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Trigonometry Fundamentals of Trigonometric Functions Example 4:

Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and In a right triangle, the hypotenuse has length 20 and the
metron, "measure") is a branch of mathematics that ratio of the two arms is 3:4. Find the length of the
studies relationships involving lengths and angles of shorter arm. Ans: 12
Opposite side
Trigonometric Identities
Plane and Spherical – are branches of Trigonometry.
𝜽 Trigonometric Identities is an equation that expresses
Classification of Plane Triangles: relations among trigonometric functions which are true
adjacent side and equals for all the values and terms involve.
1. Right triangle – triangle with right angle.
2. Oblique triangle – triangle that does not have Reciprocal relations:
right angle. Acute angle and obtuse are oblique. SOH
Angle Measurement
An angle ( ) is the space between two intersecting
lines meeting at the vertex. TOA ;

 A degree is a measurement of plane angles Even-odd relations:

defines by representing a full rotation as 360
degrees. ( ) ( )
 A radian is an angular measurement equal to SHA
the angle subtended by an arc length equal to ( ) ( )
the radius of the circle.
 A gradian (grad) is a unit of angle measurement CHO ( ) ( )
equal to four hundredth (1/400) also called
centesimal degree. Pythagorean Theorem Co-function relations:

Note: Pythagorean Theorem is the most renowned of all ( ) ( )

mathematical theorems formulated by Pythagoras,
1 revolution = 360 degrees (deg) which states that “in a right triangle, the sum of the ( ) ( )
= 2 radians (rad) squares of the sides is equal to the square of the
= 400 gradians (grad) hypotenuse”. ( ) ( )

Example 1: Convert 135° to radians. Pythagorean relations:

⁄ ⁄
Example 2: Convert 10 radians to degrees.

⁄ Sum of Angles:
Example 3:
Calculator can performed conversion (DRG) ( )
In a right triangle ABC, angle C is the right angle, BC = 6
and AB = 10. What is the value of Tan A + Tan B? ( )
( ) Example 7: Past Board Part of the Triangle

Double Angles formulas: An observer wishes to determine the height of the tower. 1. Height of the triangle
He takes sights at the top of the tower from A and B,
( ) which are 50 feet part, at the same elevation on a direct
line with the tower. The angle of elevation at point A is
30° and at point B° is 40°. What is the height of the
tower? Ans:92.54 ft
Example 5: Simplify
Oblique Triangle √ ( )( )( )
Angle of Elevation ; where: ( )
An oblique triangle is a triangle having no right angle.
Is the angle from the horizontal, up to the line of 2. Median of the Triangle
sight for the observer to an object above.

Sine Law: In any triangle ABC, the ratio of a side √

and the sine of the opposite angle is a constant.
3. Angle Bisector of the Triangle (divide angle into
two equal parts)
Angle of Depression
Cosine Law: In any triangle ABC, the square of
Is the angle from the horizontal, up to the line of
any sides is equal to the sum of the squares of the
sight for the observer to an object below.
other two sides diminished by twice the product of
these sides and the cosine of the included angle.

( )
√( ( ( )) )
( )

( ) Area of the Triangle ( )

Example 8: Past Board Triangle inscribe in a circle:

Example 6:

The angle of elevation of a balloon, directly above a A tree leans at an angle of 8° from the vertical away
straight road from two points of the road on opposite from the sun. From a point 8 m from the bottom of the
sides of the balloon are 78°15’ and 59°47’. If the two tree, the angle of elevation to the top of a tree is 66°.
points are 5000 ft. apart, what is the height of the How tall is the tree? Ans:13.79 ft
balloon? Ans: 6325 ft
Triangle circumscribing a circle: Spherical Trigonometry CO-OP-RULE: The sine of any middle part is equal to
the product of the cosine of the opposite parts.
Spherical Triangle consists of three arcs of great circles
that form the boundaries of a portion of a spherical Refer to Napier’s Circle:
surface. Great circle is a circle whose center coincides
with the center of the sphere. The radius of the great ( ) ( )
circle is equal to the radius of the sphere.
( ) ( )
; where ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
Example 9:
( ) ( ) ( )
A triangle whose sides have length of 10 cm, 10 cm, and
16 cm is inscribed in a circle. What is the radius of the ( ) ( ) ( )
circumscribing circle? Ans: 8.33 cm
Brainy Note:
Bearing Position Right Spherical Triangle
( ) ; ( )
The bearing of a point B from A in a horizontal plane is Right Spherical Triangle is one with the right angle.
defined as the acute angle made by the ray drawn from Solutions to right spherical triangles use the concept
A through B with the North-South line through A. the known as Napier’s Circle. (Note “co” means
bearing is then read from north or south of line towards complementary
the east or west. angles.

S 65° W or 65° W of S

Secret to Success:
TAN-AD-RULE: The sine of any middle part is equal to 1% inspiration, 99% perspiration
the product of the tangents of the adjacent parts.

Refer to Napier’s Circle:

N 65° E or 65° E of N
( ) ( )
Example 10: Past Board
( ) ( )
A ship started sailing S 45°35’ W at the rate of 5 kph.
After two hours, ship B started at the same port going N ( ) ( ) ( )
46°20’ W at the rate of 7 kph. After how many hours will
the second ship be exactly north of ship A? Ans: 4.03hr ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )