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CRI

MINALL
AW CAS
EBRI
EF

PE
OPL
EOFT
HEPHI
LI
PPI
NES

v
s.

ROGE
LIOBAY
OTASyCORDOVA

G.
R.No.
102207. S
ept
embe
r2,
1994

F
ACT
S:

Roge l
i
oBa y
otas,ac
cusedandc hargedwithRape,di
edonF ebruary4,1992duetocar
diores
pir
atory
arr
e st
.TheSoli
ci
torGeneralt
he nsubmitt
e dacomme ntstat
ingthatthedeat
hoftheaccus
eddoe snot
excusehimfromhisciv
ill
i
a bi
li
ty(support
e dbytheSupremeCour t’
sdeci
si
oninPeopl
evsSendaydiego)
.
Ont heotherhand,t
hecounsel oftheaccuse
dclai
me dthati
nt heSupremeCourt
’sdec
isi
oninPeoplevs
Casti
ll
o,ci
vi
l l
i
abil
it
yisext
ingui
s hedifac
cusedshoul
ddiebe for
et hefi
nalj
udgementi
srender
ed.

I
SSUE
:

Whe
the
rornott
hede
athoft
hea
ccus
edpe
ndi
nga
ppe
alofhi
sconv
ict
ione
xti
ngui
shhi
sci
vi
ll
ia
bil
i
ty.

RUL
ING:

TheCourtdeci
de dont hi
scasethroughstatingthecas esofCastilloa ndSendaydieg
o. I
ntheCa sti
ll
ocase
,
theCourtsai
dthatc i
vi
l l
i
abil
it
yise x
ti
nguishe donl
ywhe nde athoft hea c
cusedoccurredbeforethefi
nal
j
udge ment.
JudgeKa punanfurtherst
atedtha tci
vill
i
a bil
it
yi sexting ui
shedbe c
ausethe r
ewillbe“no
part
yde f
endant”inthec as
e.Therewil
lbenoc ivi
ll
iabili
tyifcr
imi na lli
abi
li
tydoesnote xi
st.
F ur
ther,t
he
Courtst
ated“i
tis,thus,evi
dentthat…ther uleest
abli
s hedwa st ha tthesurvi
valofthecivi
ll
iabil
i
ty
dependsonwhe therthes a
mec a
nbepr edicatedont hes ourc
e sofobl i
gat
ionsotherthande l
ic
t.

I
nt heSendaydi
eg ocas
e,theCourtiss
ue dResolut
ionofJul
y8,1977whe reitst
ate
sthatci
vi
lli
abi
li
tywi
ll
onlysurv
ivei
fdea thc
amea ft
e rt
hefinaljudgementoftheCFIofPang a
sinan.Howe v
er,Ar
ti
cle30oft
he
Civ
ilCodecouldnotpossi
blyl
e ndsupporttotheruli
nginSendaydi
eg o.Civi
lli
abi
li
tyexdel
ic
tois
exti
nguis
hedbyt hedeathoftheaccusedwhi l
ehisconvi
cti
onisona ppeal.TheCourtal
sogavea
summa ryonwhichc a
sesshouldci
vill
iabil
it
ybee xti
ngui
shed,t
owit:

Deat
hoft heacc
usedpendi
ngappeal
ofhisconv
ict
ionext
ingui
sheshi
scr
imi
nal
li
a bi
li
tyaswe
llasthe
ci
vi
lli
abil
i
tybasedsol
el
yther
eon.Ther
efore
,Bayot
a s
’sde
a t
hexti
ngui
she
dhisc
riminala
ndci
vil
lia
bil
it
y
bas
eds ol
elyontheac
tcompla
inedof.
L
UISA.
TABUE
NA

v
s.

HONORABL
ESANDI
GANBAY
AN,
andT
HEPE
OPL
EOFT
HEPHI
LI
PPI
NES

G.
R.Nos
.103501-
03F
ebr
uar
y17,
1997

ADOL
FOM.
PERAL
TA

v
s.

HON.SANDIGANBAYAN(F
irs
tDi
vi
si
on)
,andT
HEPE
OPL
EOFT
HEPHI
LI
PPI
NES
,re
pre
sent
edbyt
heOF
FICE
OFTHESPECIALPROSE
CUTOR

G.
R.No.
103507F
ebr
uar
y17,
1997

F
ACT
S:

ThenPr e si
de ntMa rcosins tructe dL uisT abuenaov e rthephonet opa ydi r
e ctl
yt othepr e si
de nt’sof f
ice
andi nc a shwha ttheMa nilaInt ernat i
ona lAirpor tAut hor i
ty( MI AA)owe sthePhi l
i
ppineNa t
iona l
Cons truc ti
onCor pora ti
on( PNCC) , pur sua nttot he7J a nua r
y1985me mor andumoft he nMi ni s
te rTrade
andI ndus tryRobe rtoOng pin.T abue naa gr
ee d. Aboutawe ekl ate r
, Tabue nar eceivedf r
omMr s.FeRoa -
Gime ne z ,the npr ivates e cretaryofMa rcos,aPr eside nt i
a lMe mor andumda te d8J anua ry1986
reit
e r
a tingi nbl ac ka ndwhi tes uchv erba li
nstruc ti
on. Inobe die ncet oPr eside ntMa rcos’v erba l
i
ns t
ruc tiona ndme mor andum, T abue na ,witht hehe l
pofGe ra rdoG. Da baoa ndAdol foPe ralta,c a
us ed
ther elea seofP55Mi l
li
onofMI AAf undsbyme a nsoft hr ee( 3)wi thdr awa l
s. On10J anua ry1986, the
fi
rstwi thdr awa lwa sma def orP25Mi llion,followi ngal etterofe ve nda tes i
gne dbyT abue naa ndDa bao
reque stingt hePNBe xt
e nsionof f
icea tt heMI AAt hede pos it
or ybr anc hofMI AAf unds ,toi s
s uea
ma na ger ’
sc he ckf ors aida mountpa y a bletoT abue na .Thec he ckwa se ncashe d,howe ver,att hePNB
Vil
lamorBr a nch. Da ba oa ndt hec ashie roft hePNBVi l
lamorbr anc hc ount edt hemone ya fterwhi c
h,
Tabue nat ookde l
iver ythe reof. TheP25Mi ll
ioni nc as hwa sde liveredont hes ameda ytot heof f
iceof
Mr s.Gi me ne z .Mr s.Gi me ne zdidnoti ssuea nyr e ceiptf ort hemone yre cei
ve d.Similarcircums t
a nces
surrounde dt hes econdwi thdra wa l/
e nc a s
hme nta ndde liveryofa not he rP25Mi ll
i
on, ma deon16
Janua ry1986. Thet hi rda ndl astwi thdr awa lwa sma deon31J a nua ry1986f orP5Mi ll
ion. Per al
tawa s
Tabue na ’sc o- s
igna toryt ot hele tter-r e questf orama na ger’sc he ckfort hisamount .Pe r
a l
ta
accompa niedT abue nat ot hePNBVi llamorbr a nc ha sT abue nar e que stedhi mt odot hec ount i
ngoft he
P5Mi l
lion. Af tert hec ount ing,t hemone ywa sl oa de di nt het runkofT abue na ’
sc ar
.Pe raltadi dnotg o
withT a bue nat ode livert hemone yt oMr s.Gime ne z’ offi
ce .Itwa sonl yuponde l
iveryoft heP5Mi lli
on
thatMr s. Gime ne zissuedar eceiptf ora ll
thea mount ssher ece ivedf romT abue na.Ther e ceiptwa s
datedJ a nua ry30, 1986. T abue naa ndPe ral
tawe rec ha rgedf orma l
ve rsati
onoff unds, whileDa ba o
rema ine da tl arge .Oneoft hejus ticesoft heS a ndi ga nba yana ctivelytookpa rtintheque stioningofa
defens ewi tne ssa ndoft hea c
c use dt he ms elves ;thev olumeoft heque sti
onsa skedwe r
emor ethe
combinedquest
ionsofthecouns
els
.On12October1990,
theywe r
efoundgui
l
tybeyondrea
sona
ble
doubt.T
abuenaa ndPeral
tafi
l
edsepar
atepet
it
ionsf
orrevi
ew,appeal
ingt
heSandi
ganbay
andeci
si
on
date
d12Oc tober19990andtheResol
uti
onof20December1991.

