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Modelling the Absorbence of the Rural Distribution Network for Connection of Embedded Generators

Diploma Thesis

by

Robert Schmaranz

of Embedded Generators Diploma Thesis by Robert Schmaranz University of Edinburgh Department of Electronics and

University of Edinburgh Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering Edinburgh, United Kingdom May 2000

Submitted to Technical University Graz Institute of Electric Power Systems Graz, Austria

Preface

1

Preface

This project was performed at the University of Edinburgh, Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, and submitted to the Technical University Graz, Institute of Electric Power Systems.

This work is intended to be my final thesis for diploma at the Technical University Graz.

I would like to thank Dr. Robin Wallace, my project supervisor at the University of Edinburgh, for the proposal of the topic, the discussions and his help encouragement and professionalism during the course of the project.

Thanks also go to Dr. Gary Conner for his invaluable advice and information provided with regard to the work I carried out, Gareth Harrison for the help he gave me when learning the VC++ programming language and the whole Energy System Group for their aid when writing the report.

Many thanks also go to Professor Lothar Fickert at the Technical University Graz, Institute

of

Electric Power Systems, for his help during the application process and encouragement

in

the beginning of the project.

A

final word of thanks goes out to my dearest friends and family back home for their

never-ending encouragement and support.

The work shall be dedicated to my family and my girlfriend Hanni.

Robert Schmaranz

Edinburgh, 15 May 2000

Abstract

2

Abstract

Electricity is being demanded at an ever increasing rate by modern society. Due to the depletion of fossil fuel energy sources to generate electricity this increasing demand must be met by some other means. Government initiatives and the privatisation of the electricity supply industry in recent years has encouraged the development of wind farms, mini-hydro schemes and industrial Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generating plants which are embedded in the electricity distribution network. The operation of these embedded generators may improve or adversely effect the quality or stability of the electricity supplied to costumers. Each embedded generation scheme must be assessed for its technical feasibility as many of the plants may propose to connect in remote areas where the grid system is already weak. Due to the shear number of proposed schemes there is a need for a hierarchical rule-base which could identify, at an early stage in development, any problems that would be encountered by the connection. The effects an embedded generator has on the distribution system can be determined by different computer simulations.

This report explains the basics of embedded generation, the problems an embedded generator has on the rural distribution network and describes the construction of circle diagrams for a short- and long-transmission line, to determine the absorbence of the grid. With the developed knowledge a program in Microsoft Visual C++ Version 6.0 is written to visualise the obtained results.

The Visual C++ simulation shows an universal power circle diagram for a short- transmission line similar to the power circle diagram of a synchronous machine. It obtains an active and reactive power area for the receiving end and an area for the receiving- and sending-end voltage. The program additionally calculates the sending-end values for the active, reactive and complex power, the power factor, the phase angle, the current and the load angle.

Keywords: circle diagram, embedded generation, grid absorbence, power flow, voltage violation

Table of Contents

3

Table of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION

8

1.1 General Background

8

1.2 Worldwide Energy Reserves – Forecast

9

1.3 Worldwide Energy Consumption – Forecast

10

1.4 Situation in the United Kingdom

11

1.5 The Future of Distributed Generation in the United Kingdom

13

1.6 Scope of this Project

14

2 EMBEDDED GENERATION

15

2.1 Basics

15

2.2 The Electricity Supply System

15

2.3 Types of Embedded Generation

17

2.3.1 Combined Heat and Power Schemes

17

2.3.2 Mini-Hydro Schemes

17

2.3.3 Wind Power

17

2.3.4 Others

18

2.4 Advantages of Embedded Generators

19

2.5 Legislation in the United Kingdom

20

2.6 Types of Generators

21

2.6.1 The Synchronous Generator

21

2.6.2 The Induction Generator

22

2.6.3 Fault Contribution

24

2.6.4 Choice of Generator

24

2.7 Solid-State

Power Convertors

25

2.8 Effects of Embedded Generators on Weak Rural Grids

26

2.8.1 Load Flow and Losses

26

2.8.2 Power Quality

29

2.8.3 Fault Levels

29

2.8.4 Steady-State and Transient Stability

30

2.8.5 Voltage Variations

30

2.9

Protection Considerations

32

2.9.1 Generator Protection

32

2.9.2 Loss of Main Protection

32

2.9.3 G59/1 Protection

33

Table of Contents

4

3 POWER FLOW AND ABSORBENCE

34

3.1 The Per-Unit System

34

3.2 Reactive Power

35

3.3 The Four-Terminal Network

37

3.4 The Short-Transmission Line

40

3.4.1 Power Transfer of a Short-Transmission Line

40

3.4.2 The Circle Diagram for Z = X (R = 0)

43

3.4.3 The Receiving-End Power Circle Diagram of a Short-Transmission Line

46

3.4.4 The Universal Power Circle Diagram of a Short-Transmission Line

51

3.5

The Long-Transmission Line

55

3.5.1 Transmission Line Constants

55

3.5.2 The Receiving-End Power Circle Diagram of a Long-Transmission Line

57

3.5.3 The Universal Power Circle Diagram of a Long-Transmission Line

59

3.6 The Use of Power Circle Diagrams

61

3.7 Comparison between Long- and Short-Transmission Lines

62

4 DEVELOPMENT OF SIMULATION PACKAGE

64

4.1 The Programming Language

64

4.2 The Microsoft Visual C++ Environment

64

4.3 Flow Chart of ‘Universal Power Circle Diagram’ (UPCD)

66

4.4 Starting UPCD

67

4.5 The Main Menu Screen

67

4.5.1 The ‘File’ Menu

68

4.5.2 The ‘View’ Menu

69

4.5.3 The ‘Start’

Menu

69

4.5.4 The ‘Help’ Menu

70

4.5.5 The ‘Zoom In’ and ‘Zoom Out’ Button

70

4.5.6 The ‘Constant Receiving Power Circle’ Button

71

4.5.7 The ‘Constant Power Factor’ Button

72

4.5.8 The ‘Print Screen’ Button

72

4.6 The View Window

73

4.7 Error Estimation

76

5 CASE STUDIES

77

5.1 System fault level: 1.99 MVA, V grid : 400 V, S grid : 250 kVA

77

5.2 System fault level: 1.99 MVA, V grid : 400 V, S grid : 500 kVA

79

5.3 System fault level: 3.98 MVA, V grid : 400 V, S grid : 500 kVA

80

5.4 System fault level: 67 MVA, V grid : 3.3 kV, S grid : 6.5 MVA

81

Table of Contents

5

6 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

83

6.1 Overview

 

83

6.2 Problems Encountered

83

6.3 Conclusion and Future Work

84

7 LIST OF FIGURES

 

85

8 REFERENCES

87

9 BIBLIOGRAPHY

89

10 APPENDIX

90

10.1 Calculation

Class

90

10.2 Class

Circle

DiagramDoc

94

10.3 Class

Circle

DiagramView

100

10.4 Class Draw Axis

112

10.5 Class

Input Dialog

119

10.6 Class

MainFrm

130

10.7 Class

P1Out

133

10.8 Class PowerFactor Dialog

136

10.9 Class PrintScreenDlg Dialog

139

10.10 Class Sconstant Dialog

141

10.11 Resource.h

 

144

Glossary

6

Glossary

ac

alternating

current

 

ACSR

Aluminium

Conductor Steel Reinforcement

 

AVC

Automatic

Voltage Control

 

AVR

Automatic

Voltage Regulator

CEGB

Central

Electricity Generating Board

 

CHP

Combined

Heat and Power

 

dc

direct

current

DG 1

Distributed

Generation/Generator – a conceptual term based on the

fact that an integrated electricity system with centralised generation can operate with Embedded Generation (EG) which tends to be situated closer to demand consumers (such as industrial sites with their own on-site generation). This term is used as a less specific (with regard to connection voltage) version of EG.

EG 1

Embedded

Generation/Generator

refers

to

generation

which

is

connected to a distribution network rather than the transmission system and which is not usually centrally-despatched.

