0 Votos favoráveis0 Votos desfavoráveis

0 visualizações36 páginasModeling control systems

Sep 23, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT ou leia online no Scribd

Modeling control systems

© All Rights Reserved

0 visualizações

Modeling control systems

© All Rights Reserved

- Test+pattern+NTDC
- Quiz-ohms Law-series and Parallel
- Resistors in Series and Parallel
- Verification of Thevenin’s & Norton’s Theorem
- Improving Power Quality in a Multi bus Multi Feeder System Using MC-UPQC
- qbank2escience2sem
- Hw 1 Solutions
- Experiment 8 Series and Parallel Circuits Physics Lab
- NSO Sample Paper For Stage II
- 7.7 Parallel circuit
- Basic Circuit Theory
- CAT-Basic Circuit Theory.pdf
- expt2
- Chap 3
- Physc2-EM3011
- selecao_cap8
- It’s Electric_ a Lesson About Ohm’s
- BEE Tutorial Sheet 1
- EE 320A OBE Format Syllabus
- Network Theorem

Você está na página 1de 36

Introduction.-

¿What is a Model?

something to be made.

cannot be directly observed.

mathematical description of an entity or state of affairs; also : a

computer simulation based on such a system.

Classes of Models

Iconic

Physical

Analog

Schematic

Diagrams & Drawings

Description

Models Use

Optimization

Deterministic

Mathematical Degree of Randomness

Probabilistic

Specific

Degree of Specificity

General

Classes of Models

¿Why to use Mathematical Models?

Transfer Function

For any control system exists a reference input termed as excitation

or cause which operates through a transfer operation termed as

transfer function and produces an effect resulting in controlled

output or response. Thus the cause and effect relationship between

the output and input is related to each other through a transfer

function.

Transfer Function

The transfer function of a control system is defined as the ratio of the

Laplace transform of the output variable to Laplace transform of the

input variable assuming all initial conditions to be zero.

are as follows :

2. Now, we take Laplace transform of the system equations,

assuming initial conditions as zero.

3. Specify system output and input.

4. Lastly, we take the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output and

the Laplace transform of the input which is the required transfer

function.

Transfer Function

There are two main methods to obtain a transfer function for control

system :

transfer function for a complex control system. Therefore, the transfer

function of each element of a control system is represented by a

block diagram. Block diagram reduction techniques are applied to

obtain the desired transfer function.

Transfer Function

signal flow graph. Block diagram gives a pictorial representation of a

control system. Signal flow graph further shortens the representation

of a control system.

Transfer Function

Transfer Function

The transfer function of a system is completely specified in terms of

its poles and zeroes and the gain factor. Let us know about the poles

and zeroes of a transfer function in brief.

z1 , z2 , … zm = zero’s p1 , p2 , ………………… pn = pole’s

poles value of the transfer function. For this, the T.F is infinity.

Putting the numerator of equation (ii) equal to zero, we get the value

of zero of the transfer function. For this, T.F is equal to zero.

Transfer Function

There are two types of transfer

functions :

function( O.L.T.F) : Transfer

function of the system without

feedback path or loop.

(C.L.T.F) : Transfer function of the

system with feedback path or loop.

Mathematical Modeling of Mechanical Systems

We have two types of mechanical systems. Mechanical system may

be a linear mechanical system or it may be a rotational mechanical

type of system.

Velocity which is represented by ‘V’.

Linear displacement represented by ‘X’

Coefficient of viscous friction which is represented by ‘B’.

Spring constant which is represented by ‘K’.

Mathematical Modeling of Mechanical Systems

is shown below-

have x is the displacement as shown in the diagram. From the

Newton’s second law of motion, we can write force as-

d2x

F1 = M 2

dt

dx

F2 = B

dt

F3 = Kx

Mathematical Modeling of Mechanical Systems

taking the Laplace transform we have the transfer function as,

system.

Mathematical Modeling of Mechanical Systems

shown below, we have already marked various variables in the diagram

itself. We have θ is the angular displacement as shown in the diagram.

