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60 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIO-MEDICAL ELECTRONICS April

objective of this record is to demonstrate adequate per- ACKNOWLEDGMENT


formanceof the electronic system, phased-in as described The suitability of the Sanborn Model 302 recorder for
above and of the flow transducer (using platinized elec- blood-flow measurements was called to the attention of
trodes). The performance test consists of comparison be-
tween the base line as obtained by switching off the magnet R. Wisshaupt of this laboratory in the course of a
[labeled E in Fig. 2(c)] and the zero-flow reference line survey of suitable instruments. The author wishes to thank
(labeled 0) obtained by occlusion of the artery. Occlusion Dr. A. Kolin for his helpful encouragement and support
was accomplished by finger pressure applied externally to as well as for critical suggestions, Dr. S. Chopra and S.
the animal's neck. At O, the finger pressure was released. F Asztalos for flow transducer implantations and P. Cox
marks a missed heart beat. for assistance in construction of mechanical components.

Single-Coil Coreless Electromagnetic


Blood-Flow Meters*
A. KOLIN AND R. WISSHAUPTt

INTRODUCTION and pickup electrodes potted in plastic material.-'3 Fig.


N A PREVIOUS publication,1 two designs of minia- 1 (a) shows
the pole pieces P1, P2 of an iron core ac elec-
tromagnet energized by coils C1, C2 with a plastic sleeve
turized implantable electromagnetic blood-flow meters
have been described. One type, the coreless probe, SL between the poles. A slitlike opening in the sleeve
permits the insertion of an artery into its lumen. The slit
was suitable for large blood vessels of diameters exceed-
is then closed by the shutter S which slides in parallel to
ing about 4 mm and a second type, using iron cores, for axis.4 The EMF induced in the blood as it
the artery
blood vessels of diameters below the above value. The moves at right angles to the magnetic field gives rise to
complexity of the design made both types of probe rather currents through the artery wall. 'The potential difference
costly and difficult to make reproducibly in a laboratory thus produced across an artery diameter perpendicular to
shop. Due to the need for keeping on hand large numbers the magnetic field is picked up by the electrodes El, E2
of flow transducers of different sizes, it appeared neces- and measured by a suitable electronic system. This probe
sary to simplify the flow probe design to increase repro-
design has the advantage of yielding very strong magnetic
ducibility and substantially decrease the manufacturing fields with an externally closed magnetic circuit (not
time and cost. This paper describes a simplified coreless shown in the figure). Its disadvantage is due to the large
probe design of improved performance, which can be bulk of the copper, iron and plastic material as compared
used down to artery diameters of 2.5 mm and which re- to the artery volume enclosed in the sleeve. Its main use-
duces the manufacturing time and cost to less than 50 fulness is with small arteries from which large flow sig-
per cent of the figure for previous designs.
nals are difficult to obtain. The magnetic field distribution
in this type of flow meter is not perfectly uniform [see
Evolution of Implantable Flow Transducers Fig. 2(a)].The strict proportionality of the electrical
flow signal to the volume rate of flow for any cylindri-
The transducer described below is a considerable de-
cally symmetrical flow pattern independent of the veloc-
parture from previously described forms of flow trans- been demonstrated by calculations of
ity profile has
ducers. Fig. 1 shows several schemes which have been
used to obtain flow signals from unopened blood vessels
in conscious animals by implanting a miniature magnet
2 A. Kolin and R. T. Kado, "Miniaturization of the electro-
magnetic blood flow meter," Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci., vol. 45, pp. 1312;
* Received April 8, 1963. The work reported here was supported 1959.
by the U.S. Public Health Service under Grant No. H3092. '0. Glasser, "Determination of blood flow by electromagnetic
t Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, University method," Medical Phys., vol. 3, p. 141; 1960.
of California, Los Angeles, Calif. 'A. Kolin, N. S. Assali, G. Herrold and R. Jensen, "Electro-
1A. Kolin, "Electromagnetic blood flow meters," Science, vol. magnetic determination of regional blood flow in unanesthetized
130, p. 1088; 1959. animals," Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci., vol. 43, p. 527; 1957.