EU

European

Union

 

GTO

Gate-Turn-Off

Thyristor

IDMT

Inverse

Definite Minimum Time

IGBT

Insulated-Gate

Bipolar Transistor

 

LDC

Line

Drop Compensation schemes

LOM

Loss

Of Main

LV

Low

Voltage (230 V / 400 V in United Kingdom)

 

MV

Medium

Voltage (11 kV – 132 kV in United Kingdom)

 

HV

High

Voltage (above 132 kV in United Kingdom)

 

NFFO

Non-Fossil

Fuel Obligation (England and Wales)

NGC

National

Grid Company

 

1 definition taken from [5]

Glossary

7

PES

Public

Electricity Supplier

pf

power

factor

PWM

Pulse

Width Modulation

REC

Regional

Electricity Company

ROCOF

Rate-Of-Change

Of Frequency (df/dt)

SDI

Single

Document Interface

SRO

Scottish

Renewable Order

UK

United

Kingdom

UPCD

Universal

Power Circle Diagram

There are some important differences between the United Kingdom (UK) and the Austrian system for circuit notation which are explained below:

To represent an inductance the following symbols are used:

Austria:

a black box

UK:

a coil-symbol

are used: Austria: a black box UK: a coil-symbol In this thesis the coil-sym bol indicates

In this thesis the coil-symbol indicates an inductance.

The reference arrow in voltage circuits:

Austria: The arrow points from the higher level (dc: plus) to the lower level (dc: minus, ac: ground) of voltage. Therefore, it indicates the voltage drop. UK: The arrow points from the lower level (dc: minus, ac: ground) to the higher level (dc: plus) of voltage. Therefore, it indicates the voltage rise. In this thesis the arrow indicates the voltage drop.

Introduction

8

1

Introduction

1.1 General Background

Increasing environmental concern since the beginning of the decade has promoted considerable interest in the improvement of energy efficiency, the reduction of pollution, and the development of non-fossil-fuel and renewable energy generating schemes. Liberalisation of the electricity supply industries in many industrialised countries has resulted in the market-driven dispatch of privately-owned generating plants of capacity ranging from a few hundred kW up to 600 MW. Because such plant cannot be centrally constrained and since it can be connected to national electricity systems at distribution voltage, it is termed Embedded Generation (EG). System expansion in recent years in the United Kingdom has largely been met by the installation of privately-owned EG plant (mainly fast-access gas-turbine plant) which makes a significant contribution to total capacity.

Many European Union (EU) member states actively encourage renewable energy development by providing enhanced tariffs for energy produced from non-fossil fuel sources or by subsidy of investment in renewable energy plant. Among the truly renewable energy sources, wind and hydro power offer the greatest natural potential and the technologies are mature, proven and market-ready. Wind turbines offer economy of scale and commercially viable expansion tends to take the form of multi-machine wind farms, with unit capacities below 500 kW. Water turbines do not offer the same economy of scale and in many industrialised countries much of the large-scale hydro schemes were developed many years ago, requiring considerable government-led investment that will never again take place on the same scale, but there is considerable private interest in small and mini-hydro power stations [22].

Introduction

9

1.2 Worldwide Energy Reserves – Forecast

Figure 1-1 shows the worldwide consumption of crude oil, natural gas, coal and the ‘static range’ of secure reserves in the years 1970, 1980, 1990 and 1997. ‘Static range’ defines the temporal range for unchangeable production in the year specified and on the assumption of no further prospecting.

mio. t oil-equivalent
mio. t oil-equivalent

production of crude oilassumption of no further prospecting. mio. t oil-equivalent production of coal production of natural gas data

production of coalprospecting. mio. t oil-equivalent production of crude oil production of natural gas data in years for

production of natural gast oil-equivalent production of crude oil production of coal data in years for unchangeable consumption Figure

data in years for unchangeable consumption

Figure 1-1: Range of the worldwide crude oil-, natural gas- and coal-reserves 2

It is noted that the discovery of new resources in the last two decades has increased at a rate higher than consumption. The secured crude oil and natural gas reserves for 1970 were only for 36 and 42 years respectively. Twenty-seven years later, in 1997, the static range was 41 and 64 years respectively. It can be assumed that there will be the discovery and development of considerable new resources in the future, and thereby no decrease in the static range of fossil fuel. Another factor to be considered is that of political instability, as a

2 Data source: [1]

Introduction

10

considerable part of the natural gas and crude oil reserves lies in potential crisis regions [3].

1.3 Worldwide Energy Consumption – Forecast

Figure 1-2 shows the worldwide consumption of primary energy until 2050 in three different scenarios predicted by the World Energy Council (WEC) and the International Institutes for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).

Giga Tons Oil Equivalent [GTOE]

24,8

Analysis (IIASA). Giga Tons Oil Equivalent [GTOE] 24,8 A ’high growth’   22% B ’middle

A ’high

growth’

 

22%

B ’middle

course’

C ’ecologically

driven’

 

15,4

19%

13,6  

13,6

13,6
 

16%

11,4

32%

17%

24%

24%  
 

9,0

24%

21%

  16% 11,4 32% 17% 24%   9,0 24% 21% 18%   30% 27% 28% 19%

18%

 

30%

27%

28%

19%

 

15%

34%

26%

24%

25%

24%

20%

12%

6%

6%

7%

6%

19,8

25% 24% 20% 12% 6% 6% 7% 6% 19,8 22% 14,2 23% 39% 20% 27% 21%

22%

14,2

23%

23%

39%

20%

27%

21%

19%

14%

11%

 

4%

1990

renewables27% 21% 19% 14% 11%   4% 1990 natural gas A B 2020 crude oil C

natural gas21% 19% 14% 11%   4% 1990 renewables A B 2020 crude oil C A B

A B 2020 crude oil
A
B
2020
crude oil

C

4% 1990 renewables natural gas A B 2020 crude oil C A B 2050 nuclear power

A

B

2050

nuclear power

C

Figure 1-2: Evolution of the world energy consumption 1990, 2020 and 2050 3

Case A (‘high growth’) addresses key development in energy supply. It varies principally in the future to envisage coal on the one side, and nuclear and renewables, on the other. Dominance of oil and gas is perpetuated to the end of the 21 st century. After 2020 rapid technological change in nuclear and renewable energy technologies will result in a phaseout of fossil fuels for economic reasons rather than due to resource scarcity.

3 Data source: [29]

Introduction

11

Course B (‘middle course’) incorporates more modest estimates of economic growth and technological development, and the demise of trade barriers and expansion of new arrangements facilitating international exchange. Compared with the Case A and C scenario, it is more ‘pragmatic’, which is its main appeal.

Case C (‘ecologically driven’) is the most challenging. It is optimistic about technology and geopolitics, but unlike Case A, it assumes unprecedented progressive international cooperation focused explicitly on environmental protection and international equity. In Case C, nuclear energy is at a crossroad. In this case there is a reduction of carbon emissions in 2100 to 2 Gigatonnes of Carbon per year, one-third of today’s level [29].

World population is expected to double by the middle of the 21 st century and economic development will continue. According to the scenarios of the forecast, this results in a 1.5 to 3 fold increase in world economic output by 2020 and a 3 to 5 fold increase by 2050. The average percentage increase of renewables for all three scenarios will be about 50% between 1990 and 2020 and about 220% between 1990 and 2050.

1.4 Situation in the United Kingdom

In 1919 there were some 570 separate electricity undertakings in the UK operating 430 generating stations. There was no national transmission system and so the generators were connected directly to distribution networks serving their local area. The 132 kV National Grid was then built which allowed larger, more efficient generating stations to be used and electricity to be transmitted to remote loads. After nationalisation in 1948 the power system was developed using very large central power stations feeding a 275 kV or 400 kV supergrid which provided the bulk supplies to the distribution networks.

The Energy Act of 1983 contained an obligation on the area electricity boards to purchase power from independent generators, but this legislation failed to stimulate the wide scale development of EG [10].

In 1990, UK’s Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) was privatised as part of the restructuring of the electrical supply industry. This privatisation established conditions which are likely to be more favourable, although the commercial and administrative arrangements for EG in the new electricity market are complex and still being developed. The economic benefits of promoting competition between the resulting companies have been well documented, but attention must also be paid to the effects on the technical and operational aspects of such a change.