From the mechanical system, we can write equation for torque (which

is analogous to force) as torque as:

d 2t

T1 = J 2

dθ

dt

T2 = B

dθ

T3 = Kθ

Mathematical Modeling of Mechanical Systems

taking the Laplace transform, we have the transfer function as,

Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System

In electrical systems we have three variables:

Voltage which is represented by ‘V’.

Current which is represented by ‘I’.

Charge which is represented by ‘Q’.

And also we have three parameters which are active and passive

elements:

Resistance which is represented by ‘R’.

Capacitance which is represented by ‘C’.

Inductance which is represented by ‘L’.

mechanical types of systems. There are two types of analogies and

they are written below:

Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System

Force Voltage Analogy : In order to understand this type of analogy,

let us consider a circuit which consists of series combination of

resistor, inductor and capacitor.

the circuit diagram. Now from the circuit diagram and with the help of

KVL equation we write the expression for voltage in terms of charge,

resistance, capacitor and inductor as: 2

d t dt q

V =L 2 +R +

dq dq C

Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System

Now comparing the above with that we have derived for the

mechanical system we find that:

Force is analogous to voltage V.

Displacement (x) is analogous to charge (Q).

Coefficient of friction (B) is analogous to resistance R and

Spring constant is analogous to inverse of the capacitor (C).

Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System

Force Current Analogy: In order to understand this type of analogy,

let us consider a circuit which consists of parallel combination of

resistor, inductor and capacitor.

in the circuit diagram. Now from the circuit diagram and with the

help of KCL equation we write the expression for current in terms of

flux, resistance, capacitor and inductor as: 2

d t 1 dt ψ

I =C 2 + +

dψ R dψ L

Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System

Now comparing the above with that we have derived for the

mechanical system we find that:

Force is analogous to current I.

Displacement (x) is analogous to flux (ψ).

Coefficient of friction (B) is analogous to resistance 1/ R and

Spring constant K is analogous to inverse of the inductor (L).

Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System

Second order low pass RC filter

Voltage Law, the directed sum of

the electrical potential differences i2

(voltage) around any closed i1(t)

Vi(t) Vo(t)

network is zero.

Mesh analysis (or the mesh current method) is a method that is used

to solve planar circuits for the currents (and indirectly the voltages) at

any place in the circuit.

Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System

Second order low pass RC filter

i2

i1(t)

Vi(t) Vo(t)

essential meshes (also referred to as independent meshes). An

essential mesh is a loop in the circuit that does not contain any other

loop. A mesh current is a current that loops around the essential mesh

and the equations are set solved in terms of them. A mesh current may

not correspond to any physically flowing current, but the physical

currents are easily found from them.

Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System

Second order low pass RC filter

The relationship between voltage a

current in a capacitor is:

1 t

vc (t ) =

c

∫ i (t )dt

0 c

i2

applying Laplace Transform i1(t)

Vi(t) Vo(t)

1

Vc ( s) = I c ( s)

cs

then Vc ( s) 1

= = Zc ( s)

I c ( s) cs

Taking i1 as the first mesh currents:

V1 ( s) = I1 ( s) R1 + ( I1 ( s) − I 2 ( s)) ZC1

V1 ( s) = I1 ( s) ( R1 + ZC1 ) − I 2 ( s) ZC1

Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System

Second order low pass RC filter

Now, taking i2 as the second mesh current:

0 = I 2 ( s) R2 + I 2 ( s) ZC 2 + ( I 2 ( s) − I1 ( s)) ZC1

i2

0 = I 2 ( s) ( R2 + ZC1 + ZC 2 ) − I 2 ( s) ZC1 i1(t)

V1(t) Vo(t)

! V s $ ! R +Z −ZC1 $! I ( s) $

# 1( ) & = # 1 C1 &# 1 &

#" 0 &% #" −ZC1 R2 + ZC1 + ZC 2 &%# I 2 ( s) &

" %

I2(s) can be obtained applying the Cramer’s rule, that is:

ΔI 2

I 2 ( s) =

Δ

Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System

Second order low pass RC filter

i2

i1(t)

Vi(t) Vo(t)

where: and:

R1 + ZC1 −ZC1 R1 + ZC1 V1 ( s)

Δ= Δ I2 =

−ZC1 R2 + ZC1 + ZC 2 −ZC1 0

vector” (answer vector).

