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I NGLÊS T ÉCNICO UNIDADE 0486- L ÍNGUA I NGLESA - GESTÃO DE STOCKS E
I NGLÊS T ÉCNICO UNIDADE 0486- L ÍNGUA I NGLESA - GESTÃO DE STOCKS E
I NGLÊS T ÉCNICO UNIDADE 0486- L ÍNGUA I NGLESA - GESTÃO DE STOCKS E
I NGLÊS T ÉCNICO UNIDADE 0486- L ÍNGUA I NGLESA - GESTÃO DE STOCKS E

INGLÊS TÉCNICO

UNIDADE 0486- LÍNGUA INGLESA - GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

– GESTÃO DE STOCKS I NGLÊS T ÉCNICO UNIDADE 0486- L ÍNGUA I NGLESA - GESTÃO

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Índice

Introdução / Enquadramento

5

Motivational activity

7

What is logistics? definition

8

Logistics management and supply chain management (stocks management)

11

Motivational activity

29

Supply Chain Trends article

30

Logistics theory and practise what more should we know about it?

33

Retail supply chain

47

Components of stock management

48

Sales management

50

Independent vs. Dependent Demand

51

Types of Inventory: how Inventory is used

51

Objectives of Inventory Management

52

Functions of inventory

53

Inventory Record Accuracy

53

Cycle counting

55

The inventory cycle

56

Inventory counting systems

57

Just in time (business)

58

Just in time and lead time

68

Orders

69

Declining orders

72

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Patching and despatch

73

Invoices, debit and credit notes; discounts

82

Receipts and invoices

90

Transport / carriages and discounts

93

Types of transport

94

Import / export documentation

95

Export / impor

97

t

processes

97

Helpful documents

98

Numbers and mathematics

98

How to read numbers in English

100

Connectors

107

The plural of nouns - rules

110

Types of irregular plurals

112

Exercises with the plural of nouns (regular and irregular)

120

Simple Present - rules

122

Exercises with the Simple Present

123

Wh- questions - rules

125

The possessive case - rules

127

The Present Continuous

131

The future in English

133

Going to Future

134

Will- Future

135

Going To- Future

135

The Simple Past - rules

137

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The Past Continuous - rules

144

Reported Speech

148

Bibliografia

150

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Introdução / Enquadramento

Este manual de Língua Inglesa gestão de stocks e logística visa ilustrar e

fundamentar o desenvolvimento de competências específicas da língua inglesa por parte dos formandos cujo intuito é aprender e aperfeiçoar a sua aprendizagem na língua estrangeira em termos profissionais. Desta forma, encontrarão respostas para as suas necessidades quotidianas e profissionais e, em simultâneo, aprenderão a comunicar em língua estrangeira de maneira adequada.

Assim sendo, o presente manual servirá de referência para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos em Inglês Intermédio e Avançado, servindo os seguintes documentos (que poderão ser adaptados consoante as necessidades do público-alvo), como exemplo da informação teórica e prática a ser ministrada nas sessões, o que permitirá um adequado desenvolvimento do perfil de proficiências proposto no referencial de competências-chave desta unidade.

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Referencial de Língua Inglesa gestão de stocks e logística - 0486

Objetivos

Aplicar vocabulário específico da língua inglesa na atividade logística.

Conteúdos

Língua inglesa aplicada à atividade logística

Língua inglesa aplicada à atividade logística

Principais utilizações da língua inglesa

- Catálogos, inscrições e etiquetas

- Comunicações escritas com interlocutores

- Documentos de transporte e de acompanhamento de mercadorias

Principais conceitos e termos

- Na embalagem

- No transporte

- Na receção e manuseamento de mercadorias

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Motivational activity

1. Watch the following video and try to define logistics.

1. Watch the following video and try to define logistics. In https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vu3o2-3uSKE Notes: 7

Notes:

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What is logistics? definition

1. Read and discuss the following definition.

Definition 1

Logistics is the management of the flow of goods between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet some requirements, for example, of customers or corporations. The resources managed in logistics can include physical items, such as food, materials, animals, equipment and liquids, as well as abstract items, such as time, information, particles, and energy. The logistics of physical items usually involves the integration of information flow, material handling, production, packaging, inventory, transportation, warehousing, and often security. The complexity of logistics can be modeled, analyzed, visualized, and optimized by dedicated simulation software. The minimization of the use of resources is a common motivation in logistics for import and export. (Wikipedia)

Definition 2

The Oxford English Dictionary defines logistics as "the branch of military science relating to procuring, maintaining and transporting material, personnel and facilities."

However, the New Oxford American Dictionary defines logistics as "the detailed coordination of a complex operation involving many people, facilities, or supplies," and the Oxford Dictionary on-line defines it as "the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation."

As such, logistics is commonly seen as a branch of engineering that creates "people systems" rather than "machine systems." (Wikipedia)

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Definition 3

The overall management of the way resources are obtained, stored and moved to the locations where they are required. Logistics management entails identifying potential suppliers and distributors; evaluating how accessible and effective they are and establishing relationships and signing contracts with the companies who offer the best combination of price and service. A company might also choose to handle its own logistics if it is cost- effective to do so. (Investopedia)

2. Now, write your own definition of logistics.

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3. Comment on the following picture. Bear in mind “logistics”.

How is it organised?

GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA 3. Comment on the following picture. Bear in mind “logistics”. How

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Logistics management and supply chain management (stocks management)

1. Watch and comment on the following powerpoint.

Logistics management and supply chain management (stocks management) 1. Watch and comment on the following powerpoint.
Logistics management and supply chain management (stocks management) 1. Watch and comment on the following powerpoint.