I
SSUE
:

Whe
the
rornotpe
tit
ione
rsa
reg
uil
tyoft
hec
rimeofma
lve
rsa
tion.

RUL
ING:

Lui
sT abuenaa ndAdol foPe ra
ltaarea cquittedoft hec ri
meofma lv
e r
sation. Tabue naa ctedins tri
ct
compl i
ancewitht heMARCOSMe mor andum. Theor de rema natedfromt heOf fi
c eoft hePr esidenta nd
bearsthes i
gnatureoft hePr esi
denthi ms el
f, t
hehi g he stoffi
cialoftheland. I
tcar r
ieswi thitthe
presumptiontha titwa sregul
a r
lyiss
ue d. Andoni tsf ac e,theme mor andumi spa tentlyl awful fornol aw
ma kesthepa yme ntofa nobli
g at
ionillegal.Thisfa ct,c oupledwi ththeur ge nttenorf ori tsexe cuti
on
constrai
nsonet oa ctswiftl
ywi t
houtque sti
on. Re cor dss howt ha tt
heS andi ganba yana ctivel
yt ookpa rt
i
nt heque st
ioningofade f
ens ewitnessa ndoft hea ccus edthems elves.Theque sti
onsoft hec ourtwe r
e
i
nt hena t
ureofc rosse xaminati
onsc ha r
a ct
e ri
sticofc onf r
ontati
on, probinga ndi nsinua t
ion.Ta bue na
andPe ral
tama ynotha verais
e dtheis s
uea sane rror, thereisne ver
thele ssnoi mpe dime ntfort hec ourt
toconsidersuchma tte
ra sadditi
onal basisforar ev ersa ls
incethes ettl
eddoc tr
inei st ha tana ppe al
thr
owst hewhol ec a
seope ntor evi
ew, andi tbe come st hedutyoft hea ppe ll
atec our tt ocorre ctsuch
err
or sasma ybef oundi nthejudg me nta ppe al
e dfr omwhe thertheya rema det hes ubj ectof
assi
gnme ntsofe rrorornot.
PE
OPL
EOFT
HEPHI
LI
PPI
NES

VS
.

HONORAT
OAMBAL

GRNO.
L-52688,Oc
tobe
r17,
1980

F
ACT
S:

HonoratoAmba lwasmarri
edwithF el
i
cul
af or15yrs.Sheappear
edtobeashrewa ndneglec
tful
wif
e.
Shestayedawa yf
romtheconjugalhomea ttimes.Hekil
le
dherwhe nthel
att
erfail
edtobuyame di
ci
ne
forAmba lwhowa saf
fl
ic
tedwithinfl
uenz
a. Thetwoe ngagedi
nahe at
edal
terc
ation.F
eli
cul
atoldher
husbandthatitwoul
dbebe tt
erifhewe r
ede ad.Thatremarki
nfuri
ate
dAmba landimpel
ledhimto
atta
ckhiswife
.

Hewenttot
hebara
ngayc
apt
ainandi
nfor
me dt
hatheki
ll
edhi
swif
e.Af
termak
ingtha
tor
alc
onf
ess
ion,
Amba
l t
ookapedi
cab,
wentt
othemunici
pal
hal
landsur
rende
redt
oapolic
eman.

Duringt hetr
ial
,heple ade
dnotguil
tyand,t
hruhisc
ounseldeofi
ci
o,thedefe
nseofAmba lwasins
anity
.
Dr.Balba ss
tatedduri
ngt ri
al
:Bef
orethecommiss
ionofthecri
me,hewa snormal
.Aft
erthecommi s
sion
ofthec rime,normal,butduri
ngt
hec ommiss
ionofthec
r i
me,tha
tiswhatwec a
ll“
Psychos
is”dueto
shortfrustr
ati
ont ol
erance.

TheCourtofFi
rs
tIns
tanc
eofCa
mig
uinconv
ict
edhimofpa
rri
ci
de,se
nte
ncinghi
mtorecl
usi
onper
petua
andorderi
nghi
mt opayani
nde
mnit
yofPhp12,
000tot
hehei
rsofhi
sdece
a s
edwif
e,F
eli
cul
aVic
ente
-
Ambal.

I
SSUE
:

Whe
the
rornotAmba
lwa
sins
anea
ndi
snotg
uil
tyoft
hec
rimeofpa
rri
ci
de.

RUL
ING:

Art.12oftheRe vi
se dPe na l
Codee xemptsfromc ri
minal l
i
abil
ityani
mbe c
ileoraninsanepersonunles
s
thelatt
erha sacteddur ingal uci
dinter
val.
Thel a
wpr esume sthatever
ype r
sonisofsoundmi nd,i
nthe
absenceofpr ooftothec ontrar
y(USv s
.Ma rti
nez,34Phil305).Thel
awa l
wa yspres
ume sall
ac t
stobe
vol
unt ar
y.Itisi
mpr ope rtopr esumethatactswe r
ee xec
ut edunconsc
iously.I
nor dert
hatinsani
tymay
bet ak
ena sane xempt i
ngc i
rcumstance,t
heremus tbec ompletedepri
va t
ionofintel
li
genc
ei nthe
commi ss
ionoft hea ctort hattheaccusedactedwithouttheleastdi
scernme nt.Mereabnorma l
it
yofhis
me ntalf
aculti
esdoe snote x
cludeimputabil
it
y.

Ambalisgui
lt
yofpar
ric
idewit
ht hemit
iga
tingci
rcumst
anceofvoluntar
ysurr
endertot
heauthori
ti
es.
Ar
tic
le246oftheRevi
sedPenalCodepuni
shesparri
ci
dewithre
clusionperpe
tuatodeat
h.Thele
sser
penal
tyshoul
dbeimposedbecauseoft
hepr es
enceofonemiti
gatingci
rcumsta
nceandtha
tabsenceof
ag
g r
avati
ngci
rcumst
ance.
PE
OPL
EOFT
HEPHI
LI
PPI
NES

v
s.

J
OSEPAT
RIARCA,
JR.
,al
i
as"
KADJ
ANGO,
"CARL
OSNARRA,
ali
as"
KAJ
ESS
IE"a
ndT
EN(
10)J
OHNDOE
S,

G.
R.No.
135457, S
ept
embe
r29,
2000

F
ACT
S:

Patr
iar
cawasc hargedwiththecrimeofmur derf orthedeathofAl
fredoAr ev
alobe f
oreRTCSors
ogon
docket
edasCrimi na
lCaseNo. 2773.Hewa salsoc harge
dwi t
hmur derforthek i
l
li
ngofoneRudyde
Borj
aandac e
r ta
inE l
me rCadagunde rInf
ormationsdoc k
etedasCriminalCasesNos.2665and2672,
res
pecti
vel
y.TheRT Cfoundhimg ui
lt
yi nCri
minal CaseNo.2773ands ent
e nc
edhi mtosuff
erthe
penal
tyofr
eclusionperpetua.Patri
arcaappeal
edt hedeci
si
ontotheS C.

