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Everton Tobar, Daiane Benaducci2

Copyright 2019, Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute - IBP

This Technical Paper was prepared for presentation at the Rio Pipeline Conference and Exhibition 2019, held
between 03 and 05 of September, in Rio de Janeiro. This Technical Paper was selected for presentation by the
Technical Committee of the event according to the information contained in the final paper submitted by the
author(s). The organizers are not supposed to translate or correct the submitted papers. The material as it is
presented, does not necessarily represent Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute’ opinion, or that of its
Members or Representatives. Authors consent to the publication of this Technical Paper in the Rio Pipeline
Conference and Exhibition 2019.


Steel pipes are installed everywhere, be it to transport crude oil, or to carry natural gas from
the state company to our homes. Be it hidden or visible, the pipes are there and safely
providing us with the fuel of the modern life. The system works safely thanks to safety
devices, dedicated operators and maintenance processes. As the pipes are often exposed to
wear, corrosion and cracks may occur, which lead to a loss of pipe wall. Consequently, the
operation may stop. Maintenance teams must be activated as soon as possible to put pipe back
in operation. The replacement is costly and is a long and complex process. The pipe repair
system, composed by a wrapping glass-carbon fiber and an epoxy composite resin, can reduce
the downtime and may extend the life of the pipe up to 20 years. Moreover, the system
involves a calculation methodology and tool, applicator and supervisor training. In order to
guarantee safety, improvements are constantly being made and the whole system is certified
by Germanischer Lloyd / DNV and that was developed and comprehensively tested by
following the requirements found at ISO 24817. This article intends to introduce the pipe
repair system improvements and to explore the details of a successful application in
Brazil. This application was made in a stainless-steel pipe which transports process water in a
thermoelectric plant, and the pipe requires constant maintenance. The repair system was
applied in 4 hours and the line flow released the day after the application.

Keywords: Pipe Repair System, ISO 24817, Composites, Pipework

1. Introduction

This article is intended to introduce the new version of the LOCTITE Pipe Repair
System – HT: High Temperature, as well as the whole application process of the standard
version, from the calculation to the final report.
The new version consists of the change in the resin and in the reconstruction composite, in
order to withstand a maximum working temperature of +120°C. Next, the document exposes
the calculation of a repair with the standard version done in a thermoelectrical power plant in
Brazil, the surface preparation of such repair and final remarks regarding the whole

M. Sc., Materials Engineering – Henkel
MBA, Mechatronics Engineer – Henkel
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experience and the results achieved by following the process recommended by the ISO 24817
The objective of this article is to disclose the details of an application that took place
in Brazil, in a thermoelectric power plant, which uses water to cool down the natural gas
combustion turbines that generate power. This water circulates in a closed system, so it must
be demineralized in an auxiliary plant, beside the generators.

2. The Improvements and the Application

In this chapter, the details of the new version of the system will be introduced as well
as the details of the application. No matter what version is being applied (standard or High
Temperature), the process is the same, only changing the products.

2.1. System Improvements

Currently, LOCTITE can offer the high temperature version of the Pipe Repair
System. It is composed by PC 3488 – Superior Metal, which withstands up to +150°C.
Additionally, the resin PC 7210 is replaced by PC 7211, whose highest working temperature
is +130°C. Finally, the protective coating is the LOCTITE PC 7234, which resists to +288°C
and can be applied by brush. In the standard version, PC 7255 withstands up to 110°C. The
other items did not need any change. Both versions are certified by DNV/GL according to
ISO 24817. As for the pressure limits, they both resist to 160 bar, considering a repair on a
hole of 1” of diameter in a carbon steel pipe of 6” of diameter, with water being pressurized.
Below follows a comparison between the standard and high temperature versions –
table 1:

Table 1.
Temperature Limits
PC 3478 PC 7210 PC 7255
+121°C +100°C +110°C
High Temperature
PC 3488 PC 7211 PC 7234
+150°C +130°C +288°C