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Motivational activity

1. Watch the following video and identify the steps included as far as logistics is concerned.

the steps included as far as logistics is concerned. In https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_vE6VabONlc Step 1 –

Step 1 Buyer

Step 2 -

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Supply Chain Trends article

1. Read and sum up the following article (pair work).

2. Present it to the class (don’t forget to make comments on it based on your own opinion).

forget to make comments on it based on your own opinion). Trends within the supply chain

Trends within the supply chain will obviously vary from sector to sector. It’s unlikely that the

key issues keeping retail supply chain owners awake at night will be the same as those

affecting a utilities or manufacturing supply chain owner. However, there are a number of

common issues and common demands that can be applied across numerous industry sectors.

The first of these would be the related issues of sourcing and inventory. Where to source,

when to source it, how much of it you need to keep and where are perennial issues that

affect many senior logisticians. In recent years the allure of low cost manufacturing has lost

some of its lustre. This can be attributed to issues such as rising wage structures within low

cost locations, quality of supply and concerns around supply chain disruption and natural

disasters. Periodically, fluctuations in currency exchange rates will re-ignite the debate

around re-shoring or bringing supply chain sourcing closer to home. The automotive sector

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is a good example of the on-going debate around such issues. Many vehicle and component manufacturers were affected by the Japanese tsunami and the Thai floods. In a supply chain environment as high pressured as car manufacturing, maintaining the “drum beat” of production is virtually the only KPI that really matters. In situations where supply is affected on a global scale and across all manufacturing or assembly points, the debate around near versus far, cover stock levels and contingency planning is always intense and focussed.

The world of fast fashion will face similar challenges. Being first to market or reacting to local demand may prove to be problematic if your primary sources of production are as far away as Bangladesh, Indonesia or South America. British retailers in particular are often affected by the notorious British weather. One week you could be under pressure to have the correct clothing stocked for a cold snap, the next week you could be seeing unprecedented demand for bottled water and ice-cream. This is hugely problematic if some of your stock is a 6 week journey away.

Another trend that is becoming more prevalent is the requirement to provide the ultimate customer experience, regardless of the sales channel that they’re serviced from. The terminology used to explain this requirement is as fast changing as the technology itself! From traditional retail, to e-tail, m-com and omni-channel, the common denominator is the requirement for supply chain agility to delight customers wherever they are and however they buy your company’s goods or services. This is leading to an ever more demanding consumer requiring the immediate gratification of a high street purchase with the flexibility of an internet order.

The knock on effect is to add increasing complexity and increasing demand on an already pressured supply chain. Should all customers be serviced in the same manner, regardless of sales channel? Should store replenishment, collect from store and home shopping be served via bespoke and independent channels? Of course, there is no single, all-encompassing answer to these questions, and each company will have its own unique requirements and own supply chain capabilities. This will be affected by the capabilities of the internal systems as well as the location and capabilities of its stores, distribution centres and suppliers. The only common principle is that demands on the supply chain will increase, and flexibility and

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agility will be essential as logistics will often be a differentiator that can increase sales and improve customer retention.

No matter what sector your supply chain operations are in, there are challenges that are affecting all senior logisticians. Utilities are expected to keep the lights on or the water flowing. Automotive manufacturers need to maintain the production drum beat. Retailers need to delight their customers regardless of sales channel. Manufacturers need to maintain the right inventory in the right location. And all of this is required against a back-drop of economic instability, fluctuating currencies and local, regional or global demands.

Regardless of your sector or your circumstances, you may wish to discuss your individual requirements with Total Logistics. We have successfully completed more than 1,000 projects across 35 countries, so there’s a very good chance we’ve seen issues similar to yours with our existing client base.

Our consultants have an average of 19 year’s supply chain experience, and our consulting team are permanent employees who have been with us for an average of 8 years. We offer practical, pragmatic and independent advice and we would be delighted to discuss your supply chain demands in more detail. We operate across all sectors, and our client base includes the likes of Nestlé, adidas, UK Power Networks, Euro Car Parts, Princes and Asda Wal-Mart.

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Logistics theory and practise what more should we know about it?

1. Watch and comment on the following powerpoint. Take some notes.

practise – what more should we know about it? 1. Watch and comment on the following

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Retail supply chain

1. Discuss the following.

Stock management in the retail supply chain follows the following sequence:

Request for new stock from stores to head office

Head office issues purchase orders to the vendor

Vendor ships the goods

Warehouse receives the goods

Warehouse stocks and distributes to the stores

Stores receive the goods

Goods are sold to customers at the stores

The management of the inventory in the supply chain involves managing the physical quantities as well as the costing of the goods as it flows through the supply chain

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Components of stock management

1. Read and translate the following.

Stocks management has the following components:

1 Estimated management of STOCKS

2 - Administrative management of STOCKS

3 - Physical management of STOCKS

1 Estimated management of STOCKS

When we want to decide what is necessary to buy for stock, which quantities and when should we buy it, in what will we based on, what we should use, consume or sell. The decision to buy has, as a basis, the prediction of consumption as well as other conditioning parameters, and this justifies its name.

WHAT to buy

It allows people to determine:

parameters, and this justifies its name. WHAT to buy It allows people to determine: HOW MANY

HOW MANY to buy

parameters, and this justifies its name. WHAT to buy It allows people to determine: HOW MANY

WHEN to buy

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2 - Administrative management of STOCKS

WHAT is on stock

It allows people to permanently know:

WHAT is on stock It allows people to permanently know: HOW MANY there are on stock

HOW MANY there are on stock

3 - Physical management of STOCKS

RECEIVE the

products bought

It allows to:

of STOCKS RECEIVE the products bought It allows to: Put them on STOCK and move them

Put them on STOCK and move them around

WHERE it is

DELIVER them to the internal users

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Sales management

At the same time as the three previous actions, we have sales management:

Sales management allows people to decide

three previous actions, we have sales management: Sales management allows people to decide WHOM to buy
three previous actions, we have sales management: Sales management allows people to decide WHOM to buy

WHOM to buy from

three previous actions, we have sales management: Sales management allows people to decide WHOM to buy

HOW to buy

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Independent vs. Dependent Demand

Independent demand items are finished goods or other items sold to someone outside the company.

