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Distribuição Normal

Basic References: Cálculo de probabilidades y Estadística. H. Fernández-Abascal et al. (Ed. Ariel, Barcelona (SPAIN), 1994). Distributions in
Co., 1992, 1994, 1997). Copyright 2001 J.L. Rojo
m= 0
s= 1 Os parâmetros m e s podem ser
mudados, com s>0 Distribuição
(A escala horizontal é de
Fisher g 1= 0.000 Simétrica
Fisher g 2= 0.000 Normal
0.45
Quantís Função distribuição
r qr x F(x) 0.4
0.1 -1.28 0 0.50000
0.25 -0.67 1 0.84134 0.35
0.5 0.00 2 0.97725
0.75 0.67 3 0.99865 0.3
0.9 1.28 4 0.99997
(Entre com outros valores de x ou porcentagens r) 0.25

0.2
A distribuição normal é a distribuição contínua mais antiga e
tem sido extensivamente estudada e é, talvez, a função 0.15
densidade mais largamente aceita. Denotamos a distribução
como N(m ,s ), m sendo o valor médio e s>0 o desvio padrão. A 0.1
função densidade de probabilidade é igual a f(x)=(2ps 2)-
0.5
·exp{-(x-m )2/(2s 2)} . A moda e mediana únicas também são 0.05
iguais a m . Para m=0 e s=1 a distribuição normal é chamada de
'padrão'. O assim chamado teorema do Limite Central 0
estabelece que, sob condições muito gerais, a distribuição da -4 -3 -2 -1 0
média aritmética das variáveis aleatórias distribuídas Densidade de Prob. Valor Médio
identicamente e independentes pode ser aproximada por uma
distribuição normal. Este é um resultado relevante em conexão
com inferências sobre o valor médio de uma variável aleatória. Cálculo pictorial da função
Distribuição para um valor x
x=
A obliquidade e os coeficientes de (excesso de) curtose são
g 1=0 (simétrico)e g 2=0 respectivamente (de fato, a distribuição F(x)=p[X<=x]=
normal é a padrão para a curtose). As probabilidades normal
são calculadas facilmente tendo em mente que, para X ~
N(m,s) e Y~ N(0,1), o resultado X=s·Y+m é sempre Distribuição Normal
verdadeiro.
Cálculo da função
(A escala horizontal é determin

1.

0.

0.

0.

0.
0.

0.

0.

0.

-4 -3 -2 -1
função Distr. Cálculo dos q
ribuição Normal
Ariel, Barcelona (SPAIN), 1994). Distributions in Statistics. N.L. Johnson et al. (Vol. 1-4) (Ed. J. Wiley y Houghton M.
94, 1997). Copyright 2001 J.L. Rojo

Distribuição Normal (Densidade Prob. )


(A escala horizontal é determinada pelos valores paramétricos)

0.45

0.4

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0
3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
Densidade de Prob. Valor Médio Probabilidade selecionada

pictorial da função Cálculo pictorial dos quantís para uma


ção para um valor x porcentagem r
1.5 r= 0.6
0.93319 qr= 0.25335

Distribuição Normal (função Distribuição)


Cálculo da função Distr. e dos quantís
la horizontal é determinada pelos valores paramétricos)