Previously, the nationalised industry was effectively a monopolistic structure in which the CEGB sold electricity to the 12 area distribution boards who each supplied a particular defined geographical area. Under this structure the CEGB had control of both the

Introduction

12

generation and the transmission system. Within the new structure, the ownership and operation of the 400 kV and 275 kV transmission system was transferred to the newly formed National Grid Company (NGC), with generation going to National Power, PowerGen and Nuclear Electric, with exception of 2100 MW of hydroelectric pumped storage capacity which remained within NGC. Since privatisation, an additional 46 generation licences have been issued to 22 independent generators. NGC was given the remit to ‘develop and maintain an efficient, coordinated and economical transmission system and to facilitate competition in the generation of electricity’. Local distribution remained with the 12 area distribution boards, now known as Regional Electricity Companies (REC), to which NGC supplies power.

The key features of this structure are that power is traded through an open commodity market known as the Pool, and that generators have no assurance of market share, but have to compete for business [14].

There has been a gradual increase in the amount of commissioned capacity of CHP and renewable energy schemes throughout the country in recent years. Figure 1-3 shows that the capacity of DG is about 3 GW, and this represents approximately 5% of the peak demand in the UK.

represents approximately 5% of the peak demand in the UK. Figure 1-3: The recent growth of

Figure 1-3: The recent growth of DG (installed capacity/MW) in the UK 4

4 Data source: [4]

Introduction

13

The CHP schemes in Figure 1-3 tend to be less than 1 MW sites (83% of CHP sites were less than 1 MW in 1998) although the 5% of sites which were above 10 MW generate 79% of the total electricity. If we assume that the sites above 10 MW are not DG, then about 822 MW (21% of total) is DG. The remaining 3107 MW would then be transmission- connected.

The renewable plant is generally contracted under the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and the Scottish Renewable Order (SRO) and does not include large hydro or pumped storage stations. The growth in renewable project development is driven by government announcements of NFFO orders.

Large hydro plant, of which the majority is located in Scotland, are also defined as DG [5]. Large hydro is defined as plant belonging to companies with an aggregate hydro capacity of more than 5 MW and the data used in Figure 1-3 exclude pumped storage schemes [4].

1.5

The

Kingdom

Future

of

Distributed

Generation

in

the

United

European initiatives, UK Government Renewable Orders NFFO 1-5, SRO 1-3, and revisions to energy trading arrangement will increase significantly the European and UK capacity of embedded and renewable generators. The renewed interest in EG has been stimulated by a number of technical, commercial and environmental factors. These include the high overall thermal efficiencies possible with CHP and the Government’s commitment to new renewable energy sources such as landfill gas and wind power. Permission for the construction of overhead circuits is difficult to obtain in certain areas and so the use of diesel or small gas turbine generators is being considered for reinforcement of the local distribution network.

There will be a large expansion of EG-capacity in the UK, if the Government is to meet its targets of:

Renewable energy providing 10% of UK’s electricity supplies by 2010, and

Having 10 GW of CHP capacity contributing to the demand.

This is approximately a 3 to 4 times increase in unconstrained capacity to be added in the next 10 years and most of the new plant will be connected within the distribution network. More significantly, the capacity of renewable energy generating plants that are likely to be connected to the weak, remote parts of the distribution network is forecast to rise by over 12 times. Since none of this new plant will be centrally constrained or dispatched, and its presence will cause wide variations in rural load flow, there is real concern in the RECs about the effects on the distribution system of this amount of embedded renewable

Introduction

14

generation. Government aspirations will only be met if access is maximised by research into the ability of the distribution system to absorb and better integrate this rapidly increasing capacity of EGs.

Looking further into the future, the increased use of fuel cells, micro-CHP using Stirling engines and photovoltaic devices integrated into the fabric of buildings may all be anticipated as possible sources of power for EGs [10].

1.6 Scope of this Project

Embedded unconstrained renewable and CHP generating plant (EGs) at remote locations in the rural distribution system nearly always results in unacceptable voltage violations – both when the plant is in and out of service. The extent of this violation is determined by the net reversal of load flow, which varies with time of day and seasonally, because the availability of the energy resource and local load each vary to different chronological patterns.

To ensure that the distribution system will absorb the exported power within a statutory voltage envelope RECs include in the EG connection cost the reinforcement of those areas of the distribution system at which violation would occur. In many cases the attribution of these costs to new projects render them unfeasible and curtails the development of many otherwise suitable sites.

The aim of this project is to develop a body of knowledge and software that will readily establish the absorbence of the rural distribution network at a proposed point of connection. This will not be a single capacity but an area of active and reactive power within which the EG can operate without the net export leading to voltage violation.

Embedded Generation

15

2 Embedded Generation

2.1 Basics

The supply of electricity to the distribution network by most EGs is determined either by the heat demand and internal load of a CHP scheme or by the energy available from a renewable energy source. Thus the power output of CHP schemes may be described as ‘heat lead’ while renewable energy schemes may be considered to be ‘source led’.

Small generators are not subject to central dispatch by the NGC and so do not respond directly to the national electricity demand. However, some generators may respond to system loading conditions indirectly through pricing signals received via tariffs or other charging mechanisms. Although a small number of generators have been installed specifically to support the distribution system, most schemes are operating independently of the loading and voltage conditions on the local network. Wind turbines and some micro- hydro plants use induction generators with no direct control over reactive power flow while even CHP plant with synchronous generators may either use rather simple excitation equipment or choose to run at unity power factor in order to minimise charges for reactive power. Even those types of plants which technically can respond to distribution network conditions may be quite inflexible for commercial or contractual reasons.

At present most EG is viewed as a source of energy, rather than generation capacity, and the rules governing its connection reflect this. In the future, as the quantity of EG continues to increase it may be necessary to integrate its operation much more closely with that of the distribution network and to recognise its contribution to the capacity of the power system. Although technically this is quite feasible, the required commercial and institutional arrangements are not yet in place [10].

2.2 The Electricity Supply System

There are two ways generators can feed into the electricity supply system:

At the level of the high voltage transmission network, i.e. into the National Grid. This is what all large generators do and it is known as centralised generation.

At the level of the lower voltage distribution network, i.e. directly into the Regional Electricity Companies (RECs) network. This is known as Embedded Generation.

Embedded Generation

16

A diagrammatic representation of the UK electricity supply industry is shown below (Figure 2-1). All wind farms and most other renewable projects are embedded generators. EG can bring a number of advantages over centralised generation, but the extent of the advantage depends on where the EG is located in the network.

Large Generator Large Generator Electricity Pool NGC Transmission Network REC Distribution Network Embedded
Large Generator
Large Generator
Electricity Pool
NGC Transmission
Network
REC Distribution
Network
Embedded
REC/PES
REC/PES
REC/PES
REC/PES
REC/PES
Generator
= Electricity meter

Figure 2-1: UK electricity supply industry

Basically, EGs deliver electricity to consumers in a more direct way than centralised generators. The electricity is generated in closer proximity to the user, reducing the distance over which the electricity has to travel and therefore reducing electrical losses. The electricity is also delivered either at or closer to the correct voltage for distribution. The electrical output from centralised generators has to be transformed up to a high voltage, transmitted, and then transformed back down to the lower voltage.

Many problems can occur when renewable-energy generators are installed at the remote extremities of power systems due both to the characteristics of the generators and the weakness of the electricity network. There can be variations and reversals in load flow causing electrical power transmission to exceed system thermal capacities, unacceptable voltage regulation, increased fault levels and loss of stability.

To accept safely the power produced by new renewable energy generators it is frequently necessary to up-grade and reinforce the existing electricity distribution system. This is an expensive process that can jeopardise the economic feasibility of many new seemingly attractive renewable energy schemes [22].

Embedded Generation

17

2.3 Types of Embedded Generation

2.3.1 Combined Heat and Power Schemes

Many large industrial sites utilise CHP schemes. Steam is used to run a turbine and generate electricity for the site. The steam leaves the turbine at a temperature that makes it useful for heating the site or delivery to any processes that require heat. Some industrial processes produce steam as a by-product and this makes this type of scheme a very viable alternative to buying in electricity. In the past most of these schemes operated in isolation but now with the change of legislation they can be embedded into the rest of the electricity network. Excess power generated can be sold to the local distribution company increasing profitability. Most of these types of plant use synchronous generators so that they can operate in isolation.