V1C2 s

Solving the determinants: I 2 ( s ) =

s 2C1C2 R1R2 + s ( R1C2 + R1C1 + R2C2 ) +1

Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System

Second order low pass RC filter

i2

i1(t)

Vi(t) Vo(t)

1

V0 = I 2 ( s)

C2 s

then:

V0 1

= 2

V1 s C1C2 R1R2 + s ( R1C2 + R1C1 + R2C2 ) +1

Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System

Using Matlab to simulate electrical circuits

Matlab, among other computational tools, can be used to “solve”

physics system. For instance, electrical circuits.

Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical System

mechanical load in accordance with the reference position. The input

signal determines the angular position r of the wiper arm of the input

potentiometer. r is the reference input signal. The ouput shaft position

determines the angular position c of the wiper arm of the output

potentiometer.

Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical System

The difference between the input angular position r and the output

angular position c is the error signal e:

e= r−c

In voltage:

ev = er − ec

because:

then: er = K 0 r;ec = K 0 c

Finally:

ev = K 0 ( r − c)

Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical System

The input to the “motor” is:

K1ev

A fixed voltage is applied to the field winding, then there is a constant

field current, in this case the torque developed by the motor is:

T = K 2ia

where K2 is the motor torque constant and ia is the armature current.

which can be expressed by:

dθ

eb = K 3

dt

where eb is the back Electromotive force (emf), K3 is the back emf

constant of the motor and θ is the angular displacement of the motor

shaft.

Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical System

the armature voltage ea. The differential equation for the armature

circuit is: di a

ea = La + Raia + eb

dt

or dia dθ

K1ev = La + Raia + K 3

dt dt

The equation for torque equilibrium is:

d 2θ dθ

T = K 2ia = J o 2 + b0

dt dt

where J0 is the inertia of the combination of the motor, load and gear

train referred to motor shaft and b0 is the viscous-friction coefficient.

Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical System

The transfer function between the motor shaft displacement and the

error voltage is: Θ s()= K1K 2

E v ( s) s ( La s + Ra ) ( J 0 s + b0 ) + K 2 K 3s

it is assumed that the gear ratio of the gear train is:

C ( s) = nΘ ( s)

where C(s) is the Laplace Transform of c(t) (angular displacement of

the output shaft).

Ev ( s) = K 0 "# R ( s) − C ( s)$% = K 0 E ( s)

Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical System

C ( s ) Θ ( s ) Ev ( s ) K 0 K1K 2 n

G ( s) = =

Θ ( s) Ev ( s) E ( s) s "#( La s + Ra ) ( J 0 s + b0 ) + K 2 K 3 $%

R ( s) E ( s) Ev ( s ) Θ ( s) C ( s)

K1K 2

K0

s !"( La s + Ra ) ( J 0 s + b0 ) + K 2 K 3 #$ n

Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical System

R ( s) E ( s) Ev ( s ) Θ ( s) C ( s)