Dependent demand items are materials or component parts used in the production of another item (e.g., finished product).

Types of Inventory: how Inventory is used

Importance of inventory

One of the most expensive assets of many companies representing as much as 50% of total invested capital

Operations managers must balance inventory investment and customer service

Anticipation or seasonal inventory

Safety stock: buffer demand fluctuations

Lot-size or cycle stock: take advantage of quantity discounts or purchasing efficiencies

Pipeline or transportation inventory

Speculative or hedge inventory protects against some future event, e.g. labor strike

Maintenance, repair, and operating (MRO) inventories

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And we still have to bear in mind the following:

Raw material

Purchased but not processed

Work-in-process

Undergone some change but not completed

A function of cycle time for a product

Maintenance/repair/operating (MRO)

Necessary to keep machinery and processes productive

Finished goods

Completed product awaiting shipment

Objectives of Inventory Management

Provide acceptable level of customer service (on-time delivery)

Allow cost-efficient operations

Minimize inventory investment

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Functions of inventory

– GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA Functions of inventory Inventory Record Accuracy ▪ Accurate records are

Inventory Record Accuracy

Accurate records are a critical ingredient in production and inventory systems

Allows organisation to focus on what is needed

Necessary to make precise decisions about ordering, scheduling, and shipping

Incoming and outgoing record keeping must be accurate

Stockrooms should be secure

Inaccurate inventory records can cause:

Lost sales

Disrupted operations

Poor customer service

Lower productivity

Planning errors and expediting

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Two methods are available for checking record accuracy

Periodic counting-physical inventory

Cycle counting-daily counting of pre-specified items provides the following advantages:

Timely detection and correction of inaccurate records

Elimination of lost production time due to unexpected stock outs

Structured approach using employees trained in cycle counting

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Cycle counting

Items are counted and records updated on a periodic basis

Often used with ABC analysis to determine cycle

Has several advantages

Eliminates shutdowns and interruptions

Eliminates annual inventory adjustment

Trained personnel audit inventory accuracy

Allows causes of errors to be identified and corrected

Maintains accurate inventory records

Cycle counting example

5,000 items in inventory, 500 A items, 1,750 B items, 2,750 C items.

Policy is to count A items every month (20 working days), B items every quarter (60 days), and C items every six months (120 days).

count A items every month (20 working days), B items every quarter (60 days), and C

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The inventory cycle

0369 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS The inventory cycle 56

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Inventory counting systems

You must bear the following in mind:

Periodic System

Physical count of items made at periodic intervals.

Perpetual Inventory System

System that keeps track of removals from inventory continuously, thus monitoring current levels of each item.

Two-Bin System

Two containers of inventory; reorder when the first is empty.

Universal Bar Code

Bar code printed on a label that has information about the item to which it is attached.

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Just in time (business)

1. Study and sum this up.

Just in time (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business' return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. To meet JIT objectives, the process relies on signals or Kanban between different points, which are involved in the process, which tell production when to make the next part.

Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals, such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. Implemented correctly, JIT focuses on continuous improvement and can improve a manufacturing organization's return on investment, quality, and efficiency. To achieve continuous improvement key areas of focus could be flow, employee involvement and quality.

JIT relies on other elements in the inventory chain as well. For instance, its effective application cannot be independent of other key components of a lean manufacturing system or it can "end up with the opposite of the desired result."

In recent years manufacturers have continued to try to hone forecasting methods such as applying a trailing 13-week average as a better predictor for JIT planning; however, some research demonstrates that basing JIT on the presumption of stability is inherently flawed.

The philosophy of JIT is simple: the storage of unused inventory is a waste of resources. JIT inventory systems expose hidden cost of keeping inventory, and are therefore not a simple solution for a company to adopt it. The company must follow an array of new methods to manage the consequences of the change. The ideas in this way of working come from many different disciplines including statistics, industrial engineering, production management, and behavioral science. The JIT inventory philosophy defines how inventory is viewed and how it relates to management.

Inventory is seen as incurring costs, or waste, instead of adding and storing value, contrary to traditional accounting. This does not mean to say JIT is implemented without awareness that removing inventory exposes pre-existing manufacturing issues. This way of working encourages businesses to eliminate

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inventory that does not compensate for manufacturing process issues, and to constantly improve those processes to require less inventory. Secondly, allowing any stock habituates management to stock keeping. Management may be tempted to keep stock to hide production problems. These problems include backups at work centers, machine reliability, process variability, lack of flexibility of employees and equipment, and inadequate capacity.

In short, the Just-in-Time inventory system focus is having “the right material, at the right time, at the right place, and in the exact amount”, without the safety net of inventory. The JIT system has broad implications for implementers.

Transaction cost approach[edit]

JIT helps in keeping inventory to minimum in a firm. However, a firm may simply be outsourcing their input inventory to suppliers, even if those suppliers don't use Just-in-Time (Naj 1993). Newman (1994) investigated this effect and found that suppliers in Japan charged JIT customers, on average, a 5% price premium.

Environmental concerns

During the birth of JIT, multiple daily deliveries were often made by bicycle. Increased scale has required a move to vans and trucks (lorries). Cusumano (1994) highlighted the potential and actual problems this causes with regard to gridlock and burning of fossil fuels.