2.3.2 Mini-Hydro Schemes

The total installed hydro-electrical capacity in the world is currently close to 650 GW, meeting approximately 18.5% of global electricity demand. The World Council estimates that the world-wide growth of small-hydro capacity (general defined as less than 10 MW) between 1990-2020 will be 12%, rising to a predicted total capacity of 65 GW, with greatest investment in newly-industrialised or less-developed countries [22].

In the UK most potential large-scale hydro schemes have being exploited. In Scotland hydro-generated electricity accounts for 40% of electricity capacity. The development of small scale hydro generators has increased in the UK with the change of legislation and the obligation to renewable energy sources. Now, previously unviable schemes can be developed as an EG. Within the UK, the total small-scale accessible and practicable resource by 2005 is estimated to reach 3.9 TWh/yr (including existing sites) with 80% of the unexploited resources in Scotland [19].

2.3.3 Wind Power

Wind power is a form of EG that is being actively encouraged by most developed countries. These countries have committed to generate electricity through renewable means and using wind power is one viable alternative energy source. There are two schools of thought as to the best forms of wind energy:

Single generators which have a large diameter blade and a medium generating capacity. Because of their large size they are not considered as EG and in some cases

Embedded Generation

18

they form the main source of generating especially on Island communities. Most large wind generators were developed from research and usually exist in prototype form. Their experimental status makes them unreliable and there is usually difficulty in obtaining spare parts [19].

Wind farms, which are the most common type of wind generation, contain a number of small generators in one area. The size of each individual generator may be small but the aggregate capacity can be large. Wind farms are becoming increasingly more widespread and the technology is becoming standardised and reliable. The large number at any one site means that some turbines can be switched off for repairs without having any major effects. These farms are normally placed in remote rural areas and are connected into the local distribution network.

2.3.4

Others

There has been much research into ways of harnessing renewable energy from different natural sources. Much of the research was carried out in 1970s, during the oil crises but now with the commitments to enhance development of renewable energy sources funds for research have been increased. These include:

Geothermal energy Geothermal energy, in the broadest sense, is the natural heat of the earth. Temperatures in the earth rise with increasing depth. Geothermal energy may be relevant in those parts of the world where the heat of the earth’s core penetrates the cold crust and comes near to the surface [13].

Ocean energy There are two different types of ocean energy: wave power and tidal power. Wave power uses small machines that can tap the power of the waves by bobbing up and down. Tidal power is similar in all essential respects to hydroelectric power. The difference is that tidal-electric power is obtained from the oscillatory flow of water in the filling and emptying of partially enclosed coastal basins during the semidiurnal rise and fall of the ocean tides [16].

Photovoltaic energy This means converting the sun’s energy directly into electricity, using photovoltaic cells.

Solar thermal energy To use solar power in an industrial way it is necessary to concentrate sunlight falling over a wide area with a large number of reflectors. This heat is used to produce steam and to drive a turbine which generates electricity.

Embedded Generation

19

2.4 Advantages of Embedded Generators

The commercial advantages of small generating plant arise from the benefits of being ‘embedded’ in distribution networks and the costs which it can avoid [5]:

DG plant is not centrally-despatched by the NGC, can generate at will (self- dispatched) and is not liable for generation transmission charges;

DG plant contracted to a supplier can reduce the suppliers liability for electrical losses in the transmission- and distribution-system as well as some charges for the use of the distribution network;

DG can provide benefits to the network such as avoiding or deferring network reinforcement.

The DG’s are rarely, if ever, rewarded for most or all of these benefits. As more of these benefits are acknowledged and rewarded in the marketplace, DG will become more attractive to investors. DG has other advantages which all contribute to the growth in their development. For example [5]:

the operating regime of CHP plant is governed by the heat and/or steam demand on- site and so it can run as and when it is required;

construction timescales tend to be shorter than for transmission-connected generators;

both CHP and renewables are promoted as part of the Government’s energy and environmental programmes.

Embedded Generation

20

2.5 Legislation in the United Kingdom

The statutory requirements for the operation of a private generating plant connected to the electricity supply network are set out in the Electricity Supply Regulation from 1988. The Energy Act (1983) permits any private person or company to use the electricity utility’s transmission and distribution networks to transmit energy [19].

In the Electricity Supply Industry there are extensive statutory requirements covering the transmission and distribution of electricity. These requirements include statutory obligations with respect to frequency, voltage, fault level, fault detection and protection. Before permission to connect an EG is given by the REC there is an established procedure that a design and application has to go through [2]:

Notification: The REC has to be informed of a proposed project before advanced planning can proceed. An outline proposal has to be submitted to establish the feasibility of the project and to prepare costs.

Technical Submission: Once preliminary notification has been approved a more detailed submission has to be made. Technical details of the scheme will be included and the REC will carry out a design study.

Connection Quotation: When the details are agreed between REC and developer the REC makes a formal connection quotation. Planning permission and wayleaves must be obtained both for the connection to the grid and also the necessary buildings and structures.

Connection, Supply and Meter Operator Agreements: These are drawn up between the PES and the EG-operator and include all the detailed aspects of the interface including protection, earthing and metering requirements. They also include details of charges for imported real and reactive energy.

Embedded Generation

21

2.6 Types of Generators

Once the output power and speed of the prime mover are determined, a fundamental choice that developers must make is whether to install synchronous or induction generators. The major differences between these two include method of excitation, operating efficiency and power factor, fault contribution and harmonic generation [6].

2.6.1 The Synchronous Generator

Synchronous generators are the traditional form of EGs. They are widely used and make up the bulk of EGs. They are called synchronous generators because they generate electricity only at synchronous speed. In the case of a generator acting in isolation this speed is set by the governor. When a synchronous generator is brought on-line it is first brought up to speed and then carefully synchronised. This is done by comparing frequency, voltage and phase. After the connection the frequency of the grid controls the speed of the generator.

In the steady-state a synchronous generator with a constant terminal voltage may be represented by the simplified diagram and the phasor diagram shown in Figure 2-2, where M is the mechanical prime mover, E is the voltage induced in the stator due to the rotating

flux from the rotor, X S is the armature reaction, V is the voltage of the network, δ is the

load angle, φ is the phase angle and cosφ the power factor.

I

X S M E
X S
M
E

V

E IX S δ φ V I
E
IX
S
δ
φ
V
I

Figure 2-2: Small synchronous generator connected to the network and phasor diagram

It is common to find descriptions of how the governors of large generators may be set to maintain system frequency and the excitation system to control voltage. These considerations do not apply to a small generator connected to a utility distribution system. The generator has little control over its terminal voltage and none over the system frequency, which is fixed by the network. Therefore the governor is used to control the real power output of the unit and the excitation system determine the reactive power flow [10].

Embedded Generation

22

For the simple circuit of Figure 2-2 it may be shown that the generator output, per phase, of real and reactive power is given by:

P E V

=

X

S

sin δ

Q =

E

V

V

2

cos

δ−

X

S

X

S

Equ. 2-1

Equ. 2-2

Recalling that both V and X S are constant and that δ is likely to be less than 30°, these simple equations illustrate how:

The real power output (P) is controlled by the governor or the mechanical prime

mover which determines the applied torque and hence the power angle (δ).

The reactive power (Q) is controlled by the excitation system which varies the magnitude of the induced stator voltage (E).

A synchronous generator is excited by a dc-current applied by the field winding. In

statically excited machines this dc is derived from the generator output by rectifying the ac and applying it to the rotor via slip rings. Modern brushless excitation systems use a permanent magnet exciter to supply this power. The armature of the exciter and the rectifier bridge are located on the rotor so power is transferred without the need of slip rings. This assists voltage build up at start but means that the generator will continue to provide fault current even with a short-circuit close to its terminals.

