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1. Caltex v.

CA CTDs in question are negotiable instruments as they


meet the requirements of the law for negotiability as
FACTS: provided for in Section 1 of the Negotiable Instruments
Law. The documents provide that the amounts
Security Bank and Trust Co. issued 280 certificates of
deposited shall be repayable to the depositor. And
time deposit (CTD) in favor of one Mr. Angel dela Cruz
according to the document, the depositor is the "bearer."
who deposited with the bank P1.12 million. Dela Cruz
The documents do not say that the depositor is Angel de
delivered the CTDs to Caltex in connection with his
la Cruz and that the amounts deposited are repayable
purchase of fuel products from the latter. Subsequently,
specifically to him. Rather, the amounts are to be
dela Cruz informed the bank that he lost all the CTDs,
repayable to the bearer of the documents or, for that
and thus executed an affidavit of loss to facilitate the
matter, whosoever may be the bearer at the time of
issuance of the replacement CTDs. When Caltex
presentment.
presented said CTDs for verification with the bank and
formally informed the bank of its decision to preterminate
the same, the bank rejected Caltex’ claim and demand
as Caltex failed to furnish copies of certain requested 2. RIVERA VS. SPOUSES CHUA (2015)
documents. In 1983, dela Cruz’ loan matured and the 746 scra 1
bank set-off and applied the time deposits as payment
FACTS:
for the loan. Caltex filed a complaint which was
dismissed on the ground that the subject certificates of The parties were friends and kumpadres for a long time
deposit are non-negotiable.
already. Rivera obtained a loan from the Spouses Chua
evidenced by a Promissory Note.

Three years from the date of payment stipulated in the


ISSUE:
promissory note, Rivera, issued and delivered to
Whether the Certificates of Time Deposit (CTDs) are Spouses Chua two (2) checks drawn against his account
negotiable instruments. at Philippine Commercial International Bank (PCIB) but
upon presentment for payment, the two checks were
RULING: dishonored for the reason “account closed.”

The CTDs in question are negotiable instruments as The Spouses Chua alleged that they have repeatedly
they meet the requirements of the law for negotiability as demanded payment from Rivera to no avail. Because of
provided for in Section 1 of the Negotiable Instruments Rivera’s unjustified refusal to pay, the Spouses Chua
Law. The documents provide that the amounts were constrained to file a suit before the MeTC.
deposited shall be repayable to the depositor. And
Rivera, in his Answer, countered that he never executed
according to the document, the depositor is the "bearer." the subject Promissory Note.
The documents do not say that the depositor is Angel de
la Cruz and that the amounts deposited are repayable After trial, the MeTC ruled in favor of the Spouses Chua.
specifically to him. Rather, the amounts are to be The decision was affirmed by both the RTC and the CA.
repayable to the bearer of the documents or, for that
ISSUE:
matter, whosoever may be the bearer at the time of
presentment. However, petitioner cannot recover on the WON Negotiable Instruments Law is applicable in the
CTDs. Although the CTDs are bearer instruments, a present case.
valid negotiation thereof for the true purpose and
agreement between it and dela Cruz, as ultimately HELD:
ascertained, requires both delivery and indorsement. In No. The subject promissory note is not a negotiable
this case, there was no indorsement as the CTDs were instrument and the provisions of the NIL do not apply to
delivered not as payment but only as a security for dela this case. Section 1 of the NIL requires the concurrence
Cruz' fuel purchases. of the following elements to be a negotiable instrument:

(a) It must be in writing and signed by the maker or


drawer;
**The accepted rule is that the negotiability or non-
(b) Must contain an unconditional promise or order to
negotiability of an instrument is determined from the pay a sum certain in money;
writing, that is, from the face of the instrument itself. The (c) Must be payable on demand, or at a fixed or
determinable future time; general manager Quirino Gonzales, applied for credit
(d) Must be payable to order or to bearer; and accommodation with Republic Bank, later known as,
(e) Where the instrument is addressed to a drawee, he Republic Planters Bank (the Bank). The obligation was
must be named or otherwise indicated therein with
secured by a real estate mortgage of parcels of land.
reasonable certainty.
QGLC executed a promissory note, which they later on
defaulted. The Bank foreclosed the property and was
The Promissory Note in this case is made out to
subsequently owned by the same bank. The latter then
specific persons, herein respondents, the Spouses
Chua, and not to order or to bearer, or to the order of filed a complaint for a sum of money in regards to the
the Spouses Chua as payees. unpaid notes.
However, even if Rivera’s Promissory Note is not a
negotiable instrument and therefore outside the
coverage of Section 70 of the NIL which provides that The notes were payable 30 days after date and
presentment for payment is not necessary to charge the
provided for the solidary liability in their non-payment at
person liable on the instrument, Rivera is still liable
under the terms of the Promissory Note that he issued. maturity. Petitioners deny having received the value of
the promissory notes.
PROMISSORY NOTE