This violates three JIT waste guidelines:

Timewasted in traffic jams

Inventoryspecifically pipeline (in transport) inventory

Scrapfuel burned while not physically moving

Price change

Because Just-In-Time manufacturers do not store raw materials, they can be affected more drastically by the effects of changing prices.

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Quality volatility

JIT implicitly assumes that input parts quality remains constant over time. If not, firms may hoard high- quality inputs. As with price volatility, a solution is to work with selected suppliers to help them improve their processes to reduce variation and costs. Longer term price agreements can then be negotiated and agreed-on quality standards made the responsibility of the supplier. Fixing up of standards for volatility of quality according to the quality circle

Demand stability

Karmarker (1989) highlights the importance of relatively stable demand, which helps ensure efficient capital utilization rates. Karmarker cost production.

Supply stability

In the U.S., the 1992 railway strikes caused General Motors to idle a 75,000-worker plant because they had no supply.

JIT implementation design

Based on a diagram modeled after the one used by Hewlett-Packard’s Boise plant to accomplish its JIT program.

1) F Design Flow Process

F Redesign/relay out for flow

L Reduce lot sizes

O Link operations

W Balance workstation capacity

M Preventive maintenance

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

S Reduce setup Times

2) Q Total Quality Control

C worker compliance

I Automatic inspection

M quality measures

M fail-safe methods

W Worker participation

3) S Stabilize Schedule

S Level schedule

W Establish freeze windows

UC Underutilize Capacity

4) K Kanban Pull System

D Demand pull

B Backflush

L Reduce lot sizes

5) V Work with Vendors

L Reduce lead time

D Frequent deliveries

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

U Project usage requirements

Q Quality expectations

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

6) I Further Reduce Inventory in Other Areas

S Stores

T Transit

C Implement carrousel to reduce motion waste

C Implement conveyor belts to reduce motion waste

7) P Improve Product Design

P Standard production configuration

P Standardize and reduce the number of parts

P Process design with product design

Q Quality expectations

Effects

A surprising effect of JIT was that car factory response time fell to about a day. This improved customer

satisfaction by providing vehicles within a day or two of the minimum economic shipping delay.

Also, the factory began building many vehicles to order, eliminating the risk they would not be sold. This improved the company's return on equity.

Since assemblers no longer had a choice of which part to use, every part had to fit perfectly. This caused

a quality assurance crisis, which led to a dramatic improvement in product quality. Eventually, Toyota

redesigned every part of its vehicles to widen tolerances, while simultaneously implementing careful

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

statistical controls for quality control. Toyota had to test and train parts suppliers to assure quality and delivery. In some cases, the company eliminated multiple suppliers.

When a process or parts quality problem surfaced on the production line, the entire production line had to be slowed or even stopped. No inventory meant a line could not operate from in-process inventory while a production problem was fixed. Many people in Toyota predicted that the initiative would be abandoned for this reason. In the first week, line stops occurred almost hourly. But by the end of the first month, the rate had fallen to a few line stops per day. After six months, line stops had so little economic effect that Toyota installed an overhead pull-line, similar to a bus bell-pull, that let any worker on the line order a line stop for a process or quality problem. Even with this, line stops fell to a few per week.

The result was a factory that has been studied worldwide. It has been widely emulated, but not always with the expected results, as many firms fail to adopt the full system.

The just-in-time philosophy was also applied to other segments of the supply chain in several types of industries. In the commercial sector, it meant eliminating one or all of the warehouses in the link between a factory and a retail establishment. Examples in sales, marketing, and customer service involve applying information systems and mobile hardware to deliver customer information as needed, and reducing waste by video conferencing to cut travel time.

Benefits

Main benefits of JIT include:

Reduced setup time. Cutting setup time allows the company to reduce or eliminate inventory for "changeover" time. The tool used here is SMED (single-minute exchange of dies).

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

The flow of goods from warehouse to shelves improves. Small or individual piece lot sizes reduce lot delay inventories, which simplifies inventory flow and its management.

Employees with multiple skills are used more efficiently. Having employees trained to work on different parts of the process allows companies to move workers where they are needed.

Production scheduling and work hour consistency synchronized with demand. If there is no demand for a product at the time, it is not made. This saves the company money, either by not having to pay workers overtime or by having them focus on other work or participate in training.

Increased emphasis on supplier relationships. A company without inventory does not want a supply system problem that creates a part shortage. This makes supplier relationships extremely important.

Supplies come in at regular intervals throughout the production day. Supply is synchronized with production demand and the optimal amount of inventory is on hand at any time. When parts move directly from the truck to the point of assembly, the need for storage facilities is reduced.

Minimizes storage space needed.

Smaller chance of inventory breaking/expiring.

Problems within a JIT system

Just-in-time operation leaves suppliers and downstream consumers open to supply shocks and large supply or demand changes. For internal reasons, Ohno saw this as a feature rather than a bug. He used an analogy of lowering the water level in a river to expose the rocks to explain how removing inventory showed where production flow was interrupted. Once barriers were exposed, they could be removed. Since one of the main barriers was rework, lowering inventory forced each shop to improve its own quality or cause a holdup downstream. A key tool to manage this weakness is production levelling to remove these variations. Just-in-time is a means to improving performance of the system, not an end.

Very low stock levels means shipments of the same part can come in several times per day. This means Toyota is especially susceptible to flow interruption. For that reason, Toyota uses two suppliers for most assemblies. As noted in Liker (2003), there was an exception to this rule that put the entire company at risk because of the 1997 Aisin fire. However, since Toyota also makes a point of maintaining high quality

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

relations with its entire supplier network, several other suppliers immediately took up production of the Aisin-built parts by using existing capability and documentation.

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

2. Comment on the following picture.

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA 2. Comment on the following picture. 67

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Just in time and lead time

1. Comment on this with your colleagues.

What is lead time and how the inventory management is maintained?