Synchronous generators are attractive as they can operate in a number of modes and allow independent control of real and reactive power flow. However, they need to be carefully synchronised to the grid and brushless excitation leads to complex rotor constructions which makes them expensive, although the large number of synchronous machines which are used in packaged standby diesel generating sets leads to economies of scale in their production [10].

2.6.2 The Induction Generator

Induction generators are simpler than synchronous generators, only the stator is excited. They are, in principle, motors with torque applied to the rotor shaft. Induction generators

are becoming popular because of their simple construction, the fact that they do not need to

be synchronised to the grid and their ability to introduce damping into the drive train of the

generating set. They are commonly used in wind generators as they are able to absorb the fluctuating torque produced by the blades passing the tower. Small synchronous generators are not capable of providing adequate damping to control this torque. Small, high slip induction generators possess very good damping characteristics but it may be noted that, as

Embedded Generation

23

they increases in size, the transient response of induction generators to applied torque starts resemble that of synchronous machines [10].

The operation of an induction generator may be understood using the familiar induction motor equivalent circuit of Figure 2-3, where s is the slip, R 1 is the stator resistance (stator copper loss), X 1 is the stator reactance, X m is the magnetising reactance, R C is the magnetising resistance (iron loss), X 2 is the rotor reactance referred to the stator and R 2 is the rotor resistance referred to the stator (rotor copper loss).

’ R 1 R 2 ’ V R R (1-s)/s 1 C 2
R 1
R 2
V
R
R (1-s)/s
1
C
2

Figure 2-3: Equivalent circuit of an induction machine

The usual simple analysis of this circuit leads to the torque/speed characteristic shown in

Figure 2-4, where s is the slip, τ is the shaft torque, s M is the slip at τ max , -s M is the slip at

τ min , ω is the shaft speed and ω s is the synchronous shaft speed.

motoring generating τ τ max 1 s M 0 -s M -1 s 0 ω
motoring
generating
τ
τ max
1
s M
0 -s M
-1
s
0
ω S
ω
2ω S
no
load
normal
generation
τ min

Figure 2-4: Torque/speed curve of an induction machine

Operating as a generator the slip is negative and the peak torque is larger than when the same machine is motoring. Variations in prime mover torque are absorbed by an increase

Embedded Generation

24

in rotor slip. Induction machines require magnetising current to create a magnetic field, thus an induction generator can not operate without a connected electricity supply unless it is separately excited. The field in the stator rotates at the same frequency as the grid and does not vary with torque applied or time. To produce active power the rotor rotates at above synchronous speed. The percentage difference between the speed of the rotor and the synchronous speed of the magnetic field of the stator is called the slip. The slip varies with the torque supplied by the prime mover. Unlike the synchronous machine the reactive power requirement of an induction machine remains constant and the power factor will vary from 0 to 0.9 leading and cannot be set like synchronous generators. The generator’s power factor will progressively decrease as the output power is reduced and falls off rapidly at light load.

Switching in of induction generators is simpler than of synchronous generators. The generator may be brought up to speed as a motor with the reactive and real power being supplied by the grid. Then the active supply to the prime mover can be switched, the prime mover accelerates above synchronous speed and the generator then supplies real power to the grid.

2.6.3 Fault Contribution

The initial fault contribution from an induction generator is likely to be lower than that from a synchronous generator of equivalent capacity. An induction generator cannot make a sustained contribution to a ‘close-up’ short-circuit in the system. Provided that the short- circuit causes the voltage on the stator to collapse, the rotating magnetic field will disappear and the machine will stop generating. Therefore the fault current of an induction machine is generally not relied on for the operation of any protective relays. The sub- transient fault current of a synchronous generator will contribute to the fault current of the network and may lead to overstressing of switchgear. In both cases the initial fault contribution may be estimated from the sub-transient reactance of the machines, with induction generators having a higher reactance than synchronous.

2.6.4 Choice of Generator

The choice of the type of machines to use for an EG is always left to the developer. Induction machines are usually cheaper than synchronous machines, they are simpler and more robust in construction, there is no apparent need for a governor or voltage regulator and synchronising and protection equipment is simpler and less expensive [24]. For these reasons induction machines are usually chosen initially provided that they can be magnetised from the grid. Developers may forget the possibility that they may have to

Embedded Generation

25

purchase the reactive power to magnetise their machine from the REC and this will be expensive.

In some cases the choice will be determined by the nature of the prime mover. The generators of wind turbines experience strong periodic torque pulsations as the blades pass the tower as well as those brought about by changes in wind speed. Synchronous machines have only limited damping and careful design is necessary to control even the cyclic torque variation in a reciprocating engine. For this reason induction machines are normally used for wind power generation and synchronous machines are used where the delivery of mechanical power from the prime mover has a much lower torque variance. Examples of these are:

water turbines (mini-hydro schemes)

steam turbines (waste or landfill gas burning)

gas turbines (CHP schemes)

high speed diesel engines (CHP schemes)

It should be noted that induction generators could also be used with any of these prime movers. Ultimately the choice of machine for the EG will depend on the effect it has on the distribution network when it is connected and exporting real power [6].

2.7 Solid-State Power Convertors

High-power electronic devices are being used increasingly in various convertor configurations to interface EGs with the distribution network. The main advantage of these arrangements is that the speed of the generator is no longer directly linked to the network frequency.

The conventional circuit is that of Figure 2-5 which shows a current source, naturally commutated network side convertor. The generator side convertor may be a controlled or diode rectifier, but its operation has little effect on the distribution network.

prime rectifier X transformer mover M generator grid current source naturally commutated convertor
prime
rectifier
X
transformer
mover
M
generator
grid
current source
naturally commutated
convertor

Figure 2-5: Variable speed convertor (using thyristors)

This arrangement is well proven and uses thyristors as switching devices. However, the power factor of the network side convertor is proportional to the dc link voltage which, on

Embedded Generation

26

weak networks, must be kept low. Also, significant harmonics currents are injected into the network and so filtering is likely to be required [10].

A more recent development is the voltage source, forced commutated convertor, shown in

Figure 2-6. This uses either Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) or Gate-Turn-Off

thyristors (GTOs) as the switches.

prime rectifier transformer mover M C generator voltage source forced commutated convertor grid
prime
rectifier
transformer
mover
M
C
generator
voltage source
forced commutated
convertor
grid

Figure 2-6: Variable speed convertor (using IGBTs)

This convertor can run at any desired power factor and, using fast switching in a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) pattern, does not produce low-order harmonics. Although much more benign to the network, these convertors are at present rather expensive and rapid switching of the devices can lead to significant power losses [10].

2.8 Effects of Embedded Generators on Weak Rural Grids

Energy schemes with exploit renewable energy resources in particular have to be located

where the source of primary energy is available. This may be in a geographically or electrically remote area, therefore the EG is often installed in areas where the grid system

is weak. The presence of the EG can lead to real and reactive power flows in rather

direction depending on the powers produced and absorbed locally, and this must be predicted carefully for all local loads [5]. The design, selection and application of EG plant requires to be assessed carefully to ensure satisfactory operation under all conditions, including the ability of the distribution grid to successfully integrate the generators presence.

2.8.1 Load Flow and Losses

Passive distribution networks were originally designed to deliver electricity from the main transmission system to remote consumers, with real and reactive power generally flowing towards the edge of the system in the direction of the voltage gradient. Particularly with single source radial distribution feeders, transformers along the feeders are tapped up to compensate for the voltage drop along the line under maximum loading to ensure that consumers at the remote end receive supplies within the statutory voltage limits. Due to the

Embedded Generation

27

remote location of renewable energy resources, many EGs are now connected to the remote ends of distribution networks at, or below 33kV, operating in parallel with the existing grid system. Integrating EGs to operate in parallel with the existing grid system produces an active distribution network with bi-directional power flows (depending on loading conditions), resulting in a change in losses and variations in voltage. This is illustrated in Figure 2-7 by considering the effects of increasing generator output power in a feeder with a fixed local load.

