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AQUINO, Deborah MONDAY (1O/07/2019)

1. Infant sleep Dr. Fallon Cook Australia The study, led by Dr Fallon Cook, found that it's very common to Identifying and supporting mothers Commented [P1]:
problems Murdoch experience difficulties with infant sleep at some point in the first year, with poor mental and physical health
linked to poor Children’s with about 60 per cent of mothers reporting mild or fluctuating problems. during pregnancy is crucial. These
maternal Research Institute And 20 per cent of mothers their infants sleep problems are both
persistent and severe during the first year. mothers may benefit from more
mental and
intensive support once the child is born.
health during The current findings, along with other emerging research, suggest that
severe and persistent infant sleep problems are linked somehow to
mothers' wellbeing during pregnancy.

Findings suggest that some infants may be predisposed to have sleep

problems, despite parent's best efforts to help their infant sleep better.

Parenting an infant who isn't sleeping well is extremely hard. It's

important that parents seek help from their GP or child health nurse if
feeling depressed, anxious or exhausted, and reach out to family, friends,
and local parenting groups for additional support.

2. Lack of Stephen Back, Research raises new concerns about the vulnerability of the preterm brain This will allow us to understand how the
oxygen Clyde and Elda to hypoxia. Results confirm that brain cells do not die as previously hippocampus responds to a lack of
doesn’t kill Munson believed. Rather, hippocampal cells fail to mature normally, causing a oxygen, creating new mechanisms of
infant brain Oregon Health & reduction in long-term potentiation, or the cellular basis of how the brain
care and intervention both at the hospital,
cells. Science and at home
University. (2019, In the neonatal intensive care unit, preemies can experience up to 600
August 29). short, but impactful periods of hypoxia each week. Consequently, more
than one-third of babies who survive preterm birth are likely to have
smaller brains, presumably due to brain cell loss, compared with the
brains of full-term infants. This can increase the risk of significant life-
long neurodevelopmental challenges that will affect learning, memory,
attention and behaviour.

Using a twin preterm fetal sheep model, Back and colleagues studied
the impact of both hypoxia alone, as well as in combination with ischemia
-- or insufficient blood flow -- on the developing hippocampus. The
results confirm that, similar to human preterm survivors, growth of the
AQUINO, Deborah MONDAY (1O/07/2019)
hippocampus is impaired. However, brain cells do not die as previously
believed. Rather, hippocampal cells fail to mature normally, causing a
reduction in long-term potentiation, or the cellular basis of how the brain

3. Secondhand Leonardi-Bee, U.S.A Secondhand smoke exposure of non-smoking women during pregnancy The purpose of this systematic
Smoke J., Smyth, A., is associated with a higher risk of adverse birth outcomes. However, the review to examine the associations
available evidence regarding the association between expectant mothers’
Exposure Britton, J. & secondhand smoke exposure and breastfeeding outcomes remains
between second-hand smoke exposure
During Coleman, T of non-smoking women during
Pregnancy limited.
pregnancy with initiation, prevalence,
and Mothers’ According to the WHO 2016 report, the tobacco smoking epidemic is and duration.
Subsequent one of the largest public health problems globally and the number of non-
Breastfeeding smokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) has been steadily
Outcomes increasing. Smoking during pregnancy is known to induce low birth
weight, fetal growth retardation, delayed immune development, and
reduction in all phases of an infant’s sleep cycle. This is because nicotine
diffuses into fetal blood, amniotic fluid, and breast milk and negatively
affects neurological development. Therefore, the fetuses and infants of
mothers who smoke are at high risk of ill health because of exposure to
nicotine. Of additional concern is that maternal SHS exposure is also
associated with adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight,
stillbirth, preterm birth, spontaneous abortion, and birth defects.
A study in the US reported that pregnant women who were exposed to
SHS had a significantly shorter time (24.9 weeks) of any breastfeeding
duration compared to unexposed pregnant women (29.9 weeks).