Lead time is the time that elapses between the placing of an order (either a purchase order or a production order issued to the shop or the factory floor) and actually receiving the goods ordered.

If a supplier (an external firm or an internal department or plant) cannot supply the required goods on demand, then the client firm must keep an inventory of the needed goods. The longer the lead time, the larger the quantity of goods the firm must carry in inventory.

A just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing firm, such as some automobile manufacturing firms, can maintain extremely low levels of inventory. Some of these companies take delivery of some goods as many as 18 times per day. However, steel mills may have a lead time of up to three months. That means that a firm that uses steel produced at the mill must place orders at least three months in advance of their need. In order to keep their operations running in the meantime an on-hand inventory of three months' steel requirements would be necessary.

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Orders

1. Study these documents.

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA Orders 1. Study these documents. 69

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA 70

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0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA 2. Now pretend you are a customer

2. Now pretend you are a customer and order something. Your colleague will be the seller.

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Declining orders

1. Study the following orders.

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA Patching and despatch 1. Study this. 73

Patching and despatch

1. Study this.

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA 74

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0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA 76

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0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA 78

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA 80

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA Now, are you already able to order?

Now, are you already able to order?

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA Now, are you already able to order?

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Invoices, debit and credit notes; discounts

1. Study these documents.

INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA Invoices, debit and credit notes; discounts 1. Study these

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA 84

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA 85

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA 86

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA 88

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0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA 89

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Receipts and invoices

1. Read and comment on the following definitions.

What is a receipt?

A receipt is a written acknowledgement that a specified article or sum of money has been received as an

exchange for goods or services. The receipt acts as the title to the property obtained in the exchange.

What is an invoice?

An invoice or bill is a commercial document issued by a seller to the buyer, indicating the products, quantities, and agreed prices for products or services the seller has provided the buyer. An invoice indicates the buyer must pay the seller, according to the payment terms.

There are different types of invoices:

Pro forma invoice - In foreign trade, a pro forma invoice is a document that states a commitment from the seller to provide specified goods to the buyer at specific prices. It is often used to declare value for customs. It is not a true invoice, because the seller does not record a pro forma invoice as an accounts receivable and the buyer does not record a pro forma invoice as an accounts payable. A pro forma invoice

is not issued by the seller until the seller and buyer have agreed to the terms of the order. In few cases,

pro forma invoice is issued for obtaining advance payments from buyer, either for start of production or for security of the goods produced.

Credit memo - If the buyer returns the product, the seller usually issues a credit memo for the same or lower amount than the invoice, and then refunds the money to the buyer, or the buyer can apply that credit memo to another invoice.

Commercial invoice - a customs declaration form used in international trade that describes the parties involved in the shipping transaction, the goods being transported, and the value of the goods. It is the primary document used by customs, and must meet specific customs requirements, such as the Harmonized System number and the country of manufacture. It is used to calculate tariffs.

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Debit memo - When a company fails to pay or short-pays an invoice, it is common practice to issue a debit memo for the balance and any late fees owed. In function debit memos are identical to invoices.

Self-billing invoice - A self-billing invoice is when the buyer issues the invoice to himself (e.g. according to the consumption levels he is taking out of a vendor-managed inventory stock).

Evaluated receipt settlement (ERS) - ERS is a process of paying for goods and services from a packing slip rather than from a separate invoice document. The payee uses data in the packing slip to apply the payments. "In an ERS transaction, the supplier ships goods based upon an Advance Shipping Notice (ASN), and the purchaser, upon receipt, confirms the existence of a corresponding purchase order or contract, verifies the identity and quantity of the goods, and then pays the supplier."

Timesheet - Invoices for hourly services such as by lawyers and consultants often pull data from a timesheet. A Timesheet invoice may also be generated by Operated equipment rental companies where the invoice will be a combination of timesheet based charges and equipment rental charges.

Invoicing - The term invoicing is also used to refer to the act of delivering baggage to a flight company in an airport before taking a flight.

Statement - A periodic customer statement includes opening balance, invoices, payments, credit memos, debit memos, and ending balance for the customer's account during a specified period. A monthly statement can be used as a summary invoice to request a single payment for accrued monthly charges.

Progress billing used to obtain partial payment on extended contracts, particularly in the construction industry (see Schedule of values).

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Collective Invoicing is also known as monthly invoicing in Japan. Japanese businesses tend to have many orders with small amounts because of the outsourcing system (Keiretsu), or of demands for less inventory control (Kanban). To save the administration work, invoicing is normally processed on monthly basis.

Continuation or Recurring Invoicing is standard within the equipment rental industry, including tool rental. A recurring invoice is one generated on a cyclical basis during the lifetime of a rental contract. For example if you rent an excavator from 1st January to 15th April, on a calendar monthly arrears billing cycle, you would expect to receive an invoice at the end of January, another at the end of February, another at the end of March and a final Off-rent invoice would be generated at the point when the asset is returned. The same principle would be adopted if you were invoiced in advance, or if you were invoiced on a specific day of the month.

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Transport / carriages and discounts

1. Answer the following.

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA Transport / carriages and discounts 1. Answer

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Types of transport

1. Answer the following.

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA Types of transport 1. Answer the following.

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Import / export documentation

1. *Answer the following.

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA Import / export documentation 1. * Answer

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Choice of transport

1. Answer the following.

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA Choice of transport 1. Answer the following.

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Export / impor

t processes

1. Answer the following.

0486 LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA Export / impor t processes 1. Answer

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Helpful documents

Numbers and mathematics

Read and study the following information.

CARDINALS

101 a hundred and one

40 th fortieth

 

1 one

(…)

102 - a hundred and two What’s…?

