Você está na página 1de 8

Available online at www.sciencedirect.

com

ScienceDirect
Procedia Chemistry 16 (2015) 229 – 236

!?E6C?2E:@?2=+J>A@D:F>@?AA=:6596>:DECJ !+ 

$4$*-.+$,2-% *(# 2$#$2'-#1(,&3'


$"',(/3$%-00& ,-"'*-0(,$$12("(#$$1(#3$1(,$&$2 !*$

G:E2@6D2 * ,:?2*@D>2=:?23 0@92?6D+FD2?E@*:5H2?4/:==J29J2&F8C29252?5


*6E?@0FD:2D:96
*+,-
&.;.*:,1.6<.:/7:1.52;<:A 6-76.;2*66;<2<=<.7/',2.6,.;
*4*62;2<='*603=:2*60*6-=60
6-76.;2*
(.48 *@   

    

5*24 .>2<

4282072-




 ;2584. 5.<17- ?*; .>*4=*<.- /7: <1. -.<.:526*<276 7/  8.;<2,2-. :.;2-=.; *481* +.<1* 0*55* -.4<*
.8<*,147:4-:26C6-7;=4/*62.4-:266-:26D6-7;=4/*66-:264-.12-6-7;=4/*6'=4/*<(
6-:26!.<76*6-".<7@A,147:264.<<=,. ?1.:.8.;<2,2-.:.;2-=.; ?.:..@<:*,<.-*6-,4.*6.- =;260*+=//.:.-%=1&'
%=2,3 *;A 1.*8 //.,<2>. &=00.- *6- '*/. 5.<17- /7447?.- +A "' *6*4A;2; (12; .@<:*,<276 5.<17- 26>74>.; /2:;<
52@260<1.;*584.?2<1*,.<762<:24.*6-8.:52<<1.;*4<7=<429=2-429=2-8*:<2<276260;<.8=;260*61A-:7=;"0'# *6-;7-2=5
*,.<*<. /<.: ;1*3260 *6- ,.6<:2/=0*<276 ,4.*6=8 2; -76. +A -2;8.:;2>. ;742- 81*;. .@<:*,<276 -'$ =;260 
 50 7/
*61A-:7=; "0'# 
 50 7/ $' *6- 
 50 7/   8.: 524422<.: 7/ .@<:*,< (1. 78<252B.- *6*4A<2,*4 ,76-2<276; ?.:.
.>*4=*<.-26<.:5;7/:.,7>.:2.;:.8.*<*+242<A4252<;7/9=*6<2<*<276*6-5*<:2@.//.,<;/7:4.<<=,.;*584.);.7/5*<:2@ 5*<,1.-
;<*6-*:-;8:7>2-.-*,,.8<*+4.:.;=4<;/7:57;<8.;<2,2-.;?2<17>.:*44*>.:*0.:.,7>.:2.;+.<?..6
*6-
*6-,76;2;<.6<
&' /7:7:0*67,147:26.8.;<2,2-.;

© 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
L  ,96FE9@CD (F3=:D9653J=D6G:6C .
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
(66CC6G:6HF?56CC6DA@?D:3:=:EJ@7*6D62C496?E6C7@C96>:DECJ!?5@?6D:2?!?DE:EFE6@7+4:6?46D
Peer-review under responsibility of Research Center for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences

  
#:0*67,147:26.8.;<2,2-.%=1.&'"'

1876-6196 © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of Research Center for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences
doi:10.1016/j.proche.2015.12.052
230 Evita Boes et al. / Procedia Chemistry 16 (2015) 229 – 236


 

