de
textos escritos. Já no segundo e terceiro volumes, objetiva-se fazer uma
revisão dos assuntos e estratégias trabalhados no volume anterior,
apresentando, da mesma forma, textos de diversos temas e gêneros.

Ao final de cada Starter Unit, há a seção Learning How to Learn. Nela, o aluno
lê um texto a respeito de estratégias de aprendizagem e é levado a refletir
acerca de sua própria aprendizagem e de como desenvolver estratégias para
facilitar ou melhorar o seu desempenho nos estudos.

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Unidades principais (Unidades 1 a 8)

As seções e subseções que compõem as oito Unidades principais deste


volume foram organizadas de modo a favorecer o desenvolvimento de cada
conteúdo, mantendo-se em geral uma sequência padronizada em sua ordem.
Algumas atividades, entretanto, nomeadamente as apresentadas nas seções
Listening, Pronunciation Tips, Speaking e Writing, podem variar no espaço que
ocupam em cada Unidade, assim permitindo melhor integração com um
aspecto específico das outras seções.

Em geral, cada Unidade é assim desenvolvida:

Título e página inicial: o título sempre serve como exemplo de uso do principal
aspecto gramatical da Unidade e é acompanhado de uma imagem (pôster, foto,
pintura, desenho etc.) que aborda o seu tema geral. Com apoio nesses
elementos são feitas perguntas que visam ativar o conhecimento de mundo
que o aluno deve ter quanto ao tema da Unidade e motivá-lo à leitura do texto
principal.

Let's Start: abre o tema de cada Unidade, apresentando atividades variadas,


que buscam ativar o conhecimento prévio do aluno quanto ao assunto a ser
trabalhado na Unidade. Também introduz novo vocabulário relacionado ao
tema, de forma contextualizada, e ativa o vocabulário já conhecido pelos
alunos.

Reading: abrange todas as atividades de compreensão escrita, a saber:

Before You Read: apresenta atividades variadas, fragmentos de texto e


imagens, visando preparar o aluno para a leitura do texto principal, ativando
seu conhecimento em relação ao tema ou ao gênero e levando-o a estabelecer
hipóteses a respeito do texto, a serem verificadas durante a leitura.

As You Read: introduz o texto principal, sempre um texto autêntico, escolhido


de um amplo leque de gêneros, pela relevância dos valores abordados em
seus temas ou das informações que podem contribuir para a ampliação do
conhecimento de mundo dos alunos, bem como lhes dar a oportunidade de
refletir e se posicionar criticamente quanto a essas questões. Engloba as
subseções General Comprehension e Detailed Comprehension.

- General Comprehension: traz questões que visam desenvolver a capacidade


do aluno de compreender a essência do texto.

- Detailed Comprehension: traz questões variadas que visam desenvolver a


capacidade do aluno de identificar informações específicas, fazer inferências,
estabelecer relações entre as ideias do texto.
After You Read: propõe atividades de pós-leitura, em que os alunos respondem
às perguntas que os levam a assumir uma postura crítica quanto às questões
levantadas no texto, discutem-nas com seus colegas e estabelecem relações
entre as questões sociais, culturais, éticas, levantadas no texto principal e a
sua realidade pessoal, a da sua escola, ou da sua comunidade.

More Food for Thought: seção em que geralmente se apresenta um texto que
retoma o assunto abordado no texto principal, propiciando a intertextualidade e
possibilitando também atividades de produção oral, em que os alunos
interagem, em inglês, com os colegas, a respeito de assuntos relacionados ao
cotidiano deles.

Pronunciation Tips: trabalha a pronúncia, acentuação ou entonação de


algumas palavras ou expressões de textos das Unidades.

Word Study: Explora aspectos lexicais encontrados no texto principal e,


eventualmente, no texto da seção More Food for Thought, em exercícios que
visam à identificação de palavras transparentes, da construção de palavras
pelo uso de afixos, dos grupos nominais, dos marcadores discursivos e de sua
função, de modo a possibilitar a compreensão das relações entre as ideias de
um texto.

Language Study: apresenta aspectos gramaticais de forma contextualizada,


partindo de exemplos do texto principal e da seção More Food for Thought;
esses exemplos são apresentados não de maneira expositiva, mas de modo a
que os alunos possam inferir as regras gramaticais que estão na base desse
uso.

Let's Practice: apresenta atividades relacionadas aos aspectos gramaticais


estudados na seção Language Study, com o objetivo de fazer com que os
alunos utilizem as estruturas gramaticais adequadas a situações de uso de
forma contextualizada.

Listening: apresenta textos orais integrados ao tema desenvolvido na Unidade


e atividades de compreensão oral, a saber:

- Before You Listen: traz atividades que ativam o conhecimento prévio do aluno
a respeito do assunto do texto oral, preparando-o para o que vai ouvir.
- As You Listen: oferece atividades variadas de compreensão oral
(compreensão extensiva e seletiva).

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- After You Listen: propõe uma discussão quanto ao assunto do áudio e


proporciona oportunidades de produção oral.

Speaking: propõe atividades de produção oral, em diferentes contextos de uso,


integrados ao tema da unidade.

Writing: propõe uma atividade de produção escrita, levando os alunos à


elaboração de diferentes tipos de texto, compreendendo a escrita como uma
prática social, que inclui as etapas de escrita, revisão, aquisição de feedback e
reescrita.

Think About It: apresenta um texto que proporciona a retomada da discussão


acerca do tema já estudado em textos anteriores, convidando o aluno a refletir
e se posicionar criticamente a respeito do assunto, inclusive quanto à relação
que existe entre o tema abordado e o universo do aluno, de sua escola e da
sua comunidade.

Keep Exploring: sugere livros, músicas, sites, vídeos e filmes relacionados ao


tema desenvolvido em cada Unidade.

Self-Assessment: apresenta um questionário que possibilita ao próprio aluno


verificar o seu desempenho quanto aos pontos trabalhados na Unidade.

Check Your English 1 and 2

O objetivo dessas Unidades é fazer uma revisão dos assuntos trabalhados nas
Unidades anteriores, por meio de atividades que envolvem leitura, identificação
e prática de aspectos linguísticos e discussão. Também apresentam questões
do Enem para que o aluno comece, desde o primeiro ano do Ensino Médio, a
se familiarizar com o tipo de questões utilizadas nesse exame.

ESTRATÉGIAS DE LEITURA E COMPREENSÃO DO TEXTO

Ler é um processo de construção de significado em que o leitor obtém


informações e as soma ao seu conjunto de conhecimentos prévios. O ato de ler
envolve uma série de estratégias e recursos que o leitor utiliza para entender o
texto. Muitas dessas estratégias são usadas intuitivamente; outras, porém, de
uso específico, podem ser implementadas a fim de se desenvolverem e se
aprimorarem as habilidades de leitura de um texto escrito.

Nesta coleção são trabalhadas diversas estratégias de leitura que facilitam a


compreensão dos textos. Elas são empregadas antes, durante e depois da
leitura propriamente dita e em diversas atividades. Nas Unidades iniciais, as
estratégias estão assinaladas para o professor com um breve título, como
detalhamos a seguir.

Making Predictions

Antes da leitura do texto os alunos devem observar o título da Unidade,


eventualmente o subtítulo e as imagens que o acompanham. Depois tentam
prever o assunto do texto que vão ler e algumas das informações que vão
encontrar. Fazer previsões, formular hipóteses acerca do que vai ser lido, cria
uma predisposição para melhor receber as novas informações, ativa o cérebro
para melhor compreender o texto.

Exploring the Title and the Format, Identifying the Genre or Text Type

Ainda com o objetivo de facilitar o entendimento da leitura, os alunos exploram


o título e a formatação do texto, antecipam o tipo do texto, o gênero textual,
quem o escreveu, para que público.

Activating Background Knowledge

Antes da primeira leitura e com base no conhecimento prévio que possuem, os


alunos conversam a respeito do assunto do texto, em inglês ou em português,
compartilhando as informações e formando uma base de repertório para
facilitar a compreensão do texto.

Making Inferences

Muitas vezes, determinada informação não aparece explicitamente no texto; o


autor apenas a sugere. O leitor precisa, então, inferir, deduzir, "ler nas
entrelinhas", tirar conclusões a respeito do que o autor quis dizer, mas ficou
apenas sugerido. Por se tratar de um aspecto subjetivo, essa inferência pode
levar a diversas e diferentes conclusões. Praticar essa estratégia, voltando ao
texto para verificar e confrontar as conclusões, contribui para desenvolver a
capacidade de argumentação e o senso crítico.

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Também é possível inferir o sentido de palavras desconhecidas em um texto.


Ler sem interromper a leitura de uma frase ou parágrafo por causa de uma
palavra desconhecida muitas vezes dá a possibilidade de descobrir o
significado dessa mesma palavra com base no contexto ou na própria estrutura
do texto. Além de evitar o uso excessivo do dicionário, a leitura torna-se mais
dinâmica e natural.

Skimming

Skimming é uma estratégia de leitura rápida, superficial, que visa à


identificação da ideia principal do texto. Ao ler com esse objetivo, passa-se
rapidamente os olhos pelo título, leem-se os parágrafos, o nome do autor, a
fonte etc. Na aplicação dessa estratégia, alguns detalhes, como palavras
desconhecidas, por exemplo, não devem ser levados em conta.

Scanning

A estratégia de scanning distingue-se da que chamamos skimming por visar


não à ideia central do texto, mas sim à localização de informações específicas.
Quando buscamos encontrar, por exemplo, o nome de uma pessoa em uma
longa lista, uma determinada data ou número, certo ingrediente em uma
receita, fazemos uso de scanning.

Identifying Transparent Words

Uma estratégia que obviamente facilita a compreensão do texto é a


identificação de cognatos, as chamadas palavras transparentes ou true friends,
palavras que em inglês têm forma semelhante (e, em alguns casos, a mesma
forma) e o mesmo significado de suas correspondentes em português. A
ocorrência dessas palavras, na maioria de origem latina, é muito frequente em
textos informativos, principalmente da área científica. É importante também
identificar os falsos cognatos ou false friends, palavras similares na forma, mas
de significado diferente do de suas correspondentes em português.

Using Grammar to Guess the Meaning of New Words


Conhecer o grupo a que pertence uma palavra ou identificar a sua classe
gramatical ajuda a descobrir o significado dela e é um ótimo exercício para o
enriquecimento do vocabulário. Explorar a formação de palavras com base na
prefixação ou sufixação, relacionar um substantivo a um adjetivo e descobrir o
adjetivo correspondente a um determinado verbo são atividades simples, mas
estratégia importante para compreender a estrutura de uma língua.

Looking for Reference

Reconhecer o significado e a função de pronomes, conectivos e marcadores do


discurso é muito importante para a identificação de aspectos estruturais de um
texto, tais como a organização de seus elementos, as referências internas que
garantem a coesão, as relações entre causa e efeito, os desdobramentos de
uma ação, o desenvolvimento de uma ideia etc. Identificar essas palavras e
seu uso constitui outra estratégia de leitura importante.

Recognizing Sequence of Events

Reconstruir ou analisar uma sequência de fatos ou identificar a organização


das ideias em um texto é outra estratégia de leitura muito importante. Com
base no conhecimento de palavras básicas como first, next, after, then, later,
finally, isso se torna fácil.

Cabe ressaltar que, embora essas estratégias estejam assinaladas, nas


Unidades iniciais, apenas na seção Reading, elas podem e devem ser
aplicadas pelos alunos na leitura dos outros textos das Unidades.

AVALIAÇÃO

A avaliação contínua do processo de ensino-aprendizagem é essencial para


que se possa verificar se o projeto pedagógico está sendo desenvolvido de
forma adequada e bem-sucedida e, se for o caso, buscar ajustes. Nesse
sentido, a avaliação não se restringe à atribuição de notas, mas inclui também
o acompanhamento de todo o processo educativo, do seu planejamento à sua
implementação, sob o ponto de vista de seus participantes: professores, alunos
e outros membros da comunidade escolar.
Ao final de cada Unidade, há a seção Self-Assessment, que convida o aluno a
avaliar sua própria aprendizagem e reforça o seu papel como corresponsável
por ela.

183

Nesta seção, o aluno atribui um conceito à sua aprendizagem em relação a


diferentes aspectos abordados na Unidade e é motivado a melhorar o seu
desempenho.

Outro instrumento de avaliação contínua do aluno é a seção Check Your


English, apresentada após a quarta Unidade (Check Your English 1) e após a
oitava Unidade (Check Your English 2). No Check Your English apresentam-se
questões a respeito dos principais conteúdos linguísticos estudados nas
Unidades anteriores, bem como questões de compreensão escrita. Há também
a seção De Olho no Enem, com questões retiradas do Exame Nacional do
Ensino Médio, e, no terceiro volume, uma seção com questões retiradas de
provas de vestibular de universidades brasileiras.

O Check Your English pode ser usado como instrumento de avaliação e de


autoavaliação de várias formas. As questões podem ser respondidas em casa
ou em aula, individualmente ou em duplas, e verificadas em sala de aula com
ampla participação dos alunos, a fim de que todos discutam como chegar às
respostas adequadas e aprendam também com possíveis erros.
Alternativamente, as respostas podem ser redigidas pelos alunos em folha
separada para que seja entregue ao professor (para posterior verificação) ou
para ser trocada entre eles (para que um verifique as respostas do outro, sob a
orientação do professor). Além disso, pode-se, por exemplo, fazer uma enquete
com os alunos em relação às questões que eles consideram mais fáceis e mais
difíceis e, assim, ter outro indicativo a respeito do desenvolvimento da turma.

