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OVERVIEW OF SPEECH COMMUNICATION

What is communication?
What are the functions of communication?
What are the components of communication?
How does communication happen?
What are the different forms of communication?
What are the types of communication?

Speech communication, human communication, or simply communication, stems from the


LATIN word “COMMUNIS”, which means “COMMON”. To communicate means to reach out in order to
share something in common. Human beings have the power INTELLLECT/WILL to think and to express
feelings by means of communication. People engage in MESSAGE-RECEIVING and MESSAGE-
TRANSMITTING behavior. We say that communication has transpired if and only if there is a stimuli and
a response which is either overtly or covertly given.

Give examples of everyday human communication:


- Signage attached to the doors of comfort room.
-a driver studies the road map
-a student nods when the teacher asks a question
-consultation with the professor

: common to all these is INFORMATION. – communication takes place when verbal


(written or spoken) or nonverbal (symbols, gestures, facial expressions, sounds) or simply information is
not only transferred or transmitted but SHARED.

Technical definition: Communication is the process in which a source/speaker transmits a message


through a channel to a destination/receiver, creating an effect and providing an opportunity for
feedback in the presence of noise and occurring within a context.

WHY DO WE COMMUNICATE AND WHY DO WE NEED TO SHARPEN OUR COMMUNICATION SKILLS?


Can we survive without communicating?
The more complex life becomes the more we need to communicate. Look at technology…..the
more we feel we need it to be able to reach out to others. Our problems now….the root cause of many
problems stem from lack of communication, lack of skills in communicating, or simply
miscommunication.
We communicate for MANY REASONS (FUNCTIONS) . According to Ehnigner
1. discover and identify (understand) the self
2. provide self –satisfaction
3. facilitate adjustment to the environment
4. communicate and relate with others in the environment

Since communication means “to share something in common” – according to Maslog


“communication in its most basic sense is the cement that holds society together.” Without it, SOCIETY
WOULD FALL APART. The fourth function is the most obvious but the three are just as vital and
indispensable. In relating with others, you define yourself as an individual and as a member of a
community. You establish a sense of identity. In being able to express yourself, you feel good about
yourself. This in turn helps you to get along with other people in society. Those who are unable to
communicate to talk to other people- because of physiological or psychological reasons- have difficulty
finding or keeping a job, establishing personal and professional relationships—in short living a normal
life.

Estrin and Eliot (1990) noted that people communicate to satisfy needs in both their work and
non work lives. People want to be heard, to be appreciated, and to be wanted—reason why they
communicate. Communication also is a form of releasing tension or an outlet to one’s pent-up emotions
or angst. Reason to say that communication has a therapeutic effect.

COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION
Every time you talk to somebody, you experience what is called a communication situation. Let
us take a closer look at the components of this situation. These are better known as universal
components due to the fact that each component is present in every communicative situation.

SOURCE – the originator of the message, the source is the speaker, in written communication
the source is the writer.

MESSAGE – speech presented to an audience through words, sounds, ideas or feeling and action
symbols selected and organized by the speaker and interpreted by the members of the audience. Maybe
transmitted verbally and or nonverbally. **physical signals/ light and sound waves exchanged between
human transceivers. Receiver processes these signals to make it meaningful.

CHANNEL – face-to-face (sound waves, light waves and air) Human beings use their five senses
(seeing, hearing, touching, smelling and tasting) to receive and decode a message. In mass
communication, other channels used for transmission of messages are TELEVISION, radio, newspaper,
computers, and other electronic or high tech means.

RECEIVER – is the audience. The message travels to the receiver or listener or point of
destination. Receiver may be the same person as the source

FEEDBACK – the receiver decodes the message which must have some kind of effect. The
message could make the receiver feel mad, sad, happy and this causes him to react and give feedback.
Could be verbal or nonverbal (look away) and intentional/unintentional, visible/invisible (look sleepy or
face attention).

NOISE – another of the component always present in communication. THIS IS DEFINED AS


FACTORS THAT DISTORT THE QUALITY OF A SIGNAL. In communication, anything that distracts you from
decoding the message with accuracy can be branded as noise.

NOISE – PSYCHOLOGICAL (consists of worries, problems, fears, inner thoughts.


PHYISIOLOGICAL (noise that stems from the body – pains and illnesses
Migraine, headache, fever
PHYSICAL (chatting, hum of aircon, door banging, students shouting
SEMANTIC (created from the choice of words) can be too difficult,
Highly offensive, emotionally loaded, foreign to
The receiver- will be at loss in interpreting meaning
SYNTACTIC, CULTURAL, ORGANIZATIONAL
CONTEXT – context, environment, and situation are one and the same. We always
communicate within a context. Context refers to physical setting and social aspects of the
communication situation. People are distinguished from factors such as age, occupation, power,
knowledge, degree of intimacy. – determine communicative style.

DE VITO (1994) identified four dimensions to context:


PHYSICAL , CULTURAL, SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL and TEMPORAL

Cultural – refers to communicator’s rules and norms, beliefs and attitudes that are
transmitted one generation to another (eye contact – honesty or disrespect)
Temporal – time context includes the time of day and time in history in which
communication takes place. (Chinese- evening not proper time for suitor / Filipinos evening)
Social –psychological – includes status relationships among participants, roles that
people play and the cultural rules of the society in which they are communicating. Friendliness or
unfriendliness, formality and informality, seriousness or humorousness of the situation.

THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS:


Models serve as framework to help us understand an angle or a portion or even one of the
levels of communication.
LINEAR MODEL of HUMAN Communication – Harold Laswell – one way transmission. A speaker
sends a message and listeners receive the information that constitutes the message. The channel of
medium of communication provides a point of contact bet the speaker and audience. And what the
speaker says has some impact or effect upon the listener.
Like a dart game
Speaker – message - receiver

David Berlo – S-M-C-R

LEVELS OF COMMUNICATION: according to the number of people involved


1) INTRAPERSONAL Communication – 1 person
2) INTERPERSONAL Communication – 2 people
3) SMALL GROUP Communication – 3-5 people
4) PUBLIC Communication – more than 5 people
5) MEDIATED/ MASS Communication – with use of technology