(6DE:4:56D2C6H:56=J2AA=:65:?2G2C:6EJ@75:776C6?EH2JD5FC:?8E96AC@5F4E:@?@77@@5DE@4@?EC@=E968C@HE9
@7 H665D 2?5 7F?8: @C E@ AC6G6?E 4C@A 52>2865 3J :?D64ED >:E6D C@56?ED 2?5 @E96C A6DED  (6DE:4:56D 2C6 2=D@
7C6BF6?E=J FD65 @?  4C@AD A@DE92CG6DEE@ AC@=@?8 DE@C286 =:76 2?5 :>AC@G6 BF2=:EJ  @?DF>6CD 4@?D:56C A6DE:4:56
C6D:5F6D:?7@@5D2DEC@?84@?46C?2?55F6E@7@@5D276EJ2?56?G:C@?>6?E2=C62D@?=2HD92G6366?6DE23=:D965:?
!?5@?6D:2 E@ D6E >2I:>F> A6C>:DD:3=6 =6G6=D @7 A6DE:4:56 C6D:5F6D :? 7@@5D  ?2=JE:42= >@?:E@C:?8 :D @77E6?
4@?5F4E65E@56E6C>:?6:7C6D:5F6D2C6AC6D6?E7@C7@@5D276EJC68F=2E@CJAC@5F4E=:23:=:EJBF2=:EJC6D62C492?5@C
7@@5=236=:?8AFCA@D6 642FD6@7E96H:56C2?86@7496>:42=AC@A6CE:6D@7A6DE:4:56D:?4=F5:?824:5:432D:42?5
?6FEC2=2?5E96H:56G2C:6EJ@7>2EC:46DA@=2C?@?A@=2C72EEJH2IJ2?5D@7@CE9E96D2>A=6>FDE:?:E:2==J36
4=62?65FAFD:?824@>A2E:3=6D2>A=6AC6A2C2E:@?E649?:BF6367@C6:?;64E:@?:?E@E9649C@>2E@8C2A9:4DJDE6>   
%F=E:C6D:5F6>6E9@5D9@F=53672DE2?562DJE@A6C7@C>C6BF:C62>:?:>F>2>@F?E@7496>:42=DAC@G:56246CE2:?
568C66 @7 D6=64E:G:EJ 2?5 DE:== 4@G6C E9:D H:56 2CC2J @7 2?2=JE6 >2EC:I A2:CD  =E9@F89 >2?J D2>A=6 AC6A2C2E:@?
AC@E@4@=D :?G@=G6 =6?8E9J >F=E:DE6A AC@465FC6 :7 E96 ?F>36C @7 DE6AD 42? 36 >:?:>:K65 3J FD6 @7 2  D2>A=6
AC6A2C2E:@?AC@465FC6C6AC@5F4:3:=:EJ2?5244FC24J42?36:>AC@G652?5E:>642?36D2G6
@C>2?JJ62CDE96DE2?52C52AAC@2497@CA6DE:4:56D>F=E:C6D:5F6>6E9@5D7@C7@@52?528C:4F=EFC2=AC@5F4ED
:?G@=G65E96FD6@7@C82?:4D@=G6?E6IEC24E:@?FDF2==J246E@?67@==@H653JH2E6C5:=FE:@?2?5A2CE:E:@?:?8:?E@2
?@?A@=2C D@=G6?E DF49 2D >6E9J=6?6 49=@C:56 2?5 A6EC@=6F> 6E96C  ,9:D 2AAC@249 H@C<65 7:?6 7@C ?@?A@=2C
A6DE:4:56D3FE46CE2:?A@=2C4@>A@F?5DDF492D@C82?@A9@DA9@CFD:?D64E:4:56D2?5D6G6C2=>@56C?A6DE:4:56DH6C6
A2CE:2==J=@DE %@C6D@A9:DE:42E652AAC@2496DH6C6?665652?52?2=JDED3682?E@6IA6C:>6?EH:E95:776C6?E@C82?:4
D@=G6?ED7@CE96:?:E:2=6IEC24E:@?
/:E9 6?G:C@?>6?E2= 2?5 962=E9 4@?46C?D 23@FE E96 FD6 @7 49=@C:?2E65  :?G6DE:82E65 G2C:F@D ?@? 92=@86?
4@?E2:?:?8 D@=G6?ED 2?5 D@=G6?E >:IEFC6D DF49 2D 6E9J= 246E2E6 246E@?:EC:=6 2?5 4J4=@96I2?66E9J= 246E2E6 7@C
6IEC24E:@? @CG2C:@FDC62D@?D?@?6@7E96D6AC@465FC6D82G62?6?E:C6=JD2E:D724E@CJD6E@7C6DF=EDA2CE:4F=2C=J:?
E962C62@76IEC24E:@?677:4:6?4J7@CH:56C2?86D@7A6DE:4:56D IEC24E:@?D@=G6?E4@>A2E:3:=:EJH:E9E962?2=JE:42=
E649?:BF6 36 :E 9:89 A6C7@C>2?46 =:BF:5 49C@>2E@8C2A9J @C 82D 49C@>2E@8C2A9J H:E9 2?5 H:E9@FE >2DD
DA64EC@>6ECJ56E64E:@?H2D2?@E96C4@>A=:42E:?8AC@3=6> 
&F>36C@72D2>A=6AC6A2C2E:@?E649?:BF6D2?5>6E9@5D@72?2=JD6D 92G6366?56G6=@A657@CE96A6DE:4:56
C6D:5F656E6C>:?2E:@?:?H:56C2?86@77@@5DEF77D2?5@E96C28C:4F=EFC2=AC@5F4ED @?G6?E:@?2=D2>A=6AC6A2C2E:@?
:?4=F56G2C:@FDD@=G6?E6IEC24E:@?>6E9@5D2?5+@=:5(92D6IEC24E:@?+(@C6=(6C>62E:@?9C@>2E@8C2A9J
( 4=62? FA 7@==@H65 3J 82D 49C@>2E@8C2A9J 2?2=JD:D FD:?8 2 G2C:6EJ @7 56E64E@C  == E96D6 AC@465FC6D 2C6
4@>A=6I4@?DF>6E@I:4D@=G6?ED2?5E2<62=@?8E:>6
? 2=E6C?2E:G6 E649?:BF6 :D )F9*+ )F:4< 2DJ 962A 7764E:G6 *F8865 2?5 +276 56G6=@A65 3J
?2DE2DD:256D  -D:?8)F9*+42?AC6A2C623@FE D2>A=6D:?2 >:?A6C:@56H:E9E964@DE=@H6C <6J
E@E96?6H2AAC@249:D5:DA6CD:G6D@=:5A92D66IEC24E:@?E92EBF:4<=JC6>@G6DH2E6CH:E9>28?6D:F>DF=A92E62?5
72EEJ24:5DFD:?8AC:>2CJD64@?52CJ2>:?6(+ 
,962:>@7E9:DH@C<H2DE9656G6=@A>6?E@72D6?D:E:G62?5D6=64E:G6>F=E:C6D:5F>6E9@57@CE96BF2?E:E2E:G6
56E6C>:?2E:@? @7 E96 A6DE:4:56D 7C@> D6G6C2= @C82?@49=@C:?6 4=2DD6D FD:?8 %+ 56E64E:@? 2?5 G2=:52E65 >6E9@5 @7
2?2=JD:D  ,96 2AA=:42E:@? @7 G686E23=6  >2EC:I :? E96 42=:3C2E:@? H2D 2?2=JD65 2?5 2?2=JE:42= A6C7@C>2?46 @7 E96
AC@465FC6H2D2=D@E6DE65 ,96H@C<7@4FD65@?)F6496C:?E96@C82?@49=@C:?6C6D:5F62?2=JD:D:?G686E23=6D

