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Republic of the Philippines

Capiz State University

Pontevedra Campus

Hospitality Management Department


Research Title : Field trials of Different Adlai (Coixlacryma-Jobi L.) Varieties

at CapSU Pontevedra Condition

Proponent : Salvacion B. Degala, Deigo Mallones, and Lloyd Mark Agris

Campus : Pontevedra

Classification : Developmental Research

Research Center :

Duration :

Cost of Fund :

Source of Fund :

Beneficiaries :



At the time of economic crisis, nations around the world encountered

various problems and one of which is the scarcity of food. Here in the Philippines,
where majority of people belong to the lower class, the plight of the poor is very
obvious. Many children, youth, and adults go hungry, get sick and some even die
because of undernourishment. Hence, it is imperative that both public and
private sectors should find ways to alleviate these problems.

Indigenous crops are one among the most neglected economic plants in
the field. These crops suffered from low yield and total neglect.

Based on newskrayb.blogspot.com although considered of economic

importance, indigenous crops like job tears or Adlai, commonly known in Capiz
as “tigbi” have not been receiving as much as material impact and cultural
management care as traditionally given to other high value crops. This is except
in experimental stations and few commercial farms.

At times, when tight financial situation is a problem, Adlai production

benefits the farmers. Adlai is a kind of cereal – cultivated plants of the grass family
that yield edible starchy foods or grains. The word cereal is derived from the name
“Ceres”, roman goddess of harvest and is considered as the most important
group of food crops in the world. Its global importance to our diet and to the
history of civilization has been celebrated in art and religion through the ages.
Cereal has been revered as a gift of God, a symbol of prosperity and fertility.
(Guzman,.M.P, et.al)

In this connection, the researchers were motivated to culture Adlai varieties

at CapSU, Pontevedra which it will be useful not only for consumption but also in
producing products for commercial purpose as an additional source of income
for the low income group. Hence, this study is anchored.

Objectives of the Study

Generally the study was conducted to find out if the four Adlai grain
varieties could survive at CapSU Pontevedra condition.

Specifically, the objectives of this study are the following:

a. To determine the performance of the four Adlai varieties in terms of height

(cm) at 30, 60, and 90 days after planting.

b. To find out the performance of the four Adlai varieties in terms of number
of tillers at 15, 30, and 45 days after planting.

c. To determine the performance of the four varieties in terms of numbers of

productive tillers.

d. To evaluate the yield performance of the four Adlai varieties in terms of tons
per hectare and in sq. meter quadrant.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study was limited to determine which of the different Adlai varieties
tested at CapSU, Pontevedra conditions can adapt and will exhibit dominance
in terms of the yield. The treatments were as follows:

Treatment A – Gullian (yellow white)

Treatment B- Kinampay (Grey orange)
Treatment C – Pulot (yellow white, Glutinous)
Treatment D – Tapol (Grey orange)

Time and Place of the Study

The study was conducted at the experimental area of Capiz State

University, Pontevedra Campus from June to September 2018

Definition of Terms

Adlai. According to r09.pia.gov.phit is a freely branching upright plant that

grows as tall as three feet that propagates through seeds. As used in the study,
this refers to the indigenous plant also known as “tigbi” in Capiz and with an
internal name of “job tears”.
Cultivation. Is the method of breaking the soil to become loose around the
base of the plant to facilitate soil aeration into the plant.
Growth. Is refers to the developments of corn plants from planting to
Fertilizer application. Is refer to the basal application of in organic fertilizer
at 30 DAP.
Height. Is refer to the vertical length of plant from the base of the ground
level to the tip of the tallest leaf.
Tillers. Are young plants bearing or producing fully developed panicles or
Productive tillers. Refer to the plants bearing or producting fully developed
the experimental field.



Coixlacryma-jobi L. is the scientific name of Adlai which belongs to the

poaceae grass family where crops like rice, corn and wheat belong. It is a freely
branching upright plant that grows as tall as three feet that propagates through
seeds. It is also calles as Jobǻ€™s tears because of its tear-shape grains. And it is
cultivated as a cereal crop in tropics and subtropics, like in India, China, South
Korea, Philippines, Thailand, and Malaysia.
To date, there are four known local varieties of Adlai namely: the gulian
(white), pulot or tapol (red or purple), ginampay (brown), and linay (gold). But the
two main species are: the wild type coixlacry,a-jobi var. stenocarpa and var.
monilifer. Are hard shelled pseudo crops which are very hard, pearly white, oval
structure used as beads, and the cultivated type Coixlacryma-jobi vat. Ma-yuen
with soft shell features which people eat as staple and use as medicine. The origin
of Adlai is unknown, but is it native to southern and eastern Asia. interestingly, the
Subanen Tribe has known of Midsalip, Zamboanga Del Sur where there is a
massive cultivation of Adlai (Region 9 Philippine Information Agency, 2013). Adlai
has high production in the highlands and it even tolerates low pH. It can be grown
even in barren lands. The crop grows well in slopping areas, tolerates water
lodging, and it is pest-resistant.

