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Termodinâmica – Conservação de Massa e Energia

Termodinâmica
ROBSON PACHECO

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Termodinâmica – Conservação de Massa e Energia

Sejam bem-vindos ao módulo Conservação de Massa e Energia do curso


Termodinâmica!

Ao final desta videoaula, você deverá ser capaz de:


• compreender o conceito de entropia;
• enunciar a 2ª Lei da Termodinâmica;
• compreender as relações entre calor, eficiência e conversão de energia.

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Termodinâmica – Conservação de Massa e Energia

CONSERVAÇÃO DE MASSA E ENERGIA

ENTROPIA E A 2ª LEI DA TERMODINÂMICA

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Termodinâmica – Conservação de Massa e Energia

Conservação de Massa e Energia


Entropia e a 2ª Lei da Termodinâmica

Formulações da 2ª Lei da Termodinâmica

• “Não é possível criar um processo que converta completamente calor em trabalho.”


• “Em um processo espontâneo, a entropia do universo aumenta.”
• “Em qualquer processo cíclico, a entropia aumenta ou permanece igual.”
• “Não é possível transferir calor de um corpo mais frio para um mais quente sem realização
de trabalho.”

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Termodinâmica – Conservação de Massa e Energia

Conservação de Massa e Energia


Entropia e a 2ª Lei da Termodinâmica

Entropia (S)

Entropia

Graus de
Desordem
liberdade

Arranjos estruturalmente distintos Translação


Rotação
Vibração

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Termodinâmica – Conservação de Massa e Energia

Conservação de Massa e Energia


Entropia e a 2ª Lei da Termodinâmica
Menor S Maior S
Em nível atômico

∆S > 0

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Termodinâmica – Conservação de Massa e Energia

Conservação de Massa e Energia


Entropia e a 2ª Lei da Termodinâmica

Formulação termodinâmica

dqrev
dS =
T
dqrev calor trocado em um processo reversível

2 dqrev
∆S = ∫ dS ∫
1 T
= S 2 − S1

A entropia ( S ) é uma função de estado TD.

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Termodinâmica – Conservação de Massa e Energia

Conservação de Massa e Energia


Entropia e a 2ª Lei da Termodinâmica

Exemplo Calcular a variação de entropia de um gás ideal em uma expansão isotérmica entre os
volumes V1 e V2 .

2 dqrev 1 2
=
∆S ∫1
=
T T ∫1
dqrev

Considerando o sistema isolado, tem-se:

∆U = q + w = 0

q = −w

p 1 , V1 , T p 2 , V2 , T

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Termodinâmica – Conservação de Massa e Energia

Conservação de Massa e Energia


Entropia e a 2ª Lei da Termodinâmica

Continuando:
V2
Para um GI: w(1 → 2) = − nRT ln
V1

V2
q = nRT ln
V1
1 V
∆S = nRT ln 2
T V1
V2
∆S =nR ln
V1

p 1 , V1 , T p 2 , V2 , T
V2
> 1 → ∆S > 0
V1

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Termodinâmica – Conservação de Massa e Energia

CONSERVAÇÃO DE MASSA E ENERGIA

EXERCÍCIO RESOLVIDO

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Termodinâmica – Conservação de Massa e Energia

Conservação de Massa e Energia


Exercício resolvido

Exemplo Calcular a variação de entropia durante o aquecimento de um mol de um gás,


entre 0 e 100 °C sob 1 bar, sabendo que sua capacidade calorífica é dada por:

Cp (T) = 20,17 + 0,3665 T [J ⋅ K−1 ⋅ mol−1 ]

O volume nos estados inicial e final são (GI):


nR nR
V1 = T1 V2 T2
p p

E a entropia é dada por:


2 dqrev 2 C p dT
=
∆S ∫1
=
T ∫
1 T

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Termodinâmica – Conservação de Massa e Energia

Conservação de Massa e Energia


Exercício resolvido

Substituindo a capacidade calorífica:

(20,17 + 0,3665 T )dT


2
∆S =∫ 1 T
T
=∆S 20,17 ln 2 + 0,3665(T2 − T1 )
T1
373 K
=∆S 20,17 ln + 0,3665(373 K − 273 K)
273 K
∆S =372,8 J K −1

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Termodinâmica – Conservação de Massa e Energia

Hoje, ficamos por aqui.

Nesta videoaula, foram apresentados os seguintes tópicos:

• conceito de entropia;
• 2ª Lei da Termodinâmica;
• relações entre calor, eficiência e conversão de energia.

Até a próxima!

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