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1963 Kolin and Wisshaupt: Electromagnetic Blood-Flow Meters 61

W. E. Lamb5 to hold for a perfectly homogeneous magnetic to facilitate the process of separating and reuniting the
field. An homogeneous magnetic field would thus appear two sleeve portions, but it is not indispensable. The essen-
to be preferable to the nonhomogeneous one shown for tial feature of this design is not the mode of introducing
the iron core magnet in Fig 2(a). A magnetic field of the artery but the use of an inhomogeneous magnetic
great uniformity can be obtained with a Helmholtz coil field produced by two bent coils resulting in a very com-
pair consisting of two coils placed one mean coil radius pact design for implantation. Fig. 2(c) represents the
apart (as measured between the coil midplanes) as shown magnetic field distribution for this type of probe.
in Figs. 1(b) and 2(b). A flow meter of this type can be
used with confidence as a standard for evaluation of other The Single-Bent-Coil Flow Transducer
types of flow meters utilizing nonhomogeneous magnetic The flow probe design presented in this paper reduces
fields. If a flow meter using an imperfectly homogeneous complexity of construction of the flow transducer by re-
magnetic field performs over a wide testing range in good placement of 2 smaller coils by one larger one and by
accordance with the readings of a Helmholtz coil flow some modifications in materials and grounding and shield-
meter, it can be considered as demonstrated that the in- ing procedures which not only simplifies the manufacture
homogeneity of the field does not impair the flow meter's of the flow probes but also results in higher reliability of
performance. This criterion has been used in evaluating performance. The large shutter opening afforded by this
our most recent types of nonhomogeneous field flow trans- design is one of its main points of advantage. It makes
ducers over a range exceeding by a factor of 2.5 the peak the probe as convenient in use as a hinge type unit. One
value of blood flows encountered in practice. single coil bent over the cylindrical sleeve is used to gen-
For use as an implantable blood-flow meter, the Helm- erate the magnetic field [Figs. l(e) and 1(f)]. The
holtz coil design has several disadvantages which make it length of the coil is such that its axis-parallel edges sub-
less suitable than other designs. The coils are much bigger tend an angle of about 1200 at the sleeve center. This
than the artery diameter so that a large amount of space permits a slit opening of more than the radius of the
is wasted resulting in bulky implants. An undesirably artery, which is more than adequate for easy insertion
small amount of space is available between an electrode and removal of the blood vessel. If necessary, the angle
and a coil for the slot through which the artery is inserted. of aperture can be made considerably larger.
Implantable probes of this type have been tried and The magnetic field component (By) perpendicular to
abandoned during the period 1958-19596 after recogniz- the electrode axis (X) and to the flow direction is plotted
ing that a perfect uniformity of the magnetic field was in the plane normal to the flow axis in Fig. 2(d). By was
not as essential for adequate performance of a blood- recorded by moving a search coil along two axes: the
flow meter as was previously assumed. It was established electrode axis (X) and the axis perpendicular to it (Y)
empirically that a magnetic field distribution capable of in the above plane. This field intensity distribution is of the
yielding an adequately linear induced flow signal over a same order of nonuniformity as those found with other
wide range of flows covering the laminar as well as the designs [compare Figs. 2(a) and 2(c)]. It is somewhat
turbulent flow regimes can be obtained with a flow trans- asymmetrical by showing a stronger field near the wall
ducer utilizing two coils bent over a cylindrical surface opposite the shutter S. But this asymmetry does not result
as shown in Figs. 1(c) and 1(d). -3 The artery can be in any detectable deviations in performance of this flow
admitted into the probe either through a slit closed by a probe design from the performance of a Helmholtz-type
shutter S [Fig. 1(c)] or by sectioning the sleeve by a cut standard reference probe.
parallel to the sleeve axis so that one part of the probe A flow meter probe (3-mm diameter of inside lumen)
contains one coil and both electrodes and the second part of the type shown in Figs. 1(e) and 1(f) was connected
the other coil [Fig. l(d)].7 A hinge H may be provided hydraulically in series with a Helmholtz coil probe [Fig.
1 (b) ] of equal pipe diameter serving as a reference
standard of optimal field design. The intensities of the
5A. Kolin, "An alternating field induction flow meter of high magnetic fields of the two probes and the amplifications
sensitivity," Rev. Sci. Instr., vol. 16, p. 109; 1945. of the electronic channels connected to them were ad-
8While this paper was in preparation, an article describing a justed so as to yield identical output signals for the maxi-
flow meter design utilizing Helmholtz coils appeared; H. M.
Yanoff, A. L. Rosen and W. C. Shoemaker, "Design of an im- mum flow obtainable with the hydraulic system. The
plantable flow meter transducer, based on the Helmholtz coil," maximum flow values used were between 500 and 600
J. Appl. Phys., vol. 18, p. 227; 1963.
7 The mode of insertion of the artery into an air core transducer cc/minute. The fluids used were human blood (195 ohm-cm
shown in Fig. l(c) was used in this laboratory originally with resistivity at room temperature of 200C) and an NaCl
Helmholtz coil units. E. M. Khouri and D. E. Gregg of the Walter
Reed Hospital, Washington, D.C. used the shutter with bent coils solution adjusted to 195 ohm-cm resistivity. Two sets of
prior to the present authors (see E. M. Khouri and D. E. Gregg, tests were performed: 1) with the fluid in direct contact
"Miniature electromagnetic flow meter applicable to coronary arter-
ies," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 18, p. 224; 1963) following the description with the electrodes of the single-bent-coil unit and 2) with
of the bent coil system.2 The authors' preferred design differed from a dog's carotid artery separating the electrodes of above
E. M. Khouri's in that the electrode axis was rotated away from the
axis of symmetry so as to allow more room for the shutter. flow probe from the streaming fluid. Fig. 3 shows the