A avaliação pode envolver também a realização dos projetos interdisciplinares


apresentados na seção Project, da Unidade Check Your English, de outras
atividades propostas no Livro do Aluno (como as produções orais e escritas de
cada Unidade) ou neste Manual do Professor. Outra forma de avaliação é a
aplicação de testes e provas. Esses instrumentos devem contemplar as
diferentes habilidades e aspectos linguísticos trabalhados em aula. Além disso,
os erros devem ser vistos pelo professor como evidências do que ainda precisa
ser retomado. Mais adiante apresentamos alguns testes que podem ser
usados, a critério do professor, para a avaliação dos alunos. Ressalta-se, no
entanto, que é fundamental o uso de diferentes instrumentos de avaliação
durante o ano letivo e que tal avaliação seja contínua e formativa, desenvolvida
ao longo do processo de ensino-aprendizagem, e não restrita a um ou a alguns
momentos isolados.

Ainda para auxiliar na avaliação do processo de ensino-aprendizagem,


sugerimos que se criem oportunidades para que os alunos reflitam sobre o
próprio processo de aprendizagem e se posicionem em relação às práticas
pedagógicas adotadas. Isso pode ser feito por escrito, por meio de
questionários e diários, ou oralmente, por meio de conversas individuais ou em
grupos, a cada mês ou bimestre, por exemplo. Engajar o aluno no processo de
avaliação é importante, não apenas para se conduzir uma avaliação
consistente do processo educacional, mas também para desenvolver nele uma
postura de autonomia e corresponsabilidade pela aprendizagem. As perguntas
a seguir podem orientar o professor na avaliação do processo de ensino-
aprendizagem e ajudá-lo a refletir sobre sua prática:

- Como os alunos percebem a aprendizagem de língua inglesa? Relacionam os


conteúdos com outras disciplinas e com sua realidade? Como incentivar a
relação entre o estudo da língua inglesa e a participação do aluno, como
cidadão, na vida social?

- Como os alunos participam das atividades propostas? Mostram-se passivos


ou interessados e críticos? Valorizam mais a parte gramatical ou interagem
com os textos (escritos e orais) buscando construir sentidos a partir deles?
Como se pode incentivar essa construção de sentidos?

- Os alunos costumam relacionar o que aprendem na aula de Inglês com coisas


que já sabiam, que aprenderam no dia a dia ou em aulas de outras disciplinas?
Em caso afirmativo, que exemplos podem ser citados? Em caso negativo,
como estimular essas relações entre os conhecimentos antigos e os novos?

- Os alunos se sentem confortáveis nas aulas ou há algum tipo de desconforto


emocional (como medo ou vergonha de errar, frustração por não aprender,
ansiedade, desânimo)? Em que situações há esse desconforto? Como se pode
superá-lo?

- Como os alunos participam das aulas? Todos participam das discussões? O


professor centraliza todas as atividades em si mesmo? Como se pode motivar
a participação dos alunos em aula?

- Como os alunos se comportam nos trabalhos em duplas e em grupos:


participam da atividade respeitando os colegas e buscando aprender com eles,
distraem-se com atividades não relacionadas ao trabalho, impõem suas
opiniões ou acomodam-se e deixam o outro fazer o trabalho?

184

Durante as aulas e as verificações de atividades, os alunos buscam aprender


com as dúvidas dos colegas e novas formas de realizar a mesma atividade? O
que se pode fazer para aproveitar melhor as oportunidades de aprender com
os colegas de turma?

Conforme apontam as Orientações Educacionais Complementares aos


Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio, espera-se que o docente,
como todo profissional, "saiba avaliar não somente os resultados de seu
trabalho, mas também o processo e seus métodos de ação" (p. 123). Para
auxiliar o professor em relação a esse aspecto do processo educativo,
sugerimos que se façam observações e anotações a respeito do
desenvolvimento das aulas e de outras atividades pedagógicas de modo
sistemático. Para tal, pode-se usar um diário ou caderno de anotações para
escrever notas curtas logo após a aula e/ou redigir um texto mais reflexivo uma
vez por semana ou ao término de cada Unidade. Nessas anotações, pode-se
descrever tudo o que ocorre em sala (o que se faz e se diz, o que os alunos
fazem e dizem, como cada atividade se desenvolve) e incluir comentários
avaliativos e reflexivos (as reações dos alunos, as próprias reações, os
objetivos alcançados ou não alcançados em cada seção ou Unidade, os
ajustes que se fizerem necessários, entre outros aspectos).

É importante partir da observação e descrição do que acontece em sala de


aula para então avaliar se a prática está de acordo com os pressupostos
teórico-metodológicos que se deseja adotar e, finalmente, buscar reconstruir
essa prática, de modo a aperfeiçoá-la. Esse ciclo de observação, reflexão,
confronto entre teoria e prática e reconstrução desta deve constituir um
processo de avaliação contínua. Para que isso aconteça, é preciso que se
adote uma postura de professor-pesquisador, que, além de tentar manter-se
atualizado e bem informado, busca investigar e compreender melhor sua
própria prática à luz de teorias relevantes, superando o medo de se expor e se
autoavaliar em nome do desejo de ser um profissional mais satisfeito com o
próprio trabalho, que compreende que há limitações, mas que também há
caminhos para superá-las.

Nesse processo de avaliação e desenvolvimento da prática pedagógica,


também sugerimos conversas com os colegas, a fim de que as reflexões
possam ser ampliadas e aprofundadas. Um procedimento válido é a
observação de aulas ministradas por outros professores e a reflexão conjunta a
respeito dessas aulas. A leitura e a discussão de textos teóricos em grupos
também podem contribuir para fundamentar o processo de avaliação global,
inserindo-se em um projeto de formação continuada do professor.

O tópico Sugestões de Leitura e de Websites deste Manual traz indicações de


livros, textos e sites que podem ajudar o professor a, entre outras coisas, saber
mais acerca de ser um professor-pesquisador e realizar uma pesquisa-ação
(aquela que tem por objetivo aprimorar a própria prática), conhecer e
aprofundar teorias de ensino-aprendizagem de línguas, descobrir como as
tecnologias digitais podem ajudar na sua prática pedagógica - enfim, contribuir
para a sua formação continuada em uma perspectiva de reflexão, avaliação e
reconstrução contínuas.

Em suma, propomos que se adote um repertório amplo para avaliar, sob


múltiplas perspectivas e em diferentes momentos, o processo de ensino-
aprendizagem de modo geral e, em particular, o trabalho desenvolvido com
esta obra, e que se faça da avaliação uma forma de conhecer melhor os alunos
e reorientar continuamente a prática profissional.

TESTS

Apresentamos a seguir sugestões de testes, aplicáveis após cada duas


Unidades deste livro.
185

School: ____.

Teacher: ____.

Student: ____.

Class: ____. Date: ____.

Test 1 (Units 1 and 2)

Read the text and do activities 1 to 4.

Animal Rights and the Theory Behind It

Which concept of animal rights is the best? Is it respect, freedom, intrinsic


value, love, compassion, equality or something else? What should be the basis
for animal rights?

People and animals relate to each other in different ways:

- animal lovers keep them as pets;

- those who like the taste of animals eat them;

- some people who like animals just leave them alone.

The ways in which we relate to animals and the rights we grant them has to do
with ethics. Albert Schweitzer stated that ethics should be rooted in
compassion. A right without compassion cannot be implemented as a justifiable
action.

The concept of animal rights can be interpreted in widely different ways. On the
one hand, some may exercise the right to kill animals for the purpose of
consumption or sports. Some people, on the other hand, will deprive
themselves of the right to kill even the smallest animals by mistake.

Animals are vulnerable, defenseless and completely in man's power. Persons


who disregard the well being of animals should be brought to court and be held
accountable for violating animal rights.

Available at: www.animalfreedom.org/english/opinion/animalrights.html.


Accessed on: April 15, 2016. (Fragment).
1. Which concept of animal rights is not presented for debate at the beginning
of the text?

a) ( ) The right animals should have of living a free natural life.

b) ( ) A feeling of sympathy and caring for the suffering of others and a wish to
help them.

c) ( ) The right animals should have of being respected.

d) ( ) The right animals should have of being treated as equals.

e) ( ) A feeling of great happiness for having you as a friend.

2. Check if the sentences are True (T) or False (F), according to the text.

a) ( ) Animals can defend themselves against humans.

b) ( ) Some people who like animals keep them as pets while other people just
leave them alone.

c) ( ) People who abuse animals should be brought to court.

d) ( ) Ethics is a synonym for compassion.

3. Choose the option that can replace the excerpt below, with no change in
meaning.

"On the one hand, some may exercise the right to kill animals for the purpose of
consumption or sports. Some people, on the other hand, will deprive
themselves of the right to kill even the smallest animals by mistake."

a) ( ) Some may exercise the right to kill animals for the purpose of consumption
or sports. On the contrary, some other people will refuse to kill even the
smallest animals by mistake.

b) ( ) Many people may exercise the right to kill animals for the purpose of
consumption or sports. In addition, some people will deprive themselves of the
right to kill even the smallest animals by mistake.

c) ( ) Some may exercise the right to kill animals for the purpose of consumption
or sports. So, some people will deprive themselves of the right to kill even the
smallest animals by mistake.
4. Read these sentences from the text, paying close attention to the modal
auxiliary verbs in bold. Each of them expresses a different idea, that can be
found on the list in the box. Identify the meaning expressed by each modal verb
in bold and write it down after each sentence.

Box:

possibility - certainty about a future action - prohibition - probability - advice, the


right thing to do

End of box.

a) Albert Schweitzer stated that ethics should be rooted in compassion.

Word in bold: should.

____.

b) The concept of animal rights can be interpreted in widely different ways.

Word in bold: can.

____.

186

c) On the one hand, some may exercise the right to kill animals for the purpose
of consumption or sports.

Word in bold: may.

____.

d) Some people, on the other hand, will deprive themselves of the right to kill
even the smallest animals by mistake.

Word in bold: will.

____.

e) A right without compassion cannot be implemented as a justifiable action.

Word in bold: cannot.

____.

Read the text and do activities 5 to 9.

Technology Addiction in Teens


by Damon Verial

Many of today's teens spend much of their time with their faces buried in a
computer monitor or smart phone. Moms and dads who would prefer that their
teens' faces were buried in books might suspect the cause of this phenomenon
is technology addiction.

Kimberly Young, director of the Center for Internet Addiction Recovery, defines
technology addiction as a habitual compulsion to engage in using technology
instead of addressing life's problems. For example, a teen who instinctively pulls
out her smart phone whenever her mom begins lecturing her might be addicted
to technology because such a reaction is likely a coping mechanism to avoid
conflict.

Technology addiction can have several negative effects on a teen. The


attractiveness of anonymity, for example, might pull a teen away from social
engagement. Such an avoidance of social settings, in combination with the
draw of the Internet, could lead to a teen shutting himself off from his peers.

Available at: http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/technology-addictionteens-


11134.html. Accessed on: April 15, 2016. (Fragment).

5. Choose the correct alternative. The word "addiction", in "technology


addiction", is a synonym for

a) ( ) increase

b) ( ) dependence

c) ( ) advertising

d) ( ) device

6. Match each phrasal verb to its meaning. Use the context to help you.

a) "a teen who instinctively pulls out her smart phone whenever her mom
begins lecturing"

b) "The attractiveness of anonymity, for example, might pull a teen away from
social engagement"

c) "an avoidance of social settings [...] could lead to a teen shutting himself off
from his peers."
1. ( ) become isolated

2. ( ) keep someone far from

3. ( ) starts using

7. Scan the text and transcribe

a) a sentence containing a modal verb that indicates a hypothetical situation.

____.

b) two sentences containing two different modal verbs that indicate possibility.

____.

8. How does Kimberly Young define technology addiction?

____.

9. According to the text, what is one of the effects of technology addiction on


teenagers?

____.

10. Observe the cartoon and answer the question on it.

FONTE: Available at: www.glasbergen.com/?count=18&s=time. Accessed on:


April 15, 2016. CRÉDITOS: Randy Glasbergen/Acervo do cartunista

The purpose of the cartoonist is to call the reader's attention to

a) ( ) Andy's parents' addiction to technology.

b) ( ) Andy's persistence in going on a diet.

c) ( ) Andy's Dad's persuasive way to make his son get something to eat.

d) ( ) Andy's tech addiction, a common fact among young people today.

e) ( ) Andy's smooth relationship with his parents.

187

School: ____.

Teacher: ____.

Student: ____.

Class: ____. Date: ____.


Test 2 (Units 1 to 4)

Read the following quote and answer the question on it.

I never considered myself a patriot. I like to think I recognize only humanity as


my nation.

Isaac Asimov, Foundation's Edge

Available at: http://www.notable-quotes.com/a/asimov_isaac.html. Accessed on:


April 15, 2016.

1. Isaac Asimov was born in Russia but lived in the United States and was an
American citizen. We can infer from the quote above that

a) ( ) he was proud to declare his dual U.S./Russian citizenship.

b) ( ) he had a very favorable view of strict nationalism.

c) ( ) he considered himself a real patriot.

d) ( ) he liked to think of himself simply as a member of humanity.

e) ( ) he was a true American patriot.

Read the following quote and do activities 2 to 5.