 6.$0(+$,2 *


$ &$,2 ,#'$+(" *

46E@?:EC:=6 ($C256 +2>A=6(C6A2C2E:@?+@=FE:@?@?5=FE6)F6496C6IEC24EEF36'%6E9@5


H6C6@3E2:?657C@>8:=6?E ,$(6DE:4:56%:I'C82?@49=@C:?6 M8
>$6249:?,@=F6?6 6I6?2H2D
@3E2:?657C@>+FA6=4@ +E@4<:?E6C>65:2E6 2?5H@C<:?8DE2?52C5D@=FE:@?@7A6DE:4:562E4@?46?EC2E:@? M8
>$
!?E6C?2=+E2?52C5,C:A96?J=A9@DA92E6,((D@=FE:@?H6C6AFC492D657C@>>6C4<>@DE@7E96>@7AFC:EJ S
Evita Boes et al. / Procedia Chemistry 16 (2015) 229 – 236 231

 /3(.+$,2"-,#(2(-,1

+9:>25KF)( %+DJDE6>6BF:AA65 H:E92 >I  >>%+42A:==2CJ4@=F>?H:E927:=>


E9:4<?6DD@7  M>"/+4:6?E:7:4@=D@>-+ ,9642CC:6C82DH2D96=:F>H:E927=@HC2E6@7 >=
>:?
,96:?;64E@CE6>A2C2EFC6H2D  2?5E96%+:?E6C7246E6>A6C2EFC6H2D   2?5E96D@FC46E6>A6C2EFC6
H2D   ,964@=F>?@G6?E6>A6C2EFC6H2DAC@8C2>>657C@> 9@=57@C >:?E@ 2E  
>:?E@
 9@=57@C>:?2E 
>:? ,96:?;64E@CH2DDA=:E=6DDH:E9E6>A6C2EFC6@7  2?5:?;64E:@?G@=F>6@7
 M=E96DA=:E=6DDE:>636:?8  >:?7@C2==DE2?52C5D2?5D2>A=6D 249:?;64E:@?H2DC6A62E65E9C66E:>6D ,96
>2DDDA64EC@>6E6CH2D@A6C2E65:?E966=64EC@?:@?:K2E:@?>@56 ! 6G +6A2C2E:@?@7E96A6DE:4:56DC6D:5F6D
DEF5:65H2DDF77:4:6?EE@D6E FAE96F==+42?:?E96C2?86 P  >
K2?5 +6=64E65!@?%@?:E@C:?8+!% %@56