Pa
tri
a rc
aappli
e dforamnestyunderProcl
a mati
onNo. 724e nt
it
led"Gra
nt ingAmne s
tytoRebels,
I
nsurgents
,andAl lOt
herPersonsWhoHa veorMa yHa v
eCommi t
tedCrime sAgai
nstPubli
cOrder,
Ot
he rCri
me sCommi t
tedinFurthera
nceofPol i
ti
calEnds,andViol
ati
onsoft heArti
cl
eofWa r,and
Cr
eatingaNa t
ionalAmnestyCommi ssi
on."In1999,hisappli
cat
ionwasfav ora
blygrant
edbythe
Nati
onalAmne styBoar
dconc l
udingthathisact
ivi
ti
eswe redoneinpursuitofhispol
iti
cal
beli
efs.

I
SSUE
:

Wha
tist
hee
ffe
ctoft
heg
rantofa
mne
styt
othec
onv
ict
ionoft
hea
ccus
ed-
appe
ll
ant
?

RUL
ING:

Amne s
tycommonl ydenotesageneralpar
dont or
e be
lsforthei
rtrea
s onorothe rhi
ghpoli
ti
caloff
e ns
es,
ortheforgi
venesswhichonesover
e i
gngrantstot
hes ubj
ectsofanother,whoha veoff
ended,bysome
bre
a c
h, t
helawofna t
ions.Amnest
ylooksba ck
ward,andaboli
shesandput sintoobli
vi
on,theoffense
i
tsel
f;i
tsoov er
looksandobli
ter
atestheoffe
nsewithwhichhei scharged,t
ha tt
hepe r
sonrel
ea s
edby
amnestystandsbefor
et hel
awprecis
e l
yasthoughheha dcommi t
tednoof fense.

Par
agr
aph3ofAr
tic
le89oftheRevi
sedPena
lCodeprov
idest
hatcr
imi
nall
ia
bil
i
tyi
stot
all
yex
ti
ngui
she
d
byamnes
ty,
whic
hc ompl
ete
lyext
ingui
she
sthepenal
tyandal
lit
sef
fec
ts.

Thi
sCour
ttake
sjudi
ci
alnot
ic
eofthegra
ntofamnest
yuponacc
use
d-a
ppel
lantJ
oseN.
Pat
ri
arc
a,J
r.
Oncegr
ante
d,iti
sbi
ndi
ngandeff
ecti
ve.I
tse
rvest
oputanendtot
heappe
al.

Patr
iar
cawasac
qui
tte
dofthec
rimeofmur
deri
nCr
imi
nal
Cas
eNo.
2773whi
l
eCr
imi
nal
Cas
esNos
.
2665and2672wer
eorde
reddi
smis
sed.
F
LORE
NCI
OPE
LOBE
LLO

VS
.

GRE
GORI
OPAL
ATI
NO

G.
R.No.
L-48100,J
une20,
1941

F
ACT
S:

Greg
ori
oPalat
inowasconvicte
dofatendadocontr
alaautor
ida
dysusa
gente
sin1912andwas
se
ntencedt
oimpri
sonme ntfortwoyear
s,fourmonths
,andoneda
yofpri
si
oncorr
ecci
onal
.I
n1915,
he
wasgra
ntedcondi
ti
onalpardonbytheGov er
nor-
General
.

There
afterheexe
rci
sedhisri
ghtofs
uffr
age,g
ett
ingel
ect
edasc
ounci
l
orofTorr
ij
os,Ma
rinduquef
rom
1918to1921,munic
ipalpr
esi
dentofthesamemunic
ipal
i
tyf
ort
hreesuc
ces
siv
etermsf
rom1922t o
1931,andfi
nal
lyasmayorinDecember1940.

Aft
e rha
vingbee
ne le
ctedasmayorbutbef
oreass
umings
uchpost
,Pel
obe
ll
owa sgr
antedabsol
ute
pardonbythePres
identoft
hePhil
ippi
nes
,rest
ori
ngt
heforme
r'se
njoy
mentofhisf
ull
civi
landpol
it
ic
al
ri
ghts.

Quowa r
rant
oproc
eedingswerei
nsti
tut
edbyFlore
nc i
oPe l
obel
lo,whocl
a i
me dthathav
ingbeen
convi
ct
edofapri
oroff
ens e
,Pal
ati
nodidnothavetheri
ghttovoteandbev otedupon,andthats
uch
dis
qual
if
ic
ati
onhadnotbe enr
emovedbytheplenarypardon.
Thiscont
entionwa spur
suanttoSec
ti
on
167,i
nrel
ati
onwit
hSec t
ion94(a
)oftheOmnibusE l
ect
ionCode(CANo. 357).

I
SSUE
:

Whe
the
rornotPa
lat
inoi
sdi
squa
li
fi
edf
romv
oti
nga
ndbe
ingv
ote
dupon.

RUL
ING:

No,t
heCourthel
dthatthePres
ident'
spardoni
ngpowerc a
nnotberestr
ict
edorc ontr
oll
edbylegi
sl
a t
ive
ac
ti
on.Anabsol
utepardonnotonlyblot
soutthecr
imec ommitt
edbutremov esalldi
sabi
l
iti
esre
sulti
ng
f
romtheconvi
ct
ion.TheCourtal
sohe l
dthatwhenabsol
utepardonisgra
nteda f
terthetermof
i
mpri
sonmenthasexpir
ed,i
teff
e c
tiv
elyremovesal
ltha
tislef
toftheconseque
nc esofsuchconv
ict
ion.
L
ORE
TOBARRI
OQUI
NTOa
ndNORBE
RTOJ
IME
NEZ

v
s.

E
NRI
QUEA.FERNANDE
Z,ANTONI
OBELMONT
EandF
ELI
CIS
IMOOCAMPO,
asCommi
ssi
one
rsoft
he
F
our
tee
nthGuer
ri
ll
aAmnest
yCommi
ssi
on

G.
R.No.
L-1278, J
anua
ry21,
1949

F
ACT
S:

Petit
ione rsJi
me ne za ndBa rr
ioquintowe rechargedwi ththec ri
meofmur de r
.Jimenezwa ssentencedto
l
ifeimpr is
onme ntwhi l
eBa rr
ioquintorema i
neda tlarg
e .Be forethepe riodfora ppeal
ha de xpi
red,
Ji
me ne zbe ca
mea war eofthePr oclamati
onNo. 8,whichg ra ntsamne styinfavorofallpersonswhoma y
bec hargedwi tha nac tpenali
zedunde rtheRe visedPena lCodei nf ur
the r
anceoft heresistancetothe
ene myora gai
ns tpe r
s onsa i
dinginthewa re f
fortsofthee ne my ,andc ommi tt
e dduri
ngt hepe ri
odfrom
Dec embe r8,1941, tot hedatewhe nparti
cularareaoft hePhi li
ppineswhe r
etheof f
ens ewa sactual
ly
commi t
tedwa sliberate dfr
ome nemyc ontrolandoc c
upa tion. Ji
me nezde ci
dedt oapplyfora mne s
ty.
Barrioquinto,whoha dt henbe enalrea
dya pprehe nde
d, didt hes ame. TheAmne st
yCommi ssi
on
returnedt hec asesoft hepeti
tionerstotheCour tofFirstInst a
nceofZ a mboang a,wit
houtde c
idi
ngon
thec asesa yi
ngt ha tsincetheBa rr
ioquint
oa ndJ i
me nezde nyha vi
ngc ommi tt
edt hecri
me ,t
he ycannot
i
nv oket hebe nefitsofa mnesty.

I
SSUE
:

I
sadmi
ssi
onofg
uil
tne
ces
sar
yina
mne
sty
?

RUL
ING:

No.Thet
heoryoftheres
ponde
nts,
suppor
tedbyt
hedis
sent
ingopi
ni
on,i
spredi
cat
edonawrong
conc
epti
onofthenatur
eorchar
act
erofanamnes
ty.
Amne s
tymustbedi
st
ing
uishe
dfrompa
rdon.