The Three Rules of Robotics:

1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human
being to come to harm.

2. A robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings except where such
orders would conflict with the first law.

3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not
conflict with the first and second laws.

Isaac Asimov, I, Robot

Available at: www.goodreads.com/work/quotes/1796026-i-robot. Accessed on:


April 15, 2016.

2. Choose the correct alternative according to the context above. Rule number
one is about

a) ( ) protecting robots.
b) ( ) harming people.

c) ( ) harming robots.

d) ( ) protecting robots and people.

e) ( ) protecting human beings.

3. Choose the only alternative that is true, according to the text. Rule number
two obliges robots

a) ( ) to obey the orders people give them, in any circumstances.

b) ( ) to do whatever human beings tell them to do, without restrictions.

c) ( ) to obey human beings, with certain restrictions.

d) ( ) to do as people tell them, no matter what.

e) ( ) to disobey human beings when they are not nice to them.

4. Choose the only alternative that is true, according to The Three Rules of
Robotics. Rule number three obliges robots to protect themselves

a) ( ) against other kinds of artificial intelligence.

b) ( ) even when they are told to injure human beings.

c) ( ) unless a human being tries to harm it.

d) ( ) with no restrictions whatsoever.

e) ( ) under certain conditions.

5. Check if the statements below are True (T) or False (F).

a) ( ) In "a robot may not injure a human being [...]", may not expresses a
probability.

b) ( ) In "a robot must obey the orders [...]", must is the same as "has to".

c) ( ) In "where such orders would conflict with the first law," would indicates the
result of a hypothetical action.

d) ( ) In "a robot must protect its own existence [...]", must expresses a
necessity.

e) ( ) In "as long as such protection does not conflict with the first and second
laws", does not expresses a negation.
188

Read the text and do activities 6 to 8.

We Are All Africans

Proof that Africa is the original home of the human race is provided by genetic
analysis. There is greater genetic variety among the inhabitants of Africa than
elsewhere in the world. This is exactly what one would expect if human beings
had originated there, and lived there for a long time, before they lived anywhere
else. If one ignores first and second-generation immigrants, the difference
between the genetic make-up of the inhabitants of some African villages 20
miles apart is greater than that between some European nations. During the
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when biologists and historians tended
to be well-off westerners, confident in the superiority of their own tribes, there
was a widespread belief in the separate origin of the so-called "white", "black"
and "yellow" races of mankind. We now know much more about genetics, and
about human origins, and all talk of such "races" can be dismissed as the
product of ignorance or delusion.

AYDON, Cyril. The Story of Man. London: Running Press, 2007. p. 1-2.

6. Choose the appropriate alternative to complete the following sentence:


Human beings originated in Africa

a) ( ) before they lived in other parts of the planet.

b) ( ) but soon left the continent to live somewhere else.

c) ( ) but that theory has recently been contradicted by genetics.

d) ( ) which is a continent of small genetic variety.

e) ( ) and have stayed there ever since.

7. Based on what biologists and historians now know of genetics and about
human origins, we can safely say that

a) ( ) all humankind has a common origin.

b) ( ) white, black and yellow races have separate origins.

c) ( ) some human groups should be considered superior to others.


d) ( ) the human race is a product of ignorance or delusion.

e) ( ) only Afro-descendants belong to the original home of humankind.

8. Complete the sentences below about the text using question tags.

a) Africa is the original home of human race, ____?

b) Inhabitants of Africa have great genetic variety, ____?

c) In the past, some people believed in the superiority of races, ____?

d) All talk of such "races" can be dismissed as the product of ignorance, ____?

Read the quote below and do activities 9 and 10.

People of different religions and cultures live side by side in almost every part of
the world, and most of us have overlapping identities which unite us with very
different groups. We can love what we are, without hating what - and who - we
are not. We can thrive in our own tradition, even as we learn from others, and
come to respect their teachings.

Kofi Annan, Former Secretary-General of the United Nations

Available at: www.unfpa.org/resources/quotes-culture-and-culturally-sensitive-


approaches. Accessed on: April 15, 2016.

9. What are the main issues in Kofi Annan's message, reproduced above?

a) ( ) Education and progress.

b) ( ) Promotion of cultural and national identity.

c) ( ) Information and knowledge.

d) ( ) Inter-cultural dialogue and respect for diversity.

e) ( ) Democratization and freedom.

10. Tolerance is a great value, the capacity to accept other people's beliefs,
ways of life, etc., even if we disagree with them. Scan the text and find a clear
example of tolerance. Write it down here.

____.

189

School: ____.
Teacher: ____.

Student: ____.

Class: ____. Date: ____.

Test 3 (Units 1 to 6)

Read the following quote and answer activities 1 and 2.

I believe that imagination is stronger than knowledge. That myth is more potent
than history. That dreams are more powerful than facts. That hope always
triumphs over experience. That laughter is the only cure for grief. And I believe
that love is stronger than death.

Robert Fulgham, All I Really Need To Know I Learned in Kindergarten

Available at: www.goodreads.com/work/quotes/2399046-all-i-really-need-


toknow-i-learned-in-kindergarten. Accessed on: April 15, 2016.

1. Judging from what the author says in the quote above, we might say he is
most likely to be

a) ( ) a very practical person.

b) ( ) a dreamer.

c) ( ) a mathematician.

d) ( ) a fool.

e) ( ) a pessimist.

2. Answer the questions below, taking the quotation above as a basis.

a) How does the author compare imagination and knowledge?

____.

b) If there is a competition between hope and experience, who is the winner?

____.

c) How can grief be cured?

____.

d) Which is more potent, dreams or reality?


____.

e) If you want to continue living, what should you do?

____.

Read the following text and do activities 3 to 8.

FONTE: Reprodução/Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer

Behind every man now alive stand thirty ghosts, for that is the ratio by which the
dead outnumber the living. Since the dawn of time, roughly a hundred billion
human beings have walked the planet Earth.

Now this is an interesting number, for by a curious coincidence there are


approximately a hundred billion stars in our local universe, the Milky Way. So
for every man who has ever lived, in this Universe there shines a star.

But every one of those stars is a sun, often far more brilliant and glorious than
the small, nearby star we call the Sun. And many - perhaps most - of those
alien suns have planets circling them. So almost certainly there is enough land
in the sky to give every member of the human species, back to the first ape-
man, his own private, world-sized heaven - or hell.

How many of those potential heavens and hells are now inhabited, and by what
manner of creatures, we have no way of guessing; the very nearest is a million
times farther away than Mars or Venus, those still remote goals of the next
generation. But the barriers of distance are crumbling; one day we shall meet
our equals, or our masters, among the stars.

Men have been slow to face this prospect; some still hope that it may never
become reality. Increasing numbers, however are asking: "Why have such
meetings not occurred already, since we ourselves are about to venture into
space?"

Why not, indeed? Here is one possible answer to that very reasonable question.
But please remember: this is only a work of fiction. The truth, as always, will be
far stranger.

Arthur C. Clarke, 2001: A Space Odyssey


Available at: www.goodreads.com/quotes/212808-behind-every-man-now-alive-
stand-thirty-ghosts-for-that. Accessed on: April 15, 2016.

3. Scan the first and second paragraphs and answer these questions:

a) How many stars are there in the Milky Way?

190

b) How many people have lived on Earth since the beginning of humankind?

____.

c) What is the obvious conclusion?

____.

4. Choose the right alternative to complete the following statement. According to


the Arthur C. Clarke,

a) ( ) the world population at present is a hundred billion people.

b) ( ) there are a hundred million stars in the sky.

c) ( ) our sun is not as bright as some other stars.

d) ( ) few of the other stars have planets going round them.

e) ( ) we know for sure that the other planets are not inhabited.

5. What is the reason for the fact that those extraordinary meetings have not
happened yet?

a) ( ) The barriers of distance are crumbling.

b) ( ) Some human beings are afraid of the unknown.

c) ( ) The truth is stranger than fiction.

d) ( ) Until recently we had not ventured into space.

e) ( ) The possible answer to that question is given in Arthur C. Clarke's book


2007, A Space Odyssey.

6. Choose the appropriate modal verb to complete the following sentence,


based on the information from the text.

"The author believed Mars and Venus ____ have been reached by the next
century."
a) will

b) should

c) might

d) can

e) must

7. Scan the text and find

a) (paragraph 1) the opposite of alive:

____.

b) (paragraph 1) a synonym for because:

____.

c) (paragraph 4) a phrase that means the same as we cannot guess:

____.

d) (paragraph 5) a modal verb that expresses probability:

____.

e) (paragraph 6) a phrase that means the same as much more surprising:

____.

8. Read the sentences below, taken from the text, paying attention to the verb
tense used.

"Men have been slow to face this prospect."

"So for every man who has ever lived [...],"

"Since the dawn of time, roughly a hundred billion human beings have walked
the planet Earth."

The sentences above are all about

a) ( ) unfinished actions that started in the past.

b) ( ) completed actions at a definite time in the past.

c) ( ) actions that happened before another action in the past.


9. Read the text below and complete it using the comparative or superlative of
the adjectives in the box.

Box:

comprehensive - few - small - happy (3×)

End of box.

Happiness Greater for People in Small Towns

Researchers believe they may have found the secret to happiness, with
Australians who live in towns with ____ than 1,000 people being significantly
____ than those in big cities.

Conducted by the University of Melbourne, the Household, Income and Labour


Dynamics Survey (HILDA) is the ____ of its kind in Australia - 17,000 people
are interviewed about their happiness and its factors.

Associate Professor Wilkins said the ____ among us were those who lived in
towns ____ than 1, 000 people.

"We don't probe into why people were ____ in those small towns, so it's really a
point of speculation as to why we find that effect," he said.

Available at: www.abc.net.au/news/2015-07-15/happiness-greater-for-people-


in-small-towns-de-facto-survey/6620706. Accessed on: April 15, 2016.
(Fragment).

10. Check if the statements below are True (T) or False (F), according to the
text above.

a) ( ) Australia is the happiest country in the world.

b) ( ) The survey interviewed many people around the world.

c) ( ) Living in small cities may make people happier in Australia.

d) ( ) The survey was conducted by an Australian institution.

191

School: ____.

Teacher: ____.
Student: ____.

Class: ____. Date: ____.

Test 4 (Units 1 to 8)

Read the text and answer the questions on it.

Saving our planet, lifting people out of poverty, advancing economic growth...
these are one and the same fight. We must connect the dots between climate
change, water scarcity, energy shortages, global health, food security and
women's empowerment. Solutions to one problem must be solutions for all.

Available at:
www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/b/bankimoon643813.html#a1UT68zESHE
wIVkM.99. Accessed on: April 15, 2016.

LEGENDA: Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations.

FONTE: 360b/Shutterstock

1. Ban Ki-moon is the present Secretary-General of the United Nations.


According to Ban Ki-moon,

a) ( ) there are several solutions to the planet's problems.

b) ( ) the problems humanity faces are interconnected.

c) ( ) the world's problems are more than one, and that's why we have to fight.

d) ( ) we must fight and learn how to connect the dots.

e) ( ) there are too many problems and very few solutions to them.

2. Scan the text and find

a) a modal auxiliary verb that expresses necessity:

____.

b) a synonym for "raising":

____.

c) the opposite of "wealth":

____.

d) a synonym for "progress":


____.

e) a synonym for "shortage":

____.

3. Read the text below and check the appropriate verbs to complete it.

Street Artist Phoenix Rises From The Ashes After Fire Destroyed Decades Of
Work

FONTE: Colourourcity/Flickr

By day, John* sees patients in a medical clinic in Melbourne's south-east. By


night (and sometimes during his lunch break), he puts on his overalls and heads
out to do a spot of street art as "Phoenix". He ( ) has opened/ ( ) opened his first
Sydney show and second solo exhibition. Called From the Ashes, it's something
of a "best of" of his work to date.

"I ( ) am loving/ ( ) have loved it since the first time I ever did it," John says of
the street art, which he ( ) has been doing/ ( ) did since 2009.

He'd been an artist long before that, having picked up drawing as a teenager. In
the early 2000s, he ( ) has decided/ ( ) decided to mount an exhibition but then
fire struck his home studio in Melbourne's south-east.

He set aside his art for a few years, focusing on other creative pursuits - music,
writing, comedy - instead. In 2009, a street art tour ( ) inspired/ ( ) has been
inspiring John to give it a crack himself. His first public piece was Her Godot
Was Worth Waiting For in Melbourne's Hosier Lane. *not his real name.

Available at: www.smh.com.au/entertainment/art-and-design/street-artist-


phoenix-rises-from-the-ashes-after-fire-destroyed-decades-of-work20150823-
gj3n35.html. Accessed on: April 15, 2016. (Fragment).

192

4. According to the text in the previous question, what is true about John?

a) ( ) His real name is Phoenix.

b) ( ) He works only as an artist.

c) ( ) He got seriously injured in a fire.


d) ( ) He has been a street artist since 2009.

e) ( ) He now wants to focus on music, writing and comedy.

5. Complete the sentences below about the street artist using already, yet, for
or since.

a) Phoenix has ____ had two solo exhibitions.

b) He has been an artist ____ many years.

c) He has enjoyed art ____ he was a teenager.

d) He hasn't revealed his real name ____.

Read the following text and do the activities based on it.

Language is different from every other subject you'll ever study, because
language is a part of everything you'll ever study. It's there outside school too,
forming a part of everything you do. Even if you have an experience which
doesn't involve language - such as listening to music at a concert or looking at a
painting - you'll want to talk about it afterwards.