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62 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIO-MEDICAL ELECTRONICS A pril

WI\X WI

SL" C02
(d) Dual-bent-coil flow probe (hinge type). M1, M2: magnetic coil
lead wires; H: hinge; g: ground point; GW: lead for grounding
animal; GL: lead connected to instrument ground.
(a) Iron core probe. Only the pole pieces P1 and P2 are shown.
The magnetic path joining P1 and P2 is omitted. C1, C2: magnet
coils; E1, E2: electrodes; W1, W2; electrode lead wires; S1:
sleeve; S: shutter.

E2

C1 C2
W12 ~ SL \
.-- 20'
Wi _
WI
El
W2 (e) Single-bent-coil flow probe. C: coil generating the magnetic field.

Gr
R
(b) Helmholtz coil flow probe.

wl.j
w2

(f) Single-coil flow probe (in perspective). C: coil generating the


magnetic field; Gr: groove for electrode lead wire; Eg: internal
ground electrode; Eg*: alternative external grounding electrode;
(c) Dual-bent-coil flow probe (shutter type) . G: ground lead.

Fig. 1-Different flow probe configuirations. The same letter symbols are used in (a)-(f). The flow axis is perpendicular to the page.

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1963 Kolin and Wisshaupt: Electromagnetic Blood-Flow Meters 63
y

cx

(c) Magnetic field distribution (B.) for a dual-bent-coil


flow transducer.
(a) Magnetic field distribution (B.) for an iron core flow transducer.

(b) Magnetic field distribution (B.) for a Helmholtz coil flow (d) Magnetic field distribution (By) for a single-bent-coil
transducer. flow transducer.
Fig. 2-Magnetic field distributions (curves Cx and Cy) for different types of flow probes. Cx: field distribution of B. obtained by mov-
ing search coil along x axis; Cy: field distribution of B. obtained by moving search coiI along y axis. In (d), B, is plotted. (B. and B,:
mutually perpendicular components of the magnetic field).

Fig.of3 (left)-Readout of a single-bent-coil flow meter as a function


flow as measured with a Helmholtz coil flow transducer; 0:
points obtained without artery using blood; X: points obtained
K- X with artery using blood; A: points obtained without artery
'o S using saline.

