Você está na página 1de 10

Module Code

(M3H324914)

CALEDONIAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,


Fluid Mechanics Lab SULTANATE OF OMAN

2019-20

LABORATORY HANDBOOK
Semester A

Module Team
Coordinator/Tutor
Mr.T.A.Sulaiman
Ms.Khadija Salim Al
Abdulla Al Balushi

Instructor
Ms Azza Saif Said
Salim Al Maqbali
Ms.Raiya Ali Said Al
Hajri
Department of
Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
1|Page
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

PREFACE

The laboratory work for the “Fluid Mechanics Lab – M3H324914” comprises of six experiments. These
experiments are intended to gain practical knowledge and hands-on experiences on experiments
related to deadweight pressure guage tester, calibration of venturi meter, orifice meter, rectangular
notch, V-notch and friction in pipes. Lab reports should be typewritten and plagiarism free, and words
limit of 1500 words. Each student will upload the lab report on CCE-Learn for on-line evaluation. In
addition, late submission of lab reports on CCE-Learn will not be entertained. At the end of the semester,
each student practical skills learned through the course will be evaluated using a skill card. Also, each
student must submit duly filled risk assessment form to lab tutor/instructor. The lab reports cover the
Course Work component of the module.

Fluid Mechanics Lab 2019-20 Rev: 00 Sem A P2 | P a g e


age 1
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

CONTENTS

EXPT
TITLE OF THE EXPERIMENT PAGE NO
NO.

1. DEAD WEIGHT PRESSURE GAUGE TESTER ............................................................................ 4


2. FLOW THROUGH ORIFICE METER ............................................................................................. 5
3. FLOW THROUGH VENTURI METER ............................................................................................ 6
4. FLOW THROUGH V-NOTCH ......................................................................................................... 7
5. FLOW THROUGH RECTANGULAR NOTCH ................................................................................ 8
6. STUDY OF PIPE FRICTION ........................................................................................................... 9

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Lab Report:
Write a neat lab report describing your findings when performing the lab experiment. The lab report has
to be prepared with Arial 11 font size for the text, with title of the sections in Arial 12 bold and subsection
in Arial 11 bold font size. Use 1.5 spacing between the lines and paragraphs. The lab report must cover
the following points:

Aim Mention Aim of the experiment

Objectives Highlight Objectives of the experiment

Theory Briefly describe the relevant theory related to


experiment

Experimental set-up Brief description of experimental set-up & attach


schematic layout or figure of experimental set-
up

Procedure Indicate the test procedures followed while


doing the experiment

Observation table Duly fill-up the observation table

Sample calculation (one set of data) Detailed calculation on one set of data

Graphs Neatly plot the related graphs

Results & Discussion Indicate important results and discuss the


results effectively

Conclusion Mention Conclusion of the experiment

References Indicate referred articles. Follow CCE-Harvard


referencing style

Fluid Mechanics Lab 2019-20 Rev: 00 Sem A P3 | P a g e


age 1
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

1. DEAD WEIGHT PRESSURE GAUGE TESTER

Observations Table
Pressure gauge reading for dead weight= 18 kg/ cm2

1 N is equal to 0.101971621 kilogram

Mass added Total mass True Gauge Gauge


Error
to piston on piston pressure pressure Correction

kg kg kPa kPa kPa %

0.0

0.5

1.0

2.0

3.0

Graphs

(1) % age error Vs Load (Histogram plot);


(2) Gauge pressure Vs True pressure and
(3) % age error Vs True pressure

Fluid Mechanics Lab 2019-20 Rev: 00 Sem A P4 | P a g e


age 1
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

2. FLOW THROUGH ORIFICE METER

Observations Table
Diameter of pipe, D1 = 2.4 x 10-2 m

Diameter of orifice, D2 = 2 x 10-2 m

Density of flowing fluid, f = 1000 kg/m3

Sl. No. Manometer Δh, ΔP, Volume of Time taken Qa, m3/s Qthr, m3/s Cd
reading m N /m2 water for water
collected, collection,
h1 ,m m3 Sec
h2,m

