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COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIAL

Sector : Agriculture and Fishery, Processed Food and Beverage

Qualification Title : Food Processing NC II

Unit of Competency:Process Foods by Salting, Curing and Smoking

Module Title :Processing Foods by Salting, Curing and Smoking

WINZELLE INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE, INC.

Tomas Claudio St. Zamboanga City


LIST OF COMPETENCIES

No. Unit of Module Title Code


Competency
1 Process Foods by Processing Foods AGR741301
Salting, Curing by Salting, Curing
and Smoking and Smoking
2 Process Food by Processing Food by AGR741302
Fermentation and Fermentation and
Pickling Pickling
3 Process Food by Processing Food by AGR741303
Sugar Sugar
Concentration Concentration
4 Package Packaging AGR741304
Finished/Processed Finished/Processed
Food Products Food Products

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HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL

Welcome!

Welcome to the module in “Processing Foods by Salting, Curing and


Smoking”. This module contains training materials and activities for you to
complete.
The unit of competency Weld Carbon Steel Plates and Pipes Using SMAW
contains knowledge, skills and attitudes required Food Processing NC II.
You are required to go through a series of learning activities in order to
complete each learning outcome of the module. In each learning outcome
there are Information Sheets, Self-Checks, Task Sheet and Job Sheets.
Follow these activities on your own. If you have questions, don’t hesitate to
ask your facilitator for assistance.
The goal of this course is the development of practical skills. To gain these
skills, you must learn basic concepts and terminologies. For the most part,
you'll get this information from the Information Sheets and TESDA Website,
www.tesda.gov.ph
This module is prepared to help you achieve the required competency, in
Processing Foods by Salting, Curing and Smoking.
This will be the source of information for you to acquire knowledge and
skills in this particular competency independently and at your own pace,
with minimum supervision or help from your instructor.

Remember to:
 Work through all the information and complete the activities in each
section.
 Read information sheets and complete the self-check. Suggested
references are included to supplement the materials provided in this
module.

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 Most probably your trainer will also be your supervisor or manager.
Your trainer is there to support you and show you the correct way to
do things.
 You will be given plenty of opportunity to ask questions and practice
in your respective laboratory. Make sure you practice your new skills
during regular training schedule. This way you will improve both your
speed and memory and also your confidence.
 Use the Self-checks, Job Sheets at the end of each section to test your
own progress.
 When you feel confident that you have had sufficient practice, ask
your Trainer to evaluate you. The results of your assessment will be
recorded in your Progress Chart and Achievement Chart.
 You need to complete this module before you can move on to the next
module.

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MODULE CONTENT

Unit of Competency : Process Foods by Salting, Curing and Smoking


Module Title : Processing Foods by Salting, Curing and Smoking
Module Descriptor :This module covers the procedure in preparing raw
materials for salting, curing and smoking.
Nominal Duration :142 hours

LEARNING OUTCOME SUMMARY


Upon completion of this module, the trainee/student must be able to:
1. Prepare equipment tools, materials, and utensils
2. Prepare the raw materials
3. Prepare Salting and Curing Solutions and Mixtures.
4. Cure Materials
5. Finish the Cured Materials
6. Prepare Production Report
Learning Outcome 2:Prepare the Raw Materials. .
Contents:

 Identify raw materials needed for salting, curing and smoking.


 Sort and grade fish/ other marine products, meat and eggs for salting,
curing and smoking.
 Clean, wash and weigh raw materials in preparation for salting, curing
and smoking.

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Assessment Criteria:
 Raw materials needed for salting, curing and smoking are identified.
 Fish/other products are sorted and graded according to species, size
and degree of freshnesss in accordance with specifications
 Poultry, meat and eggs are sorted and graded in accordance with
specifications.
 Eggs for salting are cleaned and washed in accordance with approved
standard procedures.
 Poultry for curing are skinned, eviscerated and washed in accordance
with approved specifications and standard procedures.
 Meat for curing are deskinned, deboned, sliced, chopped and minced
in accordance with approved specifications and standard procedures.
 Fish/ other marine products are cleaned, descaled, eviscerated,
deboned, filleted and washed in accordance with approved
spsecificatsions and standard procedures.
 Cleaned raw materials are weighed in accordance with approved
specifications.
Condition:
Students/trainees must be provided with the following:
1. Workplace Location - FoodLaboratory

2. Tools, Equipment and Materials/Supplies

Persona
Tools/ Equipment Protective Materials/Supplies
Utensils Equipment
Cutting Trolleys Hair net Fresh eggs
implement

Scalers Wheelers Apron/lab.gown Dressed poultry


Chopping board Weighing scale Clean towel Fresh meat
Utility trays Smoke house Food gloves Fish/ other marine
products
Mouth masks

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3. Training Materials
 Food processing manual

Assessment Method:
1. Direct observation of the students
2. Demonstration
3. Written Exam
4. Oral Questioning/Interview

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LEARNING EXPERIENCES

 Read Information Sheet 1.2-1 Read all the information in the


on the Raw materials needed in information sheet.
salting, curing and smoking.
 Answer Self check 1.2-1 on Compare answers with the answer
Raw materials needed in key. You are required to get all
salting, curing and smoking answers correct. If not, read the
information sheet again to answer
all questions correctly.
 Read Information Sheet 1.2-2 Perform all activities required by the
Grading and Sorting of the Raw information sheet.
materials for salting, curing
and smoking.
 Answer Self check 1.2-2 on Compare answers with the answer
Grading and Sorting of the Raw key. You are required to get all
materials for salting, curing answers correct. If not, read the
and smoking information sheet again to answer
all questions correctly.
 Read Information Sheet 1.2-3 on Perform all activities required by the
Washing and Cleaning information sheet.
Guidelines of Raw materials for
Salting, Curing and Smoking
 Answer Self-Check 1.2-3 on Compare answers with the answer
Washing and Cleaning key. You are required to get all
Guidelines of Raw materials for answers correct. If not, read the
Salting, Curing and Smoking information sheet again to answer
all questions correctly.
 DoTask sheet 1.2-1 This Task Sheet should be
accomplished to perform the
cleaning of fish

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INFORMATION SHEET 1.2-1
Raw materials needed in salting, curing and smoking
Learning Objectives:
At the end of 3 hours, the students must be able to:
1. Identify the different types of Salt.
2. Identify the different types of meat.
3. Identify the different types of marine products.