Figure 1. Graphic comparison between Standard and High Temperature versions

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2.2. The Project

The project aimed to repair a pipe by using the Pipe Repair System, in a
thermoelectric power plant, located in Macaé-RJ, Brazil.
The repair was made on stainless steel pipe, used for process water transportation. The table 2
shows the main data about this line (input data for the calculation tool) and the table 3 shows
the data regarding the repair (output data). As there was dripping and less than 1 mm of wall
thickness, a repair type B (“through-hole”) was considered.
Table 2. Pipe Data

Installation: Process water pipe

Pipe Material: INOX 304- SCH 40 6 "
Outside diameter: 168 mm
Current situation: Without any apparent repair or surface treatment
Temperature: 30 °C
Pressure: 10 bar
Type of defect: Circular
Defect diameter: 15 mm
Wall thickness: 7,1 mm

Table 3. Repair Data

Project type: Failure type B (remaining wall thickness less than 1 mm)
Repair class: 3 (water and hydrocarbons production. Flammable fluids, gas systems)
Repair working life: 10 years
Repair minimum thickness: 3,6 mm
Number of layers*: 2
Repair minimum length 170,8 mm
*Calculation Tool approved by DNV/GL

2.3. Products, Materials and Tools

The table 4 shows the Henkel products used in the application and the table 5 shows
the tools and accessories.

Table 4. Henkel Products

IDH Product Description

1999149 LOCTITE SF 7515 Corrision inhibitor after sanding
1999146 LOCTITE PC 7210 2k Epoxy adhesive
1999145 LOCTITE PC 5085 Reinforcement multi-axial blanket
1322567 LOCTITE PC 7255 2k epoxy adhesive protective coating

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Table 5. Tools

Tool Function
Measurement Tools Define repair area
Scissors Cut the PC 5085 blanket
Sanding device Increase roughess
Brush Cleaning / SF 7515 application
Marker pen Mark repair area
Cup Dispense SF 7515 / Tools cleaning
Foam roll Remove excess of SF 7515
Needle roll Impregnate PC 7210 on the blanket
Metal trowel Impregnate PC 7210 on the blanket
Spray gun/brush PC 7255 application
Rugosimeter Sanding profile measurement
Salt deposition Surface check
Thermo-hygrometer Ambient conditions check

2.4. The Application

2.4.1. General Information

The pipe to repair was nearly 3m above the floor, being necessary a moving platform
for the execution. As the team approached the area, another repair opportunity was detected,
with the same type of defect in another point of the pipe. So, the same considerations were
done for this other repair too. The figure 2 shows the pipe condition when the defect was
spotted. It is possible to see temporary solutions made with adhesive tapes for a superficial

a) b)

Figure 2. Condition in which the pipe was found. (a) Repair area 1; (b) Repair area 2

Even after the water flow interruption, when removing the temporary repairs, yet some
dripping was observed, preventing the team to initiate the work immediately. A support from
Petrobras was requested to solve the problem. After relieving the line pressure, the dripping
ceased and the work started after lunch.

2.4.2. Surface Treatment

The temporary repair was replaced as seen on figure 2 and the sanding was done with
aluminum oxide (Figure 3). After sanding, the pipe was cleaned with air jet and brush for
elimination of any particle generated during the process (Figure 4).

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Figure 3. Pipe before mechanical treatment

Figure 4. Pipe during and after the treatment

Figure 5. Cleaning after treatment

2.4.3. Control Parameters Check

The temperature and humidity were verified before the application (Tables 6 and
Figure 6). Also, the deposition of salts was checked (Figure 7), compressed air condition
(Figure 8) and the sanding profile (Figure 9). The results are displayed on the table 7.

Figure 6. Temperature and humidity in the beginning of the application. Condition of the first repair (left).
Condition of the second repair (right).