120,000.00
The trial court favored the petitioners, but the CA
FOR VALUE RECEIVED, I, RODRIGO RIVERA
reversed the decision.
promise to pay spouses SALVADOR C. CHUA and
VIOLETA SY CHUA, the sum of One Hundred Twenty
Thousand Philippine Currency (P120,000.00) on Issue:
December 31, 1995.
W/N the promissory notes were valid
It is agreed and understood that failure on my part to pay
the amount of (P120,000.00) One Hundred Twenty Held:
Thousand Pesos on December 31, 1995. (sic) I agree to
pay the sum equivalent to FIVE PERCENT (5%) interest Yes, the promissory notes were valid. The
monthly from the date of default until the entire obligation petitioners claim that they signed the notes in blank but
is fully paid for. did not receive the value of the notes. They also admit
the genuineness and due execution of the notes. The
Should this note be referred to a lawyer for collection, I promissory notes were negotiable as they met the
agree to pay the further sum equivalent to twenty requirements of Section 1 of the Negotiable Instruments
percent (20%) of the total amount due and payable as
and for attorney’s fees which in no case shall be less Law. The notes are prima facie deemed to have been
than P5,000.00 and to pay in addition the cost of suit issued for consideration.
and other incidental litigation expense.

Any action which may arise in connection with this note


shall be brought in the proper Court of the City of Manila. In any case, it is no defense that the promissory
notes were signed in blank as Section 14 of the
Manila, February 24, 1995[.] Negotiable Instruments Law concedes the prima
facie authority of the person in possession of negotiable
(SGD.) RODRIGO RIVERA instruments, such as the notes herein, to fill in the
blanks.

4. Quirino Gonzales Logging Concessionaire vs. The


Court of Appeals 5. JUANITA SALAS, petitioner,
vs.
G.R. No. 126568. April 30, 2003. HON. COURT OF APPEALS and FIRST FINANCE &
LEASING CORPORATION, respondents.

G.R. No. 76788 January 22, 1990


Facts:

On October 15, 1962, petitioner Quirino


Gonzales Logging Concessionaire (QGLC), through its
FACTS: Any subsequent purchaser thereof will not enjoy the
advantages of being a holder of a negotiable instrument,
Juanita Salas bought a motor vehicle from the Violago but will merely “step into the shoes” of the person
Motor Sales Corporation (VMS for brevity) as evidenced designated in the instrument and will thus be open to all
by a promissory note. defenses available against the latter. Such being the
This note was subsequently endorsed to Filinvest situation in the above-cited case, it was held that therein
Finance & Leasing Corporation (hereinafter referred to private respondent is not a holder in due course but a
as private respondent) which financed the purchase. mere assignee against whom all defenses available to
the assignor may be raised.
Petitioner defaulted in her installments allegedly due to a
A careful study of the questioned promissory note
discrepancy in the engine and chassis numbers of the
shows that it is a negotiable instrument, having complied
vehicle delivered to her and those indicated in the sales
with the requisites under the law as follows:
invoice, certificate of registration and deed of chattel
[a] it is in writing and signed by the maker Juanita
mortgage, which fact she discovered when the vehicle
Salas;
figured in an accident.
[b] it contains an unconditional promise to pay the
amount of P58,138.20;
This failure to pay prompted private respondent to [c] it is payable at a fixed or determinable future time
initiate a Civil Case for a sum of money against which is “P1,614.95 monthly for 36 months due and
petitioner before the RTC of San Fernando, Pampanga. payable on the 21st day of each month starting March
21, 1980 thru and inclusive of Feb. 21, 1983;”
RTC: rendered judgement against the defendant [d] it is payable to Violago Motor Sales
(ordered the defendant to pay the plaintiff the sum of Corporation, or order and as such,
P28,414.40 with interest thereon at the rate of 14% from [e] the drawee is named or indicated with certainty.
October 2, 1980 until the said sum is fully paid; and the
further amount of P1,000.00 as attorney's fees) It was negotiated by indorsement in writing on the
instrument itself payable to the Order of Filinvest
Imputing fraud, bad faith and misrepresentation against Finance and Leasing Corporation and it is an
VMS for having delivered a different vehicle to petitioner, indorsement of the entire instrument.
the latter prayed for a reversal of the trial court's
decision. Under the circumstances, there appears to be no
question that Filinvest is a holder in due course, having
Petitioner argues that in the light of the provision of the taken the instrument under the following conditions:
law on sales by description which she alleges is [a] it is complete and regular upon its face;
applicable here, no contract ever existed between her [b] it became the holder thereof before it was
and VMS and therefore none had been assigned in favor overdue, and without notice that it had previously been
of private respondent. dishonored;
[c] it took the same in good faith and for value; and
[d] when it was negotiated to Filinvest, the latter had
CA: affirmed lower court’s decision
no notice of any infirmity in the instrument or defect in
the title of VMS Corporation.
ISSUE: Whether the promissory note is a negotiable
instrument which will bar completely all the available
Accordingly, respondent corporation holds the
defenses of the petitioner against private respondent
instrument free from any defect of title of prior parties,
and free from defenses available to prior parties among
RULING:
themselves, and may enforce payment of the instrument
for the full amount thereof. This being so, petitioner
Yes. Among others, the instrument in order to be
cannot set up against respondent the defense of nullity
considered negotiable must contain the so-called words
of the contract of sale between her and VMS.
of negotiability—i.e., must be payable to ‘order’ or
‘bearer.’
Even assuming for the sake of argument that there is
an iota of truth in petitioner’s allegation that there was in
Under Section 8 of the Negotiable Instruments Law,
fact deception made upon her in that the vehicle she
there are only two ways by which an instrument may be
purchased was different from that actually delivered to
made payable to order. There must always be a
her, this matter cannot be passed upon in the case
specified person named in the instrument and the bill or
before us, where the VMS was never impleaded as a
note is to be paid to the person designated in the
party.
instrument or to any person to whom he has indorsed
and delivered the same. Without the words “or order” or
Note.— The instrument is payable to order where it
“to the order of”, the instrument is payable only to the
is drawn payable to the order of a specified person or to
person designated therein and is therefore non-
him or his order
negotiable.
No. The treasury warrants are not negotiable
6. Metrobank vs. CA instruments. Clearly stamped on their face is the word:
Metropolitan Bank & Trust Company vs. Court of non negotiable.” Moreover, and this is equal
Appeals significance, it is indicated that they are payable from a
G.R. No. 88866 February, 18, 1991 particular fund, to wit, Fund 501. An instrument to be
Cruz, J.:
negotiable instrument must contain an unconditional
Facts: promise or orders to pay a sum certain in money.
Eduardo Gomez opened an account with Golden
Savings and deposited 38 treasury warrants. All 7. HSBC vs. CIR
warrants were subsequently indorsed by Gloria Castillo
as Cashier of Golden Savings and deposited to its GR No. 166018
Savings account in Metrobank branch in Calapan,
Mindoro. They were sent for clearance. Meanwhile, June 4, 2014
Gomez is not allowed to withdraw from his account,
later, however, “exasperated” over Floria repeated
inquiries and also as an accommodation for a “valued”
client Metrobank decided to allow Golden Savings to Facts
withdraw from proceeds of the warrants. In turn, Golden
Savings subsequently allowed Gomez to make Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation,
withdrawals from his own account. Metrobank informed Limited (HSBC) performs, among others, custodial
Golden Savings that 32 of the warrants had been services on behalf of its investor clients. HSBC’s
dishonored by the Bureau of Treasury and demanded investor-clients maintain Philippine peso and foreign
the refund by Golden Savings of the amount it had
currency accounts which are managed by HSBC through
previously withdrawn, to make up the deficit in its
account. The demand was rejected. Metrobank then electronic messages, known in the banking industry as
sued Golden Savings. Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial
Telecommunication (SWIFT).
Issue:
1. Whether or not Metrobank can demand refund In purchasing shares of stocks and other
agaist Golden Savings with regard to the amount investment in securities here in the Philippines, the
withdraws to make up with the deficit as a result of the investor clients would send electronic messages from
dishonored treasury warrants. abroad instructing HSBC to debit their accounts here in
2. Whether or not treasury warrants are negotiable
the Philippines to pay for the purchase price thereof.
instruments
Pursuant to the electronic messages of its
Held:
No. Metrobank is negligent in giving Golden investor-clients, HSBC purchases the investments and
Savings the impression that the treasury warrants had pays the corresponding Documentary Stamp Taxes to
been cleared and that, consequently, it was safe to allow the Bureau of Internal Revenue pursuant to Sec. 181 of
Gomez to withdraw. Without such assurance, Golden the Tax Code which states that Documentary Stamp Tax
Savings would not have allowed the withdrawals. must be paid upon acceptance of a bill of exchange.
Indeed, Golden Savings might even have incurred
liability for its refusal to return the money that all However, on 1999, the BIR through its
appearances belonged to the depositor, who could
Commissioner issued a ruling which states that
therefore withdraw it anytime and for any reason he saw
fit. transactions from electronic instructions from abroad
It was, in fact, to secure the clearance of the should not be subject to Documentary Stamp Taxes
treasury warrants that Golden Savings deposited them (DST) if the funds used are already in Philippine
to its account with Metrobank. Golden Savings had no accounts and the DST were already paid for the
clearing facilities of its own. It relied on Metrobank to investment purchase pursuant with Sec. 230 of the Tax
determine the validity of the warrants through its own Code.
services. The proceeds of the warrants were withheld
from Gomez until Metrobank allowed Golden Savings Thereafter, HSBC filed for the refund of the
itself to withdraw them from its own deposit.
overpaid DST to the BIR.
Metrobank cannot contend that by indorsing the
warrants in general, Golden Savings assumed that they
Issues
were genuine and in all respects what they purport to
be,” in accordance with Sec. 66 of NIL. The simple
reason that NIL is not applicable to non negotiable
instruments, treasury warrants.
1. Whether or not electronic messages through trusted employee of [petitioner]. She has been with them
SWIFT is considered as a bill of exchange for several years already, and through the years,
and therefore, must be subject to DST. defendant ALONZO was able to gain the trust and
confidence of [petitioner] and her family; That due to
2. Whether or not the overpayment of DST by these trust and confidence reposed upon defendant
HSBC be entitled to tax refund. ALONZO by [petitioner], there were occasions when
Ruling defendant ALONZO was entrusted with [petitioner‟s]
METROBANK Check Book containing either signed or
The court ruled to the negative. unsigned blank checks, especially in those times when
[petitioner] left for the United States for medical check-
The electronic messages through SWIFT cannot up; Defendant Alonzo was able to succeed in inducing
be constituted as a Bill of Exchange for it does not the petitioner to sign PN through fraud and deceit;
comply with the Section 1 of the Negotiable Instruments defendant ALONZO in collusion with her co-defendants,
Law for it does not contain an unconditional order to pay ESTELA CAMACLANG, ALLAN CAMACLANG and
a sum certain in money and they are not payable to ESTELITA LEGASPI likewise was able to induce plaintiff
order or bearer but to a specifically designated person. to sign several undated blank checks.