 0-"$#30$

 
3'1 +.*$.0$. 0 2(-,+$2'-# 

C6AC6D6?E2E:G6A@CE:@?@7 =6EEF46H2D4FE>246C2E652?59@>@86?:D65:?>@CE2C  8@762499@>@86?2E6H2D


H6:89E65:?E@2 >=46?EC:7F86EF36  @>@86?:D65D2>A=6DH6C6FD657@CC64@G6CJDEF5:6D2?57@CE96AC6A2C2E:@?
@7>2EC:I>2E4965DE2?52C5D7@C42=:3C2E:@? 2=4F=2E:@?@7E96C64@G6CJ:?G@=G65D2>A=6D@7=6EEF4636:?8DA:<65
H:E9E96DE2?52C5D@=FE:@? E@E967@CE:7:42E:@?=6G6=@7  P M8
8 ,9:D=6G6=92D366?252AE65E@E96%*$QD=:>:E
E@E6DEE96A6C7@C>2?46@7E96>6E9@5
,96DA:<65D2>A=6DH6C6>:I652?5=67EE@DE2?57@C >:?2EC@@>E6>A6C2EFCAC:@CE@6IEC24E:@? ,966IEC24E:@?
AC@46DD H2D 4@?5F4E65 @? 2== D2>A=6D  >= @7 246E@?:EC:=6 36:?8 25565 E@ 6249 2?5 E96 >:IEFC6 H2D D92<6?
G:8@C@FD=J7@C >:?E96?2D2=EA24<6E4@?E2:?:?88%8+' 2?5 8D@5:F>246E2E6H2D25565 ,96D2>A=6H2D
D92<6?G:8@C@FD=J92?57@C >:?E96?46?EC:7:8657@C >:?2E CA>
 >=2>@F?E@7E96C6DF=E2?E6IEC24EH2DEC2?D76C65E@2 >=46?EC:7F82EF364@?E2:?:?8  >8%8+'  >8
(+ >8 >8 ,9:DH2DG@CE6I657@C DE96?46?EC:7F8657@C >:?D  >=2>@F?E@7E96
C6DF=E:?86IEC24EH2DEC2?D76C65E@2D2>A=6G:2=E@362?2=JK653J%+

  $2'-#.$0%-0+ ,"$

%2EC:I>2E4965 42=:3C2E:@? DE2?52C5D 2E 4@?46?EC2E:@?D @7 36EH66?  2?5  M8


>$ H6C6 AC6A2C65 3J 244FC2E6=J
5:=FE:?8E96DE2?52C5>:IEFC6D@=FE:@? M8
>$= E@E964@CC6DA@?5:?83=2?<D2>A=66IEC24ED ,96G@=F>6@7
M=@7E96:?E6C?2=DE2?52C5,((H2D25565E@2==42=:3C2E:@?DE2?52C5D@=FE:@?
D6C:6@7DE2?52C5D@=FE:@?:?AFC6D@=G6?EH6C6AC6A2C653J5:=FE:@?@7E96DE2?52C5>:IEFC6D@=FE:@?:?246E@?:EC:=6
2E E96 D2>6 C2?86 2D 367@C6 E96 :?E6?E:@? 36:?8 E@ 4@>A2C6 E96 >2EC:I 67764ED :? 42=:3C2E:@?  ,96 =:?62C:EJ @7 E96
42=:3C2E:@?4FCG6DH2DDEF5:652E24@?46?EC2E:@?C2?8636EH66? M8
>$ M8
>$H:E9E9C66C6A=:42E6:?;64E:@?@7
EC6642=:3C2E:@?DE2?52C5DAC6A2C65:?>2EC:I>2E496542=:3C2E:@?3=2?< 