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
função Distr. Cálculo dos quantís Cálculo da função Distr.
0 -3 0.004431848 0 0.39894228 0.004431848 -3
1 -2.94 0.005296344 0 0 0 -2.988
2 -2.88 0.006306726 0.006306726 -2.976
3 -2.82 0.007482873 0 -2.964
4 -2.76 0.008846454 0.008846454 -2.952
5 -2.7 0.010420935 0 -2.94
6 -2.64 0.012231526 0.012231526 -2.928
7 -2.58 0.014305109 0 -2.916
8 -2.52 0.016670101 0.016670101 -2.904
9 -2.46 0.019356277 0 -2.892
10 -2.4 0.02239453 0.02239453 -2.88
11 -2.34 0.025816575 0 -2.868
12 -2.28 0.029654585 0.029654585 -2.856
13 -2.22 0.033940763 0 -2.844
14 -2.16 0.038706856 0.038706856 -2.832
15 -2.1 0.043983596 0 -2.82
16 -2.04 0.049800088 0.049800088 -2.808
17 -1.98 0.056183142 0 -2.796
18 -1.92 0.063156561 0.063156561 -2.784
19 -1.86 0.070740393 0 -2.772
20 -1.8 0.078950158 0.078950158 -2.76
21 -1.74 0.087796071 0 -2.748
22 -1.68 0.097282269 0.097282269 -2.736
23 -1.62 0.107406075 0 -2.724
24 -1.56 0.118157295 0.118157295 -2.712
25 -1.5 0.129517596 0 -2.7
26 -1.44 0.141459965 0.141459965 -2.688
27 -1.38 0.153948287 0 -2.676
28 -1.32 0.166937042 0.166937042 -2.664
29 -1.26 0.180371163 0 -2.652
30 -1.2 0.194186055 0.194186055 -2.64
31 -1.14 0.20830779 0 -2.628
32 -1.08 0.222653499 0.222653499 -2.616
33 -1.02 0.237131952 0 -2.604
34 -0.96 0.251644341 0.251644341 -2.592
35 -0.9 0.26608525 0 -2.58
36 -0.84 0.280343811 0.280343811 -2.568
37 -0.78 0.29430503 0 -2.556
38 -0.72 0.30785126 0.30785126 -2.544
39 -0.66 0.320863804 0 -2.532
40 -0.6 0.333224603 0.333224603 -2.52
41 -0.54 0.344818001 0 -2.508
42 -0.48 0.355532529 0.355532529 -2.496
43 -0.42 0.365262673 0 -2.484
44 -0.36 0.373910605 0.373910605 -2.472
45 -0.3 0.381387815 0 -2.46
46 -0.24 0.387616615 0.387616615 -2.448
47 -0.18 0.392531483 0 -2.436
48 -0.12 0.396080212 0.396080212 -2.424
49 -0.06 0.39822483 0 -2.412
50 0 0.39894228 0.39894228 -2.4
51 0.06 0.39822483 0 -2.388
52 0.12 0.396080212 0.396080212 -2.376
53 0.18 0.392531483 0 -2.364
54 0.24 0.387616615 0.387616615 -2.352
55 0.3 0.381387815 0 -2.34
56 0.36 0.373910605 0.373910605 -2.328
57 0.42 0.365262673 0 -2.316
58 0.48 0.355532529 0.355532529 -2.304
59 0.54 0.344818001 0 -2.292
60 0.6 0.333224603 0.333224603 -2.28
61 0.66 0.320863804 0 -2.268
62 0.72 0.30785126 0.30785126 -2.256
63 0.78 0.29430503 0 -2.244
64 0.84 0.280343811 0.280343811 -2.232
65 0.9 0.26608525 0 -2.22
66 0.96 0.251644341 0.251644341 -2.208
67 1.02 0.237131952 0 -2.196
68 1.08 0.222653499 0.222653499 -2.184
69 1.14 0.20830779 0 -2.172
70 1.2 0.194186055 0.194186055 -2.16
71 1.26 0.180371163 0 -2.148
72 1.32 0.166937042 0.166937042 -2.136
73 1.38 0.153948287 0 -2.124
74 1.44 0.141459965 0.141459965 -2.112
75 1.5 0.129517596 0 -2.1
76 1.56 0.118157295 0 -2.088
77 1.62 0.107406075 0 -2.076
78 1.68 0.097282269 0 -2.064