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64 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIO-MEDICAL ELECTRONICS April
readout of the single-coil flow meter as a function of the inside diameter of the sleeve is equal to the diameter of
fluid flow as determined by the Helmholtz coil standard the artery to be accommodated and the wall thickness is
flow meter. The deviations from linearity are within the A/4 mm for all sleeve sizes. The length is normally twice
limits of the 4 per cent experimental error, which demon- the inside diameter but can be varied for different im-
strates the possibility of obtaining a linear flow-voltage plantation sites. A groove [Gr of Fig. 1(f)] is machined
relationship with a transducer which has a nonhomogene- around the sleeve deep enough to embed the electrode lead
ous magnetic field. wires. The electrodes (platinum wires of 0.025-inch di-
ameter for units below 6-mm inside diameter and 0.04-
Calibration for Absolute Flow Measurements inch diameter for larger units) are soldered to the ends
With a linear electronic system, no calibration of the of lead wires (teflon-covered tinned stranded copper wire
flow transducers is necessary for work intended to as- AWG34) composed of 7 strands of Number 42 wire (made
certain with precision relative changes in blood flow. To by Tensolite Wire Company). Three holes into which the
determine absolute values of blood flow in cc/see, the electrodes fit snugly are drilled exactly 90° apart at E1,
instrument must be calibrated, which need be done only E2 and E,; E1 and E2 are the diametrically opposed pick-
once for a given transducer. At this point one must assess up electrodes and Eg is the ground electrode. The con-
whether the calibration requires the use of blood and of struction of the flow probe may be simplified by omission
an artery or whether adequate calibrations can be obtained of Eg. In this case, a separate ground lead [Eg* of Fig.
by using saline solutions of suitable conductivity flowing 1(f)] must be provided to ground the animal preferably
through flow probes without the use of an artery. Experi- by a good metallic contact to muscle tissue as close to the
ments (including previous results8 as well as unpublished implant as possible.
data of D. P. Ryan) show that within the conductivity range The lead wires W1 and W2 run through the groove Gr
of 200-500 ohm-cm for the fluid traversing the flow probe from El and E2 to meet midway as shown in Figs. 1(e)
with or without artery the discrepancy between the instru- and 1 (f ) f rom whereon they are twisted and passed
ment sensitivity in the presence or absence of the artery through a grounded flexible shield G indicated in Fig. 1 (f )
does not exceed approximatly 10 per cent. If the absolute ("Alpha" braid Number 1332). The magnet current leads
value of flow is not required within narrower limits of tol- [M1 and M2 of Fig. 1(f)] are passed along with the
erance, it is sufficient to calibrate a flow probe of this design shielded electrode leads E1, E2 through a polyvinyl chloride
(using an amplifier of high input impedance) by perfusing (PVC) tubing T which is sealed near Eg by injection of
the probe with saline of about 200-ohm-cm conductivity, a small amount of "Dab" into the tubing. During the last
without using an artery.9 manufacturing steps, the tubing near Eg is potted into the
Attempts were made to assess possible effects of changes plastic material into which the entire sleeve is enclosed.
in the velocity profile upon the sensitivity of the single- The coil C consists of 100 turns of gauge 31 "Formvar"
coil flow probe. To this end, the flexible tubing connected insulated copper magnet wire. It is wound on a plane form
to the upstream end of the flow probe was bent through and subsequently bent to conform to the shape of the
angles ranging from 900 to 180° as close to the edge of sleeve after being laced with a thread spiraling around
the probe as possible (about 6 diameters). Constrictions the coil wires to prevent them from spreading apart. It is
by flattening the tube down to '8 of the original diameter dimensioned so that the coil edges parallel to the shutters
at the same distance from the probe were also introduced [Fig. 1(f)] subtend an angle of 120° at the center of the
on the upstream side constricting the tube in planes paral- cylinder axis of the sleeve. (This angle optimizes the
led as well as perpendicular to the electrodes. The single- magnetic field, but other angles can be used.) The ter-
coil flow probe under test was hydraulically in series with minals of the coil wire meet at the center of the long edge
a Helmholtz coil standard probe located f ar upstream of the coil and are bent toward the central groove Gr.
(about 40 cm from the single-coil probe). The readouts The lead wires W1, W2 are soldered to them, twisted and
for the two electronic channels connected to the two flow passed through the PVC tube T. The coil is fixed in place
probes were compared. In none of the above cases was by epoxy "Hysol" Number 2038 which is heated by pass-
there a detectable deviation from coincidence of the in- ing 300 ma through the coil after positioning it with re-
strument readings. spect to the electrodes so as to minimize the quadrature
EMF induced in the electrode circuit when the sleeve is
Construction of the Single-Coil Flow Probes filled with a conductive fluid. The above adjustment pro-
Construction of a flow probe begins with machining a ceeds as follows. Fig. 4 shows a special stand consisting
cylindrical sleeve f rom an epoxy rod ("Hysol"). The of a tube T, fitting snugly into the flow meter sleeve SL.
A second tube T2 fits over SL. Mercury is now filled into
'A. Kolin, "Improved apparatus and technique for electromag- the tube formed by T2, SL, T1 so as to extend equally
netic determination of blood flow," Rev. Sci. Instr., vol. 23, p. 235; (at least one bore diameter) above and below the edges
1952. of SL. Current is passed through the coil while the elec-
'Variation of the saline conductivity from an initial value of
400 ohm-cm by ± 50 per cent does not change the calibration by trodes are connected to the blood-flow amplifier system
more than 4 per cent when an amplifier of at least 500-kohms
input impedance is used. adjusted so as to sense optimally the quadrature voltage.