Language never leaves you alone. It's there in your head, helping you to think.
It's there to help you to make relationships - and to break them. It's there to
remind you who you are and where you come from. It's there to cheer you up -
and to cheer others up, if they're feeling low.

Language doesn't do everything. Sometimes there are no words for what we


want to say. Sometimes it's better just to give someone a hug. People
sometimes say: "A picture is worth a thousand words." That's true. But
language is never far away. To talk about the picture, you may need a thousand
words.

CRYSTAL, David. A Little Book of Language. New Haven; London: Yale


University Press, 2010. p. 253.

6. Match the words below, which were taken from the text, with their definitions.
Use the context to help you.

a) subject

b) ever
c) involve

d) such as

e) afterwards

f) is worth

g) cheer you up

h) low

i) remind you

1) ( ) make you become less sad.

2) ( ) include something as a necessary part of an activity.

3) ( ) unhappy, sad, lacking energy.

4) ( ) something you learn or teach in a school.

5) ( ) is as valuable as.

6) ( ) like, for example.

7) ( ) at any time in the past, present or future.

8) ( ) later.

9) ( ) make you remember.

7. Mark True (T) or False (F) according to the text.

a) ( ) In some way, language forms a part of all the things we do.

b) ( ) You need words when you start a relationship and also when it comes to
an end.

c) ( ) When you cheer someone up you try to make them stop being happy.

d) ( ) When you give someone a hug you show your affection for that person.

8. In some of the activities mentioned in the text you do not need to make
immediate use of words. Name two of them.

____.

9. What relation is there between language and our relationships?

____.
10. How do people sometimes compare words to pictures?

____.

193

TESTS - ANSWER KEY

Test 1 (Units 1 to 2)

1. e)

2. a) F; b) T; c) T; d) F

3. a)

4. a) advice, the right thing to do; b) possibility;

c) probability; d) certainty about a future action;

e) prohibition

5. b)

6. a) 3; b) 2; c) 1

7. a) Moms and dads who would prefer that their teens' faces were buried in
books [...]; b) Technology addiction can have several negative effects on a
teen./Such an avoidance of social settings, in combination with the draw of the
Internet, could lead to a teen shutting himself off from his peers.

8. (She defines it) As a habitual compulsion to engage in using technology


instead of addressing life's problems.

9. Suggested answer: Teenagers may avoid social engagements and become


isolated from their peers.

10. d)

Test 2 (Units 1 to 4)

1. d)

2. e)

3. c)

4. e)
5. a) F; b) T; c) T; d) T; e) T

6. a)

7. a)

8. a) isn't it?; b) don't they?; c) didn't they?; d) can't it?

9. d)

10. We can love what we are, without hating what - and who - we are not.

Test 3 (Units 1 to 6)

1. b)

2. a) He says imagination is stronger than knowledge.;

b) Hope is the winner.; c) With/Through laughter/By laughing.; d) Dreams are


more potent/powerful than reality/facts.; e) You should love.

3. a) (There are) About a hundred billion stars (in our galaxy/in the Milky Way).;
b) Roughly a hundred billion.; c) That for every person who/that has ever lived
there is/shines a star.

4. c)

5. e)

6. c)

7. a) dead; b) for; c) we have no way of guessing; d) may;

e) far stranger

8. a)

9. fewer; happier; most comprehensive; happiest; smaller; happier

10. a) F; b) F; c) T; d) T

Test 4 (Units 1 to 8)

1. b)

2. a) must; b) lifting; c) poverty; d) growth; e) scarcity

3. has opened; have loved; has been doing; decided; inspired

4. d)
5. a) already; b) for; c) since; d) yet

6. a) 4; b) 7; c) 2; d) 6; e) 8; f) 5: g) 1; h) 3; i) 9

7. a) T; b) T; c) F; d) T

8. Listening to music at a concert or looking at a painting.

9. Language is there, helping us to make relationships, and to break them.

10. (They say) (that) A picture is worth a thousand words.

194

CULTURAL NOTES AND LANGUAGE IN USE

Oferecemos a seguir informações sobre pessoas, assuntos ou aspectos


linguísticos abordados ao longo do volume. Essas informações
complementares, organizadas por Unidade, podem ser usadas para enriquecer
o trabalho em sala de aula.

Starter Unit

1. Carl Sandburg (1878-1967) foi poeta, historiador, novelista e folclorista


estadunindense. Nasceu em Galesburg, Illinois, de uma família de suecos e
morreu em Flat Rock, Carolina do Norte. Tornou-se conhecido por suas
poesias e sua biografia de Abraham Lincoln, pelas quais recebeu o Prêmio
Pulitzer.

Disponível em: http://kdfrases.com/autor/carl-sandburg. Acesso em: 8 maio,


2016.

2. Anne Frank foi uma menina judia que, durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial,
teve de se esconder para escapar dos nazistas. Com mais sete pessoas, ela
escondeu-se no Anexo Secreto, localizado no canal Prinsengracht, número
263, em Amsterdã, Holanda. Depois de pouco mais de 2 anos escondidos, eles
foram descobertos e enviados para campos de concentração. O pai de Anne,
Otto Frank, foi o único das oito pessoas que sobreviveu. Depois da sua morte,
Anne tornou-se famosa no mundo inteiro por causa do diário que escreveu
quando ainda estava escondida.

Disponível em: www.annefrank.org/pt/Anne-Frank/O-resumo-da-historia/.


Acesso em: 13 abr. 2016.
3. Atlântida é uma lendária ilha ou continente cuja primeira menção conhecida
remonta a Platão, em suas obras A natureza e A Atlântida. Nos contos de
Platão, Atlântida era uma potência naval localizada "na frente das Colunas de
Hércules", que conquistou muitas partes da Europa Ocidental e da África 9 mil
anos antes da era de Sólon, ou seja, aproximadamente em 9.600 a.C. Após
uma tentativa fracassada de invadir Atenas, Atlântida afundou no oceano "em
um único dia e noite de infortúnio". A possível existência de Atlântida foi
discutida ativamente por toda a Antiguidade clássica, mas é normalmente
rejeitada e ocasionalmente parodiada por autores atuais. Alan Cameron afirma
que "só nos tempos modernos é que as pessoas começaram a levar a sério a
sua história; ninguém o fez na Antiguidade". Embora pouco conhecida durante
a Idade Média, a história de Atlântida foi redescoberta pelos humanistas na
Idade Moderna. A descrição de Platão inspirou trabalhos utópicos de vários
escritores da Renascença, como Francis Bacon, em Nova Atlântida.

Disponível em: www.desocultando.com.br/cidade-perdida-de-atlantida/. Acesso


em: 15 abr. 2016.

Unit 1

1. Tablet é um tipo de computador portátil, de tamanho pequeno, fina


espessura e com tela sensível ao toque (touchscreen). É um dispositivo prático
com uso semelhante ao de um computador portátil convencional. Devido ao
formato e à praticidade do uso da tela com os dedos, é muito usado para
navegar na internet, para a leitura de livros, jornais e revistas, para visualização
de fotos e vídeos, reprodução de músicas, jogos etc.

Disponível em: www.significados.com.br/tablet/. Acesso em: 8 maio 2016.

2. Smartphone é um telefone celular com tecnologias avançadas, o que inclui


programas executados em um sistema operacional, equivalente aos
computadores. Os smartphones possibilitam que qualquer pessoa possa fazer
o download de programas para eles, os chamados aplicativos. Um smartphone
possui características de computadores, como hardware e software, pois é
capaz de conectar redes de dados para acesso à internet e sincronizar dados
como um computador.
Disponível em: www.significados.com.br/smartphone/. Acesso em: 8 maio
2016.

3. A Geração Internet é constituída por pessoas nascidas depois de 1980 e


criadas em tempos de grandes avanços em relação à tecnologia. Com a
corrida tecnológica entre diversas empresas, surgiram o barateamento e o fácil
acesso a itens de última geração, como smartphones, utilizados para diversas
outras finalidades, além da simples tarefa de fazer e receber ligações. Os
produtos tecnológicos lançados para essa geração agregam múltiplas funções,
permitindo que o jovem fale ao telefone, acesse a internet, escute música,
comunique-se com seus amigos por mensagens, tire fotos, faça filmes e peça
comida com um único aparelho remoto, que possibilita a realização dessas
atividades de qualquer lugar.

Disponível em: www.infoescola.com/sociedade/geracao-y/. Acesso em: 15 abr.


2016.

4. O internetês é a linguagem utilizada no meio virtual, em mensagens, redes


sociais, blogs e outros. Como foi se tornando uma prática na vida de todos, as
pessoas que utilizam esses serviços passaram a abreviar as palavras de forma
que elas se tornaram uma configuração padronizada.

195

É uma prática comum entre os adolescentes que, acostumados à rapidez do


mundo dos instantâneos, usam essa linguagem como meio de agilizar e
dinamizar as conversas.

Disponível em: http://brasilescola.uol.com.br/educacao/o-internetes-


ortografia.htm. Acesso em: 8 maio 2016.

5. O Vale do Silício (Silicon Valley) está situado na Califórnia, Estados Unidos,


um polo industrial que concentra diversas empresas de tecnologia da
informação. A maioria das empresas instaladas na região é do ramo da
eletrônica, informática e componentes eletrônicos. O nome Silício é utilizado
como homenagem ao próprio elemento químico (Si), que é a matéria-prima
básica e de fundamental importância na produção da maior parte dos circuitos
e chips eletrônicos.
Disponível em: www.infoescola.com/informatica/vale-do-silicio/. Acesso em: 15
abr. 2016.

6. Silicon × Silicone. É bom sempre lembrar a diferença entre eles:

Silicon: /'sIlIkǝn/ a natural substance that combines with other substances, used
especially for making silicon chips (nome que corresponde a silício, em
português. Silicon Valley: Vale do Silício).

Silicone: /'sIlIkoʊn/ a substance formed by a chemical process from silicon and


other substances, used for making many different things (nome que corres
ponde a silicone, em português).

7. Phrasal verbs. Alguns phrasal verbs podem ser usados seguidos de


complemento ou, então, com o complemento entre o verbo e a partícula verbal.
Assim, podemos dizer:

put down the phone ou put the phone down.

No entanto, quando o complemento é um pronome e não um substantivo, esse


pronome só pode vir entre o verbo e a partícula verbal.

Showers are a great way to wake you up. (wake up you estaria incorreto)

[...] more than it's helping you out. (helping out you estaria incorreto)

Nas frases abaixo, as duas formas seriam possíveis:

That's a great way to wake up the children/to wake the children up.

That's a good way of helping out those people/ helping those people out.

Unit 2

1. PETA, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (Pessoas pelo


Tratamento Ético dos Animais), é uma organização dedicada à causa dos
direitos dos animais. Ela é contra, entre outras coisas, a criação industrializada
de animais, o uso de peles e os testes em animais. O trabalho da organização
inclui convencer as principais empresas de cosméticos a parar de fazer testes
em animais, pedir aos grandes restaurantes fast food e redes de supermercado
que pensem no bem-estar dos animais, e pressionar estilistas e fabricantes de
roupas a deixar de usar peles de animais.
Disponível em: http://pessoas.hsw.uol.com.br/peta.htm. Acesso em: 15 abr.
2016.

2. Jeremy Bentham foi um filósofo, economista, jurista e reformista social


inglês nascido em Hounds ditch, Londres, fundador da doutrina utilitarista e
cujas ideias exerceram grande influência sobre o desenvolvimento do
liberalismo político e econômico. Ao lado do grupo chamado radicais filosóficos,
de tendência utilitarista, que incluía James Mill (1773-1836) e seu filho John
Stuart Mill (1806-1873), lutou por reformas constitucionais que abrangessem
questões sociais e políticas, fato que só foi concretizado no ano de sua morte,
ocorrida em Londres.

Disponível em: www.dec.ufcg.edu.br/biografias/JeremyBe.html. Acesso em: 15


abr. 2016.

3. Animais sagrados na Índia. Em algumas regiões da Índia, os animais são


considerados sagrados para quem segue o hinduísmo. Segundo o pensamento
indiano, tudo o que pertence aos quatro reinos - humano, animal, vegetal e
mineral - deve ser reverenciado e respeitado. Assim, a população, em geral,
não come carne, pois não é permitido matar nenhum ser vivo. Consideram que
não é bom comer algo que morreu de forma violenta. Por isso, acredita-se que
os indianos inspiraram o resto do mundo a seguir uma dieta vegetariana. A
vaca é um dos animais mais respeitados, porque é animal doméstico que
fornece produtos importantes, como leite e derivados.

Disponível em: www.dgabc.com.br/Noticia/65145/animais-sao-sagrados-na-


india. Acesso em: 8 maio 2016.

4. People For Animals (PFA), em português, Pessoas Pelos Animais, é a


maior organização de bem-estar dos animais da Índia, com uma rede nacional
de 26 hospitais e 165 unidades. A organização trabalha no resgate e na
reabilitação de animais doentes e necessitados. Também administra abrigos,
serviços de ambulância, programas de esterilização, campos de tratamento,
missões de resgate de animais em casos de desastres naturais e conduzem
programas educacionais em escolas.