  $"-4$07 ,#.0$"(1(-,123#7

,96244FC24J2?5AC64:D:@?@7E96>6E9@5H2D2DD6DE65FD:?8DA:<6D2>A=6D@7=6EEF46 *64@G6CJH6C656E6C>:?65
7@CD:IC6A=:42E6D2EE9C66DA:<:?8=6G6=@7  2?5 M8
8 *6DF=E:?8D2>A=6DH6C6>:I652?52==@H65E@DE2?5
7@C  >:? 367@C6 6IEC24E:@?   @?46?EC2E:@? H6C6 42=4F=2E65 3J >62DFC:?8 A62< 2C62D 7C@> 6IEC24E65:@? 4FCC6?E
AC@7:=6D2?54@>A2C:?8E96>H:E9E9@D6@3E2:?657C@>>2EC:I>2E4965DE2?52C5D@724@?46?EC2E:@?D:>:=2CE@E92E@7
D2>A=6  +2>A=6 52E2 H6C6 AC@46DD65 3J 6IE6C?2= DE2?52C5 E649?:BF6 2?5 D:?8=6 A@:?E 42=:3C2E:@?   $:>:E @7
BF2?E:7:42E:@? H2D 567:?65 2D E96 =@H6DE DA:<:?8 =6G6= 2E H9:49 E96 G2=:52E:@? H2D 249:6G65 2?5 H2D 56E6C>:?65
32D65@?E96244FC24J2?5AC64:D:@?52E2@3E2:?65E9C@F89E96C64@G6CJDEF5:6D   

 $13*21 ,##(1"311(-,


.2(+(8 2(-,-%2'$ 1'0-+ 2-&0 .'7 11.$"20-+$207
232 Evita Boes et al. / Procedia Chemistry 16 (2015) 229 – 236

6E6C>:?2E:@?@7E96@AE:>2=4@=@F>?:?;64E@C2?5AC@8C2>E6>A6C2EFC6 7@C6249A6DE:4:56H2D42CC:65@FEFD:?8
7F==D42?>@56FD:?8A6DE:4:56DE2?52C5>:IEFC6D2E M8
>$ ,!@7E96D6DE2?52C5>:IEFC6D:?7F==D42?>@562C6
D9@H?:?:8FC6D ,96>2DDDA64ECF>@76249A6DE:4:563J7F==D42?>@566I9:3:E65>@=64F=2C:@?D%2DE96
32D6 A62<:@? >
K  ,96 49@:D6 @7 DF:E23=6 >
K E@ >@?:E@C 7@C 6249 4@>A@F?5 H2D >256 42C67F==J E@ 6?DFC6E96
DA64:7:4:EJ 2?5 D6?D:E:G:EJ @7 E96 56E6C>:?2E:@?   ,96  4@>A=6E6 AC@5F4E :@? >2DD DA64ECF> @7 2?J A6DE:4:56 H2D
:?G6DE:82E65E@@3E2:?65E9636DEC6DA@?D6 ,96@C6E:42==JE9636DE@AE:@?7@CE9649@:D6@7E96AC64FCD@C:@?7@C%+
7C28>6?E2E:@? :D E96 32D6:@? :?E96 >2DD DA64ECF> 2D :E D9@HD E96 9:896DE:?E6?D:EJ  ,96 
%+ >6E9@5 D6EE:?8
FD65 E9C@F89@FE E9:D DEF5J 2C6 56E2:=65 :? ,23=6  ,96 A6DE:4:56D :?G@=G65 :? E9:D DEF5J H6C6 :56?E:7:65 3J
4@>A2C:?8E96C6E6?E:@?E:>62?5E9C66:@?@?6E2C86E2?5EH@BF2=:7:6CH:E9E96&!+,=:3C2CJ

:8FC6 ,!@7>:IA6DE:4:56DDE2?52C5D:?7F==D42?>@56

,23=6 'AE:>:K65%+24BF:D:E:@?>6E9@5A2C2>6E6CD@76249A6DE:4:56
(6DE:4:56D C28>6?E2E:@?>
K
*6E6?E:@? )F2=:7J2?2=JD:D )F2?E:7J?2=JD:D
E:>6>:?
2=A92       
36E92       
82>>2      
56=E2       
6AE249=@C      
=5C:?     
A@IJ96AE249=@C      
N?5@DF=72?       
     
:6=5C:?      
Evita Boes et al. / Procedia Chemistry 16 (2015) 229 – 236 233

?5C:?        


O?5@DF=72?       
     