Pardoni sgra nt edbyt heChiefE xecutivea nda ss uchi tisapr ivatea ctwhi chmus tbeple adedand
provedbyt hepe rsonpa rdoned, becauset hec ourtsta k
enonot i
c ethe reof;whi l
ea mne styby
Procl
a ma ti
onoft heChi e
fE xe
cut iv
ewi tht hec onc urrenc eofCong ress,andi tisapubl i
ca ctofwhi chthe
courtsshoul dt akej udici
alnoti
c e.Pardoni sg rante dtoonea ft
erc onv ic
ti
on; whi leamne styisgrantedt o
cl
a s
sesofpe rs onsorc ommuni t i
eswhoma ybeg uil
tyofpol it
ica
l offenses,ge nerall
ybe foreora ft
erthe
i
ns t
it
utionoft hec r
imina l
prose cuti
ona nds ome time safte rconviction.Pa r
donl ooksforwa r
da nd
rel
ievest heof fende rfromt hec onseque nc esofa nof fens eofwhi chheha sbe enc onvic
t ed,t
hatis,it
aboli
she dorf orgivesthepuni shme nt,andf ort ha treasoni tdoe s" norwor kt her estora
t i
onoft herights
toholdpubl i
cof fice,orther i
ghtofs uffrage ,unlesssuc hr ightsbee xpressl
yr e s
toredbyt het er
msoft he
pardon,"a ndi t" i
nnoc asee x
e mpt sthec ulpritfromt hepa y mentoft hec i
vilindemni t
yi mposedupon
himbyt hes ent ence "
; whil
ea mne stylook sba ckwa rda nda bol
ishe sandput sintoobl i
vi
ont heof f
ense
i
tself
,itsoov e rl
ook sandobl i
teratestheof f
e nsewi thwhi chhei sc hargedt hatt hepe r
sonr ele
as edby
amne stys t
a ndsbe f
or ethelawpr eci
selya sthoug hheha dc ommi t
te dnoof fens e.
I
nor de rt oe nt i
tl
eape rsont othebe ne fi
tsoft heAmne st yPr oc l
ama tionofS ept embe r7, 1946, i
tisnot
nec ess
a ryt ha thes houl d, asac onditionpr ece dentors inequanon, a dmi tha vingc ommi ttedt he
cri
mi nal actorof fens ewi thwhi chhei sc harg eda nda l
leg et hea mne stya sade fe nse; itissuffici
entt hat
thee vi
de ncee i
the roft hec ompl ainantort hea ccuse d,s howst ha ttheof fens ec ommi ttedc ome swi thi
n
thete r
msofs ai
dAmne styProc l
ama t
ion. Henc e ,
itisnotc orre cttos ayt ha t"inv oc ationoft hebe nefits
ofa mne s tyisint hena tureofapl eaofc onf essiona nda v oida nce."Althoug ht hea ccus eddoe snot
confe s
st hei mput ationa g ai
nsthim, hema ybede clare dbyt hec ourtsort heAmne styCommi ssi
ons
entit
ledt ot hebe ne f
its
. For,whe the rornothea dmi tsorc onf essesha vingc ommi ttedt heof fensewi th
whi c
hhei sc harged, theCommi ssionss houl d, ifnec essar yorr eque st
e dbyt hei nt ereste dpa rty,
conduc t
summa ryhe a ri
ngoft hewi tne s
se sbot hf ort hec ompl ai
na ntsa ndt hea ccus ed, onwhe therheha s
commi tte dt heof fe nsei nfurthe r
a nceoft her e si
stanc et ot hee nemy , ora gainstpe rsonsa i
dingint he
wa reffor tsoft hee nemy , andde cidewhe the rhei se ntitledt othebe ne fi
tsofa mne stya ndt obe
"regarde da sapa triotorhe rowhoha v er ende redi nva l
ua bles ervicest ot hena tion, ,
"ornot ,
in
accorda nc ewi tht het ermsoft heAmne s tyPr oc l
ama tion. Sincet heAmne s tyPr oc lama ti
oni sapubl icact,
thec ourt sa swe lla stheAmne styCommi s s
ionsc rea tedt he rebys houldt a kenot iceoft het e r
msofs aid
Proclama ti
ona nda pplyt hebe nefitsgra nt edt hereint oc a se scomi ngwi thint he irpr ov i
nc eor
j
urisdiction, whe the rpl eade dorc lai
me dbyt hepe rsonc ha rg edwi ths uchof fens e sornot ,ifthe
evidenc epr e senteds howt ha tthea ccus e dise ntitl
e dt os a i
dbe ne f
its.
T
HEPE
OPL
EOFT
HEPHI
LI
PPI
NES

v
s.

CE
LES
TINOBONOANYCRUZ

G.
R.No.
L-45130 F
ebr
uar
y17,
1937

FACTS:

Celest
inoBonoani schar gedwi ththecr imeofmur derforst abbingCar l
osGui sonwi thaknife,
whichcausedhi sdeat hthreeday saf terwar ds.Anarraignmentwast hencalled,butthedefense
object
edont hegroundthatt hedef endantwasment al
lyder angedandwasatt hetimeconf i
ned
atthePsy chopati
cHospi tal.Aft
ersev eralmont hsofsummonsf ordoctors,productionofthe
defendant’scompleterecor dofment al conditi
onfrom t hehospi tal
anddef endant ’
sadmi ssi
on
tothehospi t
alforpersonal observation, assist
antalienistDr .JoseFernandezf inal
lyreport
edto
thecourtthatBonoanmaybedi schar gedf orbeinga“ recov eredcase”.Aftertri
al,t
hel ower
courtfoundBonoangui l
tyandsent encedhi mt oli
feimpr isonment .

Thedef
ensenowappeal s,cl
aimi
ngthel
owercour tmadeerr
orsi
nfindi
ngBonoansuff
ered
dement
iaonl
yoccasionall
yandinter
mit
tentl
y,di
dnotshowanykindofabnormal
it
y,t
hatthe
def
ensedi
dnotestabli
shthedefendant
’sinsani
tyandfi
ndi
ngaccusedgui
lt
y.

I
SSUE:

Whe
the
rornott
hel
owercour
ter
redi
nfi
ndi
ngt
heaccusedgui
l
ty

RUL
ING:

Yes.TheCourtfi
ndstheaccuseddement edatthetimeheper
petr
atedthecri
me,which
consequent
lyexemptshimfrom cri
mi nal
li
abi
li
ty,andor
der
sforhi
sconf i
nementi
nSanLazar
o
Hospit
alorotherhospi
tal
fortheinsane.Thi
sruli
ngwasbasedonthefoll
owingevi
dence:

Uncontradict
edev i
dencet
hataccusedwasconfi
nedintheinsanedepartmentofSanLazar
o
Hospitalanddiagnosedwi
thdement i
apraecoxl
ongbefor
et hecommi ssi
onoftheoff
enseand
recur
renceofai l
mentswerenotenti
rel
ylacki
ngofsci
enti
fi
cf oundat
ion

Personswi
thdement
iapr
aecoxaredi
squal
i
fiedf
rom l
egal
responsi
bil
it
ybecausetheyhaveno
control
oft
hei
ract
s;dement
iapr
aecoxsymptomssimil
art
omani cdepressi
onpsy
chosis.

Accusedhadaninsomniaat
tack,
asy
mpt
om l
eadi
ngt
odement
iapr
aecox,
fourday
spr
iort
oact
accor
dingtoDr
.Franci
sco.

Accusedwassentt
hePsy
chopati
chospi
tal
ont
hesamedayofcr
imeandar
rest
,indi
cat
ingt
he
pol
ice’
sdoubtofhi
sment
alnor
malcy.