Thus, no bill of exchange was made on the part The named defendants-herein respondents filed their
of HSBC and therefore, the covered transactions should respective Answers invoking, among other grounds for
not be subject to DST. Wherefore, erroneous payment of dismissal, lack of cause of action, for while the checks
taxes for the abovementioned transactions entitles subject of the complaint had been issued on account
HSBC to a tax refund. and for value, some had been dishonored due to
“ACCOUNT CLOSED;” and the allegations in the
But an order to promise to pay out of particular fund is
complaint are bare and general.
not unconditional. The indication of Fund 501 as the
source of the payment to be made on the treasury
The trial court dismissed petitioner‟s complaint for failure
warrants makes the order or promise to pay “not
conditional” and the warrants themselves non- “to allege the ultimate facts”
negotiable. There should be no question that the
exception on Section 3 of NIL is applicable in the case at -bases of petitioners claim that her right was violated
bar. and that she suffered damages thereby. The Court of
Appeals affirmed the trial court‟s decision and held that
the elements of a cause of action are absent in the case
and petitioner did not deny the genuineness or
authenticity of her signature on the subject promissory
8. ILANO VS HON. DOLORES L. ESPAÑOL
notes and the allegedly signed blank
FACTS: Amelia Alonzo is a trusted employee of Victoria
ISSUE: In issue then is whether petitioner‟s complaint
Ilano. During those times that Ilano is in the Unied States
failed to state a cause of action.
for medical check-up, Alonzo was entrusted with Ilano„s
Metrobank Check Book which contains both signed and RULING: As reflected in the above-quoted allegations in
unsigned blank checks. A Complaint for petitioner‟s complaint, petitioner is seeking twin reliefs,
Revocation/Cancellation of Promissory Notes and Bills one for revocation/cancellation of promissory notes and
of Exchange (Checks) with Damages and Prayer for checks, and the other for damages. While some of the
Preliminary Injunction or Temporary Restraining Order allegations may lack particulars, and are in the form of
(TRO) against Alonzo et al. before the Regional Trial conclusions of law, the elements of a cause of action are
Court of Cavite. Ilano contends that Alonzo, by means of present. For even if some are not stated with
deceit and abuse of confidence succeeded in procuring particularity, petitioner alleged
Promissory Notes and signed blank checks. Alonzo
likewise succeeded in inducing Ilano to sign antedated 1) her legal right not to be bound by the instruments
Promissory Notes. which were bereft of consideration and to which her
consent was vitiated;
The RTC rendered a decision dismissing the complaint
for lack of cause of action and failure to allege the 2) the correlative obligation on the part of the
ultimate facts of the case. On appeal, the Court of defendants-respondents to respect said right; and 3) the
Appeals affirmed the dismissal of the complaint. Hence, act of the defendants-respondents in procuring her
this petition. **Defendant AMELIA O. ALONZO is a signature on the instruments through “deceit,”“abuse of
confidence” “machination,” “fraud,” “falsification,”
“forgery,” “defraudation,” and “bad faith,” and “with
malice, malevolence and selfish intent.” 9. G.R. No. 170325 September 26, 2008
PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK, Petitioner,
Where the allegations of a complaint are vague, vs.
ERLANDO T. RODRIGUEZ and NORMA RODRIGUEZ,
indefinite, or in the form of conclusions, its dismissal is
Respondents.
not proper for the defendant may ask for more
particulars. With respect to above-said Check No. WHEN the payee of the check is not intended to be the
0084078, however, which was drawn against another true recipient of its proceeds, is it payable to order or
account of petitioner, albeit the date of issue bears only bearer? What is the fictitious-payee rule and who is
the year − 1999, its validity and negotiable character at liable under it? Is there any exception?
the time the complaint was filed on March 28, 2000 was
FACTS:
not affected. For Section 6 of the Negotiable Instruments
Law provides:
The spouses were engaged in the informal lending
business. In line with their business, they had a
Section 6. Omission; seal; particular money.
discounting arrangement with the Philnabank Employees
Savings and Loan Association (PEMSLA), an