In LO 1 of the module on processing food by salting, curing,


andsmoking you learned how to prepare the tools, equipment and materials
to be used. In this module you will learn how to prepare the raw materials
needed in salting, curing and smoking.

Salt
In the Kitchen, there’s no ingredient more important than salt. Aside
from being one of the five basic tastes (salty, bitter, sour, and umami), salt
has properties that release food molecules into the air, giving the food an
aroma- an integral part of taste. If you’ve ever eaten your favourite food
while suffering a cold, you’ll know just how important smell is. That’s why
the different types of salt are important to distinguish between.
Salt also highlights and suppresses the different flavors we perceive in
our food. In small amounts, salt curbs bitterness, but enhances sweet, sour
and umami, giving sweet and sour dishes a more two- dimensional taste. At
higher concentrations, it reduces sweeteness and enhances umami, making
it perfect for savory and meat dishes.

1. Table salt 7. Kala Namak

2. Kosher salt 8. Flake salt

3. Sea salt 9. Black Hawaiian salt


4. Himalayan Pink salt 10. Red Hawaiian salt

5. Celtic Sea salt 11. Smoked Salt

6. Fleur de Sel 12. Pickling salt

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Types of Salt

1. Table Salt

The most common type and is harvested from salt deposits found
underground. It’s highly refined and finely ground, with impurities and trace
minerals removed in the process. It’s also treated with an anti caking agent
to keep from clumping.

2. Kosher salt

Koshering salt- or kosher salt , in the U.S.- is flakier and coarser


grained than regular table salt. Its large grain size makes it perfect for
sprinkling on top of meat, where it releases a surprising blast of flavor.
Kosher salt also dissolves quickly, making it a perfect all- pupose cooking
salt.

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3. Sea salt

Harvested from evaporated sea water, sea salt is usually unrefined


and coarser-grained than table salt. It also contains some of the minerals
from where it was harvested- zinc, potassium and iron among them- which
give sea salt a more complex flavorprofile .
“Sea salt” is a pretty broad term, as it includes some of the specialty
salts described below. Sprinkle it on top of foods for a different mouth feel
and bigger burst of flavour than table salt

4. Himalayan Pink Salt

Himalayan salt is the purest form of salt in the world and is harvested
by hand from Khewra Salt Minein the Himalayan Mountains of Pakistan. Its
color ranges from off- white to deep pink. Rich in minerals- it contains the
84 natural minerals and elements found in the human body- Himalayan salt
is used in spa treatments, as well as the kitchen.

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Its mineral content gives it a bolder flavour than many other salts, so
use it as a cooking and finishing salt- or to add a bit of flair to a salt rimmed
margarita! Slabs of the stuff are used for cooking and serving (Himalayan
salt retains temperature for hours), and unfinished pieces often appear in
shops as lamps.

5. Celtic Sea Salt

Also kinown as selgris(French for “grey salt”), Celtic sea salt is


harvested from the bottom of tidal ponds off the coast of France. The salt
crystals are raked out after sinking; this, plus the mineral- rich seawater its
extracted from, gives Celtic salt its moist, chunky grains, grey hue and briny
taste.
It’s great on fish and meat as both a cooking and finishing salt, as well
as for baking.

6. Fleur de Sel

Literally “flower of salt,” Fluer de sel is a sea salt hand- harvested


from tidal pools off the coast of Brittany, France. Paper-thin salt crystals are

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delicately drawn from the water’s surface, much like cream is taken from
milk. This can only be done on sunny, dry days with a slight breeze, and
only with traditional wooden rakes. Because of its scarcity and labor-
intensive harvesting, fleur de sel is the most expensive salt (five pounds will
run you a cool $80), earning is the nickname “the caviar of salts.”

7. Kala namak

Kala namak (“black salt” in Nepalese) is Himalayan salt that’s been


packed in a jar with a charcoal, herbs, seeds and bark, then fired in a
furnace for a full 24 hours before it’s cooled, stored and aged.
This process gives kalanamak its reddish- black color, its pungent,
salty taste and a faint, sulphurous aroma of eggs. It’s often used in vegan
ang vegetarian dishes to give egg-free dishes the taste of egg, as well as in
Ayurvedic practice.

8. Flake Salt

Harvested from salt water through evaporation, boiling or other


means, flake salt is thin and irregularly shaped with a bright, salty taste
and very low mineral content.

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This shapes means the crunchy flakes salt dissolves quickly,
resulting in a “pop” of flavour. Among the different types of salt, use it as a
finishing salt, especially on meats.

9. Black Hawaiian salt

Also known as black lava salt, black Hawaiian salt is a sea salt
harvested from the volcanic islands of Hawaii. It gets its deep, black color
from the addition of activated charcoal.
Coarse- grained and crunchy, black Hawaiian salt is great for
finishing pork and seafood.

10. Red Hawaiian Salt

Also called alaea salt, this unrefined, red Hawaiian salt gets its
name and color from the reddish, iron-rich volcanic clay alaea.
Used for centuries in ceremonial ways for cleaning, purification and
the blessing of tools, red Hawaiian salt is also great in the kitchen, adding
an attractive finish and robust flavour to seafood and meat, as well as
traditional island dishes like poke and pipikaula, a Hawaiian jerky.

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11. Smoked Salt

Slow-smoked up to two weeks over a wood fire (usually hickory,


mesquite, apple, oak or alder wood), smoked salt adds an intense and, yes,
smoky flavour to dishes.
The tastes will vary from brand to brand depending on the time
smoked and the wood used. Smoked salt is the best of the different types
of salt to use for flavouring meats and heartier vegetables, like potatoes.

12. Pickling salt

Used for pickling and brining, pickling salt does not contain any
added iodine or anti- caking agents, nor many of the trace minerals of sea
salt, which can cause ugly discoloration of the preserved food.