Disponível em: www.peopleforanimalsindia.org/aboutus.php. Acesso em: 8


maio 2016.
196

5. O International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW), em português, Fundo


Internacional de Bem-Estar dos Animais, foi fundado em 1969. Seu objetivo é
salvar animais e seus habitats, em todo o mundo. Com projetos em mais de 40
países, o IFAW fornece assistência aos animais em necessidade - tanto
animais domésticos como selvagens. Também defende a preservação das
espécies, como a campanha para o fim da caça comercial de baleias e focas.

Disponível em: www.ifaw.org/international/about-ifaw. Acesso em: 8 maio 2016.

6. IceWhale, Associação Islandesa de Observadores de Baleias, é uma


organização sem fins lucrativos formada por operadores de observação de
baleias da Islândia, fundada em 2003. O objetivo da associação é avaliar os
métodos mais eficazes de ajudar a indústria a crescer economicamente e, ao
mesmo tempo, contribuir para a preservação das baleias. Um dos principais
objetivos da IceWhale tem sido promover a observação de baleias de maneira
responsável, apoiando a pesquisa sobre as espécies ao redor da Islândia e
criando santuários de observação de baleias e áreas livres de caça.

Disponível em: http://elding.is/icewhale. Acesso em: 8 maio 2016.

Unit 3

1. Estereótipo pode ser definido como generalizações, ou pressupostos, que


as pessoas fazem sobre as características ou comportamentos de grupos
sociais específicos ou tipos de indivíduos. O estereótipo é geralmente imposto,
segundo as características externas, tais como aparência, roupas, condição
financeira, comportamentos, cultura, sexualidade. Essas classificações nem
sempre são positivas e podem, muitas vezes, causar certos impactos negativos
nas pessoas. Em alguns casos, ideias estereotipadas podem ser bem-vindas,
como, por exemplo, a frase "Brasil, o país do futebol". Essa frase demonstra a
paixão que os brasileiros têm em relação ao futebol. Obviamente que existem
brasileiros que não gostam desse esporte, mas é uma ideia estereotipada que
geralmente não causa impactos negativos. No entanto, existem ideias
estereotipadas sobre outras nações que são preconceituosas, como afirmar
que "o Paquistão é o país dos homens-bomba". Essa generalização não é vista
com bons olhos pelos paquistaneses, uma vez que a maioria deles é contra o
terrorismo.

Disponível em: www.infoescola.com/sociologia/estereotipo/. Acesso em: 8 maio


2016.

2. Isaac Asimov foi um cientista e escritor nascido em Petrovichi, Rússia,


naturalizado americano, criador do termo robotics, introduzido no livro I, Robot.
Chegou a Nova York com apenas três anos de idade, cresceu no Brooklyn,
graduou-se em bioquímica na Columbia University (1939), onde também
atingiu o Ph.D. (1948). Foi nomeado professor de bioquímica na Boston
University School of Medicine (1949). Prolífico escritor de ficção científica,
tornou-se um escritor de grande prestígio em virtude de seus trabalhos
incluírem explicações populares de princípios científicos. Morreu em Nova
York, tendo publicado cerca de 500 volumes, como I, Robot (1950), The
Foundation Trilogy (1953) e The Collapsing Universe (1977).

Disponível em: www.colegioweb.com.br/biografia-letra-i/isaac-


asimov.html?PageSpeed=noscript. Acesso em: 15 abr. 2016.

3. O sionismo foi a principal força por trás da criação do Estado de Israel.


Idealizado e divulgado pelo jornalista e escritor austro-húngaro Theodor Herzl,
esse movimento político defendia o direito dos judeus de terem sua pátria na
região que a Bíblia chamou de "Terra de Israel". A teoria de Herzl era que, com
a existência de um Estado próprio, os judeus poderiam ser fortes, algo
"revolucionário" para um povo que tinha sofrido violentas perseguições durante
séculos.

Disponível em: http://g1.globo.com/mundo/noticia/2014/07/g1-explica-o-que-e-


sionismo-judaismo-e-antissemitismo.html. Acesso em: 15 abr. 2016.

4. Kofi Annan nasceu em Gana em 1937 e foi o sétimo secretário-geral das


Nações Unidas. Annan ocupou o cargo por dez anos, em dois mandatos
consecutivos. Quando foi nomeado, ocupava o cargo de subsecretário-geral do
Departamento de Operações de Paz das Nações Unidas. Ele também foi
representante especial do secretário-geral na antiga Iugoslávia e enviado
especial da Organização do Tratado do Atlântico Norte (Otan). Antes de
desempenhar essas funções, Annan serviu às Nações Unidas em outros
postos e dedicou mais de 30 anos de sua vida à Organização, trabalhando em
lugares tão diferentes como Addis Abeba (Etiópia), Cairo e Ismaília (Egito),
Genebra (Suíça) e Nova York (Estados Unidos).

Disponível em: https://nacoesunidas.org/o-secretario-geral/anteriores/. Acesso


em: 15 abr. 2016.

Unit 4

1. A palavra "robô" é de uso corrente hoje em dia, mas obviamente é um


termo relativamente novo, já que designa uma maravilha tecnológica que
apenas agora começa a parecer próxima da existência sempre imaginada por
autores e fãs de ficção científica.

197

E a primeira vez que foi usada foi na literatura. Criada por Josef Capek, foi seu
irmão, o escritor Karel Capek (1890-1938), o responsável pela popularização
da palavra em sua peça R.U.R. (Os robôs universais de Rossum), um dos
marcos fundamentais da ficção científica. Em R.U.R. há uma preocupação com
os abusos sofridos pelos trabalhadores que, no caso, são robôs construídos de
protoplasma. O escritor tcheco foi uma das figuras literárias mais importantes
do século XX.

Disponível em: http://www.posfacio.com.br/ 2010/05/01/karel-capek/. Acesso


em: 15 abr. 2016.

2. A.I. - Artificial Intelligence (A.I. - Inteligência Artificial) é um filme de ficção


científica de Steven Spielberg lançado em 2001, a partir de um projeto de
Stanley Kubrick, sobre a possibilidade da criação de máquinas com
sentimentos. A história se passa na metade do século XXI, quando o efeito
estufa teria derretido uma grande parte das calotas polares da Terra, fazendo
com que boa parte das cidades litorâneas do planeta ficassem parcialmente
submersas. Para controlar esse desastre ambiental, a humanidade conta com
o auxílio de uma nova forma de computador independente, com inteligência
artificial, conhecido como A.I. É nesse contexto que vive o garoto David
Swinton (interpretado pelo ator Haley Joel Osment), que passa por uma
jornada emocional inesquecível.
Disponível em: www.adorocinema.com/filmes/filme-29280/. Acesso em: 15 abr.
2016.

3. Shel Silverstein (1930-1999) foi provavelmente o autor americano para


crianças mais popular do século XX. Foi escritor, poeta, ilustrador, dramaturgo,
letrista e cantor. O livro Where the Sidewalk Ends, a primeira coleção de
poemas de Shel Silverstein, publicado em 1974, tornou-se um clássico
instantâneo. Mais duas coletâneas se seguiram: A Light in the Attic em 1981 e
Falling Up em 1996. Em 1984, ganhou um Grammy Awardfor Best Children's
Album com o livro Where the Sidewalk Ends. Embora as suas histórias façam
parte dos catálogos infantis, pode-se afirmar que sua obra é para todas as
idades.

Disponível em: www.bruaa.pt/o-nossoprimeiro-autor-shel-silverstein/. Acesso


em: 15 abr. 2016.

4. I, Robot (Eu, Robô) é um filme futurista americano de ficção científica,


lançado em 16 de julho de 2004. Baseia-se em uma história de Isaac Asimov,
mais precisamente, nas famosas três Leis da Robótica, criadas pelo escritor. A
história se passa em 2035, quando robôs são usados constantemente como
empregados e assistentes dos humanos. Os robôs possuem um código de
programação chamado Lei dos Robóticos, que impede que façam mal a um ser
humano. Esta lei parece ter sido quebrada quando o Dr. Miles aparece morto e
o principal suspeito de ter cometido o crime é justamente o robô Sonny. Caso
Sonny realmente seja o culpado, a possibilidade de os robôs terem encontrado
um meio de quebrar a Lei dos Robóticos pode permitir que eles dominem o
planeta, já que nada mais poderia impedi-los de subjugar os seres humanos.
Para investigar o caso, é chamado o detetive Del Spooner (Will Smith), que,
com a ajuda da Dra. Susan Calvin (Bridget Monayhan), precisa desvendar o
que realmente aconteceu.

Disponível em: www.adorocinema.com/filmes/filme-47739/. Acesso em: 15 abr.


2016.

5. Must vs. Have to. Afirmamos, na Unit 4, que must e have to têm o mesmo
sentido nas formas afirmativa e interrogativa.
"[...] They must return it to Cybertronics for destruction." = They have to return
it to Cybertronics for destruction.

"[...] You have to sign it too, right here. = You must sign it too, right here."

Sabemos que, a rigor, existe uma diferença de uso entre must e have to,
quando se deseja expressar obrigação. Com must a obrigação é "interna", vem
da pessoa que fala:

I am your father and I am telling you once and for all: You must stop hanging
out with that kind of people.

Com have to ou have got to, a obrigação "vem de fora", não da pessoa que
fala, mas de alguma outra pessoa ou de uma lei, um regulamento etc.

John has to wear a suit and tie to work five days a week. He doesn't like it, but
he has to. He's a lawyer.

Embora essa diferença exista (principalmente em inglês britânico), na prática


há uma tendência ao uso intercambiável desses dois verbos.

Passengers have to present their travel documents at the check-in counter.


(mais provável em American English)

198

Passengers must present their travel documents at the check-in counter. (mais
provável em British English)

Nesta coleção, optamos por não focalizar essa diferença, preferindo destacar a
diferença de sentido entre must e have to na forma negativa, essa, sim,
marcante e importante.

Passengers must not travel without a passport. (proibição)

You don't have to get a visa to travel to Argentina. (ausência de obrigação)

Check Your English 1

Respect Me é um serviço de conscientização anti-bullying da Escócia, lançado


em março de 2007. O serviço é totalmente financiado pelo governo escocês e é
gerido pela SAMH (Associação Escocesa para a Saúde Mental) em parceria
com a Juventude LGBT da Escócia. Sua visão é a de uma Escócia justa,
igualitária e inclusiva, em que todas as crianças e os jovens possam viver livres
de intimidação e assédio. Seu trabalho é conduzido com foco nos direitos das
crianças. A organização trabalha com todos os adultos envolvidos na vida de
crianças e jovens, de modo a dar-lhes as habilidades práticas e confiança para
lidar com crianças que sofrem ou cometem bullying.

Disponível em: www.respectme.org.uk/about.html. Acesso em: 8 maio 2016.

Unit 5

1. Sunflowers, Girassóis em jarras são um tema recorrente das pinturas do


pintor pós-impressionista holandês Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890), sendo sete
quadros no total. O Vaso com Quinze Girassóis, terminado em agosto de 1888,
está na National Gallery, em Londres, Inglaterra.

Disponível em: http://pedagogiatelurica.blogspot.com.br/


2015/05/dozegirassois-numa-jarra-autor.html. Acesso em: 15 abr. 2016.

2. Harry Buschman é um autor contemporâneo norte-americano. Nascido há


mais de oitenta anos em um bairro pobre em Nova York, formou-se em
arquitetura. O autor escreveu livros e diversos contos, que foram publicados no
site www.hawkwindcreations.com (acesso em: 13 abr. 2016). O autor orienta
jovens escritores e atua como membro em alguns sites literários.

Disponível em:
www.hawkwindcreations.com/harry%20buschman%20page.htm. Acesso em:
15 abr. 2016.

3. Swan Lake (O lago dos cisnes) é um balé dramático em quatro atos, do


compositor russo Tchaikovsky, que conta a história de Odette, uma princesa
transformada em cisne pela maldição de um malvado feiticeiro. A sua estreia
ocorreu no Teatro Bolshoi em Moscou no dia 20 de fevereiro de 1877, sendo
um fracasso, não por causa da música, mas sim pela má interpretação da
orquestra e dos bailarinos, assim como a coreografia e a cenografia. Hoje, no
entanto, é um dos balés mais conhecidos e populares, tendo sido adaptado e
readaptado de diferentes formas.

Disponível em: http://lojaanabotafogo.com.br/o-lago-dos-cisnes/. Acesso em:


15 abr. 2016.

Unit 6
1. Isaac Newton foi uma figura muito importante na história da ciência,
principalmente nas áreas da Física e da Matemática. Nascido em 1643, mesmo
ano da morte do físico Galileu Galilei, em uma pequena cidade localizada na
Inglaterra, Newton foi um gênio da sua época. Além de Física e Matemática,
ele estudou Filosofia, Astronomia, Alquimia, Teologia, Astrologia, entre outras
ciências. Newton, juntamente com outros cientistas e pensadores da época,
acreditava que o estudo dessas ciências possibilitaria a compreensão e o
estudo dos fenômenos naturais. Newton ficou muito conhecido por todos os
trabalhos, pesquisas e investigações experimentais que realizou. As
investigações experimentais eram cheias de rigor matemático e se tornaram
um verdadeiro modelo de investigação para as ciências dos séculos
posteriores. Dentre os muitos trabalhos que Isaac Newton elaborou, podemos
citar: o desenvolvimento da série de potência de um binômio, que hoje é
conhecido pelo nome de binômio de Newton; a criação e o desenvolvimento do
cálculo diferencial e do cálculo integral, que é uma ferramenta muito importante
para o estudo dos fenômenos físicos; o estudo sobre os fenômenos óticos que
possibilitaram a elaboração da teoria sobre a cor dos corpos; o estudo das leis
dos movimentos, lançando as bases da Mecânica; e o desenvolvimento das
primeiras ideias sobre a Gravitação Universal.

