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# Unit 1.

## - Modeling of Linear and Nonlinear Systems

Introduction.-
¿What is a Model?

## •  A description or analogy used to help visualize something that

cannot be directly observed.

## •  A system of postulates, data, and inferences presented as a

mathematical description of an entity or state of affairs; also : a
computer simulation based on such a system.
Classes of Models
Iconic
Physical
Analog

## Graphs & Charts

Schematic
Diagrams & Drawings

Description
Models Use
Optimization

Deterministic
Mathematical Degree of Randomness
Probabilistic

Specific
Degree of Specificity
General
Classes of Models
¿Why to use Mathematical Models?
Transfer Function
For any control system exists a reference input termed as excitation
or cause which operates through a transfer operation termed as
transfer function and produces an effect resulting in controlled
output or response. Thus the cause and effect relationship between
the output and input is related to each other through a transfer
function.
Transfer Function
The transfer function of a control system is defined as the ratio of the
Laplace transform of the output variable to Laplace transform of the
input variable assuming all initial conditions to be zero.

are as follows :

## 1. We form the equations for the system.

2. Now, we take Laplace transform of the system equations,
assuming initial conditions as zero.
3. Specify system output and input.
4. Lastly, we take the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output and
the Laplace transform of the input which is the required transfer
function.
Transfer Function
There are two main methods to obtain a transfer function for control
system :

## • Block diagram method : It is not convenient to derive a complete

transfer function for a complex control system. Therefore, the transfer
function of each element of a control system is represented by a
block diagram. Block diagram reduction techniques are applied to
obtain the desired transfer function.
Transfer Function

## • Signal Flow graphs : The modified form of a block diagram is a

signal flow graph. Block diagram gives a pictorial representation of a
control system. Signal flow graph further shortens the representation
of a control system.
Transfer Function
Transfer Function
The transfer function of a system is completely specified in terms of
its poles and zeroes and the gain factor. Let us know about the poles
and zeroes of a transfer function in brief.

## Where, K = system gain,

z1 , z2 , … zm = zero’s p1 , p2 , ………………… pn = pole’s

## Putting the denominator of equation (i) equal to zero, we get the

poles value of the transfer function. For this, the T.F is infinity.

Putting the numerator of equation (ii) equal to zero, we get the value
of zero of the transfer function. For this, T.F is equal to zero.
Transfer Function
There are two types of transfer
functions :

## i)  Open loop transfer

function( O.L.T.F) : Transfer
function of the system without
feedback path or loop.

## ii) Closed loop transfer function

(C.L.T.F) : Transfer function of the
system with feedback path or loop.
Mathematical Modeling of Mechanical Systems
We have two types of mechanical systems. Mechanical system may
be a linear mechanical system or it may be a rotational mechanical
type of system.

## Force which is represented by ‘F’.

Velocity which is represented by ‘V’.
Linear displacement represented by ‘X’

## Mass which is represented by ‘M’.

Coefficient of viscous friction which is represented by ‘B’.
Spring constant which is represented by ‘K’.
Mathematical Modeling of Mechanical Systems

is shown below-

## We have already marked various variables in the diagram itself. We

have x is the displacement as shown in the diagram. From the
Newton’s second law of motion, we can write force as-
d2x
F1 = M 2
dt
dx
F2 = B
dt
F3 = Kx
Mathematical Modeling of Mechanical Systems

## On substituting the values of F1, F2 and F3 in the above equation and

taking the Laplace transform we have the transfer function as,

## This equation is mathematical modeling of mechanical control

system.
Mathematical Modeling of Mechanical Systems

## Now let us consider the rotational mechanical type of system which is

shown below, we have already marked various variables in the diagram
itself. We have θ is the angular displacement as shown in the diagram.
From the mechanical system, we can write equation for torque (which
is analogous to force) as torque as:
d 2t
T1 = J 2

dt
T2 = B

T3 = Kθ
Mathematical Modeling of Mechanical Systems

## On substituting the values of T1, T2 and T3 in the above equation and

taking the Laplace transform, we have the transfer function as,

## This equation is mathematical modeling of electrical control system.

Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System
In electrical systems we have three variables:
Voltage which is represented by ‘V’.
Current which is represented by ‘I’.
Charge which is represented by ‘Q’.