association of PNB employees. Naturally, PEMSLA was
likewise a client of PNB Amelia Avenue Branch. The
The validity and negotiable character of an instrument
association maintained current and savings accounts
are not affected by the fact that with petitioner bank.

PEMSLA regularly granted loans to its members.
Spouses Rodriguez would rediscount the postdated
(a) It is not dated; or
checks issued to members whenever the association
was short of funds. As was customary, the spouses
(b) Does not specify the value given, or that any value
would replace the postdated checks with their own
had been given therefor; or (c) Does not specify the checks issued in the name of the members.
place where it is drawn or the place where it is payable;
or (d) Bears a seal; or (e) Designates a particular kind of It was PEMSLA’s policy not to approve applications for
current money in which payment is to be made. loans of members with outstanding debts. To subvert
However, even if the holder of Check No. 0084078 this policy, some PEMSLA officers devised a scheme to
would have filled up the month and day of issue thereon obtain additional loans despite their outstanding loan
to be “December” and “31,”respectively, it would have, accounts. They took out loans in the names of
unknowing members, without the knowledge or consent
as it did, become stale six (6) months or 180 days
of the latter. The PEMSLA checks issued for these loans
thereafter, following current banking practice. It is, were then given to the spouses for rediscounting. The
however, with respect to the questioned promissory officers carried this out by forging the indorsement of the
notes that the present petition assumes merit. named payees in the checks.