According to Research and Development, Extension Agenda and

Programs for 2011-2016 of Department of Agriculture, the plant is also claimed to
have medicinal properties, and is used as source of the body-enhancing
materials. Its hard-shell type seeds are used for ornaments purposes as beads for
necklace, bracelets, rosaries and other similar products.

According to Department of Agriculture (2006),rice and corn are

considered the country’s staple foods. However, given the vast resources of the
country, there are many potential staple crops that can be tapped, and that is
Adlai. It may be not abundant as of this time, but it may replace rice and corn on
our table couple of years now. For a developing country like Philippines, nationals
would tend to eat rice as the staple food, but suffers on the shortage of it that
leads to its price hike, and to add, calorie on take is in form of carbohydrates and
this kind of carbohydrates could affect the health of the person, Adlai itself is one
of the best calorie sources in the country that is abundant due to its versatility and
components. Eventually, Philippines are rich, and it could time only take
appreciation of the natural resources and the sustainable use of it.

According to the Department of Agriculture and Bureau of Agricultural

research in cooperation of Earth keepers and MASIPAG 2013, they discovered
Adlai as a substitute crop to rice. This is widely growing in some part of Mindanao
such as, in Region 9, Midsalip in Zambaonga del Sur; CAR, Sagada in Mt. province,
Kiangan in Ifugao, and Kapangan in Benguet; and Region 10, Malaybalay in

Through the efforts of the Department of Agriculture under Secretary

Prospero J. Alcala, Adlai is now being known and promoted to the Filipino rice-
eaters. Also, the aforementioned organization is now studying and planning on
how this crop will help Filipino farmers and widely be planted around the country.

Adlai can also be an alternative crop to rice. It comes from the family of
Poaceae, where3 wheat, rice and corn come from. Adlai’s grain can be either
white or brown and spherical in shape. 4-5 months after sowing, it can be
harvested already. Before milling, just like rice, it must be dried first. In some places
in Mindanao, wherein the vast plantation of durian, pineapple and banana are
known, a crop named Adlai is hiding its glory and being cultivated in some parts
of the land of Bukidnon. Other says that this crop can also be seen in some part
of the country. They even assert that Adlai is common but not as famous as other
crops like rice, corn, cassava, sweet potato, etc. (Newskrayb 2013).

For others, who haven’t seen Adlai yet, they considered it as weed. This kind
of plant could have grown in your community but you are unaware of the
importance of it. But in some ethnic groups in Bukidnon, Adlai can be used as
wine’s flavor and native food. This can be made as raw materials for necklace
and bracelets. You may get fascinated at the jewelries your friend is wearing but
it comes from a weed named Adlai.

Based on Bureau of Agricultural Research in Ilagan, Isabela, Mr. Roynic

Aquino, one of the focal persons of Adlai in CVIARC, briefed the team on the
latest efforts they’ve expended on said crop, including the latest developments
since BAR’s last visit back in back in May 2011. Mr. Aquino reported that the first
harvest did not fare so well. Setting aside the previously reported difficulty with the
Asiatic corn borer, another issue that has risen-a prominent one that any other
crop might encounter has to do with temperature. In one hill, nearly 50% of the
grains were unfilled, leaving Mr. Aquino’s team to theorize that temperature may
be an imposing factor. Unlike corn, adlai’s silk is very much exposed to the sun. it
dries easily when the day is hot and windy, thus temperature affects fertilization,
resulting in unfilled grains. Proof of this dismal result is the sight of numerous unfilled
grains littering the pathway, as the team observed the site. Mr. Aquino does add
his observation that once watered by rain, Adlai seems to recover quickly

Similar to Dr. Macaballug’s observation, Mr. Aquino found that maturity

does not occur at the same time as some grains remain green while others are
already brown in color – the color change he takes to indicates that a grain has
matured. In a similar effort of exploring what measures can be taken with the
problems with adlai, Mr. Aquino shared their threshing attempts with said crop. In
one instance, they attempted to feed the whole harvested plants-stalks, leaves,
and all into a corn thresher and ended up with a lot of impurities, although this
particular attempt proved more time consuming. Suffice to say, they are hoping
for a thresher to be developed that is more suited to handling adlai.
Similar to the enthusiasm and persistence that the two focal persons share
as they relate their respective findings and observations, adlai appears to be
thriving just as well in spite the trials and difficulties encountered.