And also we have three parameters which are active and passive
elements:
Resistance which is represented by ‘R’.
Capacitance which is represented by ‘C’.
Inductance which is represented by ‘L’.

## Now we are in condition to derive analogy between electrical and

mechanical types of systems. There are two types of analogies and
they are written below:
Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System
Force Voltage Analogy : In order to understand this type of analogy,
let us consider a circuit which consists of series combination of
resistor, inductor and capacitor.

## A voltage V is connected in series with these elements as shown in

the circuit diagram. Now from the circuit diagram and with the help of
KVL equation we write the expression for voltage in terms of charge,
resistance, capacitor and inductor as: 2
d t dt q
V =L 2 +R +
dq dq C
Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System

Now comparing the above with that we have derived for the
mechanical system we find that:

## Mass (M) is analogous to inductance (L).

Force is analogous to voltage V.
Displacement (x) is analogous to charge (Q).
Coefficient of friction (B) is analogous to resistance R and
Spring constant is analogous to inverse of the capacitor (C).

## This analogy is known as force voltage analogy.

Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System
Force Current Analogy: In order to understand this type of analogy,
let us consider a circuit which consists of parallel combination of
resistor, inductor and capacitor.

## A voltage E is connected in parallel with these elements as shown

in the circuit diagram. Now from the circuit diagram and with the
help of KCL equation we write the expression for current in terms of
flux, resistance, capacitor and inductor as: 2
d t 1 dt ψ
I =C 2 + +
dψ R dψ L
Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System
Now comparing the above with that we have derived for the
mechanical system we find that:

## Mass (M) is analogous to Capacitor (C).

Force is analogous to current I.
Displacement (x) is analogous to flux (ψ).
Coefficient of friction (B) is analogous to resistance 1/ R and
Spring constant K is analogous to inverse of the inductor (L).

## This analogy is known as force current analogy.

Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System
Second order low pass RC filter

## According to the Kirchhoff’s

Voltage Law, the directed sum of
the electrical potential differences i2
(voltage) around any closed i1(t)
Vi(t) Vo(t)
network is zero.

Mesh analysis (or the mesh current method) is a method that is used
to solve planar circuits for the currents (and indirectly the voltages) at
any place in the circuit.
Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System
Second order low pass RC filter

i2
i1(t)
Vi(t) Vo(t)

## Mesh analysis works by arbitrarily assigning mesh currents in the

essential meshes (also referred to as independent meshes). An
essential mesh is a loop in the circuit that does not contain any other
loop. A mesh current is a current that loops around the essential mesh
and the equations are set solved in terms of them. A mesh current may
not correspond to any physically flowing current, but the physical
currents are easily found from them.
Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System
Second order low pass RC filter
The relationship between voltage a
current in a capacitor is:
1 t
vc (t ) =
c
∫ i (t )dt
0 c
i2
applying Laplace Transform i1(t)
Vi(t) Vo(t)
1
Vc ( s) = I c ( s)
cs
then Vc ( s) 1
= = Zc ( s)
I c ( s) cs
Taking i1 as the first mesh currents:

V1 ( s) = I1 ( s) R1 + ( I1 ( s) − I 2 ( s)) ZC1
V1 ( s) = I1 ( s) ( R1 + ZC1 ) − I 2 ( s) ZC1
Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System
Second order low pass RC filter
Now, taking i2 as the second mesh current:

0 = I 2 ( s) R2 + I 2 ( s) ZC 2 + ( I 2 ( s) − I1 ( s)) ZC1
i2
0 = I 2 ( s) ( R2 + ZC1 + ZC 2 ) − I 2 ( s) ZC1 i1(t)
V1(t) Vo(t)