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1963 Kolin and Wisshaupt: Electromagnetic Blood-Flow Meters 65
MERCURY

El

H~~~~

Fig. 4-Device for adjustment of coils for minimum quadrature


pickup. T1, T2: plastic tubes: SL: sleeve of flow probe; C:
magnet coil.

(a) Plug. E1, E2: electrode prongs; G: ground prong; Ml, M2:
magnet lead prongs; H: hole drilled through the plug.

RAD.
<''.100-'O'. ./
.090
T PIN
DIAM.
Fig. 5-Sh: shutter; G: groove; H: channel for thread; .03k .00
T: thread.

.090
This voltage is reduced to a minimum by shifting the coil
relative to the electrodes and the coils are fixed in position
as described above.
A slit is now cut into the sleeve cylinder for the shutter
0 0
S [Fig. 1 (f ) ] and the unit is ready for potting in an epoxy
resin (Hysol Number 2038). For this purpose the sleeve
with the shutter in place is inserted into a preheated alumi- (b) Essential dimensions of plug in inches.
num mold which is then slowly filled with preheated liquid
epoxy. After about one hour in an oven raised to 140OF the
flow meter is ready, except for cleaning the electrode sur-
faces by filing and platinizing them. The electrodes are filed
flush with the wall of the sleeve. Platinization (see below)
makes them project a little over 0.001 inches into the inside
lumen. Fig. 5 shows the shape of the grooved shutter
which acts in the molding procedure as a mold for its own
sliding bed. It can be inserted into the finished flow probe
either by sliding in or, which is more convenient during
surgery, by pressing it in radially which makes it snap into
place. To facilitate removal by sliding, a hole H is drilled
into the shutter through which a thread T is looped for
convenient handling.
The last operation consists of platinizing the electrodes. (c) Washer W for fixation of lead wires in the animal. P: plug;
Platinization of electrodes is well known as a means of H: hole for threat; R1: reinforcing washer; T: PVC tube
containing the lead wires.
minimizing polarization effects. Platinized electrodes have
Fig. 6