?5C:?=569:5     
?5@DF=72?+F=72E     
,    
?5C:?#6E@?         
%6E@IJ49=@C   

 %2EC:I>2E496542=:3C2E:@?67764ED
,96 2?2=JE:42= A6C7@C>2?46 @7 E96 >6E9@5 @FE=:?65 23@G6 H2D 6I2>:?65 3J =@@<:?8 2E :ED =:?62C:EJ D6=64E:G:EJ
C64@G6CJC6A62E23:=:EJE96=:>:E@756E64E:@?2?5=:>:EBF2?E:7:42E:@?
==BF2E:E2E:G6C6DF=EDH6C642=4F=2E65FD:?8>2EC:I>2E4965DE2?52C5DAC6A2C653JDA:<:?86IEC24ED@7E96@C:8:?2=
G686E23=6DH:E95:776C6?E=6G6=D@7A6DE:4:56D
%2EC:I 4@>A@?6?ED 42?:?9:3:E @C 6?92?46E96 2?2=JE6 D:8?2=  +:?46 >2EC:I 4@>A@?6?ED>2J 27764E 2?2=JE6 D:8?2=
2?5>2J2=D@3656A6?56?E@?E96?2EFC6@7E96A6DE:4:56FD6@72?:?E6C?2=DE2?52C5:DE9636DEH2JE@4@>A6?D2E6
7@C2?J>2EC:I27764ED D2?2=E6C?2E:G6>2EC:I>2E496542=:3C2E:@?>2J36FD65   @CE9:DDEF5JE96>2EC:I
27764EDH6C66I2>:?653J4@>A2CC:?8DA:<65>2EC:I>2E4965DE2?52C5DE@D@=G6?32D65DE2?52C5D
.686E23=6FD65:?E9:DDEF5J=6EEF46H2DD6=64E65E@7FCE96C6I2>:?6E96>2EC:I67764ED:?4@>A2C:D@?E@42=:3C2E:@?
:?AFC6D@=G6?E ,9642=4F=2E65D=@A6G2=F6DD6?D:E:G:EJ7@C D@=G6?E 32D652?5>2EC:I>2E496542=:3C2E:@?4FCG6D
H6C64@>A2C657@C6249A6DE:4:562DD9@H?:?,23=6 2?5EJA:42=49C@>2E@8C2>D2C6D9@H?:?:8
,9642=:3C2E:@?C2?86H2D M8
>$E9C66C6A=:42E6>62DFC6>6?EDH6C6>2567@CDE2?52C5D@=FE:@?D ,9667764E@7
E96>2EC:IH2D@3D6CG657@C>@DE@7E96E6DE65A6DE:4:56D ,96D=@A6G2=F6D@7E964FCG6D42=4F=2E657@CD@=G6?E32D6
H6C6>@DE=J4@>A2C23=6E@E96D=@A6D@74FCG6D42=4F=2E657@C>2EC:I>2E4965 !EH2D7@F?5E92E:?E9642D6@7E96
=6EEF46 >2EC:I4FCG6DE96D6?D:E:G:EJH2DD:8?:7:42?E=JH:E9E96D@=G6?E4FCG6DH:E9E966I46AE:@?@76?5C:? 2=569J56
2ED=@A6 
$:?62C:EJH2DDEF5:65:?>2EC:I>2E49652?5D@=G6?E32D65 @@5=:?62C:EJ@7E9642=:3C2E:@?4FCG6DH6C6@3E2:?65
7@C 2== 4@>A@F?5D 2?2=JK65 3J %+  ,96 E2C86E 4@>A@F?5D D9@H65 4@677:4:6?ED @7 56E6C>:?2E:@? *  23@G6
7@C2AAC@I:>2E6=JE964@>A@F?5D2?5@?=JD=:89E=J=@H6C:?E9642D6@76?5C:?2=569:52E  

,23=6 *68C6DD:@?52E27@CA6DE:4:56D7@C>2EC:I>2E49652?5D@=G6?E42=:3C2E:@?
(6DE:4:56D +@=G6?E %2EC:I
BF2E:@? * BF2E:@? *
2=A92  J I     J I  
36E92  J I     J  I   
82>>2  J I     J I   
56=E2  J I    J  I  
6AE249=@C JI     J  I   
=5C:? J  I   J  I   
A@IJ96AE249=@C JI    J I   
N?5@DF=72? J I    J   I 
 J  I     J I    
:6=5C:? J I     J I  
?5C:? J  I      J  I   
O?5@DF=72? J  I     J  I   
 JI     J  I   
?5C:?=569:5 J I    J I   
?5@DF=72?+F=72E J  I      J  I 
, J I     J I  
?5C:?#6E@? J  I    J I  
%6E@IJ49=@C J  I     J I   
234 Evita Boes et al. / Procedia Chemistry 16 (2015) 229 – 236