Disponível em: http://brasilescola.uol.com.br/fisica/um-fisico-chamado-isaac-


newton.htm. Acesso em: 8 maio 2016.

2. John Nash (1928-2015) foi um matemático norte-americano que trabalhou


com teoria dos jogos, geometria diferencial e equações diferenciais parciais.
Compartilhou o Prêmio de Ciências Econômicas em Memória de Alfred Nobel
de 1994 com Reinhard Selten e John Harsanyi.

199

Nash também foi conhecido por ter tido sua vida retratada no filme Uma mente
brilhante, vencedor de quatro Oscars, baseado no livro biográfico homônimo,
que apresentou seu gênio para a Matemática e sua luta contra a esquizofrenia.

Disponível em: https://geniospontocom.wordpress.com/2014/01/26/grandes-


matematicos-inspire-se/. Acesso em: 15 abr. 2016.
3. Stephen Hawking (Oxford, 8 de janeiro de 1942) é um físico teórico e
cosmólogo britânico e um dos mais consagrados cientistas da atualidade.
Doutor em cosmologia, foi professor de Matemática na Universidade de
Cambridge, onde hoje se encontra como professor emérito, um posto que foi
ocupado por Isaac Newton. Atualmente, é diretor de pesquisa do Departamento
de Matemática Aplicada e Física Teórica (DAMTP) e fundador do Centro de
Cosmologia Teórica (CTC) da Universidade de Cambridge.

Disponível em: http://agenciaade.com.br/a-vida-de-stephen-hawking/. Acesso


em: 15 abr. 2016.

Unit 7

1. Mona Lisa é uma das mais populares pinturas do artista renascentista


Leonardo da Vinci. Também conhecida como Gioconda, foi retratada por Da
Vinci entre os anos de 1503 e 1506. É uma pintura em óleo sobre madeira de
álamo e está exposta no Museu do Louvre, em Paris.

Disponível em: www.suapesquisa.com/ leonardo/mona_lisa.htm. Acesso em:


15 abr. 2016.

2. Fabio Colombini é formado em Arquitetura pela USP e atua


profissionalmente como fotógrafo de natureza há 28 anos. Suas imagens
registram com grande qualidade técnica e artística a rica biodiversidade da
fauna e flora brasileiras. Possui um amplo acervo de imagens, decorrente de
expedições pelos ecossistemas brasileiros, além de realizar produções em
arqueologia, arquitetura, artesanato, etnias indígenas e religião.

Disponível em: www.fabiocolombini.com.br/br/biografia.php. Acesso em: 15


abr. 2016.

3. Hand-painted pottery made in Pakistan. Objetos de cerâmica são feitos no


Paquistão em grande escala, vendidos localmente e também exportados. Toda
a pintura é feita manualmente pelos artesãos. Cada peça de cerâmica reflete a
cultura de cada região. A fabricação de cerâmica é importante para a economia
do Paquistão.

Disponível em: www.dostpakistan.pk/ceramic-painting/. Acesso em: 15 abr.


2016.
4. O pensador é uma das mais famosas esculturas de bronze do escultor
francês Auguste Rodin (1840- -1917). Retrata um homem em meditação
soberba, lutando com uma poderosa força interna. Originalmente chamada de
O poeta, a peça era parte de uma comissão do Museu de Arte Decorativa em
Paris para criar um portal monumental baseado na Divina comédia, de Dante
Alighieri. Mais de vinte cópias da escultura estão em museus em volta do
mundo. O Instituto Ricardo Brennand, na cidade do Recife, Pernambuco,
possui uma versão ampliada da obra original, exposta em seu acervo
particular, na Galeria de Artes Schnaider.

Disponível em: http://apsicologiaonline.com.br/2012/10/o-pensador-augusto-


rodin/. Acesso em: 15 abr. 2016.

5. Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606-1669) foi um pintor e gravador


holandês, geralmente considerado um dos maiores nomes da história da arte
europeia. Autor da obra de estilo barroco Lion Resting (Leão deitado),
terminada em 1652, que está no Museu do Louvre, em Paris.

Disponível em: www.howtodrawjourney.com/rembrandt-drawings.html,


www.rembrandtpainting.net/rmbrndt_selected_drawings/lion.htm. Acesso em:
15 abr. 2016.

6. Banksy, artista britânico, é o pseudônimo de um dos maiores nomes do


grafite mundial, além de pintor, ativista político e diretor de cinema. Sua arte de
rua satírica e subversiva combina humor negro e grafite feito com uma distinta
técnica de estêncil. Seus trabalhos de comentários sociais e políticos podem
ser encontrados em ruas, muros e pontes de cidades por todo o mundo.

Disponível em: www.ouniversodasartes.com.br/2014/01/o-grafite-de-


banksy.html. Acesso em: 15 abr. 2016.

7. Sebastião Salgado (1944-) é um fotógrafo brasileiro nascido em Aimorés,


Minas Gerais, considerado um dos maiores talentos da fotografia mundial pelo
teor social de seu trabalho. A partir de suas viagens à África, usou a fotografia
como hobby e posteriormente como profissão. Publicou o livro Outras Américas
(1986), que abordava assuntos a respeito da vida dos camponeses latino-
americanos. Em outra publicação, Sahel: o homem em agonia (1986), tratou de
questões relacionadas à seca na região africana de Sahel. Já no livro
Trabalhadores (1993), o fotógrafo mostrou fotos sobre o trabalho manual.

200

Em Terra, a temática foi o problema da questão agrária no Brasil. Além disso,


fez sucesso com o projeto Êxodos, com exposições em São Paulo. Sebastião
Salgado recebeu diversos prêmios, entre eles, o Fotografia Humanitária (EUA,
1982) e o Unesco para Iniciativas Bem-Sucedidas (1999).

Disponível em: www.e-biografias.net/sebastiao_salgado/. Acesso em: 15 abr.


2016.

8. The Starry Night (Noite estrelada) é uma das mais conhecidas pinturas do
artista holandês pós-impressionista Vincent van Gogh. É um quadro pintado
quando ele tinha 37 anos e estava em um asilo em Saint-Rémy-de-Provence
(1889-1890), na França. A obra atualmente encontra-se na coleção
permanente do Museu de Arte Moderna de Nova York. Ao contrário de muitas
outras de suas obras, Noite estrelada foi pintada de memória, e não a partir da
vista correspondente de uma paisagem, como de costume. Durante sua estada
no asilo, Van Gogh se dedicou a pintar sobre todas as paisagens da região de
Provence. Foi nesse período que ele rompeu com o que se poderia chamar de
uma fase impressionista, desenvolvendo um estilo muito particular, no qual
prevalecem fortes cores primárias, como o amarelo, às quais Van Gogh atribui
significados próprios.

Disponível em: www.sabercultural.com/template/especiais/Ofascinio.html.


Acesso em: 8 maio 2016.

9. O Museu Afro Brasil é uma instituição pública, subordinada à Secretaria da


Cultura do Estado de São Paulo e administrada pela Associação Museu Afro
Brasil - Organização Social de Cultura. Localizado no Pavilhão Padre Manoel
da Nóbrega, dentro do mais famoso parque de São Paulo, o Parque Ibirapuera,
o museu conserva, em 11 mil m2, um acervo com mais de 6 mil obras entre
pinturas, esculturas, gravuras, fotografias, documentos e peças etnológicas, de
autores brasileiros e estrangeiros, produzidos entre o século XVIII e os dias de
hoje. O acervo abarca diversos aspectos dos universos culturais africanos e
afro-brasileiros, abordando temas como a religião, o trabalho, a arte, a
escravidão, entre outros temas, ao registrar a trajetória histórica e as
influências africanas na construção da sociedade brasileira. O museu exibe
parte do seu acervo na exposição de longa duração, realiza exposições
temporárias e dispõe de um auditório e de uma biblioteca especializada, que
complementam sua programação cultural ao longo do ano.

Disponível em: www.museuafrobrasil.org.br/o-museu. Acesso em: 8 maio 2016.

Unit 8

A crise da água no Brasil. O Brasil passou a viver, a partir de 2014, os


primeiros grandes focos daquilo que pode ser a maior crise hídrica de sua
história. Com um problema grave de seca e também de gestão dos recursos
naturais, o país vem apresentando níveis baixos em seus reservatórios em
épocas do ano em que eles costumam estar bem mais cheios. Embora o país
possua as maiores reservas de água por unidade territorial do planeta, elas
estão desigualmente distribuídas no espaço geográfico brasileiro. Além disso, a
maior parte da população brasileira não reside nos pontos onde a água se
encontra disponível de forma mais abundante, pois há uma concentração
populacional muito elevada nas regiões Sudeste e Nordeste. Outro problema é
a má utilização e gestão dos recursos hídricos no país. Em 2015, o estado de
São Paulo foi o que mais atraiu a atenção da mídia, pois a capital paulista, que
é a área mais povoada do país, foi a protagonista desse cenário de crise.

Disponível em: www.brasilescola.com/geografia/escassez-agua-no-brasil.htm.


Acesso em: 15 abr. 2016.

Check Your English 2

1. Nelson Mandela (1918-2013) foi presidente da África do Sul. Foi o líder do


movimento contra o apartheid - legislação que segregava os negros no país.
Condenado em 1964 à prisão perpétua, foi libertado em 1990, depois de
grande pressão internacional. Recebeu o Prêmio Nobel da Paz em dezembro
de 1993, pela sua luta contra o regime de segregação racial.

Disponível em: www.e-biografias.net/nelson_mandela/. Acesso em: 15 abr.


2016.
2. Desmond Tutu é um dos mais conhecidos ativistas dos direitos humanos da
África do Sul e ganhou o Prêmio Nobel da Paz de 1984, pelos seus esforços no
sentido de acabar com o apartheid. Nascido em 1931 em Klerksdorp,
Transvaal, África do Sul, ele tornou-se o primeiro arcebispo anglicano negro da
Cidade do Cabo e Joanesburgo. Conhecido como a voz dos sem voz sul-
africanos negros, ele foi um crítico ferrenho do apartheid. Tutu também apoiou
o boicote econômico da África do Sul, sem deixar de incentivar a reconciliação
entre as várias facções associadas com o apartheid.

Disponível em: http://br.youthforhumanrights.org/voices-for-human-


rights/champions/desmond-tutu.html. Acesso em: 15 abr. 2016.

201

ATIVIDADES COMPLEMENTARES

Nesta seção apresentamos sugestões de atividades que, a critério do professor


e de acordo com o interesse dos alunos, do tempo disponível e da logística da
escola, podem ser aplicadas como recursos que contribuem para o
enriquecimento do aprendizado. Essas sugestões estão abaixo distribuídas por
Unidade.

Unit 1

1. The Tech Museum of Innovation

Os alunos acessam o site de The Tech Museum of Innovation, disponível em


www.thetech.org/plan-your-visit/galleries (acesso em: 15 abr. 2016), para
conhecer suas diferentes galerias: Body Metrics, Cyber Detectives, Social
Robots, The Tech Awards Gallery, Exploration Gallery, Silicon Valley Innovation
Gallery, The Tech Studio. Os alunos devem ler as informações e assistir ao
vídeo - quando houver - sobre cada uma das galerias do museu. Depois disso,
cada aluno conta à turma qual galeria achou mais interessante e justifica sua
escolha.

2. Technology and Education

Os alunos assistem ao vídeo Education on Air - Student Voices: "How does


technology help you learn?", disponível em:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=LIfAWNqMCsc (acesso em: 15 abr. 2016). Depois
disso, eles discutem, em pequenos grupos, as seguintes questões (todas com
respostas pessoais):

a ) Do you use technology as a learning tool? If so, do you use technology the
same way as the students in the video? If not, would you like to?

b ) In your opinion, what are the advantages of using technology as a learning


tool?

3. Technology Infographic

Os alunos acessam o infográfico disponível em:


www.happify.com/hd/happiness-and-technologyinfographic/ (acesso em: 15
abr. 2016). A turma pode ser dividida em quatro grupos. Cada grupo fica
responsável por um tópico do infográfico (1. How do we feel online?; 2. Does
being connected make us more - or less - productive?; 3. Is technology helping
or harming our relationships?; 4. Go ahead, get social) e deve relatar à turma
as informações que descobriu. Depois disso, os alunos podem discutir a
seguinte pergunta com seus grupos: What information did you find most
surprising in the infographic? Why?

Unit 2

1. Endangered Species

Os alunos fazem uma pesquisa sobre as espécies em extinção no Brasil, sobre


as possíveis consequências da extinção de animais e sobre formas de evitar
esse problema. Eles podem apresentar as informações oralmente, em inglês,
ou podem criar cartazes informativos e disponibilizá-los na sala de aula. A
atividade também pode ser feita em parceria com o/a professor(a) de biologia.

2. Animals in Different Cultures

Os alunos fazem uma pesquisa sobre animais em diferentes culturas - animais


considerados sagrados, animais domésticos, animais que servem como
alimento etc. Depois disso, os alunos partilham, oralmente, com seus colegas,
as informações encontradas.

3. Animal Protection
Os alunos visitam o site do World Animal Protection,
www.worldanimalprotection.org/ (acesso em: 15 abr. 2016) e respondem às
seguintes perguntas:

a ) What does the World Animal Protection organization do?