33 kV

AVC 11 kV Power transmitted , Q P Line Line 400 V Embedded Generator P
AVC
11 kV
Power transmitted
, Q
P Line
Line
400 V
Embedded
Generator
P , Q
Local Load
P , Q
L
L
G
G

Figure 2-7: Typical EG connection

There are five cases to be considered [22]:

1. If the output of the EG is zero, the local load is supplied by the grid (P Line =

Q Line = Q L ).

P L and

2. If the active (or real) power P G [kW] and reactive (or imaginary) power Q G [kVAr] produced by the EG is less than that required by the local load P L and Q L , this reduces the real and reactive power P Line and Q Line transmitted from the grid towards the generator (P Line = P L - P G and Q Line = Q L - Q G ) and reduces losses on the distribution system and voltage drop along the line.

Embedded Generation

28

3. If the generator output increases until the kW and kVAr generated just meets that demanded by the local load or load distributed along the line, losses in the line are zero and the voltage profile is virtually flat.

4. Where the active and reactive power produced exceed that consumed locally, but is less than twice the local load demand, the excesses are exported along the line towards the bulk supply point, causing an increase in losses and local voltage rise, but these will be comparable in magnitude with those of the voltage drops where the grid supplies the local load.

5. If the active and reactive power produced is more than twice the local load demand, the increase in load flow and losses may exceed the thermal limits of the line and the local voltage may exceed the statutory maximum.

The 11 kV or 33 kV circuit breakers within the supply authority boundary may have current- or impedance-operated protection relays set to protect the system for unidirectional power flow. Their operation may become ineffective or spurious as a result in the re-direction and changes to current flow in the system.

The transmission of additional real or reactive power – in either direction increases feeder losses. A large synchronous generator operated overexcited exports reactive power that exaggerates voltage rise and increases system losses. The presence of a large induction generator which requires to be magnetised from the grid will add to the system losses as reactive power is supplied to magnetise it, but a fortunate consequence is that absorbing reactive power at the remote end reduces voltage rise. If a large quantity of reactive power is carried, then the maximum real power that can be transmitted within the thermal limit of the line is reduced.

Larger sites such as multi-machine wind farms or large-hydro power stations are usually thermally limited by the capacity of the rural system, and the costs of upgrading substations and/or re-conductoring sections of line are most frequently attributed to the scheme proposed. Even if there are no problems brought about by thermal limits the next most prevalent limit occurs due to increased voltage variations [22].

It is conventional practice for the network voltage to be controlled by Automatic Voltage Control (AVC), such as auto-tap changing transformers, (negative reactance) Line Drop Compensation schemes (LDC) and AVC relays. The AVC voltage reference is usually on the second winding of the supply transformer, as shown in Figure 2-7. When the EG is exporting, reverse power flow through the transformer causes erroneous operation of the voltage sensing relay and tap-changing mechanism. Protection settings for the supply authority under- and over-voltage relays that are appropriate for the condition where the generator is out of service may cause the relays to operate and trip the authority circuit breakers when the generator is in service and loaded (or vice-versa). Time variant energy

Embedded Generation

29

sources (wind farms, wave-devices) without storage produce power and voltage variations. This is a serious problem because it causes the AVC equipment operating continually rather than occasionally, leading to increased wear and maintenance [11].

2.8.2 Power Quality

Embedded generation will influence the power quality of distribution networks. The usual causes of concern are transient network voltage disturbance, referred to as ‘flicker’ because

of its effects on lighting, and harmonic distortion of the voltage waveform. Voltage flicker

may be caused either by the connection and disconnection of generators or by transient torque pulsations from the prime mover being translated into network voltage variations. Harmonic distortion of the network voltage is generally caused by the power electronic interfaces which are being used increasingly for the connection of EGs, although directly connected generators may also have an effect.

Standards are in place to control the connection of loads likely to degrade the power quality of the distribution network, and these are also applied to EGs. Voltage flicker and harmonic voltage distortion tend to be most significant in rural distribution systems which have a low fault level and hence high source impedance. Surprisingly, the connection of rotating EGs may act to improve the power quality of the network by increasing the fault level and so reducing transient voltage variations [11].

2.8.3 Fault Levels

Where the electricity supply system is heavily reinforced the prospective three phase

symmetrical short-circuit fault level of the grid is likely to exceed that contributed by the EG towards an intervening fault. In such circumstances it is the developers responsibility

to ensure that their new switchgear is adequately fault rated for the total prospective (and

future) grid fault current and the contribution from the generator.

A geographical effect of installing the EG at a remote point is that the system fault level

decreases with increasing series impedance and the REC switchgear at the remote end may have a fault capacity below that resulting once the EG was connected. Where the supply grid is older or weaker the increases fault level due to the EG plant may cause the total fault level at points out in the system to exceed the supply authority switchgear short- circuit rating. If the short-circuit fault level at any point in the system exceeds the fault rating of the switchgear this will require the installation of new switchgear whose costs may be included in the costs of connecting the new EG.

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30

It should be noted that while the REC may quote a fault level at the point of connection, they reserve the right to reinforce fully the network up to this point, and this future fault level may exceed existing values and must be taken into account.

Synchronous generators with permanent magnets or otherwise secure excitation supplies and low reactances contribute the highest short-circuit currents. Smaller EGs will have less impact on any limit imposed by system fault level or capacity, and will integrate more easily in remote areas. Installing the EG at a location closer to the primary substation will mean that the existing equipment is likely to have a higher fault capacity with a margin that would allow the connection of a larger EG. The likelihood of the EG exceeding the fault capacity is proportional to both EG capacity and distance from the primary substation [22].

2.8.4 Steady-State and Transient Stability

Steady-state and transient stability analysis is necessary to determine the ability of the embedded synchronous generator to remain synchronised following small disturbances in the grid system (e.g. gradual changes in load, excitation or prime mover input) and large disturbances (e.g. severe load changes, switching operations and electrical faults). During such disturbances there is a dynamic mismatch between mechanical power input to the generator and that absorbed to produce the electrical power accepted by the grid connection. This results in acceleration, dynamic change in shaft speed and rotor angle and possible loss of synchronism. The generator behaviour and overall stability depends on

the fault type;

the electrical distance from disturbance;

the stored kinetic energy in the shaft system (directly rated to combined shaft inertia of the shaft system) and eventually on

the response of the governor or AVR.

Distribution codes, Engineering Recommendations and Guidelines define the design, operational and protection requirements applied to EG schemes [22].

2.8.5 Voltage Variations

Many generators may be owned by organisations without any direct interest in power quality and its main control will therefore be through the connection agreement. One of the main concerns about the effect EG has on power quality in general is the steady-state voltage variation, which will be considered in Chapter 3 and 4. The EG capacity is normally limited by the maximum over-voltage created at any point in the REC distribution network, which is usually at the most remote point closest to the EG. Following rationalisation in 1995, the statutory voltage variation for LV-distribution

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31

networks in the UK became +10/-6% of nominal 400/230 V. The variation at MV is only

around ± 6% but the problems with voltage violation are most frequent and obvious at LV. These limits are in place to protect consumers and network equipment.

A remote EG that produces real (P) and reactive (Q) power (over-excited synchronous generator) causes a greater local voltage rise than it would at unity power factor (Q = 0). An EG that absorbs reactive power (under-excited synchronous generator or induction generator) will reduce local voltage rise.

The REC may accommodate the over-voltage at LV by tapping down the local transformer but this is unusual since when the EG trips or is shut down the voltage at the remote end of the line may fall back below the statutory minimum. Where there is AVC equipment within distribution substations, such as auto-tap changing transformers, the reverse load flow and voltage violations can cause over-frequent operation. This is particularly serious where renewable energy power production can vary widely and frequently.

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2.9 Protection Considerations

The addition of rotating EG plant will raise the network fault level and change the X/R- ratio of the system as seen from the point of fault. In areas where the distribution system fault level is already high, careful calculations will be required to ensure that the fault ratings of existing switchgear and other equipment are not exceeded. If equipment ratings are exceeded then additional impedance, in the form of transformers or reactors, may be inserted in the connection to the generator, although this will increase voltage drops and may influence adversely transient stability [11].