Def
endantsuf
fer
edf
rom mani
cdepr
essi
vepsy
chosi
saccor
dingt
oDr
.Joson.
PE
OPL
EOFT
HEPHI
LI
PPI
NES

VS
.

E
NRI
COA.VAL
LEDOR

G.
R.NO.
129291, J
ULY3,
2002

F
ACT
S:

Thi
sc aseisaboutE nricoVa ll
e dor’
sa ppealofhisconvicti
onf orthecrimeofc onsumma ted,f
rustrated
anda t
te mptedmur de r.Last06Ma r
ch1991, thea ppell
antattackedRog erCabiguen(st
abbedont he
for
e ar
m) ,Elz
aRodr i
g ue z(s
tabbe dont hec hest)
,RicardoMa g la
lang(wa sinf
li
ctedw/phy si
cali
njurieson
dif
ferentpa r
tsofthebody )T herewe retwoot herpe opleinsidetheroom( t
heywe renotharme dbyt he
appell
a nt)
.RogerandRi cardowe rebothwounde d,whileElzadiedfromt hes t
abwound. Afterhisarrest
,
accused-appell
antwa sintermi t
tentl
yc onf
ineda ttheNa ti
ona lCenterforMe ntalHeal
th.Thus,hewa s
arr
a i
gne donlyonF ebr uary19, 1993whe r
e i
nhepl eadednotg ui
lty
.T hereaf
ter,
thec as
eswe rearchived
until
Nov embe r15,1994, whe na ccused-a
ppe ll
antwa sdeclaredme nt al
l
yf i
ttowithst
andtria
l.Thistime,
accused-appell
anta dmi tt
edc ommi ssi
onofthec rimeschar g
e dbutinv okedthee xempti
ngcir
cums t
ance
ofinsanity
.

T
hea
ppe
ll
ant
’spl
eaofi
nsa
nit
ywa
sanc
hor
edont
hef
oll
owi
ngi
nst
anc
es:

1.)OnJanuary1990theMotheroft
heappe
ll
antnoti
cedthathei
sbehavi
ngabnor
mall
y.T
hemot he
r
thenbroughttheappel
la
nttoDr.deGuz
man,ame di
calpra
cti
ti
oner
.Shethe
ndisc
los
edtothedoct
or
thati
nsani
tyrunsinthefa
mily

2.
)Dr.deGuz
manthendi
agnos
edtheappel
lantass
uff
eri
ngfr
om“ ps
ychos
isw/sc
hizophre
nia”a
nd
pr
escri
bedt
heappe
ll
antw/anant
i-
depres
santknownasthor
aci
nwhichkeptt
heappell
antsa
nefora
per
iodof2mont
hs

3.)On04March1991,
theappel
la
nt’smothernot
ice
dthathei
sact
ingst
rang
ely
,sos
hel
eftt
obuy
Thorac
in,
butwhensheret
urne
dt heappe
lla
ntisnowher
etobefound.

4.)On06Ma rc
h1991( dateofc ommi ss
ionofc r
ime)hewa sseenswimminga crossther i
verBara
nga y
Capt ai
na ndCounc i
l
ma ntookt hea ppel
lantoutofthewa t
erinsi
detheboa t
,acc used-appel
lantk
epton
cryingandut ter
ingwordstot hee ff
ectthathisfamil
ywi
llbek i
l
led.Sus
pecti
ngt hata ppell
antwas
me ntall
yill
,theBarangayCa ptai
n, as
kedt heCouncil
mantoa cc
ompa nyaccused-appe l
lanttoPuert
o
PrincesaCity
. Si
bungaaccede da ndthereaft
ertookajeepneywithappel
lant,whi l
eont hejeepneythe
appe l
lantthenjumpe dofftheje epneyandboa rdedatr
icycl
e.

5.)On11Mar
ch1991hewasint
erv
iewe
dbytheCi
tyHe
alt
hOf
fi
cerI
andwa
sre
comme
nde
dtobe
committ
edt
otheNATIONALMENTALHOSPI
TAL

6.
)Whil
eunderthecar
eofthehos
pita
lthemedi
calf
indi
ngsf
ort
hea
ppe
ll
antwa
stha
thewa
ssuf
fer
ing
fr
om:Ps
ychos
isorIns
anit
ycl
ass
if
iedunderS
chi
zophr
e ni
a

I
SSUE
:

Ca
nIns
ani
tya
sane
xempt
ingc
irc
ums
tanc
ebeg
rant
edt
othea
ccus
ed?
RUL
ING:

No,si
nceinconsi
deringi
nsa
nit
yasadef
ense
,itpr
esumedthata
llper
sonstobeofsoundmi
nd.
Other
wisest
a t
ed,thelawpres
umesal
lac
tst
obev ol
unt
ary
, a
nditisi
mpropertopr
e s
umetha
tact
s
weredoneunconsciousl
y

Theactsmadebytheappell
ants
howsthathedoe snothavecompl
eteabsenc
eoft hepowertodi
sce
rn
asshownbyhiss
tabbi
ngoft het
wov i
ct
ims(rog
e randelz
a)whil
ele
avingtheothertwopeopl
einthe
roomunharmed,al
sohisact
ionoff
leei
ngfr
omt hes c
eneafte
rthei
ncidenti
ndi
c a
tedthathewasaware
ofthewronghecommitte
d.

Theact
ionsper
formedbythea
ppel
l
antdoesnotsuf
fi
ci
entl
yprov
ehisi
nsanit
yattheti
meof
commissi
onofthecr
ime:"
Ama nmayactc
razybuti
tdoesnotnec
ess
ari
l
ya ndconcl
usi
vel
ypr
ovet
hat
heisl
egall
yso.
"

Al
thoughitcanbear
gue
dthattheappel
la
ntissuf
fer
ingf
romme nt
ali
ll
nesswhati
sde c
isi
veishi
s
mentalc
onditi
onatt
heti
meoft heper
petr
ati
onoftheof
fense
.F ai
li
ngtodis
cha
r g
ethebur denof
pr
ovingthathewasl
ega
ll
yins
anewhe nhestabbe
dthevict
ims,heshoul
dbeheldlia
bleforhisf
eloni
ous
ac
ts.

TheCourtf
oundtheac
cusedgui
lt
ywithmodi
fi
cat
ions
:heisg uil
tyoft
hecri
meofmur derf
orthek
il
li
ng
ofEl
zaRodri
guez
,andatte
mptedmurderf
orbot
hRog erCabiguenandRogel
i
oMa gl
alang(f
rom
fr
ust
rate
dmur de
rfori
njuri
esc
ausedt
oMa gl
al
ang,i
twa sr
e ducedtoatt
emptedmurder)
.
PE
OPL
EOFT
HEPHI
LI
PPI
NES

VS
.

F
ELI
PEDE
LIMA

G.
R.No.
L-18660,De
cembe
r22,
1922

F
ACT
S:

LorenzoNa pil
one sc
apedfromthej ai
l
.Someda ysaft
erwards,poli
cemanFeli
peDe l
imafoundhiminthe
hous eofJ orgeAlegri
a,ar
me dwithapointedpi ec
eofba mbooi ntheshapeofalance,a
ndde manded
hissurrende r.Napil
onansweredwi t
has tr
ok eofhisla
nce.Deli
madodg ed,it
,andtoimposehis
authorit
yf iredhisrevol
ver
,butthebulletdidnothithim.Napilonranaway,wit
houtparti
ngwithhi
s
we apon. De l
imawe ntaft
erhima ndfi
reda gainhisrev
olv
e r
,thisti
mehitti
ngandk i
l
li
nghim.Deli
mawa s
tr
ieda ndc onvi
ct
e dforhomici
dea ndsentencedtor e
clus
iontempor al
andthea c
cessor
ypenalt
ies
.