Possible answer: They end the needless suffering of animals, influence decision
makers to put animals on the global agenda, help the world see how important
animals are to all of us, inspire people to change animals' lives for the better
and move the world to protect animals.

b ) How can people help it?

Possible answer: By supporting campaigns, signing petitions, donating.

c ) Does the World Animal Protection have an office in Brazil?

Answer: Yes, it does.

Os alunos podem ainda visitar o link de notícias


www.worldanimalprotection.org/news (acesso em: 15 abr. 2016), ler a notícia
que mais lhes interessar e partilhar com a turma algumas informações sobre o
que leram.

Unit 3

1. Different Cultures in English-Speaking Countries

A turma é dividida em pequenos grupos e cada grupo fica responsável por


pesquisar aspectos da cultura de um país onde o inglês seja língua oficial.

202

Uma lista com os países que têm a língua inglesa como língua oficial pode ser
encontrada em www.lem.seed.pr.
gov.br/modules/conteudo/conteudo.php?conteudo=71 ou em
www.webbusca.com.br/atlas/paises_ lingua_inglesa.asp (acesso em: 15 de
abr. 2016). A apresentação pode ser feita oralmente e os alunos podem fazer
uso de cartazes ou apresentações em Power Point como apoio visual.

2. Linguistic Diversity and Multilingualism on Internet

Apresente as frases abaixo para os alunos, peça que discutam em pequenos


grupos e digam se acreditam que as afirmações são verdadeiras ou falsas. Em
seguida, os alunos leem o texto Linguistic diversity and multilingualism on
Internet, disponível em: www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-
andinformation/access-to-knowledge/linguistic-diversity-and-multilingualism-on-
internet/ (acesso em: 15 abr. 2016) e verificam se suas respostas estão de
acordo com o texto.

Answers: a) T; b) T; c) F; d) T; e) F

a ) People can share knowledge, information and culture in many different


languages through the Internet.

b ) Nowadays everybody is allowed to produce content, share it with the world


and receive feedback.

c ) All languages are present on the Internet.

d ) The Internet is culturally diverse.

e ) Speakers of non-dominant languages shouldn't express themselves on the


Internet.

Depois de verificarem suas respostas, os alunos podem, em pequenos grupos,


discutir as seguintes questões: (respostas pessoais)

a ) Do you use the Internet to search for information? What websites do you
usually access?

b ) Have you ever produced and shared any content on the Internet? Talk about
it.

c ) Which language do you use on the Internet: Portuguese or English? Why?

3. Diversity

Os alunos assistem ao vídeo Diversity, disponível em


www.youtube.com/watch?v=hfO82z29hWg ( acesso em: 15 abr. 2016) e
respondem às seguintes perguntas:

a ) What adjectives are used to describe people?

Answer: People are unique, priceless and irreplaceable.

b ) What's the message conveyed in the video?


Suggested answer: That people's value is not related to their race, their
socioeconomic class, their choices and opinions. Every person is valuable for
what they are and we should respect them.

c ) How can we contribute to the cause of respect for everybody?

Personal answer.

d ) If people respect diversity, do you think the world will be a better place?

Personal answer.

Unit 4

1. Movie Trailers

Para contextualizar a atividade de Reading e a atividade de Speaking da


Unidade 4, os alunos podem assistir aos trailers dos filmes A.I. Artificial
Intelligence, disponível em www.youtube.com/watch?v=sqS83f-NUww, e I,
Robot, disponível em: www.youtube.com/watch?-v=rL6RRIOZyCM (acesso em:
15 abr. 2016).

2. Modal Verbs

Para praticar os modal verbs, os alunos jogam o game online Catapult,


disponível em: www.eslgamesplus.com/modal-verbs-can-could-might-must-
should-would-catapult/ (acesso em: 15 abr. 2016). É possível jogá-lo sozinho
ou em dois grupos, um contra o outro. A atividade pode ser realizada no
laboratório de informática da escola, se possível.

3. Robots and Humans

Os alunos assistem ao vídeo Will robots replace humans?, disponível em


www.bbc.com/news/business-29639136 (acesso em: 15 abr. 2016), e
respondem às seguintes perguntas:

a ) What is the software shown at the beginning of the video able to do?

Answer: To recognize a person's mood.

b ) What's the name of the robot that is shown at the beginning of the video?

Answer: It's Olivia.

c ) Which country in Asia has the largest number of industrial robots?


Answer: Japan.

d ) According to specialists, can robots do the same jobs as humans?

Answer: No, there are certain jobs that can only be done by humans.
Specialists see robots as a complement to different tasks, not as a replacement
of people.

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Unit 5

1. Short Stories

Os alunos acessam o site www.world-english.org/stories.htm (acesso em: 15


abr. 2016), que contém uma lista de contos clássicos em inglês. Cada aluno lê
o conto que mais lhe interessar. Em aula, os alunos compartilham as seguintes
informações sobre o conto que leram:

- Short story title

- Author's name

- Characters

- Setting

- Plot

- Theme

2. International Day of Happiness

Os alunos assistem ao vídeo International Day of Happiness - Arab Youth


Volunteering, disponível em: www.youtube.com/watch?v=Db4FnNdLZco
(acesso em: 15 abr. 2016). Esse vídeo mostra as respostas de jovens
voluntários de países árabes à pergunta What makes you happy?. Ao
assistirem ao vídeo, os alunos respondem às seguintes questões:

a ) When is the International Day of Happiness?

Answer: It's on March 20.

b ) What countries are those young volunteers from?

Answer: Egypt, Sudan, Jordan, Morocco, Yemen and Tunisia.


c ) What makes them happy?

Possible answer: Contributing to the community, seeing the empowerment of


the youth, helping others to learn new things, helping people to improve their
lives, developing sustainable projects, working to make other young people
happy, etc. In other words, being a volunteer makes them happy.

3. World Happiness

Os alunos leem o texto intitulado Nigerians Among Top Three Happiest African
Nations, disponível em: www.naij.com/427416-nigerians-are-among-three-
happiest-african-nations.html (acesso em: 15 abr. 2016). Observando a
imagem, a tabela e o mapa, e utilizando a estratégia de scanning, os alunos
respondem às seguintes perguntas:

a ) According to a survey sponsored by the UN in 2015, what were the world top
three happiest countries?

Answer: Switzerland, Iceland and Denmark.

b ) What does the survey take into consideration in order to calculate the World
Happiness index?

Answer: GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita, life expectancy, levels of
civil rights and social freedoms and corruption levels.

c ) What were the three happiest countries in the African continent?

Answer: Nigeria, Libya and Algeria.

d ) What was Nigeria's position in the global rank?

Answer: Nigeria was ranked 78th.

e ) By analyzing the map ("Geography of happiness"), how can you rate Brazil?

Answer: It can be considered a happy country.

Unit 6

1. Science News

Os alunos acessam o site www.sciencenews.org (acesso em: 15 abr. 2016) e


navegam pelas notícias. Em grupos, os alunos escolhem uma das que mais
lhes chamam a atenção. Após lerem as notícias, cada grupo partilha com a
turma as informações obtidas.

2. Best Inventions

Os alunos acessam uma lista com as 25 melhores invenções do ano de 2014,


disponível no site http://time.com/3594971/the-25-best-inventions-of-2014/
(acesso em: 15 abr. 2016), e respondem às seguintes perguntas, todas com
respostas pessoais:

a ) Which invention did you like most? Why?

b ) Which invention would you like to have? Why?

c ) Which invention do you consider the least useful? Why?

d ) Those inventions were made in the year 2014. Are they easily available for
anyone now?

3. Famous Scientists Crossword Puzzle

Os alunos são divididos em grupos e cada grupo cria uma cruzadinha sobre
cientistas famosos. Os alunos acessam o site www.famousscientists.org
(acesso em: 15 abr. 2016) para ter mais informações sobre cientistas famosos,
o que os ajudará a elaborar as pistas de sua cruzadinha. Em seguida, criam a
cruzadinha utilizando o site
http://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/CrissCrossSetupForm.asp ou o site
www.puzzle-maker.com/CW/ (acesso em: 15 abr. 2016). Após a elaboração, os
grupos trocam as cruzadinhas que criaram e cada grupo deve responder às
cruzadinhas elaboradas pelos outros grupos.

Unit 7

1. Museu de Arte do Rio

Os alunos navegam pelo site do Museu de Arte do Rio, em inglês


(www.museudeartedorio.org.br/en acesso em: 15 abr. 2016), e respondem às
seguintes perguntas:

204

a ) Where is the museum located?

Answer: It's on 5, Mauá Square, downtown, Rio de Janeiro.


b ) When is the museum open?

Answer: Tuesdays through Sundays, from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.

c ) When is admission free?

Answer: Every Tuesday.

d ) Does the museum have an educational program?

Answer: Yes, it does.

e ) What are some current exhibitions?

Answer: A resposta depende da data em que o acesso for realizado.

f) Which one do you consider the most interesting? Why?

Personal answer.

2. Brazil's Top 10 Museums

Os alunos leem o texto de um blog sobre os 10 melhores museus brasileiros


(na opinião do autor do blog), disponível em:
www.lan.com/onlyinsouthamerica/brazilstop-10-museums/ (acesso em: 15 abr.
2016). Em seguida, eles discutem oralmente as seguintes questões, em
pequenos grupos, todas com respostas pessoais:

a ) Have you ever visited one of the museums mentioned in the text? If so, talk
about that experience.

b ) Which museums from the list would you like to visit? Why?

c ) Is there any other museum you would include on the list? If so, which one?
Why?

Unit 8

1. Saving Water

O aluno explora as dicas de economia de água em diferentes ambientes


(kitchen, bath, laundry, outdoors, work) de maneira interativa, clicando nos
ícones das imagens no site http://saveourwater.com/whatyou-can-do/tips/
(acesso em: 15 abr. 2016). Depois de explorar as dicas do site, os alunos
discutem as seguintes questões em pequenos grupos, todas com respostas
pessoais:
a ) Do you already follow any of those tips to save water? If so, which one(s)?

b ) Which tips mentioned in the website are you going to follow from now on?

c ) What other tips would you suggest?

2. Water Scarcity

Os alunos assistem ao vídeo Morocco's solution to water scarcity, disponível


em www.youtube.com/watch?v=vT4AdtY4GKQ (acesso em: 15 abr. 2016), e
respondem às seguintes perguntas:

a ) What's the number one user of water worldwide?

Answer: Agriculture.

b ) What are local farmers doing in order to deal with water scarcity in Morocco?

Answer: They are using water saving drip pipes to irrigate their crops.

c ) What are the benefits of this new system of irrigation?

Answer: Farmers save on labor and expenses for input. Besides that, their
production and profit increase.

3. Water Smart Campaign

Os alunos acessam o site www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/watersmart.shtml


(acesso em: 15 abr. 2016) e visualizam os pôsteres criados pela Organização
das Nações Unidas para o World Water Day. Em pequenos grupos, eles
discutem as seguintes questões, todas com respostas pessoais:

a ) Where would you display those campaign posters?

b ) Which one did you like most? Why?

c ) What other messages would you write on those posters?

SUGESTÕES DE LEITURA E DE WEBSITES

Esta seção oferece indicações de livros e sites que consideramos


enriquecedores, não só para a prática pedagógica do professor, mas também
como recursos de aprendizagem ao aluno.

Para o aluno e para o professor

Activities for ESL Students: a4esl.org


Site que oferece exercícios, jogos, puzzles e testes, tanto de aspectos
gramaticais quanto lexicais, em atividades organizadas por tópicos e por nível
de dificuldade.

Cybergrammar: www.cybergrammar.co.uk/index.php

Esse site oferece explicações de uma ampla gama de aspectos gramaticais de


inglês, com discussões pedagógicas e testes sobre os pontos estudados.

Dictionary.com: http://dictionary.reference.com

Dicionário inglês-inglês e inglês-outras línguas, que oferece sinônimos e


antônimos, áudio com a pronúncia dos vocábulos, quizzes, infográficos, blog
etc.

205

É também um aplicativo que pode ser baixado para smartphones e tablets.

Learn English - British Council: http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en

Site voltado para alunos e professores de língua inglesa que oferece podcasts,
vídeos, jogos, material de leitura, atividades de produção escrita e outros tipos
de atividade. O site também sugere alguns aplicativos do British Council para a
aprendizagem de inglês, que podem ser baixados em smartphones e tablets.

Macmillan Dictionary: http://macmillandictionary.com

O site oferece muitos recursos como open dictionary, buzzword, blog, vídeos
com o professor Michael Rundell sobre aspectos gramaticais que suscitam
dúvidas, language resources como infográficos, jogos, puzzles, além de um
dicionário de sinônimos (thesaurus), atividades de pronúncia, free online
English test etc.

Oxford Dictionaries Online: http://oxforddictionaries.com/;


http://oald8.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/

O portal dá acesso a dicionários monolíngues, um em British English, outro em


American English. O portal oferece atividades fotocopiáveis e jogos, além de
uma seção dedicada à produção escrita, com encaminhamentos e sugestões
para a produção de diversos gêneros textuais.

Para o professor
BALDISSERA, A. Pesquisa-ação: uma metodologia do "conhecer" e do "agir"
coletivo. Sociedade em Debate. Pelotas, v. 7, n. 2, p. 5-25, ago 2001.
Disponível em: http://revistas.ucpel.tche.br/index.php/rsd/article/view/570.
Acesso em: 13 abr. 2016.