Types of Meat

1. Pork

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Pork is one of the most popular forms of meat in the world. Despite
some confusion on the issue, pork is classed as red meat. This is because
it contains a large amount of myoglobin, a protein responsible for the red
color of meat. Bacon, Ham, Hot dogs, Jamon, Prosciutto, Salami, Sausages
and Spam are some meat products that uses pork.

Benefits
 Pork is a particularly significant source of thiamine (vitamin B1). The
content of this important vitamin is much higher than in other meat
and plays an essential role in glucose metabolism and protecting
cardiac health.
 Much cheaper than most other meat.
 Pork contains decent amounts of selenium and zinc, which are
responsible for boosting the immune system, defending against
stress, and optimal hormone production.
Concerns
 Compared to other meats, pork contains extremely high levels of
omega-6 fatty acids. Despite being essential for health, an unbalanced
ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 can be pro-inflammatory in nature.
 Pork is more susceptible to bacterial contamination and food-borne
illness than other meat; ensuring pork is thoroughly cooked is
essential.
2. Beef

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When most people think of red meat, they probably imagine beef. There
are many different beef products and cuts of beef, ranging from hamburgers
to rib eye steaks. While mainstream health advice often dictates selecting
the leanest cuts of red meat, fatty cuts of beef are perfectly healthy.
Benefits
 Despite fearmongering over the fat content of beef, the main fatty acid
in beef is none other than oleic acid. If you haven’t heard of it before,
then it’s the main fat in olive oil (and known as “heart healthy”)
 Beef contains a wide variety of beneficial compounds that include
creatine, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and glutathione
Concerns
 Excessive beef consumption can increase circulating iron to unhealthy
levels in some individuals. These high levels can increase the risk of
various cancers and cardiovascular disease. This risk is especially the
case in those with a genetic mutation called hemochromatosis, which
causes over-absorption of heme iron.
 Overcooking beef (burning) can lead to the formation of polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs). Both
of these compounds are carcinogens, but we can minimize their risks
by sensibly
3. Lamb and Mutton
Both lamb and mutton are very similar types of meat, with one
fundamental difference;
 Lamb is from a sheep less than one-year-old
 Mutton is the meat of an adult sheep
Just like beef and pork, there are variety of popular lamb cuts- perhaps
lamb chops are the most popular.
Benefits

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Generally speaking, both lamb and mutton is very healthy.
 Because sheep graze on pasture all day, the omega 6 to 3 ratio is very
low- and optimal—compared to other meats.
 Lamb contains a broad range of health- protective nutrients,
especially zinc, selenium and B vitamins.
Concerns
 Lamb is very expensive in comparison to different kinds of meat.

4. Chicken

Alongside beef and pork, chicken is one of the ‘big three’ popularity-
wise. However, chicken is a different classification of meat and comes under
the poultry category. People commonly refer to as “white meat” rather than
red.
As one of the most popular foods in the world, there are all sorts of
chicken-based foods. These range from fried and roasted chicken to chicken
soup and even chicken popcorn.
Benefits
 Chicken is very cheap and easily affordable.
 For those who are trying to consume less
fat/calories, chicken offers a smaller amount than
other meats but with the same protein content.
 Chicken stock/broth offers a significant source of
gelatin. As chicken bones have a lower density

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than other meats, the collagen and gelatin are far
easier to extract.
 Chicken provides a decent source of necessary
vitamins and minerals, particularly selenium,
potassium, phosphorus and B vitamins.
Concerns

 Due to commercial chicken feed – and similar to pork – chicken


contains an excessive amount of omega-6. Whether this is problematic
or not likely depends on the overall diet.
 Bacterial contamination with strains such as E. coli and salmonella is
too common in chicken. As a result, strict hygiene procedures are
necessary when handling the raw meat.
5. Turkey

Turkey is another type of white meat, probably best known for its
appearance at the Christmas table! It has both a deeper yet drier taste than
chicken and is a less prevalent form of poultry. As mentioned above, the
most popular kind is probably roast turkey, but you can find a variety of
processed and unprocessed turkey products.
Benefits
 Turkey is among the most protein-dense of all meats, offering 17.5
grams of protein in only 149 calories.
 Similar to chicken, turkey also provides a significant amount of B
vitamins, potassium, selenium and phosphorus.
 Turkey provides an inexpensive source of high- quality protein.
Concerns

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 Similar to other forms of poultry, turkey is more likely to harbour
foodborne bacteria than red meat
6. Venison
Venison refers to the flesh of a deer, and it is a traditionally rarer type
of meat. In recent years, sales of venison have been soaring as a result of its
healthy reputation among consumers.
Benefits

 As deer live and feed in the wild, venison is one of the healthiest and
most natural varieties of meat. The excellent omega 6 to 3 ratio (2:1)
shows the benefits of an animal living on a natural diet.
 Venison has more vitamins and minerals than beef despite having
significantly fewer calories. In short, venison is possibly the most
nutrient-dense meat out there.
Concerns
 While there are no major health concerns, one obstacle could be the
price; venison costs a lot. Expect to pay around $30 for one pound of
venison steak.
7. Duck

Duck is one of the less popular types of meat. However, it has


immense popularity in Chinese populations, where ‘ Peking duck’ is a
showpiece dish. Like chicken and turkey, we can consider duck as a kind of
white meat.

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Benefits
 Duck provides a significant amount of selenium, phosphorus, and B
vitamins. These vitamins are all important for optimal energy
production and a well-functioning immune system
Concerns

 Making duck at home- or having a roast duck- is perfectly healthy.


However, be aware that in Chinese cuisine, duck often comes in
sauces made from a variety of additives including sugars, oils, and
monosodium glutamate (MSG).
8. Wild Boar

Wild boar is a non-domesticated pig that lives in the wild. The meat of
this animal is also known as ‘ wild boar ‘. Generally speaking, wild boar
contains a higher proportion of protein and a smaller amount of fat than
regular pork.
Benefits

 Asit lives and feeds in its natural environment, wild boar contains a
higher proportion of omega-3 fatty acids.
 Wild boar contains an array of health- protective nutrients, in
particularly B vitamins, selenium, and zinc.
Concerns
 Despite containing a higher amount of omega-3, the omega-6 to
omega-3 ratio is still very high.