I
SSUE
:

Whe
the
rornothei
scr
imi
nal
l
yli
abl
eforhomi
ci
de.

RUL
ING:

No,theki
ll
ingwasdoneintheperf
ormanceofaduty.Thedeceas
edwa sundert
heobli
gat
ionto
surr
ender
,andhadnoright
,afte
revadi
ngser
viceofhisse
ntence,
tocommi ta
ssaul
tanddi
sobedi
enc
e
withaweaponinthehand,
whi c
hcompe l
l
edthepoli
ce mantores
ortt
os uc
ha next
rememe a
ns,whi
ch,
alt
houghi
tprovedtobefat
al,wasj
usti
fi
edbythecir
cumstance
s.
PE
OPL
EOFT
HEPHI
LI
PPI
NES

VS
.

I
GNACI
OLAGAT
A

G.
R.Nos
.L-
1940-
42 Ma
rch24,
1949

F
ACT
S:

T
heacc
use
d, I
gna
cioLaga
ta,apr
ovi
nci
alg
uardofCa
tba
log
an,S
a ma
r,wasincha
rgeof6pri
sone
rs(
Jes
us,
T
ipa
ce,
Eusebi
o,Mari
ano,La
bong&Abri
a)as
sig
nedtowor
kinthec
apit
olpla
zaofSamar
.

Laga
taor
der
edthepri
sonerst
ogotothenurs
erytopi
ckupgabi
.Notl
ongaft
erwards
,the
ywerec
all
ed
toass
embl
e.Epi
fani
oLabongwasmis
singsoLag
ataor
deredt
he5remai
ningpri
soner
stogol
ookf
or
him.

Eusebi
oAbri
asai
dthatwhil
etheywerega
theringgabi
,hehear
d3shot
s.Hewaswoundedbythe2nd
one.Theywer
ealre
adyass
embledbythe1stshotandthathedi
dnots
eeTi
pac
ebe i
ngshot
.Hes ai
dhe
ranawaybeca
usehewa saf
rai
dthathemightbeshotagai
nandtha
thi
scompa
nionswereal
soprobabl
y
scar
edandthati
swhytheyran.

Anot herpr i
soner,Ma r
ianoIbañezs t
a t
edtha tEpif
anioLabongdidnota nswertheircal
lsoIgna
cioLa
gata
order edtog olookforhimint hemount ai
n.Hes ai
dthatAbriawe nttothecamot epla
ntat
ionandfound
footprintsandc al
ledonL ag
a tat
oi nformhi ma boutthefootpri
nts.Whe nAbriatoldLagat
aofthe
fl
a t
tene dg r
assandt hathewa suna bletolookforL a
bong ,I
gnaci
oL agat
afir
eda thima ndhewa shi
ton
hisleftarm.Abr iatoldLagatahewa swounde da ndinturn,Laga
tat ol
dthemt oa ss
emble.Oncethey
we rea ss
e mbled,Lagatacockedhisg unands hotCe f
eri
noT i
pa c
e.Ma r
ianosai
dt hatwhenhes aw
Tipacewa sshot,herana waybecaus ehea ls
oc ouldhavebe enshot.

E
ust
aqui
oGale
t,a
notherde
tai
nee
,rece
ivedg
oodt
rea
tme
ntf
romL
aga
tat
houg
hhi
ste
sti
mony
c
orr
obor
ate
dthoseoft
heothe
rpri
soner
s.

PedroMayug
a,c
hie
fofSama
rProvi
nci
alHos
pit
al&Gil
ber
toRosal
es,S
anit
aryDi
vi
si
onpr
esi
dent
,
ve
r i
fi
edt
heguns
hotwoundandt
hatthedea
thofTi
pacer
esul
tedthe
rein.

I
gnacioLag
ata,however
,sai
dthathef i
redhi
sgunbecausethepri
sonerswererunni
ngfarf
romhim
whenhea l
rea
dyor der
edthemt ostop.Hesai
dthathewoul dbetheoneinjai
lifapr
is
oneresca
ped
underhisc
ust
ody .Fur
ther
mor e
, hewouldbedis
char
gedf r
omdut yl
iketheothers
.Hewa shopel
ess
al
rea
dy .Moreover,t
hepic
kingupofg abiwa
snotpartofthepri
soner
’swork.

HE
LD:

Cour
trul
edt
hatL
aga
tas
houl
dbes
ent
enc
edf
orhomi
ci
dea
nds
eri
ousphy
sic
ali
nj
uri
es.

Appel
la
ntwasent
it
ledt
othebe
nef
itofmi
ti
gat
ingc
irc
ums
tanc
eofi
ncompl
etej
ust
if
yi
ngc
irc
ums
tanc
e.
(Ar
t.
11par
.5,
RPC)

RAT
IO:
I
twascl
eart
hatL
agat
ahada
bsolut
elynoreas
ont
ofir
eatTi
pace
.Ther
ecorddoe
snots
howt
hatT
ipa
ce
wasbe
ntoncommit
ti
nga
nyactofaggre
ssi
onort
hatheat
tempt
edtoe
scape.

Acc
ordi
ngt
oLag
atahimsel
f,Ti
pacewasr
unningtowar
dsandaroundhi
m.Howcoul
dany
onei
nte
ndi
ng
toes
caper
unt
owardsandaroundtheve
ryguardonewassupposedt
oesc
apef
rom?

E
venifL
a g
atasincer
elybeli
evedt
hatheact
edintheper
for
manceofhisdut
ies
,thec
irc
ums
tancesshow
t
hatt
herewa snone c
e s
sit
yforhi
mtofir
edir
ectl
yagai
nstt
hepr
isone
rsa st
owoundthems
eriousl
yand
e
venkil
loneoft he
m.

Whil
ecust
odi
anss
houl
dtakecar
eforpr
is
one
rsnott
oes
cape
,onl
yABS
OLUT
ENE
CES
SIT
Ywoul
d
aut
hori
zet
hemtofi
reag
ains
tthem.
PE
OPL
EOFT
HEPHI
LI
PPI
NEI
SLANDS

VS
.

POT
ENCI
ANOT
ANE
O

G.
R.No.
L-37673, Ma
rch31,
1933

F
ACT
S:

PotencianoT adeoli
v edwi t
hhiswifeinhispa rent’shouse.I
nJ a
nuary1932,afiestawa sbeing
cel
e bra
te d,andv i
si
torswe reent
ertai
ne dint hehous eincl
udingFredTannerandL uisMa l
ina o.Earl
y
thatafternoon,PotencianoT a
neo,we ntt osleepa ndwhilesl
e epi
ng,hesuddenlyg otup,l
e fttheroom
bol
oi nha nda nd,uponme eti
nghiswifewhot r
iedtostophim, hewoundedhe rint heabdome n.Taneo
att
a cke
dT annerandMa l
inaoandtrie
dt oa t
tackhisfathe
ra f
terwhichhewounde dhims e
lf. Pote
nciano’
swifewhowa sthense v
e nmonthspre gna nt,di
edf i
vedayslaterasaresul
tofhe rwound, a nda l
sothe
foetuswhi chwa sasphyxiat
edinthemot he r
’swomb.

T
ane
owa
scha
rge
dwi
thpa
rri
ci
de.
Fromt
hiss
ent
enc
e,t
hede
fenda
nta
ppe
ale
d.