Uses of Adlai

Besides the use for ornamental purposes, Job’s tears grains are useful as a
source of food (cereals) and folk medicines.

Throughout East Asia, vyjanti beads are available in dried form and cooked
as a grain . The grains are generally spherical, with a groove on one end, and
polished white in color . in japan unspolished yuukihatomugi, which is unpolished
and brown in color, is also available.

In Korea , a thick drink called yulmu cha ,literally “jobs tears tea” is made
from powdered job’s tears. A similar drink, called yiren jiang also appears in
Chinese cuisine and is made by simmering whole polished job’s tears in water and
sweetening the resulting thin, cloudy liquid with sugar. The grains are usually
strained from the liquid but may also be consumed separately or together.

In both Korea and china, distilled liquors are also made from the grain. One
such example is the south Korea liquor called okroju, which is made from rice and
job’s. tears .in japan ,aged vinegar is made from the grain.

In southern Vietnam, a sweet, cold soup called samboluong has job’s tears
as one of its ingredients. This dish derives from the southern Chinese tong sui called

In Thailand, it is often consumed in teas and other drinks, such as soy milk. It
also used alongside in traditional Chinese medicine.
According to the Agriculture Magazine, (Vol. 16, August 2012 of Manila
Bulletin), Adlai can be cooked as rice, majablanca, champorado, polvoron and
turones de adlai. It can be an ingredient of soups and broths. When ground into
flour, it can also be used to bread, pastas and porridges. The pounded kernels
are also made into sweet dish by frying and coating it with sugar. A tea or a coffee
is made from roasted seed or parched seeds, while beers and wines are made
from the fermented grains. It can be husked and eaten like peanuts, and can be
an alternative to other rice-based cakes or kakanin. The leaves can be used as
folder for feeding cows, carabaos, and small runminants.

Nutritive value of Adlai

According to the Bureau of Agricultural Research 2011, eating 100 grams

per serving of Adlai, one is less likely to feel hungry compared to eating rice and/
or corn. It was found out the adlai contains the highest food energy content
which is three hundred fifty-six kilo calories (356 kcal) compared to white and
brown rice and corn. Here is a tabular presentation of Adlai and its counterparts
according to the findings of BAR:

Nutritive Value Adlai White Corn Grits Brown Rice White Rice
Energy (kcal) 356 135 129 110
Carbohydrates (g) 73.9 24.6 27.9 22.9
Protein (g) 12.8 2.6 2.7 2.6
Fat (g) 1.0 0.7 0.3 0.9
Dietary Fiber (g) 0.3 0.7 0.4 1.8

Furthermore, Adlia contains higher energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat and

dietary fiber directly compared to rice and corn. Adlai is packed with other
minerals also, such as: calcium, phosphorus, iron, niacin, thiamine, and riboflavin.
Adlai is crop, shows potential as food and feed-source. A tea can be made
from the parched seeds while beers and wines are made from its fermented
grains. Aside from food source, it is also used as an alternative medicine against
various diseases such tumor, arthritis, beriberi appendicitis, diabetes, dysentery,
bronchitis, fever, and headache.

Eleazar, (2012), director of BAR as published in the BAR digest, the quarterly
publication of the Bureau of Agricultural Research. On the other hand,
MisaPagusara, regional coordinator of Adlai during the training conducted by
BAR (as published in the BAR Chronicle) (sic):

It is more nutritious than rice and corn, for it is high in protein and also
contains calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. It
helps enhance/increase food biodiversity. It is tolerant to pest and diseases
minimal cost of production as it cans Raton. It only requires a single land
preparation and planting but you can harvest 3-5 times, and there is no need for
irrigation. It is resilient to drought and flood. One around of weeding is enough
and does not require chemical synthetic fertilizer application. Famers will be
empowered with the introduction of a new low input-requiring crop. Pioneering
farmers would have technologies and seeds are their control since, as of now,
there are only a few farmers who cultivate this plant.