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 Trichinellaspiralis, a parasite sometimes found in pigs, occasionally
contaminates wild boar meat. There have been several outbreaks of
this in recent years, but it is very rare.

Fish and other Marine Products


Fish as Food
Fish has been an important source of protein and other nutrients for
humans from time immemorial.
In culinary and fishery contexts, fish may include shellfish, such as
molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms.
Species
Over 32,000 species of fish have been described, making them the
most diverse group of vertebrates. In addition, there are many species of
shellfish. However, only a small number of species are commonly eaten by
humans.
Common species of fish and shellfish used for food
Mild flavour Moderate flavour Full flavour
Delicate Basa, flounder, hake, Anchovy ,herring, Atlantic mackerel
texture scup, rainbow trout, lingcod, moi, orange
hardshell clam, blue roughy, atlantic
crab, peekytoe crab, ocean perch, lake
cuttlefish, eastern victoria perch, yellow
oyster, pacific oyster perch, european
oyster. Sea urchin
Medium Black sea bass, Sable fish, atlantic Escolar , Chinook
texture European sea bass, salmon, coho salmon, salmon, chum
hybrid stripe bass, skate, Dungeness salmon, American
bream, cod, drum, crab, ki9ng crab, shad
haddock, hoki, allaska blue mussel,
Pollock, rockfish, pink greenshell mussel,
salmon, snapper, pink shrimp
tilapia, turbot, walleye,
lake whitefish, wolfish,

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hardshell clam, surf
clam, cockle, jonah
crab, snow crab,
crayfish, bay scallop,
chinese white shrimp
Firm Arctic char, carp. Barramundi ,cusk, Barracuda ,
texture Catfish, dory, grouper, dogfish, kingklip, Chilean sea bass,
halibut, monkfish, mahimahi, opah, cobia, croaker,
pompano, dover sole, mako shark, eel, blue marlin,
sturgeon, tilefish, swordfish, albacore mullet, sockeye
wahoo, yellowtail, tuna, yellowfish tuna. salmon, blue fin
abalone, conch, stone Geoduck clam, squat tuna
crab, American lobster, lobster, sea scallop,
spiny lobster, octopus, rock shrimp
black tiger shrimp,
fresh water shrimp, gulf
shrimp. Pacific white
shrimp, squid

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SELF-CHECK 1.2-1

Matching type

Direction: Match column A from the kind of salt being described to


Column B of the types of salt. Write the letter of the correct answer.

Column A Column B
_____1. It is the purest form of salt in the world a. kalanamak
and is harvested by hand that has color b. koshser
that ranges from off-white to deep pink. C. celtic sea salt
_____2.The most common type of salt and is d. Himalayan pink
harvested from salt deposits found under- e. table salt
ground. f. flake salt
_____3. A type of salt that has large grain size make g. mutton
it perfect for sprinkling on top of meat, h. venison
whereit releases a surprising blast of flavour. i. pork
_____4. It is also known as selgris or grey salt and is j. chicken
harvested from the bottom of tidal ponds off k.fish
the coast of France.
_____5. It also means “black salt” in Nepalese. This
Himalayan salt that’s been packed in a jar with
Charcoal, herbs, seeds and bark, then fired in
a furnace for a full 24 hours before it’s cooled
, stored and aged.
_____6. It is one of the most popular forms of meat in
the world and classified as red meat that contains
a higher content of thiamine compared to
other meat, and plays an essential role in
glucose metabolism.
_____7. It is one of the ‘big three’ popularity- wise

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alongside with beef and pork and classified as
white meat.
_____8. It is the meat of an adult sheep.
_____9. It has been an important source of protein
and other nutrients for humans from time
immemorial.
_____10. It refers to the flesh of a deer, and it is a
traditionally rarer type of meat.

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ANSWER KEY 1.2-1

Answer key:
1.d
2.e
3.b
4.c
5.a
6. i
7. j
8. g
9. k
10.h

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INFORMATION SHEET 1.2-2
Grading and Sorting of the Raw materials for salting, curing and
smoking
Learning Objectives:
At the end of 3 hours, the students must be able to:
1. Identify the quality grade used in meat.
2. Identify the kinds of cut in poultry parts.
Grades of Meat
Quality Grades – Beef
Quality grades are reflective of the eating quality of beef. Beef
carcasses are cut between the 12th and 13th rib, making the ribeye easy to
view. United Sates Department of Agriculture (USDA) Graders evaluate the
distribution on marbling in the ribeye. The age or maturity of the animal is
also factored into the quality grade.

The ribeye on the left is the one most of you probably leaned towards.
It has a greater amount of marbling in the ribeye. Marbling is thw white
pieces of fat that are seen inside the lean. Additionally, it has a brighter,
more cherry-red coloredribeye. The ribeye on the right does have less fat
along the ribeye. However, it has less marbling than the other ribeye. In
addition it has a duller color to the meat.

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The USDA grading system breaks down the quality grades of beef into
Prime, Choice, Select, Standard, Commercial, Utility, Cutter and Canner.

Prime is the highest quality of beef available. They have the most
marbling and are sure to provide a wonderfully juicy and extremely tasty
eating experience. The high level of marbling makes them great for grilling
and other dry cooking methods.

Choice is still high quality beef that has less marbling than Prime.
Consumers are going to receive a delicious and juicy eating experience.
Tender cuts are still great for grilling and other dry cooking methods, while
less tender cuts are more suitable for a liquid added type of cooking.