2.9.1 Generator Protection

Current-operated relays are required to protect comprehensively the EG (depending on the capacity of the plant) including: Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) over-current, instantaneous high-set over-current, voltage-restrained over-current, instantaneous- or time-graded earth fault, differential protection and reverse power. Other generator protection such as over-speed and vibration detectors must be installed to protect the plant against mechanical failure together with devices that will detect winding, bearing, or coolant over-temperatures [22].

2.9.2 Loss of Main Protection

Distribution networks are normally designed to supply passive loads. To enhance supply reliability, it is common practice in the UK to provide auto-reclose circuit breakers. Should a fault occur, the protection will open the breaker for a limited period, then close it again. If the fault does not persist, supply will be restored. Otherwise the breaker will open again. There may be several reclosure operations before the protection deems the fault to be persistent.

The presence of EG in the utility network poses a problem for the auto-reclosure operation. There is the probability of an out-of-phase reclosure, onto what may now be an active network. To avoid this, the UK regulations for EG require the machine to be fitted with Loss Of Main (LOM) protection. The aim is to ensure that, should the generator and its load become isolated from the network as a result of fault clearance on the supply line, the ensuing auto-reclosure operation will not result in an out-of-phase reclosure. The generator should be disconnected to clear the way for safe auto-reclosure. It may then reconnected in the usual way.

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In practice an EG is seldom – if ever – likely to develop exactly the active power demanded by the local load, and there will always be a net import (or export) of active power from (or to) the grid. On remote disconnection of the grid and loss of the synchronous reference supply, there is then a shortfall (or excess) of active power that causes shaft speed and frequency to decrease (or increase) before the governor acts, if possible, to maintain speed [27]. The standard technique for detection of LOM is to measure the Rate-Of-Change Of Frequency (df/dt) called ROCOF, that results from the load change of the loss of the grid connection. The basis of the method is that the island supplied by the EG is unlikely to have a generation/demand balance. The rate setting is typically 0.125 Hz/sec to minimise the risk of nuisance tripping caused by minor system frequency variations [12].

2.9.3 G59/1 Protection

The nature and extent of protection specified by Engineering Recommendation G59/1 is intended to protect the PES system and its connected consumers from the effect of the EG, including: preventing connection of the EG to an unhealthy or faulted rural grid; preventing EG from displacing voltage or frequency out with statutory limits and preventing the EG from continuing to back-feed part of the grid in the event that a remote fault had tripped the main grid supply. The minimum requirements of G59/1 include over-

and under-voltage relays set to operate within the absolute limits on voltage of ± 10% of nominal 230 V (253-207 V), and over- and under-frequency relays to operate within +1/-6% of nominal 50 Hz (50.5-47 Hz). While the recommended total tripping time is 0.5 seconds, increasing times may be agreed with the REC. Neutral voltage displacement protection can be used to provide back-up to phase voltage failure and assist over-current protection that might not be sensitive to an over-current or earth fault remote in the distribution system. The above protection relays and LOM protection are voltage and frequency operated [22].

Power Flow and Absorbence

34

3 Power Flow and Absorbence

3.1 The Per-Unit System

In the analysis of power networks instead of using actual values or quantities it is usual to express them as fractions of reference quantities, such as rated or full-load values. These fractions are called per-unit (denoted by p.u.) and the p.u. value of any quantity is defined as shown below.

the actual value [p.u.] =

the actual value [in any unit]

the base or reference [in the same unit]

Some authorities express the p.u. value as percentage. Although the use of p.u. values may at first sight seem a rather indirect method of expression, there are in fact great advantages; they are as follows [28]:

The apparatus considered may vary widely in size; losses and volt drops will also vary considerably. For apparatus of the same general type the p.u. volt drops and losses are in the same order regardless of size.

By the choice of appropriate voltage bases the solution of networks containing several transformers is facilitated. Since 1.0 per-unit is the same at any level – transformers may be represented by a single leakage reactance and no voltage ratio.

Per-unit values lend themselves more readily to automatic computation.

lend themselves more readily to automatic computation. • The use of 3 ’s in the three

The use of 3 ’s in the three phase calculation is reduced.

For instance to a base of one minute, one second is 1/60 per-unit. To a base of one kilowatt a 60 W light bulb is rated 0.06 p.u., and a 100 W bulb 0.1 p.u

All of per-unit analysis rests on the correct and consistent choice of a common base, and accurate conversion of circuit parameters into and out of that base. A minimum of four base quantities is required to completely define a per-unit system, these are: voltage, current, power and impedance. If two of them are set arbitrarily, then the other two are automatically fixed. For circuit analysis a base apparent power [VA] is chosen, and 1.0 p.u. voltage is prescribed throughout the circuit, so the base currents and base impedances are fully defined and a per-unit computation may be carried out [23].

Power Flow and Absorbence

35

Base apparent power [VA]

Base impedance []

Per-unit impedance [p.u.]

Per-unit current [p.u.]

Per-unit voltage [p.u.]

3.2 Reactive Power

S

b

= Base current [A]× Base voltage[V] = I .V

b

b

Equ. 3-1

Z

base

Z p.u.

=

=

Base voltage [V]

=

Base current [A]

V

I

b Equ. 3-2

b

Actual impedance [

]

Base impedance [

]

Equ. 3-3

I p.u. =

Actual current [A]

Base current [A]

Equ. 3-4

V

p.u.

=

Actual voltage [ V

]

Base voltage [ V

]

Equ. 3-5

The source of the simple circuit shown in Figure 3-1 is supplying active energy to the load in one direction only. At the same time an interchange of reactive energy is taking place

between the source and the load of average value zero, but of peak value V.Isinφ. This latter quantity is known as the reactive power Q and the unit is Volt-Ampere reactive [VAr]. The interchange of energy between the source and the inductive and capacitive elements of the load (i.e. the magnetic and electric fields) takes place at twice the supply frequency. It is possible to think, therefore, of a power component P [Watt] of magnitude

V.Icosφ and a reactive-power component Q [VAr] equal to V.Isinφ, where φ is the phase angle, i.e. the angle between I and V. It should be stressed, however, that the two quantities P and Q are physically quite different.

V

I

two quantities P and Q are physically quite different. V I Z=R+j ω L V φ
two quantities P and Q are physically quite different. V I Z=R+j ω L V φ
two quantities P and Q are physically quite different. V I Z=R+j ω L V φ
two quantities P and Q are physically quite different. V I Z=R+j ω L V φ

Z=R+jωL

V φ I φ v φ i
V
φ
I
φ v φ i

Figure 3-1: Voltage source and load; phasor diagram

The quantity S [VA], known as the complex power, may be found by multiplying V by the complex conjugate of I or vice versa. The case when I lags V should be considered, and S=V*.I assumed.

Power Flow and Absorbence

36

Referring to Figure 3-1,

S

S = P jQ

V * I

=

⋅= ⋅

V

e

−φ j

V

×

I

e

j

φ

i

=

V

I

e

(φ j −φ)

V

i

=

V

I

e

−φ j

Equ. 3-6

Next assume

S

S = P + jQ

=

V

I*

=

V

e

j

φ

V

×

I

e

−φ j

i

=

V

I

e

j

(

φ −φ

V

i

)

=

V

I

e

j φ

Equ. 3-7

Obviously both methods above give the correct magnitudes for P and Q but the sign of Q is different. The method used is arbitrarily decided and the convention to be adopted in this thesis is as follows:

The volt-ampere reactive absorbed by an inductive load shall be considered positive, and by a capacitive load negative; hence S=V.I*. This convention is also recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission.

In a network the net energy is the sum of the various inductive and capacitive stored energies present. The net value of reactive power is the sum of the VArs absorbed by the various components present, taking due account of the sign. Lagging VArs can be considered as either being produced or absorbed in a circuit; a capacitive load can be though of as generating lagging VArs. Assuming that an inductive load is represented by R+jX and that the V.I* convention is used then an inductive load absorbs positive or lagging VArs and a capacitive load produces lagging VArs [28].

The magnitude of S,

+ Q , is the apparent power. The apparent power gives a

2 2 S = P
2
2
S =
P

direct indication of heating and is used as a rating unit of power equipment.