:8 ,!@7=6EEF463=2?<2?5=6EEF463=2?<DA:<65H:E92==A6DE:4:56D

+2E:D724E@CJC64@G6C:6D H6C6@3E2:?657C@>3@E9E96D2>A=6D7@CE:7:42E:@?2E=6G6=D 2?5 M8


>82D
D9@H?:?E96,23=6 ,96C64@G6C:6DH6C6H6==H:E9:?E962446AE23=6=:>:E@7C@FE:?2?2=JD:D    
 8@@5 C6A62E23:=:EJ 7C@> 7:G6 C6A6E:E:G6 56E6C>:?2E:@? @7 C64@G6CJ 92D 366? 249:6G65 *+ R    ,96
C6A62E23:=:EJ 6IAC6DD65 2D E96 C6=2E:G6 DE2?52C5 56G:2E:@? *+ @7 E96 DA:<65 D2>A=6 4@?46?EC2E:@?D H2D
D:8?:7:42?E=J36EE6C3FE>@C6G2C:65 ,96C6A62E23:=:EJH2D2=D@42=4F=2E652EE966249@7E96DE2?52C54@?46?EC2E:@?
=6G6=DFD657@CAC6A2C2E:@? @7E9642=:3C2E:@?4FCG6D ,96G2=F6@7*+H2D=@H6C2E9:896C4@?46?EC2E:@?=6G6= E
E96=@H6C4@?46?EC2E:@?=6G6=DE96C6A62E23:=:EJH2DH@CD6
$:>:E @7 56E64E:@? $' 2?5 =:>:E BF2?E:7:42E:@? $') H6C6 6DE:>65 32D65 E96 D:8?2= @7 E96 324<8C@F?5
?@:D6   ,96 =6G6= @7 ?@:D6 H2D >62DFC65 7C@> E96 49C@>2E@8C2>D @7 E96 =@H6DE DE2?52C5 2E 2 4@?46?EC2E:@? @7
  M8
>8  ,96 =:>:E @7 56E64E:@? H2D 42=4F=2E65 2D E9C66 E:>6D 9:896C E92? E96 =6G6= @7 ?@:D6 2?5 E96 =:>:E @7
BF2?E:7:42E:@?H2D6BF2=E@E6? E:>6D@7E96?@:D6=6G6= $:>:E@7BF2?E:K2E:@?H2D49@D6?2D M8
>8D:?46E9:D
=6G6= H2D E96 =@H6DE G2=:52E65 DA:<65 =6G6= H96C6 2446AE23=6 AC64:D:@? 2?5 D6?D:E:G:EJ 7@C 2== E96 49@D6? :@?D 7@C
BF2?E:E2E:@?2?5:56?E:7:42E:@?H2D@3E2:?657@C2==A6DE:4:56D !?DECF>6?=:>:E@756E64E:@?H2DE2<6?2D@ M8
>8

,236= (6DE:4:56C64@G6CJG2=F6:?=6EEF46D2>A=6

$12("(#$1 $"-4$07
9&+&
9&+& 9&+&
4$0 &$  4$0 &$  4$0 &$ 
2=A92     
36E92       
82>>2       
Evita Boes et al. / Procedia Chemistry 16 (2015) 229 – 236 235

56=E2       


6AE249=@C      
=5C:?      
A@IJ96AE249=@C      
N?5@DF=72?      
      
:6=5C:?     
?5C:?     
O?5@DF=72?      
     
?5C:?=569:5      
?5@DF=72?+F=72E       
,      
?5C:?#6E@?      
%6E@IJ49=@C      

 -,"*31(-,1

,9:DH@C<D9@HDE92E%+:D2A@H6C7F=2?2=JE:42=E649?:BF67@CE96C2A:556E6C>:?2E:@?@7 A6DE:4:56D:?
6IEC24ED @7 =6EEF46 FD:?8 )F9*+ >6E9@5  ,96 >6E9@5 92D AC@G65 E@ 36 72DE 62DJ E@ 4@?5F4E 2?5 FD65 @?=J
D>2==BF2?E:E:6D@7C6286?ED ,96C6DF=EDD9@H65BF:E68@@52?2=JE:42=A6C7@C>2?46:?E6C>@78@@5C6A62E23:=:EJ2?5
C64@G6CJH2D249:6G65:?2=>@DE2==42D6D7@CE96DEF5:65>2EC:46D ,96>6E9@5:DDF:E23=67@CE9656E6C>:?2E:@?@7
2==E96A6DE:4:56D@7@C82?@49=@C:?6D ,9656G6=@A65>6E9@5:?5:42E658@@5C64@G6C:6D2?5C6A62E23:=:EJH:E9:?E96
2446AE23=6=:>:ED