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Select is a uniform, leaner quality of beef. It still is tender and can
provide pleasurable eating experiences, having less marbling Select beef is
going to tend to be less juicy and tender than Prime or Select. Most often
select cuts are either marinated or braised to achieve the most eating
satisfaction.
Maturity or age is harder for the everyday consumer to see in the
supermarket. This is taken into consideration when the USDA graders are
grading the carcasses. Graders take the color of the ribeye in combination
with the skeletal maturity to come up with this component of the quality
grade. Any cattle that are graded Prime, Choice or Select are going to be
young cattle which have not reached full maturity.
Quality grading is a voluntary service that is provided by the USDA
and paid for by the processors and producers. The USDA has stamps that
they use to identify what quality grade the carcass is.
Pork Quality
The quality of pork depends on its color, texture, and marbling which
can be determined by visual evaluation or scientific tests such as ultimate
pH. Fresh pork is more tender and juicy when it is reddish-pink, firm and
non- exudative. The chart below helps to demonstrate the variations in pork
quality. The USDA does not grade pork in the same way it does in beef. Pork
carcasses are not ribbed, and grades of pork are determined by back fat
thickness and carcass muscling.

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Lamb Grades
Lamb grades are based on age, conformation (carcass muscling), and
other lean quality factors such as color. There are five quality grades: Prime,
Choice, Good, Utility, and Cull. More than 90% of lamv in the US will grade
USDA Prime or Choice.
Poultry Grading
Quality refers to the inherent properties of a product that determine
its relative degree of excellence or value. Experience and research have
identified certain properties in poultry that are desired by producers,
processors, and consumers. Some of these properties are a good proportion
of meat to bone, adequate skin covering, absence of feathers, and freedom
from discolorations.
Standards of quality enumerate the factors that affectthese properties
and apply to individual ready-to-cook poultry carcasses, parts, and
products. There are no grade standards for giblets, detached necks and
tails, wing tips, and skin.
For carcasses and parts, the factors include conformation,fleshing, fat
covering, defeathering, exposed flesh, discolorations, disjointed or broken
bones, missing parts from whole carcasses, and freezing defects, if
applicable. For poultry products, such as boneless-skinless breasts, factors
include presence of bones, tendons, cartilage, discolorations, and blood
clots, as well as other product-specific factors.
Grades apply to lots of poultry of the same kind and class,each of
which conforms to the requirements for the grade standard. The U.S.
consumer grades for poultry are U.S. Grades A, B, and C.

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Grading involves evaluating poultry in terms of the standardsto
determine the grade. Figures 11-14 show an A quality young chicken,
turkey, duck, and goose. A given lot of poultry may contain a
smallpercentage of a quality lowerthan the grade specified because some
defects are permitted.This is an unavoidable necessity due to today’s
production-
type processing methods.
Poultry grade standards have changed over the years toreflect
developments in poultry production, processing, and marketing. Standards
for ready-to-cook poultry were added to the regulations in 1950. Roasts were
added in 1965. Parts and boneless breasts and thighs were added in 1969.
All provisions for grading live and dressed poultry were eliminated in 1976.
Large poultry parts, skinless carcasses and parts, and tenderloins were
added in 1995. As the need arises and meaningful quality factors are
established for other products, additional grade standards will be developed.

Quality Factors for Carcasses and Parts of Poultry

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The following factors must be considered when determiningthe quality
of an individual ready-to-cook carcass or part.

Conformation
The structure or shape of the bird may affect the distributionand
amount of meat, while certain defects detract from its appearance. Some of
the defects that should be notedare breasts that are dented, crooked,
knobby, or V-shaped; backs that are crooked or hunched; legs and wings
that are deformed; and bodies that are definitely wedge-shaped.

Fleshing
The drumsticks, thighs, and breast carry the bulk of themeat. There
is, however, a definite correlation between the covering of the flesh over the
back and the amount of flesh on the rest of the carcass. Females almost
invariably carry more flesh over the back and will generally have a more
rounded appearance to the breast, thighs, and legs. The common defects in
fleshing are breasts that are Vshapedor concave, rather than full and
rounded; breasts that are full near the wishbone, but taper sharply to the
rear; legs and drumsticks that are thin; and backs that have insufficient
flesh to cover the vertebrae and hip bones.

Fat Covering
Fat in poultry is judged entirely by accumulation under theskin. This
is true even for chicken parts. Accumulations occur first around the feather
follicles in the heavy feather tracts. Poorly fattened birds may have some
accumulation of fat in the skin along the heavy feather tracts on the breast.
Then, accumulations will be noted at the juncture of the wishbone and keel
and where the thigh skin joins the breast skin. At the same time,
accumulations will be noted around the feather follicles between the heavy
feather tracts and over the back and hips. Well-finished older birds will have
sufficient fat in these areas and over the drumsticks and thighs so that the
flesh is difficult to see. Fowl which have stopped laying have a tendency to
take on excessive fat in the abdominal area. Younger birds will generally
have less fat under the skin between the heavy feather tracts on the breast
and over the drumsticks and thighs than mature birds.

Feathers

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Processors try to eliminate the problem of feathers by movingpoultry
to slaughter after feathering cycles are over. There is, for instance, a very
short period within which the slaughtering of ducklings must be done. With
other classes, the period is longer and attention is given primarily to noting
if the bulk of the pins have sufficient brush on them to facilitate picking.
Protruding feathers have broken through the skin and may or may not have
formed a brush. Nonprotruding feathers are evident but have not pushed
through the outer layer of skin. Before a quality designation can be
assigned, ready-tocookpoultry must be free of protruding feathers that are
visible to a grader during examination of the carcass at normal operating
speeds. However, a carcass may be considered as being free from protruding
feathers if it has a generally clean appearance (especially on the breast and
legs)and if not more than an occasional protruding feather is in evidence
during a more careful examination of the carcass. Hair on chickens,
turkeys, guineas, and pigeons; and down on ducks and geese must also be
considered.

Exposed Flesh, Cuts, Tears, and Broken Bones


Exposed flesh can result from cuts, tears, missing skin, or broken or
disjointed bones. It detracts from the appearance of the carcasses and parts
and permits the flesh to dry out during cooking, thus lowering the eating
quality. The number and extent of such defects permitted depend on their
location—whether on the breast, legs, or elsewhere.

Cutting Poultry Parts


The USDA standards of quality apply to poultry parts cut in
the manner described below and illustrated in figures 15-29. While most
descriptions were developed when parts were cut from a carcass by hand,
most processors today disjoint whole carcasses by machine. Machine-cut
parts may be graded provided they are not misshapen and have nearly the
same appearance as they had prior to cutting from the carcass. Under
certain conditions, parts cut in other ways may also be officially identified
when properly labeled. Only skin or fat normally associated with a part may
be included unless stated on the label. The illustration of the skeleton of a
chicken (fig. 30) shows the points where the parts are cut and gives the
names of the skeletal parts.