## Using a Matrix for the two equations:

! V s \$ ! R +Z −ZC1 \$! I ( s) \$
# 1( ) & = # 1 C1 &# 1 &
#" 0 &% #" −ZC1 R2 + ZC1 + ZC 2 &%# I 2 ( s) &
" %
I2(s) can be obtained applying the Cramer’s rule, that is:
ΔI 2
I 2 ( s) =
Δ
Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System
Second order low pass RC filter

i2
i1(t)
Vi(t) Vo(t)

where: and:
R1 + ZC1 −ZC1 R1 + ZC1 V1 ( s)
Δ= Δ I2 =
−ZC1 R2 + ZC1 + ZC 2 −ZC1 0

## Note that the second column of ΔI2 is substituted by the “source

V1C2 s
Solving the determinants: I 2 ( s ) =
s 2C1C2 R1R2 + s ( R1C2 + R1C1 + R2C2 ) +1
Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System
Second order low pass RC filter

i2
i1(t)
Vi(t) Vo(t)

## The output equation is:

1
V0 = I 2 ( s)
C2 s
then:
V0 1
= 2
V1 s C1C2 R1R2 + s ( R1C2 + R1C1 + R2C2 ) +1
Mathematical Modeling of Electrical System
Using Matlab to simulate electrical circuits
Matlab, among other computational tools, can be used to “solve”
physics system. For instance, electrical circuits.
Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical System

## The objective of this servo system is to control the position of the

mechanical load in accordance with the reference position. The input
signal determines the angular position r of the wiper arm of the input
potentiometer. r is the reference input signal. The ouput shaft position
determines the angular position c of the wiper arm of the output
potentiometer.
Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical System

The difference between the input angular position r and the output
angular position c is the error signal e:

e= r−c
In voltage:
ev = er − ec
because:

then: er = K 0 r;ec = K 0 c

## where K0 is a proportionality constant of the potentiometers.

Finally:
ev = K 0 ( r − c)
Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical System
The input to the “motor” is:
K1ev
A fixed voltage is applied to the field winding, then there is a constant
field current, in this case the torque developed by the motor is:

T = K 2ia
where K2 is the motor torque constant and ia is the armature current.

## When the armature is rotating a voltage is induced in the armature,

which can be expressed by:

eb = K 3
dt
where eb is the back Electromotive force (emf), K3 is the back emf
constant of the motor and θ is the angular displacement of the motor
shaft.
Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical System

## The speed of an armature-controlled DC servomotor is controlled by

the armature voltage ea. The differential equation for the armature
circuit is: di a
ea = La + Raia + eb
dt
or dia dθ
K1ev = La + Raia + K 3
dt dt
The equation for torque equilibrium is:
d 2θ dθ
T = K 2ia = J o 2 + b0
dt dt
where J0 is the inertia of the combination of the motor, load and gear
train referred to motor shaft and b0 is the viscous-friction coefficient.
Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical System

The transfer function between the motor shaft displacement and the
error voltage is: Θ s()= K1K 2
E v ( s) s ( La s + Ra ) ( J 0 s + b0 ) + K 2 K 3s
it is assumed that the gear ratio of the gear train is:
C ( s) = nΘ ( s)
where C(s) is the Laplace Transform of c(t) (angular displacement of
the output shaft).

## The relationship of the input and output potentiometers is:

Ev ( s) = K 0 "# R ( s) − C ( s)\$% = K 0 E ( s)
Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical System

## The transfer function in the feedforward path is:

C ( s ) Θ ( s ) Ev ( s ) K 0 K1K 2 n
G ( s) = =
Θ ( s) Ev ( s) E ( s) s "#( La s + Ra ) ( J 0 s + b0 ) + K 2 K 3 \$%

R ( s) E ( s) Ev ( s ) Θ ( s) C ( s)
K1K 2
K0
s !"( La s + Ra ) ( J 0 s + b0 ) + K 2 K 3 #\$ n
Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical System

R ( s) E ( s) Ev ( s ) Θ ( s) C ( s)
K1K 2
K0
s !"( La s + Ra ) ( J 0 s + b0 ) + K 2 K 3 #\$ n