   

2 two

50 th fiftieth

 

3 three

154

a hundred and fifty-four

4 four

5 five

(…)

a)

2 x 4 =

   

200

two hundred

60

th

sixtieth

 

201

two hundred and one

 

6 six

   

300

three hundred

 

100

th

hundredth

 

7 seven

(…)

b)

12 : 3 =

8

eight

1000

a thousand

   

9

nine

1001

a thousand and one

1000 th thousandth

 

10

ten

1025

a thousand and twenty-five

c)

40 6 =

   

11 eleven

1.000.000 th

-

ORDINALS

     

12 twelve

   

13 thirteen

14 fourteen

15 fifteen

1 st first (st) 2 nd second 3 rd third (rd)

d)

(nd)

32 + 7 =

Mathematics

Examples:

5

+ 5 = ?

16 sixteen

17 seventeen

4 th fourth (th) 5 th fifth (th) 6 th sixth (th) 7 th seventh 8 th eighth 9 th ninth 10 th tenth 11 th eleventh 12 th twelfth 13 th thirteenth 14 th fourteenth 15 th fifteenth 16 th sixteenth 17 th seventeenth 18 th eighteenth 19 th - nineteenth 20 th twentieth (th)

 

18

eighteen

 

6

3 = ?

 

19 nineteen

20 twenty

 

21 Twenty-one

 

4

x 7 = ?

 

(…)

30 thirty

 

31 Thirty-one

 

8

: 4 = ?

 

(…)

40 forty

 

41 forty-one

(…)

50

fifty

60

sixty

70

seventy

80

eighty

90

100 a hundred

ninety

 

21 st twenty-first 22 nd twenty-second

30 th thirtieth

(What’s five plus five? It’s ten.)

(What’s six minus three? It’s three.)

(What’s four times seven? It’s twenty-eight.)

(What’s eight divided by four? It’s two.)

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To remember:

1.456 (DECIMALS) one point four, five, six;

1/3 (FRACTIONS) one third;

2/3 (FRACTIONS) two thirds;

2/49 two over forty-nine;

1986 (YEAR) nineteen, eighty-six;

2006 (YEAR) - two thousand and six or twenty oh six;

1600 (YEAR) sixteen hundred;

século XVI (CENTURY) 16th century;

1456 (NUMBER) one thousand, four hundred and fifty-six;

912553330 (PHONE NUMBER) nine, one, two, double five, three, double three, oh/zero; 22

(POWERS) two squared;

23 (POWERS) two cubed;

215 (POWERS) two to the fifteenth power (or sometimes two to fifteen);

√4 (SQUARE ROOT) square root of four.

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

How to read numbers in English

1. Read and study the following information.

Numbers over 20

How numbers are spoken

Numbers over 100

Numbers over 20 How numbers are spoken Numbers over 100 21 twenty-one 101 a/one hundred (and)

21

twenty-one

101

a/one hundred (and) one

22

twenty-two

121

a/one hundred (and) twenty-one

32

thirty-two

200

two hundred

99

ninety-nine

232

two hundred (and) thirty-two

 

999

nine hundred (and) ninety-nine

Numbers over 1000

1001

a/one thousand (and) one

1121

one thousand, one hundred (and) twenty-one

2000

two thousand

2232

two thousand, two hundred (and) thirty-two

9999

nine thousand, nine hundred (and) ninety-nine

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Ordinal numbers

225th two hundred (and) twenty-fifth

20th twentieth

21st twenty-first

Dates

25th twenty-fifth

90th ninetieth

1624

sixteen twenty-four

99th ninety-ninth

1903

nineteen-oh-three

100th hundredth

1987

nineteen eighty-seven

101st hundred and first

2007

two thousand and seven

What numbers represent

Numbers are often used on their own to show:

Price -» It cost eight seventy-five (=eight pounds 75 pence or 8 dollars 75 cents: £8.75 or $8.75).

Time -» We left at two twenty-five (=25 minutes after 2 o’clock).

Age

She’s forty-six (=46 years old). | He’s in his sixties (=between 60 and 69 years old).

Size -» This shirt is a thirty-eight (=size 38).

Temperature -»The temperature fell to minus fourteen (=14°).|The temperature was in the mid- thirties (=about 3436°).

The score in a game -»Becker won the first set six-three (=by six games to three: 6-3).

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Something marked with the stated number -» She played two nines and an eight (=playing cards

marked with these numbers).

A set or group of the stated number -» The teacher divided us into fours (=groups of 4). | You

can buy cigarettes in tens or twenties (=in packets containing 10 or 20)

© Pearson Education Limited 2000 Longman Dictionary

When expressing large numbers (more than one hundred) read in groups of hundreds. The order is as follows: billion, million, thousand, hundred. Notice that hundred, thousand, etc. is NOT followed by an ‘s’.

(Quando falamos de números grandes mais do que um cento lemos em grupos de centenas. A ordem é a que se segue: bilião, milhão, milhar, centena. Repare que cem, mil, etc, nunca são seguidos de “S”.)

E.g. Two hundred NOT two hundreds

NOTE: British English takes 'and' between 'hundred and examples below, this is represented: (AND)

' American English omits 'and'. In the

(Nota: O Inglês Britânico leva “e” entre «cem e …» enquanto o Inglês Americano omite o “e”. Nos exemplos abaixo, isto é representado: (E) )

Hundreds

350 > three hundred (AND) fifty

Thousands

425 > four hundred (AND) twenty five

15,560 > fifteen thousand five hundred (AND)

786,450 > seven hundred (AND) six thousand

sixty

four hundred (AND) fifty

Millions

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

2,450,000 > two million four hundred (AND) fifty thousands

234,700,000 > two hundred (AND) thirty-four million seven hundred thousand

Speaking About Numbers

Numbers are read in the following manner in English:

(os números são lidos da seguinte forma em inglês)

ish: (os números são lidos da seguinte forma em inglês) Billion, million, thousand, hundred Example: 2,350,400

Billion, million, thousand, hundred

Example:

2,350,400 => two million, three hundred (AND) fifty thousand, (AND) four hundred

Decimals

2.36 =>two point three six

Percentages

1.54 => one point five four

Read percentages as the number followed by ‘percent’

(Leia as percentagens com o número seguido de “percent”- por cento)

37% =>thirty seven percent

Fractions

Read the top number as a cardinal number, followed by the ordinal number + ‘s’

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

(Leia o número do topo ou da esquerda como um cardinal (one, two, three…) e o da direita como um ordinal (first, second, third…) seguido de S, como nos exemplos.)