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Poultry halves (fig. 15) are prepared by making a fulllengthback and breast
split of the carcass to produce approximately equal right and left sides.
Portions of the backbone must remain on both halves. The cut may be no
more than one-fourth inch from the outer edge of the sternum (breastbone).

Front poultry halves (fig. 16) include the full breast with corresponding
back portion, and may or may not include wings, wing meat, or portions of
wing.

Rear poultry halves include both legs and adjoining portion of the back.

Quarters consist of the entire eviscerated poultry carcass which has been
cut into four equal parts, excluding the neck.

Breast quarters (fig. 17) consist of half a breast with the wing and a portion
of the back attached.

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Breast quarters without wing consist of a breast quarterof a poultry
carcass from which the wing has been removed.

Leg quarters (fig. 18) consist of a thigh and drumstick, with a portion of the
back attached. It may also include attached abdominal fat and a maximum
of two ribs. A leg with a complete or entire rear back portion attached may
also be grade identified if certain criteria are met.

Breasts are separated from the back at the shoulder joint and by a cut
running backward and downward from that point along the junction of the
vertebral and sternal ribs. The ribs may be removed from the breasts, and
the breasts may be cut along the breastbone to make two approximately
equal halves; or the wishbone portion may be removed before cutting the
remainder along the breastbone to make three parts.

Breasts with ribs are separated from the back at the junction of the
vertebral ribs and back. Breasts with ribs maybe cut along the breastbone to
make two approximately equal halves; or the wishbone portion may be

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removed before cutting the remainder along the breastbone to make three
parts.

Split breasts with back portion or breast halves with back portion (fig.
19) are prepared by making a full-lengthcut of front poultry halves without
wings. If labeled “splitbreast(s),” centering of the cut is not required to
producetwo approximately equal halves.

Legs (fig. 20) consist of the attached thigh and drumstick, whether jointed
or disjointed. Back skin is not included. The patella (kneebone) may be
included on either the drumstick or thigh.

Thighs (fig. 21) are disjointed at the hip joint and may include the pelvic
meat, but not the pelvic bones. Back skin is not included. Thighs may also
include abdominal meat (flank meat), but not rib bones.

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Thighs with back portion (fig. 22) consist of a poultry thigh with back
portion attached.

Drumsticks (fig. 23) are separated from the thigh and hock by cuts through
the knee joint (femorotibial and patellar joint) and the hock joint (tarsal
joint), respectively.

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Wings (fig. 24) include the entire wing with all muscle and skin tissue
intact, except that the wing tip may be removed.

Wing drummettes (fig. 25) consist of the humerus (first portion) of a wing
with adhering skin and meat attached.

Boneless-skinless poultry, except as noted, is free of tendons, cartilage,


bone pieces, blood clots, discolorations, and muscle mutilation.

Boneless-skinless breasts (fig. 26) or breasts with rib meat are prepared
from breasts cut as described for “breasts” and for “breasts with ribs.”

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Tenders are any strip of breast meat.

Tenderloins (fig. 27) are the inner pectoral muscle which lies alongside the
sternum (breastbone). Tendons may be present.

Boneless-skinless thighs (fig. 28) are prepared from thighs cut as described
for “thighs.”

Boneless-skinless drums (fig. 29) are prepared from drums cut as


described for “drumsticks.”

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How to Grade and Size Eggs

How can you tell the difference between a good egg and a bad egg?
Eggs are rated and graded into three classifications determined by the
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). If you have chickens and
plan on selling eggs, grading and sizing is required. As a general rule, you
should grade all your eggs before you store, sell or consume them. At
Southern States, we can help you get the job done. Follow these steps to
understand how to grade and size eggs.
When grading eggs, both the interior and exterior quality is measured.
This process does not take into account weight or shell color. According to
USDA guidelines, eggs are graded and labelled as AA, A, and B U.S Grade
AA eggs are nearly perfect. The whites are thick and firm and the yolks are
free from any defects. The shells are clean and without cracks. U.S Grade A
eggs appear to be the same as Grade AA, but the difference is a slightly
lower interior quality. U.S Grade B eggs are noticeably different. They may
have slight stains and be irregular in shape and size. The quality of the
interior is further reduced. Grade B eggs are not sold in supermarkets, but
are used commercially in powdered egg products or liquids eggs.

Grading Eggs

Exterior Grading
Begin the egg grading process by checking the quality of the shell. The
ideal eggshell is clean, smooth and oval in shape with the one end slightly
bigger than other. Eggs with cracked or broken shells should be discarded.
If you are selling the eggs, remove any unusual shapes, textures or thin
spots on the shell. While they are edible, they break easily and will be
unacceptable because of their appearance.

Interior Grading
Grading the interior of the eggs is performed by a method called
candling. Using an egg candlerwill allow you to examine the air cell, the egg
white (called albumen) and the yolk. Candling also lets you check for spots
and cracks. Listed below are the different components to observe when
candling an egg:

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Air Cell Depth - the air cell is the empty space between the shell and the
white usually found at the bigger end of the egg. As the egg ages, the air cell
depth grows and the quality of the egg diminishes.

White or Albumen – the white of the egg is called the albumen. The quality is
based on its clarity and thickness. Look for a clear color without
discolorations or floating foreign matter. Thick albumen allows limited
movement of the yolk and indicates a higher quality egg.

Yolk – the quality of the yolk is determined by the distinctness of its outline
and other features like size, shape and absence of any blemishes or blood
spots. It should be surrounded by a dense layer of albumen.

Spots – candling can help reveal foreign matter like blood spots or meat
spots. Eggs with interior spots should not be sold.

