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Patrick Vincent B.


2019 – 20073


Prof. Maria Vanessa P. Lusung – Oyzon,Ph.D.

College of Education (BEED – SPED)

EDFD 116 – WFU (10:00 – 11:30 am)

Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky are undoubtedly the most influential figures in the
field of developmental psychology because of how most theories and principles of either
development, learning and education rests heavily on their works. Although both have
notable contributions there exists almost unnoticeable differences and similar influences
in development and leaning which is ought to be elaborated.

The Critical Differences in Theories

Jean Piaget On Theory of Learning. Piaget assumes that learning occurs
through the interaction of the learner with the physical world that
is through assimilation, accommodation, and cognitive
development. In order to obtain a stable learning or
understanding there must be an equilibrium ().
Assimilation and Accommodation. Learning occurs when
schemas (way of organizing knowledge) deal with new
information using the existing schema (Assimilation). And
schema change to deal with the new information
Stages of Cognitive Development. Interaction with the
physical world is crucial towards cognitive development. It
occurs in logical and orderly stages namely:
Sensorimotor Stage. Children, from birth until 2 years
of age, develop knowledge through sensory and
motor capabilities
Pre-operational Stage. Knowledge is presented by
language, mental images, and symbolic thought.
Children ages 2 to 7 years of age rely on their own
point of view (this is termed as “egocentrism”). They
tend to focus on one dimension of events and
Concrete operational Stage. Children ages 7 to 12
years old reason logically about objects and events.
They do not think yet in an abstract and hypothetical
Formal Operational Stage. Children ages 12 years
and up already engage in scientific thinking, reason
hypothetically and systematically, and think

Lev Vygotsky developed two concepts of cognitive learning

zones – The Zone of Actual Development (ZAD) and the
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), however he is known
mostly of the latter. The Zone of Actual Development occurs
when learners can complete tasks on their own wherein
children are independent in their learning (e.g.
accomplishing tasks or homeworks). On the other hand, The
Zone of Proximal Development requires adults or peers to
provide assistance and guidance to learners. Learners in turn
need to be taught with a higher level than the average in
order for learning to take place (e.g. appropriate learning
goals and topic to avoid boredom. Most importantly for
developmental learning to take place) (Somuah, 2014).
According to Somuah (2014), this involves a key feature of
“effective scaffolding is that the parent provides only as
much support as the child needs; once skills are mastered,
the parent withdraws the “scaffold” or support”.

Looking through the Resemblances in Theories