Esse artigo caracteriza a pesquisa-ação como nova proposta metodológica,


dentro de um contexto caracterizado por várias preocupações teóricas e
práticas que incidem na busca de novas formas de intervenção e investigação,
privilegiando a participação em vista da transformação da realidade.

ENGEL, G. I. Pesquisa-ação. Educar em Revista. Curitiba: Editora da UFPR, n.


16, p. 181-191, 2000. Disponível em:
www.educaremrevista.ufpr.br/arquivos_16/irineu_engel.pdf. Acesso em: 13 abr.
2016.

Esse artigo faz uma introdução à pesquisa-ação, destacando sua utilidade, em


especial no que diz respeito a práticas educativas. Discutem-se o seu conceito,
suas características e suas vantagens. Apresentam-se ainda as fases de
implementação de um projeto desse tipo de pesquisa.

LIMA, D. C. (Org.). Ensino e aprendizagem de língua inglesa - conversas com


especialistas. São Paulo: Parábola Editorial, 2009.

Esse livro estabelece um espaço de debates e reflexões a respeito do processo


de ensino-aprendizagem de inglês como língua estrangeira e internacional,
especialmente voltados para os professores de língua inglesa que atuam na
rede pública. Especialistas debatem questões de autonomia, leitura em língua
estrangeira, relação entre os PCN e o ensino de línguas, avaliação de
aprendizagem, motivação, inclusão e interação social, preconceito e
diversidade linguística, linguística aplicada crítica, interlíngua, aspectos
culturais e ideológicos relacionados ao ensino e à aprendizagem de língua
estrangeira, métodos e técnicas de ensino, além dos questionamentos acerca
das quatro habilidades linguísticas: ouvir, falar, ler e escrever.

MACARO, E. Learning Strategies in Foreign and Second Language


Classrooms: The Role of Learner Strategies. London: Continuum, 2001.

Esse livro proporciona uma discussão teórica bem acessível sobre o assunto,
com sugestões práticas que levam ao desenvolvimento de estratégias das
habilidades comunicativas, de modo a ajudar os alunos na sua aprendizagem
autônoma.

MOITA LOPES, L. P. da. Oficina de Linguística Aplicada: a natureza social e


educacional dos processos de ensino/aprendizagem de línguas. Campinas:
Mercado de Letras, 1996.

Esse livro é referência para a reflexão quanto ao processo de ensino-


aprendizagem de línguas, abordando questões centrais que permeiam a
prática pedagógica em sala de aula, assim como aspectos relacionados aos
processos de pesquisa e a formação do professor.

MORAN, J. M. Os novos espaços de atuação do educador com as tecnologias.


In: ROMANOWSKI, J. P. et al. (Org.). Conhecimento local e conhecimento
universal: Diversidade, mídias e tecnologias na educação. Curitiba, v. 2, p. 245-
253, 2004. Disponível em:
www.ufrgs.br/nucleoead/documentos/moranOsnovos.htm. Acesso em: 13 abr.
2016.

Esse artigo discute os desafios pedagógicos da inserção das tecnologias


digitais nos espaços escolares - salas de aulas equipadas com recursos
tecnológicos, laboratório de informática e ambientes virtuais de aprendizagem.

206

MULIK, K. B.; RETORTA, M. S. (Org.). Avaliação no ensino aprendizagem de


línguas estrangeiras: diálogos, pesquisas e reflexões. Pontes, 2014.

O livro reúne trabalhos e entrevistas sobre avaliação em línguas estrangeiras,


uma área ainda pouco investigada no cenário brasileiro. Busca-se promover e
ampliar discussões sobre a avaliação nos diferentes contextos de ensino-
aprendizagem de línguas estrangeiras.

Site do professor Vilson Leffa (UCPel). Disponível em: www.leffa.pro.br. Acesso


em: 13 abr. 2016.

Site mantido pelo professor Dr. Vilson J. Leffa, professor titular da Universidade
Católica de Pelotas (UCPel), disponibiliza, entre outros recursos, muitos textos
sobre ensino-aprendizagem de línguas e formação do professor.

AUDIO SCRIPTS
Nesta seção apresentamos a transcrição dos textos usados em cada Unidade,
na seção Listening, para desenvolvimento da compreensão oral.

Unit 1

Interviewer: In this age of electronics, and pads and cell phones and games,
do you see that as more of a challenge or do you think that young people's
brains are a little bit more... malleable now?

Author: Too much of anything is bad, all right? So, is technology a good way to
learn? Yes. Does technology, if you will, force you to concentrate and focus?
Yes. But if you're basically... your face is on your pad, your face is on... you
know... It's... I'm sitting with my grandchildren and we're in the same room. They
don't want to talk, they want to text. And I said, "Look, we're sitting right across
from each other. Do you see my eyes?" "Yes, papi, I see your eyes." "Can you
talk?" "Yes, I can talk, but I'd rather text." And I said, "No, we're gonna talk". So,
the answer is you've got to fight that and... take the toy aspect of it out. And
what's interesting is... a lot of very bright people I know in the technology
industry... their names... they sort of limit the hours their children can spend on
the devices per day. And if you look at it and look at the very progressive
schools where kids learn by doing, they use technology but they limit it. So, yes,
technology is good. Don't let technology consume your children, so you miss
the opportunity to... how to engage and relate and have conversations about
learning. Because when you talk about things you're trying to learn, putting it
into language, the processing that goes on in your brain... basically
conversation is a very powerful way to learn.

Interviewer: And adults, too. We get pretty addicted to our devices.

Author: Yes. Yes, we do. Yes, we do. Same thing. Good point. Adults, too.

Disponível em: www.youtube.com/watch?v=yWqmMgrG5Ac. Acesso em: 15


abr. 2016.

Unit 2

People for Animals is a non-profit conservation organization, established in the


year 1996, which works on promoting harmony between humankind and nature.
PFA plays an important role in the rescuing of wild animals affected by open
development as there is a lack of rescue centers focusing on small open wildlife
in Bangalore. PFA has an emergency vehicle that attends to the emergency
calls about injured and displaced animals on a daily basis. After being rescued,
animals are treated by a professional wildlife veterinary doctor before going into
a process of rehabilitation. The most rewarding experience at PFA is the
heartwarming release of the once injured animals back into the wild.

Disponível em: People for Animals (PFA),


Bangalore/info@peopleforanimalsbangalore.org.

Unit 3

We spend lots of time online. We text, we comment, we share. It's a big part of
our lives. But communicating with someone online is just like talking to them in
real life. Everyone appreciates politeness and no one likes it when people make
fun, spread gossip, rumors or lies. The fact is some people do try to hurt others
online. It's called cyberbullying and it's a lose-lose situation: it makes the person
being harassed feel bad - and it makes the bully look bad. It might lead to
trouble with school authorities or even the police. If someone is harassing you
online, it's important not to respond. That's because bullies are looking for a
reaction. Block them if you can, ignore them if you can. If it continues, save the
evidence and ask an adult for help. And don't be afraid to stand up for yourself
or to stand up for someone else being cyberbullied. This behavior usually stops
pretty quickly when someone speaks up. And when you're communicating
online, remember to treat people the way you'd like to be treated.

207

Know how to handle yourself, because being online is part of your life. So stop
and think before you click.

Disponível em: www.onguardonline.gov/media/video-0005-standcyberbullying.


Acesso em: 15 abr. 2016.

Unit 4

The first law is as follows: a robot may not harm a human being or, through
inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. Number two: a robot must obey
orders given it by qualified personnel, unless those orders violate rule number
one. In other words, a robot can't be ordered to kill a human being. Rule
number three: a robot must protect its own existence (after all it's an expensive
piece of equipment...), unless it violates rules one or two. A robot must
cheerfully go into self-destruction if it is in order to follow an order or to save a
human life.

Disponível em:
www.openculture.com/2012/10/isaac_asimov_explains_his_three_laws_of_rob
otics.html. Acesso em: 15 abr. 2016.

Unit 5

Speaker l: Uh, What is happiness?

Speaker 2: I think happiness is a pretty complicated concept that... that has to


do with just sort of pleasure on one hand, but has to do with a broader meaning
also.

Speaker 3: For me, staying in my own lane, not being comparative to others,
my peers, that could have more than me or less than me, that is when I'm the
most happy, when I'm in my own lane.

Speaker 4: If you want to define happiness in any... any big picture way, you
really wanna be focusing more on what gives life meaning and purpose than
you do on the moment to moment, little jolts of joy that you make up.

Speaker 5: We know a lot about the things it's associated with... high life
satisfaction. By far the most important is the relationships with other people.

Disponível em: www.youtube.com/watch?v=FDF2DidUAyY. Acesso em: 15 abr.


2016.

Unit 6

A pill that could replace the treadmill? Scientists of the Harvard Stem Cell
Institute in Massachusetts General Hospital have apparently found a
breakthrough in obesity research. They say they have identified two compounds
that turn white, or bad fat cells into brown, or good fat cells. When a person
consumes more calories than they burn off, they are stored as white fat cells,
which leads to weight gain. These compounds work to convert white fat cells
into brown fat cells. The brown fat cells then burn off excess energy and reduce
the amount of white fat cells. Associate Professor Chad Cowan says the
discovery is a result of a decade of research done on stem cells. Although the
research is promising, he says long-term effects are unknown and it will be a
while before actual pills ever hit the market. And before you think you can quit
the gym forever, the researchers also said a pill would not replace other
benefits of exercise.

Disponível em: www.youtube.com/watch?v=-9DjkLBUMO8. Acesso em: 15 abr.


2016.

Unit 7

Male speaker: Van Gogh often painted scenes from the world around him. But
rather than depicting reality, he drew inspiration largely from his imagination and
memory. He wrote about his fascination with the night sky, stating "It often
seems to me that the night is much more alive and richly colored than the day."

Female speaker: What's remarkable about The Starry Night is the depiction of
the sky itself. We have an intensely turbulent, vibrant, excited, agitated night
sky.

Male speaker: The village below is Saint-Rémy, in the south of France. Van
Gogh spent a year in a mental hospital there, making more than a hundred
fifteen paintings depicting the hospital grounds and the surrounding landscape.

Disponível em: www.moma.org/explore/multimedia/audios/371/5305. Acesso


em: 15 abr. 2016.

Unit 8

We were looking for simple solutions to green homes and found a big problem
that's sending our good intentions down the drain. I'm talking about how much
water we waste every day.

Well, here are seven ways we can use less water without spending a dime.
Number 1: turn the water off while brushing your teeth. Number 2: fill your sink
with a little hot water and turn the faucet off while shaving. Number 3: fill a milk
jug with stones and place it in your toilet tank to displace water. Number 4: fix
any toilet and faucet leaks immediately. Number 5: don't use your toilet as a
trash can. Number 6: Reduce the time you spend showering by two minutes.
And, finally, number 7: as you're waiting for your bath water to warm up to the
right temperature, you can actually save it to irrigate your lawn and flower beds
later.

Disponível em: http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/green-


guidehowdini/conserve-water-greenguide?source=relatedvideo. Acesso em: 15
abr. 2016.

208

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2000.

BAKHTIN, M. M. Speech Genres and Other Late Essays. Austin: University of


Texas Press, 1986.

BAZERMAN, C.; HOFFNAGEL, J. C.; DIONÍSIO, A. (Org.). Gênero, agência e


escrita. São Paulo: Cortez, 2006.

BRASIL. Ministério da Educação. Secretaria de Educação Básica. Orientações


Curriculares para o Ensino Médio. Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias.
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BRASIL. Ministério da Educação. Secretaria de Educação Média e


Tecnológica. Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais: Ensino Médio. Linguagens,
códigos e suas tecnologias. Brasília, 2000.

BRASIL. Ministério da Educação. Secretaria de Educação Média e


Tecnológica. PCN+ Ensino Médio: Orientações educacionais complementares
aos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais. Linguagens, códigos e suas
tecnologias. Brasília, 2002.

BRYSON, B. The Mother Tongue - English & How It Got That Way. New York:
William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1991.

CRYSTAL, D. A Little Book of Language. New Haven; London: Yale University


Press, 2010.

CRYSTAL, D.Discover Grammar. London: Longman, 1996.

LEDERER, R. The Miracle of Language. New York: Pocket Books, 1991.


MARCUSCHI, L. A. Gêneros textuais: configuração, dinamicidade e circulação.
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FAIXAS DO CD DE ÁUDIO

Tabela: equivalente textual a seguir.

Faixa Conteúdo

1 Apresentação

2 Unit 1 - Pronunciation Tips

3 Unit 1 - Listening

4 Unit 2 - Pronunciation Tips

5 Unit 2 - Pronunciation Tips

6 Unit 2 - Listening

7 Unit 3 - Pronunciation Tips

8 Unit 3 - Pronunciation Tips

9 Unit 3 - Listening

10 Unit 4 - Pronunciation Tips


11 Unit 4 - Pronunciation Tips

Tabela: equivalente textual a seguir.

Faixa Conteúdo

12 Unit 4 - Listening

13 Unit 5 - Pronunciation Tips

14 Unit 5 - Listening

15 Unit 6 - Pronunciation Tips

16 Unit 6 - Listening

17 Unit 7 - Pronunciation Tips

18 Unit 7 - Listening

19 Unit 8 - Pronunciation Tips

20 Unit 8 - Pronunciation Tips

21 Unit 8 - Listening