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Table 6. Temperature and Humidity

Repair Time Temperature (°C) Humidity (%)

1 13:00 29.6 41.7
2 15:30 26.5 58.2

Figure 7. Salts deposition test

Figure 8. Compressed air condition check

Figure 9. Roughness profile check after sanding

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Table 7. Parameters Check

Parameter Repair 1 Repair 2 Ideal

Roughness 82,44 µm 79,97 µm ≥ 75 µm
Salt Deposition 1,8 μg/cm2 1,8 μg/cm2 < 3 μg/cm2
Compressed air OK OK Clean / no oil

2.4.4. Corrosion Inhibitor

After control measurements, the repair area was delimitated, and corrosion inhibitor
SF 7515 was applied with brush and the excess was removed with a foam roll after 1 minute
(Figure 10). This step concludes the surface preparation process, making the pipe ready to
receive the fabrics with resin.

Figure 10. SF 7515 Corrosion inhibitor application

2.4.5. Resin Application

The LOCTITE PC 5085 fabric was cut to meet what was specified by the calculation
tool (Table 3), ensuring a 20mm overlap and a conical profile with axial compensation of
10mm in each layer. Thus, the patch was cut with 190mm of axial length and the other belts
with circumferential length of 550mm. In the layer 1, 3 belts of axial length of 70mm were
used and in the layer 2, 2 belts of 85mm were used.

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Figure 11. Conditions for application met accordingly

With the belts ready for impregnation, the LOCTITE PC 7210 parts A (resin) and B
(hardener) were mixed and the mix was applied to the belts (Figure 12).

Figure 12. Mix and dispensing of LOCTITE PC 7210

After impregnation, the repair was applied on the delimitated area and the first belt of
layer 1 in the center of the patch. The other belts were applied according to the profile shown
on figure 11.
After all the belts were applied, a check was done and some adjustments to eliminate any
bubble. A small amount of resin was collected for posterior hardness check in the lab.

2.4.6. Coating Application

Two hours after the belt/resin application, the final coating LOCTITE PC 7255 was
applied. Firstly, it was sprayed, but due to space limitations, the process was finished by
brush. As the area is covered, no coating was applied in the second repair.

2.5. Results and Closing Remarks

The figure 13 shows both repairs finished and the tables 8 and 9 show the time spent
in each step, as well as the average product consumption. The most difficult aspect of the
process is the height of the application, as it is 3m from the floor. The resin sample collected
for the hardness test showed Shore D 84 after 3 days.

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Figure 13. Repairs after finishing

Table 8. Time Spent in Each Step

Step Description Repair 1 Repair 2

Mechanical treatment 30 min 10 min
Surface Treatment Control Parameters 25 min 10 min
Corrosion inhibitor application 5 min 5 min
Resin Application Belts cut 10 min 5 min
Belts impregnation and application 20 min 20 min
TOTAL 1h30min 50 min
Coating application Drying time for coating 2h00min NA
Coating application 30 min NA
TOTAL 4h00min 50 min

In the repair 2, the sanding time was shorter, as the equipment, the platform and safety
items were already set. Likewise, the measurement steps required a shorter time once that
only the roughness measurement was necessary.

Table 9. Final Product Quantity used for 2 Repairs

Item Quantity
LOCTITE SF 7515 100 ml
LOCTITE PC 7210 2 packages
LOCTITE PC 5085 3 meters
LOCTITE PC 7255 A ¼ cartridge

3. Conclusion

The application occurred as expected and, in the day after, the team assisted the water
flow being restored. No problem was observed. After 2 years of installation, the repair did not
have any change, nor any material loss or degradation. The customer informed that no leakage
has been detected so far and no pressure loss identified on that point. All things considered,
the application was successful.

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4. Acknowledgments

All those involved in this project at Henkel, for the engineering team with all the
support during all the phases of the installation.
Special thanks to our partner OPT Brazil, whose experience in the field was crucial for
our success.

5. References

(1) SCHOENE J. - Testing of Composite Repairs according to ISO & ASME standards and beyond