79 1.74 0.087796071 0 -2.052
80 1.8 0.078950158 0 -2.04
81 1.86 0.070740393 0 -2.028
82 1.92 0.063156561 0 -2.016
83 1.98 0.056183142 0 -2.004
84 2.04 0.049800088 0 -1.992
85 2.1 0.043983596 0 -1.98
86 2.16 0.038706856 0 -1.968
87 2.22 0.033940763 0 -1.956
88 2.28 0.029654585 0 -1.944
89 2.34 0.025816575 0 -1.932
90 2.4 0.02239453 0 -1.92
91 2.46 0.019356277 0 -1.908
92 2.52 0.016670101 0 -1.896
93 2.58 0.014305109 0 -1.884
94 2.64 0.012231526 0 -1.872
95 2.7 0.010420935 0 -1.86
96 2.76 0.008846454 0 -1.848
97 2.82 0.007482873 0 -1.836
98 2.88 0.006306726 0 -1.824
99 2.94 0.005296344 0 -1.812
100 3 0.004431848 0 -1.8
101 -1.788
102 -1.776
103 -1.764
104 -1.752
105 -1.74
106 -1.728
107 -1.716
108 -1.704
109 -1.692
110 -1.68
111 -1.668
112 -1.656
113 -1.644
114 -1.632
115 -1.62
116 -1.608
117 -1.596
118 -1.584
119 -1.572
120 -1.56
121 -1.548
122 -1.536
123 -1.524
124 -1.512
125 -1.5
126 -1.488
127 -1.476
128 -1.464
129 -1.452
130 -1.44
131 -1.428
132 -1.416
133 -1.404
134 -1.392
135 -1.38
136 -1.368
137 -1.356
138 -1.344
139 -1.332
140 -1.32
141 -1.308
142 -1.296
143 -1.284
144 -1.272
145 -1.26
146 -1.248
147 -1.236
148 -1.224
149 -1.212
150 -1.2
151 -1.188
152 -1.176
153 -1.164
154 -1.152
155 -1.14
156 -1.128
157 -1.116
158 -1.104
159 -1.092
160 -1.08
161 -1.068
162 -1.056
163 -1.044
164 -1.032
165 -1.02
166 -1.008
167 -0.996
168 -0.984
169 -0.972
170 -0.96
171 -0.948
172 -0.936
173 -0.924
174 -0.912
175 -0.9
176 -0.888
177 -0.876
178 -0.864
179 -0.852
180 -0.84
181 -0.828
182 -0.816
183 -0.804
184 -0.792
185 -0.78
186 -0.768
187 -0.756
188 -0.744
189 -0.732
190 -0.72
191 -0.708
192 -0.696
193 -0.684
194 -0.672
195 -0.66
196 -0.648
197 -0.636
198 -0.624
199 -0.612
200 -0.6
201 -0.588
202 -0.576
203 -0.564
204 -0.552
205 -0.54
206 -0.528
207 -0.516
208 -0.504
209 -0.492
210 -0.48
211 -0.468
212 -0.456
213 -0.444
214 -0.432
215 -0.42
216 -0.408
217 -0.396
218 -0.384
219 -0.372
220 -0.36
221 -0.348
222 -0.336
223 -0.324
224 -0.312
225 -0.3
226 -0.288
227 -0.276
228 -0.264
229 -0.252
230 -0.24
231 -0.228
232 -0.216
233 -0.204
234 -0.192
235 -0.18
236 -0.168
237 -0.156
238 -0.144
239 -0.132
240 -0.12
241 -0.108
242 -0.096
243 -0.084
244 -0.072
245 -0.06
246 -0.048
247 -0.036
248 -0.024
249 -0.012
250 0
251 0.012
252 0.024
253 0.036
254 0.048
255 0.06
256 0.072
257 0.084
258 0.096
259 0.108
260 0.12
261 0.132
262 0.144
263 0.156
264 0.168
265 0.18
266 0.192
267 0.204
268 0.216
269 0.228
270 0.24
271 0.252
272 0.264
273 0.276
274 0.288
275 0.3
276 0.312
277 0.324
278 0.336
279 0.348
280 0.36
281 0.372
282 0.384
283 0.396
284 0.408
285 0.42
286 0.432
287 0.444
288 0.456
289 0.468
290 0.48
291 0.492
292 0.504
293 0.516
294 0.528
295 0.54
296 0.552
297 0.564
298 0.576
299 0.588
300 0.6
301 0.612
302 0.624
303 0.636
304 0.648
305 0.66
306 0.672
307 0.684