K1K 2

K0

s !"( La s + Ra ) ( J 0 s + b0 ) + K 2 K 3 #$ n

- Test+pattern+NTDCEnviado porBilawal Rattar
- Quiz-ohms Law-series and ParallelEnviado porGary Nugas
- Resistors in Series and ParallelEnviado pormarilujane
- Verification of Thevenin’s & Norton’s TheoremEnviado porskrtamil
- Improving Power Quality in a Multi bus Multi Feeder System Using MC-UPQCEnviado porInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- qbank2escience2semEnviado porVinod Kumar
- Hw 1 SolutionsEnviado pormitrax1p
- Experiment 8 Series and Parallel Circuits Physics LabEnviado porGrace Urbano
- NSO Sample Paper For Stage IIEnviado porNilesh Gupta
- 7.7 Parallel circuitEnviado porIjah Shahrom
- Basic Circuit TheoryEnviado porLudfian Warwerkodokmeletracingteam
- CAT-Basic Circuit Theory.pdfEnviado pormehdi kamali
- expt2Enviado porbryar
- Chap 3Enviado porEds Gallema
- Physc2-EM3011Enviado porJessicasiahaan
- selecao_cap8Enviado porThiago Bastos
- It’s Electric_ a Lesson About Ohm’sEnviado pordmart033
- BEE Tutorial Sheet 1Enviado porbhooth ghost
- EE 320A OBE Format SyllabusEnviado porGlorie Mae Bureros
- Network TheoremEnviado porArslanShahid
- NEETS_v1_Intro_Q___AEnviado porChristopher Inoval Paril
- 89060-2014-syllabusEnviado porAhmad Nazieh Abualrob
- EC 334_Lecture 3_Mohamed TamazinEnviado porNourhanGamal
- Yearly Plan Yr5 2011Enviado porFatimahMatAli
- ME PhD Qual MControl Sample1Enviado porshv_atluru
- Formal Report Questions (Experiments 1 to 10)Enviado porAngel Macapagal
- lec 17.pdfEnviado porByron Banzon
- IV Eee i Sem Es LabEnviado porEkansh Dwivedi
- Chap 2 ElektrikEnviado porSirat Mustaqim
- Lucky LessonplanEnviado porPatrecia Monique Ferrarez Escolta

- Poka Yoke With SenzorsEnviado porGeorge Suba
- Analog-Electronics.pdfEnviado porCafuChiquito
- Rooster CrawlerEnviado porwadafacka
- Siemens - Medium Voltage Equipment Range for SubstationsEnviado porUrsula Johnson
- Emotron Softstarter Msf2-0 Instruction ManualEnviado porccmonica_20045942
- Build a Citation 12Enviado por21C1
- Tap ControllerEnviado porFalconegypt
- 49253560-objective-electronics.pdfEnviado porAvishgowda
- chap08Enviado porAndrés Vanegas Guillén
- Module 3 Metal Joining and Cutting Process 15 (6).pptEnviado porMiki Jaksic
- KA3525AEnviado porAlejandro Araya
- LM12CLKEnviado porGheorghe Daniel
- LM335 Temp SensorEnviado porJuan Gil Roca
- 100420547-91150877-Dbs3900-SpareEnviado porEngArab Fq
- ESR of Capacitors TheoryEnviado porPadmajan Yesodharan
- 422 Signal TerminationEnviado porrushi4007
- Multi-Stage Operational Amplifier With Frequency Compensation and High CMRREnviado porshubh_er
- BP2468Enviado porcytech6619
- Chapter6 FETs BiasingEnviado porpistolholder
- Sirius 3rb2 DatasheetEnviado porCesar Igami
- CargadoresEnviado porAmber Smith
- IRFP250 MosfetEnviado pordeyede2003
- iPCB_Compair_132RS_Delcos XL (1)Enviado porAli Raza
- Design-of-Folded-Cascode-OTA-in-Different-Regions-of-Operation-through-gmID-Methodology.pdfEnviado porAyush Malhotra
- ET Solar 245 Wp (1).pdfEnviado porΑλοϊσιοςΔαελης
- 5-4.pdfEnviado porIskandar Agung Agung
- Asco Pv Emxx Solenoid Valve Operator II 2 g Ex Mb II t6..t3 II 2 d Ex Md 21 Ip67Enviado porMustafa Temel
- SP60-18 Rev3 Cathodic ProtectionEnviado porkmyson
- 00062395Enviado porfranchisca9999
- Cable Engineering in Substation and Power PlantEnviado porVasudev Agrawal

## Muito mais do que documentos

Descubra tudo o que o Scribd tem a oferecer, incluindo livros e audiolivros de grandes editoras.

Cancele quando quiser.