Nutrient Content Analysis of Adlai Grits and Flour

Nutrients Contents
Adlai Grits Adlai Flour
Moisture 12.10% % Moisture 12.10%
Ash 0.2g % Ash 0.2g
Energy 356 kcal % Crude Fiber 356 kcal
Total fat 1.0g % Crude Protein 1.0g
carbohydrates 73.9 g % Crude Fat 73.9 g
Total dietary fiber 0.3 g % Carbohydrate 0.3 g
protein 12.8 g Calories, 100g 12.8 g
Based on FNRI and UPLB-Biotech Analysis

Nutritional and Medicinal Content of Adlai

It is an excellent source of lipids, amino acids (ingredients of protein),

adenosine (a drug used to treat irregular heartbeat), thiamine (vitamin B-
complex), iron and calcium. It is high in carbohydrates, and higher in protein and
fat than rice, though low in minerals. The grass, roots and seeds of Adlai are used
as medicine. It can prevent or help reduce the incidence of diseases such as
cancer and tooth decay. It can revitalize the blood and nervous system. The fruits
are used as a traditional remedy for abdominal tumors, as a treatment for
esophageal, gastrointestinal, or lung cancers and for various tumors as well as skin
diseases like excrescences, wart and whitlows.
The fruits also serve as an anodyne (painkiller) and are anti-inflammatory,
(can control muscle spasms), hypoglycaemic (low in sugar, and hypotensive (can
lower the blood pressure). They can also be used as a sedative, and vermifuge
(medication to get the rid of worms). The seeds, with the husk removed, is
antirheumatic, diuretic (increased urine output), a pectoral refrigerant (fever-
reducing medication, and tonic. It is also used in the treatment of lung abscess,
pneumonia, appendicitis, rheumatoid arthritis, beri-beri, diarrhea, edem difficulty
in urination. (Agriculture Magazine, vol 16, August 2012; Manila Bulletin)


The experimental area was 186 square meters: the materials used in the
study were: four Adlai variety seed, tractor, string, shovel, sprayer, spade, meter
stick, organic fertilizer, and triple beam balance.


Experimental Methods

Field layout and Experimental Design. The experimental design used in the
study was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four treatments
replicated tree times. Each block has subdivided into four representing the four
treatments with a total of 12 plots. Each plots had a dimension of 3x3 square
meters. A pathway was providing between blocks and plots the treatment were
randomly placed to the respective plots by drawing of plots. The plot layout is
shown in Fig 1.

Cultural Management

Land Preparation. This crop requires a wider furrow because of its tillering
characteristic. Furrow the prepared area with the distance of 60-80 cm wide.

Planting. Right after furrowing, apply at a distance of 40 – 80 cm between

hills. It requires 8-10 kgs to plant a hectare.
Block I Block II Block III
12 m

A1 75 CM
D2 D2
75 CM

15.5 m
C1 C2 D2

B1 A2 D2
D1 B2 D2
Figure1. Layout of experimental area in a Randomized complete block
design (RCBD)) replicated three times.

Treatment A – Gullian (yellow white)
Treatment B – Kinampay (Grey orange)
Treatment C – Pulot (yellow white, glutinous)
Treatment D – Tapol (Grey orange)

Cultivation. Cultivate the furrows at 30 DAP or off – barring to control weeds

In between rows hill up at 50 – 60 DAP along furrows. Control subsequent growth
by hand-weeding.

Harvesting. Adlai matures in up to 5-6 months or when 85% of the panicles

have matured. Trim the stem of mature panicles and placed them in sacks.
Cutting should be atleast 1 ft or 2-3 nodes from the ground to facilitate rationing.
Sundry (-3 times) the harvested stalks prior threshing. Threshing can be done by
hand-picking or pounding the panicles or with use of threshing machine to
separate grains from leaves and panicles.
Gathering of Data

Data in this experiment were taken from the ten representatives’ sample
per hill. All samples were marked with bamboo sticks.

1. Plant Height. The height of the plant was measured from the ground level
to the tip of the tallest leaf 30, 60, and 90 DAP. A meter stick was used to
determine the height.

2. Number of Tillers. The number of tiller produced from sample plants were
counted at 15, 30, and 45 DAP.

3. Percentage Productive tillers. One week before harvesting, the

percentage of productive tillers in representative sample hills determined
using the following formula:

Total no.of productive tillers

Percentage of productive tillers = -------------------------------------- x 100 %
Total no. of produced tillers

4. Grain Yield. Data on grain yield were taken from one sq meters quadrant
at the center of each plot. The grain per plot was converted to tons per
hectare using the formula:

------ = yield from 1 sq. meters quadrant x 10,000 sq. meters

Analysis of Data
All data were subjected to analysis of variance for the Randomize
Complete Block Design (RCBD). LSMD test was used to compare the significant
differences among the treatment means.