308 0.696
309 0.708
310 0.72
311 0.732
312 0.744
313 0.756
314 0.768
315 0.78
316 0.792
317 0.804
318 0.816
319 0.828
320 0.84
321 0.852
322 0.864
323 0.876
324 0.888
325 0.9
326 0.912
327 0.924
328 0.936
329 0.948
330 0.96
331 0.972
332 0.984
333 0.996
334 1.008
335 1.02
336 1.032
337 1.044
338 1.056
339 1.068
340 1.08
341 1.092
342 1.104
343 1.116
344 1.128
345 1.14
346 1.152
347 1.164
348 1.176
349 1.188
350 1.2
351 1.212
352 1.224
353 1.236
354 1.248
355 1.26
356 1.272
357 1.284
358 1.296
359 1.308
360 1.32
361 1.332
362 1.344
363 1.356
364 1.368
365 1.38
366 1.392
367 1.404
368 1.416
369 1.428
370 1.44
371 1.452
372 1.464
373 1.476
374 1.488
375 1.5
376 1.512
377 1.524
378 1.536
379 1.548
380 1.56
381 1.572
382 1.584
383 1.596
384 1.608
385 1.62
386 1.632
387 1.644
388 1.656
389 1.668
390 1.68
391 1.692
392 1.704
393 1.716
394 1.728
395 1.74
396 1.752
397 1.764
398 1.776
399 1.788
400 1.8
401 1.812
402 1.824
403 1.836
404 1.848
405 1.86
406 1.872
407 1.884
408 1.896
409 1.908
410 1.92
411 1.932
412 1.944
413 1.956
414 1.968
415 1.98
416 1.992
417 2.004
418 2.016
419 2.028
420 2.04
421 2.052
422 2.064
423 2.076
424 2.088
425 2.1
426 2.112
427 2.124
428 2.136
429 2.148
430 2.16
431 2.172
432 2.184
433 2.196
434 2.208
435 2.22
436 2.232
437 2.244
438 2.256
439 2.268
440 2.28
441 2.292
442 2.304
443 2.316
444 2.328
445 2.34
446 2.352
447 2.364
448 2.376
449 2.388
450 2.4
451 2.412
452 2.424
453 2.436
454 2.448
455 2.46
456 2.472
457 2.484
458 2.496
459 2.508
460 2.52
461 2.532
462 2.544
463 2.556
464 2.568
465 2.58
466 2.592
467 2.604
468 2.616
469 2.628
470 2.64
471 2.652
472 2.664
473 2.676
474 2.688
475 2.7
476 2.712
477 2.724
478 2.736
479 2.748
480 2.76
481 2.772
482 2.784
483 2.796
484 2.808
485 2.82
486 2.832
487 2.844
488 2.856
489 2.868
490 2.88
491 2.892
492 2.904
493 2.916
494 2.928
495 2.94
496 2.952
497 2.964
498 2.976
499 2.988
500 3
0.004431848 0.001349898
0 0.001641061
0.004761338 0.001988376
0 0.002401182
0.005112378 0.002890068
0 0.003466974
0.005486139 0.004145301
0 0.004940016
0.005883835 0.005867742
0 0.006946851
0.006306726 0.008197536
0 0.00964187
0.00675612 0.011303844
0 0.013209384
0.007233368 0.015386335
0 0.017864421
0.007739869 0.020675163
0 0.023851764
0.008277068 0.02742895
0 0.031442763
0.008846454 0.035930319
0 0.040929509
0.009449565 0.046478658
0 0.052616138
0.010087981 0.059379941
0 0.066807201
0.010763327 0.0749337
0 0.083793322
0.011477272 0.093417509
0 0.103834681
0.012231526 0.11506967
0 0.127143151
0.013027842 0.14007109
0 0.15386423
0.01386801 0.168527607
0 0.184060125
0.01475386 0.200454193
0 0.217695438
0.015687257 0.235762498
0 0.254626915
0.016670101 0.274253118
0 0.294598516
0.017704321 0.315613697
0 0.337242727
0.018791878 0.359423567
0 0.382088578
0.019934756 0.405165128
0 0.428576284