V φ I φ i φ v
V
φ
I
φ
i
φ
v
S φ
S
φ

P

Q

Figure 3-2: Phasor diagram and power triangle for an inductive load (lagging pf)

Power Flow and Absorbence

37

I V φ φ φ v i
I
V
φ
φ
φ
v
i

P

φ S
φ
S

Q

Figure 3-3: Phasor diagram and power triangle for a capacitive load (leading pf)

The reactive power Q is positive when the phase angle φ (φ = φ v - φ i ) between voltage and current is positive (i.e., when the load impedance is inductive, and I lags V) as shown in

Figure 3-2. Q is negative when φ is negative (i.e., when load impedance is capacitive and I leads V) as shown in Figure 3-3 [17].

3.3 The Four-Terminal Network

A three-phase transmission line can be represented by a circuit consisting of two terminals

where power enters the circuit and two terminals where power leaves the circuit. The circuit is said to be passive, linear and bilateral. It is passive because it contains no sources of electric energy, linear because the impedances of its elements are independent of the

amount of current passing through them, and bilateral because the impedances are

independent of the direction of the current. The most general network consisting of a pair

of input terminals and a pair of output terminals has an impedance connected between each

combination of two of its four terminals and is called a four-terminal network. Any linear,

passive, and bilateral four-terminal network can be represented by either a T- or Π-circuit which is equivalent to it in so far as measurements at the input or output terminals are

concerned. Such a T- or Π-circuit actually is a three-terminal network since one terminal is common to both the sending- and receiving-ends.

To find the relationships between sending- and receiving- end quantities of a four-terminal network, the voltage and current at the sending end of the unsymmetrical T-circuit of Figure 3-4 in terms of the voltage and current at the receiving end must be determined, since an unsymmetrical T is equivalent to the general four-terminal network for measurements made at the ends of the network with the assumption that the network is passive, linear and bilateral.

Power Flow and Absorbence

38

I S I R Z 1 Z 2 V S Y V R Figure 3-4:
I S
I R
Z 1
Z 2
V S
Y
V R
Figure 3-4: Unsymmetrical T-circuit equivalent to a four terminal network

The current at the sending end is

I

S

= I

R

+ Y

(

V

R

+ I

R

Z

2

The voltage at the sending end is

V S

V

S

= V +

R

I

R

Z

2

+ I

S

Z

1

=

(

1 + Y Z

1

)(

V

R

+

Z

1

)

= Y V

R

(

+ 1 + Y Z

2

)

I

R

= V

R

+ Z

2

+ I

R

Z + Z Y V +

2

1

R

+ Y Z

1

Z

2

)

I

R

I

R

Z

1

+ I

R

Equ. 3-8

Y Z

1

Z

2

Equ. 3-9

The above equations are simplified in form by letting

A = 1+ Y Z

C = Y

1

Then Equation 3-9 becomes

V

S

= A V

R

+ B I

R

and Equation 3-8 becomes

I

S

= C V

R

+ D I

R

B

D

=

Z

1

+ Z

2

= 1 + Y Z

+ Y Z

2

1

Z

2

The matrix-form of these equations is

V ⎤ ⎡ A

C

S

I

S

=

B ⎤ ⎡ V

D

R

⎦ ⎣

I

R

Equ. 3-10

Equ. 3-11

Equ. 3-12

Equ. 3-13

Since the unsymmetrical T-circuit is valid for measuring the end conditions of any passive, linear, and bilateral four-terminal network Equation 3-13 is valid for any such network. The constants A, B, C and D are called the generalized circuit constants or the ABCD- constants of the network, and they can be evaluated for any such four-terminal network.

Power Flow and Absorbence

39

Solving the Equation 3-13 for V R and I R and using the known relationship AD - BC = 1 [18], we obtain

V ⎤ ⎡ D

R

I

R

=

C

B ⎤ ⎡ V

A

S

⎦ ⎣

I

S

Equ. 3-14

Usually the ABCD-constants are complex. An interpretation of each constant is found by examination of Equations 3-11 and 3-12.

By letting I R equal zero in Equation 3-11, it is seen that the constant A is the ratio of sending-end voltage to receiving-end voltage when the receiving end is open-circuited. The constant A is dimensionless since it is a ratio of two voltages. Unless the voltages are in phase, A is complex and its angle is the phase between the voltages.

If V R is equal zero in Equation 3-11, it is found that B is the ratio of voltage at the sending end to current at the receiving end with the receiving end short-circuited. Since it is a ratio

of voltage to current, the constant B has the dimension of impedance and is specified in

ohms.

Similarly, by letting I R equal zero in Equation 3-12, it is seen that the constant C is the ratio

of current at the sending end to voltage at the receiving end with the receiving end open-

circuited. Since it is a ratio of current to voltage, the constant C has the dimension of admittance and is specified in siemens.

If V R is equal zero in Equation 3-12, it is found that D is the ratio of sending-end current to receiving-end current with the receiving end short-circuited. The constant D is dimensionless since it is a ratio of two currents.

I

I

S

S
S   R
S   R
 
R
R

V

S

V S A B C D V R

A

B

C

D

V S A B C D V R

V

R

     

Figure 3-5: Symbolic diagram representing a four-terminal network

A general four-terminal network is often indicated by a diagram similar to Figure 3-5,

where a rectangle encloses the two pairs of terminals and letters symbolizing the

generalized circuit constants are placed inside the rectangle [18].

Power Flow and Absorbence

40

3.4 The Short-Transmission Line

The classification of power transmission lines according to length depends upon what approximations are justified in treating the parameters of the line. Resistance, inductance, and capacitance are uniformly distributed along the line, and exact calculations of long lines must recognize this fact. For short lines, the total capacitive susceptance is negligible and may be omitted.

The parameters ABCD of a four-terminal network for a short-transmission line, as seen in Figure 3-6, become

A

C

B

D

=

Z

1

= ∠θ

Z

0

1

Equ. 3-15

3.4.1 Power Transfer of a Short-Transmission Line

The circuit shown in Figure 3-6 is very important as it represents the simplest electrical model for a synchronous generator (V S ) feeding into a power system represented by a voltage source (V R ). For this network the sign of power entering a boundary is assumed positive and leaving a boundary negative.

is assumed positive and leaving a boundary negative. S S I ∠-φ Z ∠θ ∠δ V

S S

I ∠-φ Z ∠θ ∠δ V S ∠δ V R S S R R
I ∠-φ
Z ∠θ
∠δ
V S
∠δ
V R
S
S
R
R

Figure 3-6: Power transfer of a short-transmission line

The determination of the voltages and currents in a network can obviously be achieved by means of complex notation, but in power systems usually active power (P) and reactive power (Q) are specified.

For the assumed direction of current

V

I = ⎜

S

Z

V

R

⎞ ⎟

= ⎛ ⎜ V e

S

j

δ

S

Ze

V

j

θ

R

e

j

δ

R

⎟ =

V

S

Z

e

j(

δ−θ

S

)

V

R

Z

e

j (δ −θ)

R

Equ. 3-16

Power Flow and Absorbence

41

The complex power S S at the sending end is given by

S

S

S S

=−

V I

S

=

V

S

V

R

=

e

j(

V

S

⎛ ⎜ V

R

δ−δ +θ

S

R

)

Z

V

S

V

2

S

e

j

θ

Z Z

=

V e

S

j

δ

S

V

R

e

−δ j

R

V e

S

−δ j

S

Ze

−θ j

Equ. 3-17

Thus, the real and reactive power at the sending end are

P

S

Q

S

=

Re

(

S

S

)

=

(

= =

S

Im S

)

V

S

V

R

Z

cos −δ +θ)

(δ

S

R

V

S

V

R

Z

sin −δ +θ)

(δ

S

R

V

S

2

Z

V

S

2

Z

cos

sin

(θ)

(θ)

Equ. 3-18

Equ. 3-19

On the receiving end the complex power S R is given by

S V

R

=

R

S

R

=

V R

I

=

V

S

e

V

R

V

j(

δ −δ+θ

R

S

)

S

Z

V

R

V

R

2

Z Z

e

j

θ

=

V

R

e

j

δ

R

V e

j

−δ

S

V

R

e

j

−δ

R

S