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66 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIO-MEDICAL ELECTRONICS Apr-il
been mentioned as suitable for cannulated magnetic flow tive detector rejecting signals which are in quadrature
meters.5 10 The platinization procedure described by Jones, relative to the flow signal phase.2'12 The positioning of the
et al.711 was use(l. After platinization according to this proc- coil described above reduces the quadrature signal to a
ess the electrode surfaces are slightly raised projecting into small enough value for adequate rejection, often beyond(
the flow probe lumen securing thus a good contact with the perception. The in-phase pickup component due to elec-
artery. trostatic coupling can be suppressed only by careful wir-
The design of the plug is of considerable importance ing and shielding. The amount of shielding shown in pre-
since the proximity of the electrode terminals to the mag- ceding illustrations is sufficient to reduce the zero flow sig-
net power supply leads can cause interference through nal to values below a tolerable error in the flow measure-
leakage currents as well as capacitive and electromagnetic ment. Units having a "zero error" in saline of less than
pickup, injecting thus an undesired input signal at zero 1 per cent of the average value of the bloodl flow for which
flow. The prong arrangement shown in Fig. 6 orients the they have been designed are the rule rather than the ex-
dipole axes of the prong pairs so as to minimize interfer- ception. In many cases the zero error is imperceptible.
ence. E1, E2 are the electrode lead prongs; M1, M2 are Fig. 7 illustrates the dependence of the zero error and
the magnet lead prongs and G is the ground lead prong. noise level on the condition of the electrodes. The record
Fig. 6(b) gives the dimensions for the plug of Fig. has been obtained using a flow probe with unplatinize(d
6(a). A teflon cap (not shown in the figure) is used to Pt electrodes with a phase sensitive detector after adjust-
protect the plugs against bending and soilage. It consists of ment of the phase control as described by D. P. Ryan12 so
a block approximating the plug cross section with holes as to sense the flow signal but not the quadrature signal.
facing the prongs in receptacle fashion. Its tip on the side Fig. 7(a) shows noiseless intervals 0 during which the
facing away from the plug can be shaped like a dull arrow- magnet is off. Intervals M mark periods during which the
head. With the cap on and a thread looped through the magnet is on. The signal is noisy and the deviation from
hole H [Fig. 6(a) ] the plug can be easily pulled through the base line represents the zero error when the probe is
channels under the animal's skin during the implantation submerged in saline of 195 ohm-cm resistivity. The recor(l
procedure. The plug is cast from the same epoxy as the Fig. 7(b) shows the result of a repetition of the same
flow probe. The PVC tubing T containing the lead wires experiment after platinization of the electrodes. The mark-
is embedded in the plug body [Fig. 6(a) ]. ings M and 0 have the same meaning as in Fig. 7(a).
Fig. 6(c) shows a PVC washer W 16 mm in diameter The noise is greatly reduced and so is the "zero error."
which is cemented with "Dab" about one inch below the This method of reduction of noise and zero error works
plug P to the PVC tubing T. It is perforated with holes without fail on all flow probes with platinum electrodes.
about 2.5 mm in diameter. The washer is located under The performance of units with gold electrodes is similar
the animal's skin. Adhesions formed through the per- to those with unplatinized platinum electrodes. The suc-
forations between the tissues under and above the washer cess of platinization depends on strict adherence to the
keep it firmly in position shortly after recovery from the procedure described by Jones and Bollinger.'-' Perio(lic
operation. reversal of the current during platinization, also recom-
mended by Wyatt,10 is essential.
Fig. 8 shows the magnitude of the zero error with a
Performnance of the Single-Coil Electromagnetic 12-mm flow probe applied to the root of a dog's aorta
Flow Meters after adjustment of the gating phase to coincide with zero
It is recommended not to exceed a current of 0.6 a for of the quadrature signal as described in A. Kolin and R. T.
continuous operation of single-coil probes in the animal. Kado2 and D. P. Ryan.12 For Fig. 8(a) the diastolic in-
Under conditions of acute experiments, the temperature tervals are long enough to exhibit zero flow during valve
of the artery wall enclosed in the flow probe rises in the closure. At 0 the magnet is switched off and turned on
steady state to a temperature about 3°C above blood again at M. The coincidence between the base lines with
temperature (as determined by thermocouples sandwiched the magnet on and off demonstrates that the "zero error"
between the artery and the inner wall of the flow probe). of the flow probe is imperceptible.
This current value is recommended for probes of all di- In Fig. 8(b) cardiac arrest was achieved by intrave-
mensions. nous injection of acetyl choline, thus giving a long period
The most critical desired property of a flow transducer of zero flow. During this interval the magnet was turned
is its freedom from excessive coupling between the magnet on and off 3 times. The intervals 0 mark times when the
coil and electrodes. Such coupling tends to give rise to a magnet is off. The spikes mark the switching on of the
signal at zero flow. The quadrature pickup or transformer magnet. It is barely possible to see when the magnet is
EMF presents no problem with an efficient phase sensi- turned off; the smallness of the "zero error" is clear. Illus-
10 D. G. Wyatt, "A 50c/s cannulated electromagnetic flowmeter,"
Electronic Engrg., vol. 33, p. 650; 1961. portable electromaglnetic
"
G. Tones and D. M. Bollinger, "The measurement of the con- 12D. P. Rvan, "A low-cost blood-flow
(htictalice of electrolytes VII on platinization," J. Anm. Chem. Soc., meter system tutilizing comlmercially available devices," this issue,
vol. 57, I). 280; 1935. pp. 57-60.