USDA Grade Standard Chart: This table is a quick reference for determining
the grade of an egg by candling. (From the article: Proper Handling of Eggs:
From hen to Consumption by the Virginia Cooperative Extension)

Quality AA Quality A Quality B Quality Inedible


Factor
Air Cell 1/8 inch or 3/16 inch or More than Doesn’t apply
less in depth less in depth 3/16inch
White Clear , Firm Clean , May Clean , May Doesn’t apply
be reasonably be weak and
firm watery
Yolk Outline Outline may Outline Doesn’t apply
slightly be fairly well clearly visible
defined – defined
Spots (blood None None Blood or Blood or
or meat) meat spots meat spots
aggregating aggregating
not more not more
than 1/8” in than 1/8” in
diameter diameter

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Size Category Minimum Weight
Small 18 oz.
Medium 21 oz.
Large 24 oz.
X-Large 27 oz.
Jumbo 30 oz.

Sizing Eggs

If you plan on selling your eggs, you need to sort and size them. Large
and extra-large eggs are the best sellers. You might be surprised to learn
that eggs are not sized individually, but rather sized by the combined weight
of one dozen eggs. A size breakdown by weight can be found in the chart on
the right.
While there are a few things to learn about grading and sizing eggs,
the process is not difficult. You will be able to master the technique quickly
with just a little bit of practice.

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SELF-CHECK 1.2-2

Direction:Choose the letter of the correct answer.


1. It is the highest quality grade available. They have the most marbling and
are sure to provide a wonderfully juicy and extremely tasty eating
experience.
a. Prime b. Choice c. Select d. Standard
2. It is still high quality grade but has less marbling than prime. Consumers
are going to receive a delicious and juicy eating experience.
a. Prime b. Choice c. Select d. Standard
3. A uniform and leaner quality grade. It is still tender and can provide
pleasurable eating experiences, tend to be less juicy and tender than Prime.
a. Select b. Choice c. Select d. Standard
4. Consist of the entire eviscerated poultry carcass which has been cut into
four equal parts, excluding neck.
a. Poultry halves b. Rear poultry halves c. quarters d. thighs
5. A kind of cut in poultry that are separated from the thigh and hock by
cuts through the knee joint (femorotibial and patellar joinj) and the hock
joint (tarsal joint), respectively.
a. wings b. thigh c. drumsticks d. breast

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ANSWER KEY 1.1-2

1. a
2. b
3. c
4. c
5. c

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INFORMATION SHEET 1.2-3
Washing and Cleaning Guidelines of Raw materials for Salting, Curing
and Smoking
Learning Objectives:
At the end of 3 hours, the students MUST be able to:
1. Identify the steps in cleaning the raw materials for food processing.
2. Perform the steps in cleaning.
Washing Food: Does it Promote Food Safety?
Historically, we equate washing to cleanliness. We wash clothes,
linens, cars, dishes, and ourselves. So, it is logical that many people believe
meat and poultry can be made cleaner and safer by washing it. Is this true?
Does washing meat, poultry, eggs fruets, and vegetables make them safer to
eat?
Washing Meat and Poultry
Washing raw poultry, beef, pork, lamb, or veal before cooking it is not
recommended. Bacteria in raw meat and poultry juices can be spread to
other foods, utensils, and surfaces. We call this cross-contamination.
Using a food thermometer is the only sure way of knowing if your food
has reached a high enough temperature to destroy foodborne bacteria. Cook
all raw beef and veal steaks, roasts, and chops to a minimum internal
temperature of 145 degree F as measured with a food thermometer before
removing meat from the heat source. For safety and quality, allow meat to
rest for at least three minutes before carving or consuming. For reasons of
personal preference, consumers may choose to cook meat to higher
temperatures.

Soaking Meat and Poultry


Callers to the USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline sometimes ask about
soaking poultry in salt water. This is a personal preference and serves no
purpose for food safety. If you choose to do this, however, preventing cross-

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contamination when soaking and removing the poultry from the water is
essential. Meat or poultry should be kept in the refrigerator while soaking.
Sometimes consumers wash or soak country ham, bacon, or salt pork
because they think it reduces the sodium or salt enough to allow these
products to be eaten on a sodium-restricted diet. However, very little salt is
removed by washing, rinsing, or soaking a meat product and is not
recommended.

Cross-Contamination
Hand washing after handling raw meat or poultry or its packaging is a
necessity because anything you touch afterwards could become
contaminated. In other words, you could become ill by picking up a piece of
fruit and eating it after handling raw meat or poultry.
Wash hands with warm water and soap for 20 seconds before and
after handling food, and after using the bathroom, changing diapers,
tending to a sick a person, blowing your nose, sneezing and coughing, and
handling pets.
It is important to prevent cross-contamination from raw meat or
poultry juices by washing counter tops and sinks with hot, soapy water. For
extra protection, you may sanitize with a solution of 1 tablespoon of
unscented, liquid chlorine bleach per gallon of water.
Packaging materials from raw meat or poultry also can cause cross-
contamination. Never reuse them with other food items. These and other
disposable packaging materials, such as foam meat trays, egg cartons, or
plastic wraps, should be discarded.

Washing Eggs
Do not wash eggs before storing them. Washing is a routine part of
commercial egg processing and the eggs do not need to be washed again.
Federal regulations outline procedures and cleansers that may be used.
“Bloom,” the natural coating on just-laid eggs that helps prevent bacteria
from permeating the shell, is removed by the washing process and is
replaced by a light coating of edible mineral oil which restores protection.

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Extra handling of the eggs, such as washing, could increase the risk of
cross-contamination, especially if the shell becomes cracked.

Washing Produce
Before eating or preparing fresh fruits and vegetables, wash the
produce under cold running water to remove any lingering dirt. This reduces
bacteria that maybe present. If there is a firm surface, such as on apples or
potatoes, the surface can be scrubbed with a brush. Consumers should not
wash fruits and vegetables with detergent or soap. These products are not
approved or labelled by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for
use on foods. You could ingest residues from soap or detergent absorbed on
the produce.
When preparing fruits and vegetable , cut away any damaged or
bruised areas because bacteria that cause illness can thrive in those places.
Immediately refrigerate any fresh-cut items such as salad or fruit for best
quality and food safety.