I
ta ppe ar
sfromt hee vi
dencethatt
heda ybeforethec ommissi
onofthec ri
met hede fendanthada
qua r
relove raglas
sof“ t
uba”withEnriqueCollantesandVa l
enti
nAba dil
la.Ont heda yofthe
commi ssi
onoft hec ri
me, i
twasnotedt hatthede f
enda ntwassadandwe ak,ande arlyintheaft
ernoon
heha ds everestomachache.Thedefenda ntst
atesthatwhe nhefella
s l
e e
p, hedr e
a me dthatCol
lantes
wa stryi
ngt ostabhimwi thabolowhileAba dil
l
ahe ldhisfee
t,byreasonofwhi chheg otup; a
nda sit
seeme dtohi mt hathi
se nemieswereinv i
ti
nghimt oc omedown, hea r
me dhi mselfwi t
habol oandlef
t
theroom. Att hedoor,heme thiswif
ewhos ee
me dt osaytohimthats hewa swounde d.Thenhe
fanci
e dseeinghiswifereall
ywounde da ndinde s
pe r
ationwoundedhi mself.Ashise nemiesseeme dto
mul t
iplyaroundhim, hea t
tack
e dev
e r
y bodythatca mehiswa y
.

T
hee v
idences
howstha
tthedef
endantnotonl
ydidnothav
eanyt
roublewit
hhi
swi
fe,
butt
hathe
l
ove
dhe rdear
ly.
Nei
therdi
dhehaveanydis
putewit
hT a
nnera
ndMa l
inao,
orha
vea
nymoti
vefor
a
ssaul
ti
ngthem.

I
SSUE
:

Whe
the
rornotT
ane
oisc
rimi
nal
l
yli
abl
e.

RUL
ING:

No.T
heCour
tconc
lude
dthatt
hede f
enda
nta
cte
dwhi
l
einadr
eam.
Hisa
ctswe
renotv
olunt
aryi
nthe
se
nseofe
nta
il
ingc
rimi
nal
li
abi
li
ty.

TheCourttookthespe ci
alci
rcumstance
softhecase,i
nwhi c
ht hev i
cti
mwa sthede f
endant’
sownwi fe
whomhede ar
lyloved,andtakingint
oconsi
derat
ionthefactthatthede f
endanttri
edtoatta
c kal
sohis
fat
her,i
nwhos ehous eandunde rwhoseprot
ecti
onhel i
ved,besidesatt
acki
ngT annerandMa li
nao,
his
guests
,whomhehi ms elfi
nvit
e dasmaybeinfer
redfromthee videncepresente
d, t
heCourtfoundnot
onlyalackofmotiv
ef orthede f
endanttov
olunta
ril
yc ommitthea ct
scompla i
nedof,butal
somot i
ves
fornotcommitti
ngsa i
da ct
s.
Doct
orSeraf
ica,
ane xpe
rtwitnes
sinthi
scase
,isa
lsooft
hesameopini
on.T
hedoct
orst
atedthat
cons
ide
ringtheci
rcumstanc
esofthecase,
thedef
endantac
tedwhi
leinadrea
m,unde
rtheinfl
uenc
eof
ahal
luc
inati
onandnotinhisrig
htmind.

TheCourtfoundthatthedef
endantisnotc
rimina
ll
yli
abl
efortheoff
ensewi
thwhichheisc
harge
d,and
i
tisorder
edt hathebeconfi
nedi
nt heGovernmenti
nsaneasyl
um,whenceheshal
lnotberel
eas
ed
unti
lthedi
rectorthe
reoffi
ndst
hathisli
ber
tywouldnolongercons
ti
tut
eame nac
e.
PE
OPL
EOFT
HEPHI
LI
PPI
NES

v
.

RANDYBE
LONI
OyL
ANDAS

G.
R.NO.
148695, Ma
y27,
2004

F
act
s:

RammyT ama y
owhoboug htaciga
rettefromas t
oreaf ewme tersfromt heirhousewa sbumpe dbyt he
accusedRandyBe l
oni oi
ntryi
ngtoforcehiswa yi
nt hesma l
lopeningoft hes t
ore,J
e nnif
e rRamysf i
rst
cousi
ns awt ha
tRa ndygaveRamyal onga ndhardlook.Theaccusedl e
ftbuta ft
erfewmi nuteshe
ret
urneda ndstabbe dRamywi t
hada ggerinhisr
ightchestwhichc a
us eshisdeath, thenfle
dbutwa s
arr
e s
tedfromoneoft hehousesneartheba r
angayha l
l
.Thea ccusedraisethede fens eofinsani
tyforhis
me nt
a l
sic
k nes
stha thewasnotinhisrig
htmi ndwhe nthek i
ll
i
ngt ookpla c
e .Dr.
Ga uz on,cer
ti
fiesthathe
wass uf
fer
ingfroms chiz
ophreni
a.Thea c
cusedwa sfoundg ui
lt
yofmur dera ndsent
e nc edtode a
t h

I
ssue
:

Whe
the
rornott
hea
ccus
edde
fens
eofi
nsa
nit
yex
empthi
mfr
omhi
scr
imi
nal
off
ens
eofmur
der

Rul
i
ng:

TheS upremeCour tr es
pondst othede f
ens eoft hea ccusedinne ga t
ive,thede fenseut t
erl
y fai
ledin
provi
ngt hatt hea ccusedwa sins
ane .T
he yfoundt hee vi
dencetobei nsuffi
cient;the r
emus tbe a
compl et
ede pr i
va t
ionofi ntell
ige
nceinc ommi tt
ingthea ct,t
oe sta bl
ishhisc l
aimt hathewa sinsane.And
thecrimeofmur derwa sa ff
irmeda ndse ntencedhi mwi thde at
hpe na l
tyBelonio,aftergi
vingt hevicti
m
aha r
da ndr e se
nt f
ul l
ook, satnearthelattera ndc onversedwithhi m. Aft
e r
wa rdshes tabbedT a mayo
thene sc
ape da ndwe ntintohi di
ng;thesea ctstendt oe s
tabli
shtha tthea ccusedwa swe l
lawa reofwha t
heha djustc ommi tted.
Phi l
ippinecourtsha vee stabl
ishedamor es tr
ingentc ri
teri
onf oracce ptanceof
i
ns a
nityasa ne xempt i
ngc ircumstance.Ame rea bnorma l
it
yofme ntalfacul
tiesisnote noug h;theremus t
bea completede pri
vati
onofi ntel
li
gencei ncommi tt
ingthea ct
.T hea ppe l
lantspa stdoesnotdi scredit
thefa
c t
stha thedi dnota ctwithcompl eteabs enceofpowe rtodi scern,hewa snotde pri
ve dofr eason
andhewa snott otall
yde privedofhiswi l
l.
PE
OPL
EOFT
HEPHI
LI
PPI
NES

v
s.

PO3ELE
UTE
RIOTAN,PO3L
EONI
LOMARANGA,
PO3AL
EXANDE
RPACI
OLE
S,PO1PAUL
ODEL
APE
ÑA,
PNP,
NAVAL,
BIL
IRAN

G.
R.No.
116200-
02 J
une21,
2001

F
ACT
S:

Thedef
enda
ntswerechar
gedwit
hmurdera
ndtwocount
sofatt
emptedmur
derf
ort
hek
il
li
ngof
RamonGabi
tanandthewoundi
ngofJ
udi
thCer
il
le
sandEdwar
dVill
afl
or