Calculations

Area of pipe, A1 = m2

Area of orifice, A2 = m2

Difference in manometer reading, Δh = (h1-h2 ) = m

ΔP = f g Δh = N/m2

Actual flow rate, Qa =V / t = m3/s

2 gh
Theoretical flow rate, Q thr 
 1 1 
 
 A2 A2 
 2 1 

Graph

Qa Vs Qthr and find graphically Cd

Fluid Mechanics Lab 2019-20 Rev: 00 Sem A P5 | P a g e


age 1
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

3. FLOW THROUGH VENTURI METER

Observations Table
Diameter of pipe, D1 = 2.4 x 10-2 m

Diameter of Venture throat, D2 =1.4 x10-2 m

Density of flowing fluid, f = 1000 kg/m3

S. No Manometer Δh, ΔP, Volume of Time taken Qact,m3/s Qthr, m3/s Cd


reading m N/ water for water
m2 collected, collection,
h1 ,m m3 Sec
h2,m

Calculations

Area of pipe, A1 = m2

Area of throat, A2 = m2

Difference in manometer reading, Δh = (h1-h2 ) = m

ΔP = f g Δh = N/m2

Actual flow rate, Qa =V / t = m3/s

2 gh
Theoretical flow rate, Q thr 
 1 1 
 
 A2 A2 
 2 1 

Graph

Qa Vs h and find graphically Cd

Fluid Mechanics Lab 2019-20 Rev: 00 Sem A P6 | P a g e


age 1
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

4. FLOW THROUGH V-NOTCH

Observations Table
Angle of V-Notch, θ = 90o

Sl. No Hook gauge h, m Volume of Time taken, Qact Qthr Cd


reading, mm Water sec
Collected, m3, m3/s m3/s
h1,m h2 ,
m

Calculations

Head above the notch, h = (h2-h1) = m

Actual Discharge, Qact = V/t = m3/s


2 g tan h 2.5
8
Theoretical discharge, Qthr 
15 2

Graph

(1) Qa Vs h 2.5 and graphically determine Cd

Fluid Mechanics Lab 2019-20 Rev: 00 Sem A P7 | P a g e


age 1
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

5. FLOW THROUGH RECTANGULAR NOTCH

Observations Table

S.No Hook gauge h, m Volume of Time Qact, Qthr, Cd


reading, mm water taken,
collected, sec m3/s m3/s
m3
h1 h2

1.

2.

3.

4.

CALCULATIONS

Head above the notch, h = (h 2- h1) = m


3
Actual Discharge, Qact = V / t = m /s
3
2
The theoretical flow through rectangular notch, 𝑄𝑡ℎ = 𝐵√2𝑔𝐻2
3

Graph

(1) Qa Vs h1.5 and graphically determine Cd

Fluid Mechanics Lab 2019-20 Rev: 00 Sem A P8 | P a g e


age 1
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

6. STUDY OF PIPE FRICTION

Observations Table
Diameter (D) of Pipe -1 = 16.5 x 10-3 m

Density of flowing fluid, f = 1000 kg/m3

Viscosity of flowing fluid,  = 0.001 kg/m-s

Length of pipe, L = 1 m

Sl. No Manometer reading h, p, Volume Time Q V Re f


m of water taken for
h1, mm h2, N/m2 collected, collection m3/s m/s
mm m3 , t, sec

Calculations

Flow rate of fluid, Q = Volume of Water collected/ time = m3/s


Cross sectional area of pipe, A = D2/4 = m2
Velocity of fluid, V = Q/A = m/s
Reynolds’s number, Re =DVρf / μ
Level difference in the manometer,h = (h1-h2)/1000 = m
Pressure drop across the pipe, p = f g h = N/m2

Friction factor (experiment) = p * 2 * D


f 
LV 2  f

Friction factor (empirical), femp =16/Re for Re 2100


femp = 0.046 Re-0.25 for Re 2100

Graphs

(1) Friction factor (experiment) Vs Reynolds number – Use Semi-log plot


(2) Compare Friction factor (experiment) Vs Friction factor (empirical) characteristics

Fluid Mechanics Lab 2019-20 Rev: 00 Sem A P9 | P a g e


age 1
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

REFERENCES
Alexander J. S, 1999. A Physical Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Douglas, J. F., Gasiorek, J. M., Swaffield, J. A. & Jack, L. B., 2005. Fluid Mechanics, 5th Edition,
London: Prentice Hall.

Joseph Franzini & Finnemore. E, 1997. Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Applications,9th Edition,
Boston:WCB McGraw-Hill.

Streeter V .L & Wylie E.B, 1983. Fluid Mechanics, Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Brewster, H. D. 2009. Fluid Mechanics. Jaipur: Global media. ebrary [Online] Available
from:http://site.ebrary.com/lib/caledonian/docDetail.action?docID=10417573&p00=fluid%20mechanic
s [Accessed 26 June 2018].

Husain, Abdullah. Z, Mohammad Z. & Zainal A. 2008. Basic Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines.
Hyderabad: Global Media. ebrary [Online] Available
from:http://site.ebrary.com/lib/caledonian/docDetail.action?docID=10416012&p00=fluid%20mechanic
s. [Accessed 26 June 2018].

Kambe, Tsutomu. 2007. Elementary Fluid Mechanics. River Edge, NJ, USA : World Scientific. ebrary
[Online] Available from:
http://site.ebrary.com/lib/caledonian/docDetail.action?docID=10188757&p00=fluid%20mechanics
[Accessed 26 June 2018].

Fluid Mechanics Lab 2019-20 Rev: 00 Sem A P10 | P a g e


age 1