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1963 Kolin and Wisshat/pt: Electromagnetic Blood-Flow Meters 67

the prongs. A protective cap over the prongs is very help-


ful in chronic experiments.
It is equally important to keep the electrodes clean and
to avoid rubbing off the platinization deposit. Immediate
cleaning of the flow probe's inner channel with running
cold water upon removal from the animal is strongly rec-
ommended. The electrodes should not be permitted to
dry before cleaning.
If the noise level and/or the "zero error" are increased
after removal from an animal, one should try to clean the
electrodes at first by submersion and agitation in 10 per
cent HCI solution for about 3 minutes. If this is ineffective
a submersion in chromic acid solution for about 3 seconds
(a) Noise level and "zero error" of a flow probe before electrode may help (followed by immediate thorough rinsing!). If
platinization. The magnet current is off during intervals labeled 0 this method of cleaning is not effective the electrodes should
and on during periods marked M. The probe is submerged in be subjected to replatinization for several minutes.
approximately 0.2 per cent saline. (b) Noise level and "zero This
error" of the probe of (a) after electrode platinization. practically always restores them to initial effectiveness.
Fig. 7 Most of the flow meter tests were performed with phase
sensitive electronic systems of the type described by
A. Kolin and R. T. Kado,2 designed for a 400-cps sinusoidal
magnetic field constructed by J. Yee. The performance of
the flow probes was also tested with a 1000-cps sinusoidal
magnetic field using Ryan's circuit.12
The data shown in Fig. 3 were obtained by feeding the
output of two electronic flow meter channels to two Hew-
lett-Packard model 425-A dc microvolt meters.
SUMMARY
The development of coreless implantable electromag-
netic flow probes is reviewed. It is pointed out that their
(a) Demonstration of absence of "zero error" in a 12-mm flow effectiveness demonstrates strict homogeneity of the mag-
probe applied to the root of dog's aorta. The magnet is turned off
at 0 and on again at M. Note the agreemnt of the line 0 M with netic field as not being an essential requirement for an elec-
the diastolic record intervals. tromagnetic blood-flow probe. The flow probe design is re-
duced to maximum simplicity by relying on one single
bent coil for generation of the magnetic field. The single-
coil design permits a very wide opening for the introduc-
tion of the artery affording with greater simplicity con-
venience offered by hinged flow probes. The manufactur-
ing time is greatly reduced as compared to previous probe
designs and performance is greatly improved. Platinized
platinum electrodes reduce the noise level and the "zero
error." A reliable base line can be obtained by switching
off the magnet even after prolonged implantation in the
course of chronic experiments.
(b) Demonstration of absence of "zero error" in a 12-mm flow ACKNOWLEDGMENT
probe applied to the root of a dog's aorta by cardiac arrest fol-
lowing administration of acetyl choline. The arrows 0 mark The method of checking the base line by administration
intervals during which the magnet is briefly turned off. The base
lines thus obtained are indistinguishable from the recording ob- of acetyl choline was suggested to one of the authors by Dr.
tained with the magnet on during cardiac arrest. A. Guz. The authors wish to express their indebtedness to
Fig. 8 P. Cox for his able technical assistance in the later stages of
the development of the flow probes, to D. P. Ryan for
performance of some of the measurements, to Dr. A.
trations of freedom from "zero error" of flow probes of this Golding and Dr. S. Chopra for performance of surgery
type after prolonged implantation are given by Ryan12 using in connection with chronic and acute experiments, to J.
a different electronic system. Yee for his able assistance in solving our electronics prob-
To keep the "zero error" at a low level it is imperative lems and to Miss I. Lenzer for her effective help in the prep-
to maintain the plug scrupulously clean and dry between aration of this manuscript.

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