How to clean a Fish

Use the Necessary Equipment

 Fillet Knife
 Scaling tool
 Bucket or other container for discarded parts
 Water source to keep the fish and work surface clean
 Zip top plastic bags store the fish if necessary
Scale the Fish
Always work with one fish at a time. Hold the head with one hand
and, using a scaling tool, dull knife or spoon, apply short, raking motions,
moving from the tail toward the head. Use caution around the sharp edges
of the fins. Repeat the action on both sides of the fish, around the fins and
up to the gills. Rinse the fish in water when you’ve finished.

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Skin the Fish
Bullheads, catfish and other bottom-feeders lack scales, but are
protected by a thick skin, which most people prefer to remove before
cooking. First, cut the sharp spines off, which makes handling the fish
easier.
Once you’ve removed the spine, make a cut behind the head and
along the pectoral or belly fins. Hold the fish by the head with one hand,
grasp the skin with the other, and pull toward the tail. Rinse the fish when
it’s completely skinned.
Cleaning and Gut Your Fish
On the belly of the fish, insert the knife into the anus, near the tail.
Slowly slide the knife toward the head of the fish and stop at the base of the
gills. Open the abdominal cavity, grab the entrails, pull, and remove. Some
fish have a kidney located by the spine, which you can remove with a spoon.
Always remove the darkened inner membrane (only some fish have
this) with a scraping motion- the membrane negatively affects the flavour.
Remove the head, if desired, by cutting behind the gills. Rinse the fish and
the internal cavity.

How to Prep a Fish for Cooking


Fillet
Use the fillet method on large fish to negate the need for scaling or
skinning. Lay the fish on its side and hold the head. Insert the fillet knife
behind the pectoral fin and cut downward to, but not through, the
backbone.
Turn the knife flat with the sharp edge pointed toward the tail and use
a sawing motion to slowly work down toward the tail; stay as close as
possible to the backbone. Once you’ve cut through to the tail, turn the scale
side down on the table. Insert the knife between the flesh and the skin and
use the same sawing motion to remove the meat. Repeat the process on the
other side of the fish and rinse in cold water when you’re finished.
Steaking

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Use steaking as an alternative to filleting when you prepare salmon or
large fish. Cut perpendicular to the work surface, along the entire fish.
These cuts are traditionally 1/2- to 1-inch thick. Don’t forget to trim any
excess fat or bones without removing the backbone.

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SELF-CHECK 1.2-3

Direction :Identify what cleaning method that is being described.

__________1.Hold the head with one hand and, using a scaling tool, dull
knife or spoon, apply short, raking motions, moving from the tail toward the
head.
__________2.Cut perpendicular to the work surface, along the entire fish.
These cuts are traditionally 1/2- to 1-inch thick. Don’t forget to trim any
excess fat or bones without removing the backbone.
__________3.Use the _____ method on large fish to negate the need for scaling
or skinning. Lay the fish on its side and hold the head. Insert the fillet knife
behind the pectoral fin and cut downward to, but not through, the
backbone.
__________4.Hold the fish by the head with one hand, grasp the skin with the
other, and pull toward the tail. Rinse the fish when it’s completely skinned.

Date Developed: Document No.


Food Processing NC August 1, 2019 Issued by:
II
Developed by: Page 50 of 55
Process Foods by Sawiya A. Bellen
Salting, Curing, and
Revision # 00
Smoking
Title:Cleaning a Fish

ANSWER KEY 1.2-3

1. Scale the fish


2.Steaking
3. Fillet
4. Skin the fish

Date Developed: Document No.


Food Processing NC August 1, 2019 Issued by:
II
Developed by: Page 51 of 55
Process Foods by Sawiya A. Bellen
Salting, Curing, and
Revision # 00
Smoking
Performance Objectives:
Given the following tools materials and equipment, you should be able to perform
cleaning a fish in 30 min.

Supplies and Materials:


 Fish

Tools and Equipment:


 Fillet Knife
 Scaling Tool
 Bucket or other container for discarded parts
 Water source to keep the fish and work surface
clean
 Zip top plastic bags store the fish if necessary

Personal Protective Equipment:


 Apron
 Hairnet
 Food Gloves
 Clean towel

Training Materials
1. CBLM

Steps/Procedure:
1. Prepare the fish.
2. Prepare cleaning tools and equipment.
3. Wear Personal Protective Equipment.
4. Scale the Fish (if your fish has scale)
5. Skin the Fish(if your fish lack scale but has thick skin)

Date Developed: Document No.


Food Processing NC August 1, 2019 Issued by:
II
Developed by: Page 52 of 55
Process Foods by Sawiya A. Bellen
Salting, Curing, and
Revision # 00
Smoking
6. Rinse the fish in water
7. Gut your Fish
8. Rinse the Fish and the internal cavity
9. Clean the tools and equipment used
10. Clean the Area

Assessment Method:
DEMONSTRATION
INTERVIEW

Date Developed: Document No.


Food Processing NC August 1, 2019 Issued by:
II
Developed by: Page 53 of 55
Process Foods by Sawiya A. Bellen
Salting, Curing, and
Revision # 00
Smoking
Performance Criteria Checklist 1.2-1

Name of Trainee: _____________ Date: ______________

CRITERIA
Did you…. YES NO
1. Prepare supplies, tools and equipment?

2. Set-up welding equipment?

3. Did you wear your Personal Protective Equipment?

4. Perform scaling/skinning the Fish?

5. Did you gut the Fish correctly?

6. Did you clean the tools and equipment used?

7. Did you clean the area after the activity?

Comments:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________
Trainer’s Signature

Date Developed: Document No.


Food Processing NC August 1, 2019 Issued by:
II
Developed by: Page 54 of 55
Process Foods by Sawiya A. Bellen
Salting, Curing, and
Revision # 00
Smoking
Resources:

 www.wideopeneats.com/12-different-types-salt-use/

 https://www.nutritionadvance.com/types-of-meat/

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_types_of_seafood
 TESDA Guidelines Modules

Date Developed: Document No.


Food Processing NC August 1, 2019 Issued by:
II
Developed by: Page 55 of 55
Process Foods by Sawiya A. Bellen
Salting, Curing, and
Revision # 00
Smoking