3/8 =>three eighths

2 => two fourths

4

¾ => three fourths

1/10 => one tenths

NOTE: ¼ =>one quarter, 2/3 => two thirds, ½ one half

Expressions

Here are the descriptive names of a number of important numerical expressions:

(Eis aqui os nomes descritivos de algumas expressões numéricas importantes):

descritivos de algumas expressões numéricas importantes): Speed 100 mph (miles per hour) Weight 80 kg (kilograms)

Speed 100 mph (miles per hour)

Weight 80 kg (kilograms) OR 42 lbs (pounds)

telephone number 0171 895 7056

decimal .087

date 12/04/65 (month/day/year)

percentage 75%

temperature 28° C (celsius) OR 72° F (fahrenheit) graus (degrees)

height 1 m 89 cm

price $60 (dollars); 60 € (euros), 60£ (sterling pounds)

fraction 8/13 (eight, thirteenths)

score 2-1 (two-one)

price $60 (dollars); 60 € (euros), 60£ (sterling pounds) fraction 8/13 (eight, thirteenths) score 2-1 (two-one)

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Conversion:

Units of length

1 millimetre = 0.03937 inch

Weights and measures

Units of weight

1 miligram = 0.015 grain

10

mm = 1 centimetre = 0.3937 inch

10

mg = 1 centigram = 0.154 grain

10

cm = 1 decimetre = 3.937 inches

10

cg = 1 decigram = 1.543 grains

10 dm = 1 metre = 39.37 inches

10

dg = 1 gram = 15.43 grains = 0.035 ounces

10

m = 1 decametre = 10.94 yards

10

g = 1 decagram = 0.353 ounce

10

dam = 1 hectometre = 109.4 yards

10

dag = 1 hectogram = 3.527 ounces

10

hm = 1 kilometre = 0.6214 mile

10 hg = 1 kilogram = 2.205 pounds

100 kg = 1 tonne (metric ton) = 0.984 (long) ton = 2204.62 pounds

Units of capacity

 

1 inch

= 2.54 cm

1

millilitre = 0.00176 pint

 

12 inches

= 1 foot

= 0.3048

10

ml = 1 centilitre = 0.0176 pint

3

feet

= 1 yard

= 0.9144 m

10

cl = 1 decilitre = 0.176 pint

8

furlongs

= 1 mile

= 1.609 km

10

dl = 1 litre = 1.76 pints = 0.22 gallon

10

l = 1 decalitre = 2.20 gallons

10

dal = 1 hectolitre = 22.0 gallons

10

hl = 1 kilolitre = 220.0 gallons

British and American

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Other notes :

100 pounds = 45,36 kg

You can always use the Internet to help you:

(Pode sempre usar a internet para o ajudar:)

Weight: (Peso)

Length: (Comprimento)

If you want to know more about conversion:

(E se quiser saber mais sobre conversões)

Expressing Numbers in English, From Kenneth Beare

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Connectors

The words in italics are linking words. We use words/phrases like however, while, on the other hand or as a result to show logical relationship between sentences or parts of a sentence and to structure our ideas.

Examples of linking words

Positive Addition

and, both…and, not only…but also, as well as, what is more, besides (this/that), etc.

E.g.: This atmosphere is both relaxing and comforting.

Negative Addition

Neither…nor, either

E.g.: I don’t appreciate that either.

Contrast

but, although, however, while, on the other hand, etc.

E.g

:

Some experts believe our temperament also determines our ability to withstand stress. However,

others suggest that temperament is not the most relevant factor.

Purpose

to, so that, in order (not) to, etc.

E.g

:

People should do regular exercise so that they let go of angry feelings.

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Effect/Result

as a result, consequently, therefore, so, etc.

E.g.: He doesn’t have much self-confidence and therefore he is more vulnerable to stress.

Time

when, whenever, as soon as, once, before, after, etc.

E.g

:

She got stressed as soon as she arrived home.

INGLÊS

Examples of linking words

Giving Examples

such as, for example, for instance, especially, etc

E.g

:

Eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia can be caused by stress.

Cause/Reason

because, for this reason, due to, as, etc.

E.g

:

Due to stress some people suffer from nightmares and insomnia.

Condition

if, whether, unless, etc.

E.g

:

You won’t get rid of stress unless you understand what is causing it.

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Place

where, wherever

E.g

:

Wherever he was, he was anxious most of the time.

Listing Points/Events

To begin: first, firstly, to start/begin with, first of all, etc.

E.g

:

To start with, we have to think positively.

To continue: second, secondly, afterwards, then, after that, etc.

E.g

:

Afterwards, we have to believe in ourselves.

To conclude: finally, lastly, in the end, eventually, etc.

E.g

:

Lastly, we have to do something to change our lives.

Summarising

in conclusion, to sum up, in short, etc.

E.g

:

To sum up, I firmly believe we can all learn to use stress in a positive way.

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

The plural of nouns - rules

O plural da maior parte dos substantivos faz-se acrescentando S ao singular. Mas há alguns casos especiais.