Ataround10: 30pmonMa y12,1991, PTOf fi


cerSec ondClas sRa monGa bitan, CAF GUme mbe rAndr e s
Lapot,andoneDa niloDumdum, al
lbe longingtot hePhi l
ippineCoa stGua rd, toget herwi ththe
Chief
ma tea ndot he rcrewme mbe rsofM/ VDa ngDe li
ma ,af ore i
gnv essel
, we redr inkingbe era tthe
Twin’sDiscoPubi nNa val
,Leyte(nowi nBi l
iranpr ov i
nce).Theg roupda nce dwi tht hewa it
resse soft he
disc
ohous e
. Oneoft he m,F r
oil
anAc orda ,ac rewme mbe roft heM/ VDa ngDe li
ma ,dance dmos toft he
ti
mewi t
hwa i
tres sRos i
eCa ti
gbe,ana l
legedg ir
lfri
endofa ccus ed-a ppe l
l
antPO3E l
e uterioT a
n, whowa s
als
oint hes ai
ddi s c
ohous ewithtwoc ompa ni
ons .Afterdanc ing ,Ros ieCatigbes a tbe si
deAc orda ,
a nd
thelatt
e rrestedhi sha ndont hethighoft hef or mer .Lat
er,Ga bit
a n’sg r
oupl e ftthedi scohous e
togetherwithf i
v ewa itress
e s
,amongwhomwe reRos ieCatigbea ndJ ovithCe ri
ll
es .T heywe reto
proceedba ckt othef or ei
gnv es
selM/ VDa ngDe l
imabyr i
dingt hepumpboa towne dbyL apot .Ast he y
we r
el e
a vi
ngt hedi scohous e,Tana ppr oache dthema ndt al
k edt ot wooft hewa itre ss
e s.Thet wo
wa i
tr
e s
se sturne dba cka nddidnotj ointheg r
oupa nymor ea ftert he ywe ret oldbyT ant hatthe ywi llbe
broughtt othef oreignv essel
.Therea f
te r
,Ta nc onfrontedF r
oi lanAc ordaa ndi ntroduc e dhims elfasa
poli
ceof fi
cer.Froilana skedforhisba dg e.
T anins t
ea dtookouthi s.38c ali
be rg un. F r
oilanhitT anwi tha
karat
ebl owa ndt heg unf el
ltotheg round. Disarme d, Ta
nr odehi sbi cycl
ea ndl ef
t .

Gabitan’sgroup, t
og etherwi t
ht het hreerema i
ni ngwa i
tr
e s
ses
, Jovi
thCe r
il
les
, InaCorpina ndRos ie
Cati
g be,boa r
de dthepumpboa t.Ast heywe r
ea bouttoleavethepi er
,afir
etr uckarri
ved. Tanwa son
topoft hewa t
erta nk.Ma rangajumpe doffasthet r
uckstoppeda ndpos i
ti
one dhims el
finf r
ont .
Pacioleswa sbehindt hewhe eloft hetruc
k .SPO1de laPeñaal
s ojumpe doffther earofthet ruc k.
Arme dwi thM- 16r if
les,oneoft he ma l
leg
e dl
yf iredtwowa rni
ngs hotstostopt hepumpboa t.Buta st
he
sma l
l v
e s
sel movedon, accused-a ppell
ant
sope ne dfi
reatthemov ingpumpboa t.Gabit
anwa shi tbya
bull
e tandfe l
lover board,asthepumpboa tspeda way.Hisdea
dbodywa srecov e
redthef oll
owi ngda y
i
nt heoc eanbyf isherme n.Jovi
thCe ri
ll
essustaine dfi
vewoundswhi l
eE dwardVi l
laf
lor,
whowa sa l
soon
boardt hepumpboa t,
wa shitint her i
ghtl
e g.Thel att
ertwowe rebr oughttodi f
fere
nthos pitalsa nd
survivedtheirwounds .

Al
l t
hea c
cus e
d-appel
lantswer
esubsequent
lychargedwithmurdera ndtwocountsofat
tempted
murderbeforetheRe g
ionalTr
ial
CourtofBi
li
ran,whichwe r
erespecti
velydoc
ketedasCri
mina
l Cas
es
Nos.1530,1531a nd1532.However,
uponmot ionoftheprose
cution,thi
sCourtor
deredachangeof
venueandt hecaseswe r
etra
nsfer
redtotheRTCofT acl
obanCit
y .

Wit
hnowhe retoesc
apeandnoplacetohi
de,Cer
il
le
sa ndVil
l
aflorwereal
sohitbybull
etsfi
redby
ac
cuse
d-appell
ant
s.i
twasfoundthatt
hevi
cti
mwa ssit
uatedatal owe
rlev
elthantheassail
ants
bec
auseofthedir
ecti
onofthewounds,
12whi
c hc
onfir
msthet heoryt
hatacc
us e
d-appel
lantswereona
highere
levat
ionthanthevic
tims.Wi
thres
pec
ttoVil
la
flor
,theexami
ni
ngphysi
ci
anfoundtha
the
susta
inedabras
ionsontherightl
egwhi
chwerel
ike
wisecausedbybul
le
ts.
Hiswoundsaremere
ly
consi
deredsuperf
ici
alsi
ncetheyhi
tonl
ytheepi
der
misofhisski
n.

I
ssue:

Whe
the
rornott
heyde
fene
dca
ninv
oket
hej
ust
if
yi
ngc
irc
ums
tanc
eofl
awf
ulpe
rfor
manc
eofdut
y

Rul
i
ng:

No,Thev
rsi
onisi
mproba
blei
nthel
i
ghtoft
hee
vide
nceonr
ecor
dandi
scont
rar
ytot
hede
fens
eofl
awf
ul
per
forma
nceofduty
.

1. the
reisc
ont
rar
ytohi
sass
ert
ion,Tanwaspos
it
ivel
yide
nti
fi
edbypr
ose
cut
ionwi
tne
sse
sdr
ink
ing
beeri
nsi
det
hedis
cohous
epriort
othei
nci
dent.

2. i
tisstranget
ha tafir
et ruckwasus edbya ccused-appell
antsinthepurs
uitofthea l
leg
edt hie
ves
.
Assumingforthes akeofa r
gume ntthataccused-appe l
l
ant swereres
pondingtoac all
,the
ywoul d
notpositi
onthems el
v esontopoft hewa tertankoft hetruckwheretheywoul dbepronet oany
att
a c
kfromt hes us
pe c
ts.Assumingfurtherthatthe r
ewa sac omplai
ntfortheft
, t
heusual pr
oce
dure
shouldhavebe entos earc
hforthes uspects,a
ndi ftheyarelocated,
toa ppre
he ndtheme mployi
ng
theleastf
orcea sma ybene ces
sarytoe ff
ectal awfularr
es twit
houtwarrant.

3. t
heevi
denc
edoesnots
uppor
tthecont
enti
ontha
titwasGabi
tanwhowa st
hef
ir
stt
oshoot
.The
re
wer
enopowderbur
nsonGabi
tan’
shandst
oindi
cat
ethathef
ir
e dagun.

4. whenAcordaaskedforTan’sbadge,thel
att
erinst
eaddrewhisgun.Wheneve
rapoli
ceoff
ic
er
int
roduceshims
elfassuc
h, hemus tshowhispoli
ceide
ntif
ic
ati
oncardorba
dge.Per
sonswhodeal
withthepoli
ceneednotev ena s
kfortheoff
ic
er’si
denti
fi
cat
ionpape
rsbecaus
etheoff
ic
ershoul
d
havetakenthei
niti
ati
veoutright.

5. thepartywhoinvoke sajust
ify
ingcir
cums tanceha stheburdenofproof.Fail
ureontheirpa r
tto
dis
chargethatburdenj us
ti
fi
estheirconvi
ctionbe causeofthei
radmissi
onofha v
ingauthoredt he
cri
minalact.
Thisisthee s
senceofajustif
yingcircums t
ancewhichappli
e snotonlytosel
f-defense
casesbutequal
lytot hedefenseofperforma nceofdut y.
Forthi
sreason, t
heRulesofCour tal
lows
therevers
alofprocee di
ngsbyrequir
ingthepa rtywhoi nvoke
sal a
wf uldefensetopres
e ntevidence
aheadoftheprose c
ut i
on

6. WHE
REF
ORE
,thede
cis
ionoft
het
ri
alc
our
tisAF
FIRME
Dsubj
ectt
othef
oll
owi
ngMODI
FI
CAT
IONS