0.021134964 0.452241574
0 0.476077817
0.02239453 0.5
0 0.523922183
0.023715498 0.547758426
0 0.571423716
0.025099922 0.594834872
0 0.617911422
0.026549867 0.640576433
0 0.662757273
0.0280674 0.684386303
0 0.705401484
0.029654585 0.725746882
0 0.745373085
0.031313482 0.764237502 0 0.6 0 0.933192799
0 0.782304562 0.253347103 0.6 1.5 0.933192799
0.033046139 0.799545807 0.253347103 0 1.5 0
0 0.815939875
0.034854587 0.831472393
0 0.84613577
0.036740833 0.85992891
0 0.872856849
0.038706856 0.88493033
0 0.896165319
0.040754601 0.906582491
0 0.916206678
0.042885971 0.9250663
0 0.933192799
0.045102819 0.940620059
0 0.947383862
0.047406945 0.953521342
0 0.959070491
0.049800088 0.964069681
0 0.968557237
0.052283914 0.97257105
0 0.976148236
0.054860014 0.979324837
0 0.982135579
0.057529896 0.984613665
0 0.986790616
0.060294974 0.988696156
0 0.99035813
0.063156561 0.991802464
0 0.993053149
0.066115866 0.994132258
0 0.995059984
0.069173978 0.995854699
0 0.996533026
0.072331864 0.997109932
0 0.997598818
0.075590359 0.998011624
0 0.998358939
0.078950158 0.998650102
0
0.082411809
0
0.085975704
0
0.08964207
0
0.093410966
0
0.097282269
0
0.101255674
0
0.105330681
0
0.109506592
0
0.113782502
0
0.118157295
0
0.122629639
0
0.127197977
0
0.131860526
0
0.136615273
0
0.141459965
0
0.146392116
0
0.151408994
0
0.156507627
0
0.161684798
0
0.166937042
0
0.172260652
0
0.177651674
0
0.183105913
0
0.188618932
0
0.194186055
0
0.199802374
0
0.205462749
0
0.211161817
0
0.216893998
0
0.222653499
0
0.228434324
0
0.234230283
0
0.240035
0
0.245841924
0
0.251644341
0
0.257435382
0
0.26320804
0
0.268955179
0
0.274669552
0
0.280343811
0
0.285970525
0
0.291542195
0
0.297051269
0
0.302490159
0
0.30785126
0
0.313126965
0
0.31830968
0
0.32339185
0
0.328365969
0
0.333224603
0
0.337960406
0
0.342566139
0
0.34703469
0
0.351359089
0
0.355532529
0
0.359548381
0
0.363400214
0
0.367081813
0
0.370587189
0
0.373910605
0
0.377046584
0
0.379989927
0
0.382735728
0
0.385279385
0
0.387616615
0
0.389743467
0
0.39165633
0
0.393351945
0
0.394827415
0
0.396080212
0
0.397108183
0
0.397909561
0
0.398482964
0
0.398827402
0
0.39894228
0
0.398827402
0
0.398482964
0
0.397909561
0
0.397108183
0
0.396080212
0
0.394827415
0
0.393351945
0
0.39165633
0
0.389743467
0
0.387616615
0
0.385279385
0
0.382735728
0
0.379989927
0
0.377046584
0
0.373910605
0
0.370587189
0
0.367081813
0
0.363400214
0
0.359548381
0
0.355532529
0
0.351359089
0
0.34703469
0
0.342566139
0
0.337960406
0
0.333224603
0
0.328365969
0
0.32339185
0
0.31830968
0
0.313126965
0
0.30785126
0
0.302490159
0
0.297051269
0
0.291542195
0
0.285970525
0
0.280343811
0
0.274669552
0
0.268955179
0
0.26320804
0
0.257435382
0
0.251644341
0
0.245841924
0
0.240035
0
0.234230283
0
0.228434324
0
0.222653499
0
0.216893998
0
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