For, petitioner‟s allegations in the complaint relative In return, the spouses issued their personal checks
thereto, even if lacking particularity, does not as priorly (Rodriguez checks) in the name of the members and
stated call for the dismissal of the complaint. **While delivered the checks to an officer of PEMSLA. The
some of the allegations may lack particulars, and are in PEMSLA checks, on the other hand, were deposited by
the form of conclusions of law, the elements of a cause the spouses to their account.
of action are present. For even if some are not stated
with particularity, Ilano alleged 1) her legal right not to be Meanwhile, the Rodriguez checks were deposited
directly by PEMSLA to its savings account without any
bound by the instruments which were bereft of
indorsement from the named payees. This was an
consideration and to which her consent was vitiated; 2) irregular procedure made possible through the
the correlative obligation on the part of the defendants- facilitation of Edmundo Palermo, Jr., treasurer of
respondents to respect said right; and 3) the act of the PEMSLA and bank teller in the PNB Branch. It appears
defendants-respondents in procuring her signature on that this became the usual practice for the parties.
the instruments through “deceit,” “abuse of confidence”
“machination,” “fraud,” “falsification,” “forgery,” For the period November 1998 to February 1999, the
“defraudation,” and “bad faith,” and “with malice, spouses issued sixty nine (69) checks, in the total
amount of P2,345,804.00. These were payable to forty
malevolence and selfish intent.
seven (47) individual payees who were all members of
4
PEMSLA.
Petitioner PNB eventually found out about these intention on the part of respondents-spouses that the
fraudulent acts. To put a stop to this scheme, PNB payees would not receive the checks’ proceeds.
closed the current account of PEMSLA. As a result, the Considering that respondents-spouses were transacting
PEMSLA checks deposited by the spouses were with PEMSLA and not the individual payees, it is
returned or dishonored for the reason "Account Closed." understandable that they relied on the information given
The corresponding Rodriguez checks, however, were by the officers of PEMSLA that the payees would be
deposited as usual to the PEMSLA savings account. The receiving the checks.
amounts were duly debited from the Rodriguez account.
Thus, because the PEMSLA checks given as payment Verily, the subject checks are presumed order
were returned, spouses Rodriguez incurred losses from instruments. This is because, as found by both lower
the rediscounting transactions. courts, PNB failed to present sufficient evidence to
defeat the claim of respondents that the named payees
The spouses Rodriguez filed a civil complaint for were the intended recipients of the checks’ proceeds.
damages against PEMSLA and PNB. They sought to The bank failed to satisfy a requisite condition of a
recover the value of their checks that were deposited to fictitious-payee situation – that the maker of the check
the PEMSLA savings account amounting to intended for the payee to have no interest in the
P2,345,804.00. The spouses contended that PNB paid transaction.
the wrong payees, hence, it should bear the loss.
Because of a failure to show that the payees were
The RTC rendered judgment in favor of spouses “fictitious” in its broader sense, the fictitious-payee rule
Rodriguez, and ruled that PNB is liable to return the does not apply. Thus, the checks are to be deemed
value of the checks. payable to order. Consequently, the drawee bank bears
the loss.
On appeal, the CA affirmed the RTC Decicion..

ISSUE:

Whether the subject checks are payable to order or to


bearer and who bears the loss.

RULING:

A check is “a bill of exchange drawn on a bank payable


on demand.” It is either an order or a bearer instrument.

As a rule, when the payee is fictitious or not intended to


be the true recipient of the proceeds, the check is
considered as a bearer instrument.

Under Section 30 of the NIL, an order instrument


requires an indorsement from the payee or holder before
it may be validly negotiated. A bearer instrument, on the
other hand, does not require an indorsement to be
validly negotiated. It is negotiable by mere delivery.

Under Section 9(c) of the NIL, a check payable to a


specified payee may nevertheless be considered as a
bearer instrument if it is payable to the order of a
fictitious or non-existing person, and such fact is known
to the person making it so payable. Thus, checks issued
to “Prinsipe Abante” or “Si Malakas at si Maganda,” who
are well-known characters in Philippine mythology, are
bearer instruments because the named payees are
fictitious and non-existent.

For the fictitious-payee rule to be available as a defense,


PNB must show that the makers did not intend for the
named payees to be part of the transaction involving the
checks. At most, the bank’s thesis shows that the
payees did not have knowledge of the existence of the
checks. This lack of knowledge on the part of the
payees, however, was not tantamount to a lack of