1.

Se o singular terminar em VOGAL + Y ou W, o plural faz-se normalmente

 

acrescentado um -S.

Boy

Boy boys

boys

Cow

Cow cows

cows

2. Se o singular terminar em

Boy boys Cow cows 2. Se o singular terminar em CONSOANTE + Y, o plural faz-se

CONSOANTE + Y, o plural faz-se normalmente

mudando o Y para I e acrescentando es.

Baby

Party

babiesmudando o Y para I e acrescentando – es . Baby Party parties 3. Se o

partieso Y para I e acrescentando – es . Baby Party babies 3. Se o singular

3. Se o singular terminar em acrescentando -es.

Church

Church

churches

Crash

Crash crashes

crashes

Box

Box boxes

boxes

Buzz

Buzz buzzes

buzzes

Crash crashes Box boxes Buzz buzzes -CH, -SH, -X, -S, -Z, o plural faz-se normalmente 4.

-CH, -SH, -X, -S, -Z, o plural faz-se normalmente

4. Alguns substantivos que acabam em plural em s (ou -es).

-O
-O

Echo

echoesEcho

Hero

heroesHero

Radio

radiosRadio

Piano

pianosPiano

Bufalo

bufalo(e)sBufalo

radios Piano pianos Bufalo bufalo(e)s Volcano volcano(e)s fazem o plural em – es; outros têm

Volcano

volcano(e)sRadio radios Piano pianos Bufalo bufalo(e)s Volcano fazem o plural em – es; outros têm 110

fazem o plural em es; outros têm

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

5.

LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA 5. Palavras que terminam com – f ou
LÍNGUA INGLESA – GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA 5. Palavras que terminam com – f ou

Palavras que terminam com f ou fe

têm plurais regulares, com a excepção das

seguintes palavras que fazem o plural em ves.

Calf

Elf

Half

Knife

Leaf

que fazem o plural em – ves. Calf Elf Half Knife Leaf calves life lives thief
que fazem o plural em – ves. Calf Elf Half Knife Leaf calves life lives thief
que fazem o plural em – ves. Calf Elf Half Knife Leaf calves life lives thief
que fazem o plural em – ves. Calf Elf Half Knife Leaf calves life lives thief
que fazem o plural em – ves. Calf Elf Half Knife Leaf calves life lives thief

calves

life

calves life lives thief thieves

lives

thief

calves life lives thief thieves

thieves

elves

loaf

loaveselves loaf wife wives

wife

elves loaf loaves wife wives

wives

halves

self

selveshalves self wolf wolves

wolf

halves self selves wolf wolves

wolves

knives

sheaf

sheaf

sheaves

leaves

shelf

leaves shelf shelves

shelves

6. IRREGULAR PLURALS (Plurais Irregulares):

Child

Foot

Goose

Louse

Man

Mouse

Ox

Penny

Person

Tooth

Child Foot Goose Louse Man Mouse Ox Penny Person Tooth Children Feet Geese Lice Men Mice
Child Foot Goose Louse Man Mouse Ox Penny Person Tooth Children Feet Geese Lice Men Mice
Child Foot Goose Louse Man Mouse Ox Penny Person Tooth Children Feet Geese Lice Men Mice
Child Foot Goose Louse Man Mouse Ox Penny Person Tooth Children Feet Geese Lice Men Mice
Child Foot Goose Louse Man Mouse Ox Penny Person Tooth Children Feet Geese Lice Men Mice
Child Foot Goose Louse Man Mouse Ox Penny Person Tooth Children Feet Geese Lice Men Mice
Child Foot Goose Louse Man Mouse Ox Penny Person Tooth Children Feet Geese Lice Men Mice
Child Foot Goose Louse Man Mouse Ox Penny Person Tooth Children Feet Geese Lice Men Mice
Child Foot Goose Louse Man Mouse Ox Penny Person Tooth Children Feet Geese Lice Men Mice
Child Foot Goose Louse Man Mouse Ox Penny Person Tooth Children Feet Geese Lice Men Mice

Children

Feet

Geese

Lice

Men

Mice

Oxen

Pence

People

Teeth

Child Foot Goose Louse Man Mouse Ox Penny Person Tooth Children Feet Geese Lice Men Mice

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Some notes on other (considered) irregular plurals

Types of irregular plurals

There are many types of irregular plurals, but these are the most common:

Noun type

Forming the plural

 

Example

 
 

Change

f

to

v

knife

knives

knives

*Ends with -fe

then

life

lives

lives

Add -s

wife

wivesAdd -s wife

 

Change

f

to

v

half

halves  Change f to v half

*Ends with -f

then

wolf

wolves*Ends with -f then wolf

Add -es

loaf

loaves

loaves

   

potato

potato potatoes

potatoes

*Ends with -o

Add -es

tomato

tomato tomatoes

tomatoes

volcano

volcano volcanoes

volcanoes

   

cactus

cactus cacti

cacti

 

ends with -us

Change -us to -i

 

nucleus

nucleus nuclei

nuclei

 

focus

focus foci

foci

   

analysis

analysis analyses

analyses

ends with -is

Change -is to -es

 

crisis

crises

crises

thesis

thesis theses

theses

 

ends with -on

Change -on to -a

 

phenomenon

phenomenon

phenomena

 

criterion

criterion criteria

criteria

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS E LOGÍSTICA

Noun type

Forming the plural

Example

   

man

men

men

Change the vowel or Change the word or Add a different ending

foot

feet

feet

child

children

children

ALL KINDS

person

people

people

tooth

teeth

teeth

mouse

mice

mice

Unchanging

Singular and plural are the same

sheep deer fish (sometimes)

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LÍNGUA INGLESA GESTÃO DE STOCKS