"),-5*$#&$+$,2
,962FE9@C H@F=5 =:<6E@E92?< *6D62C496?E6C7@C96>:DECJ 7@C7:?2?4:2=DFAA@CEE9C@F8927E2C!D:2?
(6=2<D2?22??882C2?!(

$%$0$,"$
:6D=:<+25@HD<2*@4:6<%@=:?2*F:K"%2?5+FC>2125@C2%G2=F2E:@?@7)F9*+>6E9@57@C
E9656E6C>:?2E:@?@7@C82?@49=@C:?6A6DE:4:56C6D:5F6D:?D6=64E658C@FAD@77CF:ED @@596>:DECJ  

9>25&:8F6?@F@$%2C@EE* "6E6C>:?2E:@?@7'C82?@49=@C:?62?5'C82?@A9@DA92E6(6DE:4:56
C6D:5F6D:?CF:ED.686E23=6D2?5+65:>6?ED?G:C@?+4: 62=E9(2CE  
 9C:DE6C ",F:;2(6?8 '#2C:? %"@FC?2=@79C@>2E@8C2A9J   
 ?2DE2DD:256D % $69@E2J  + ; +E2;?3296C 5 +496?4<  "  2DE 2?5 62DJ >F=E:C6D:5F6 >2E9@5 6>A=@J:?8
246E@?:EC:=6 6IEC24E:@? A6CE:E:@?:?8 2?5 5:DA6DD:G6 D@=:5 A92D6 6IEC24E:@? 7@C E96 56E6C>:?2E:@? @7 A6DE:4:56
C6D:5F6D:?AC@5F46 " ' :?E  
 +2>A=6AC6A2C2E:@?7F?52>6?E2=D7@C49C@>2E@8C2A9J8:=6?E,649?@=@8:6D
 #:C49?6C% FD<@G2 * %2E:D@G2%@42<   2DE82D49C@>2E@8C2A9J7@CA6DE:4:56C6D:5F6D2?2=JD:D
FD:?82?2=JE6AC@E64E2?D 7=:6*47/,1:75*<70:*81A

 
 @4F>6?E&+&'

 +FA6CD656D@4F>6?E&@ +&'

 %6E9@5.2=:52E:@?2?5
BF2=:EJ@?EC@=(C@465FC6D7@C(6DE:4:56C6D:5F6D?2=JD:D:?@@52?5665
 +E2;?3296C1FA2?4:4<C2:; $  %F=E:C6D:5F6>6E9@57@C56E6C>:?2E:@?@7 A6DE:4:56D:?7C6D97CF:E
2?5 G686E23=6D FD:?8 D@=:5 A92D6 6IEC24E:@? 2?5 82D 49C@>2E@8C2A9J>2D DA64EC@>6ECJ 7=:6*4 7/
,1:75*<70:*81A
  
  "@=2?E2, %24:6; %2C6<,C6?5D:??2=JE:42=96>:DECJ.@= &@    
236 Evita Boes et al. / Procedia Chemistry 16 (2015) 229 – 236

F@ (9F$:?)!'0:?802?$:":2?#/&/ /"!&0&:?81 '&&$:62?5


1&0:? $:  "  ' .@=  &@   (&&    77-; 7/ 84*6< 7:2026.<.:526*<276 7/
8.;<2,2-.:.;2-=.;=;260,4.*6=8+A-2;8.:;2>.'$%=1&'5.<17-
@@5?2=JD:D92==6?86CD AA=:42E:@?D&@E63@@<.@=F>6 8:=6?E@?5=FE)F9*+
FC2496>!,F:56   ,96 :E?6DD7@CAFCA@D6@7?2=JE:42=%6E9@5D$23@C2E@CJF:56E@%6E9@5
G2=:52E:@?2?5*6=2E65,@A:4D FC2496>F:56 ?5 5:E:@? $