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A pandemic is an epidemic of infectious disease that has

spread through human populations across a large

region; for instance multiple continents, or even
 A widespread endemic disease that is stable in terms
of how many people are getting sick from it is not a
 Further, flu pandemics generally exclude recurrences
of seasonal flu.
 Throughout history there have been a number of
pandemics, such as smallpox and tuberculosis.
 More recent pandemics include the HIV pandemic and
the H1N1 (Swine Flu) pandemics of 1918 and 2009.
 Cholera
 Influenza
 H1N1 (Swine Flu)
 Typhus
 Smallpox
 Measles
 Tuberculosis
 Leprosy
 Malaria
 Yellow fever
 HIV spread to the United States and much of the rest
of the world beginning around 1969.
 HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is currently a
pandemic, with infection rates as high as 25% in
southern and eastern Africa.
 AIDS could kill 31 million people in India and 18
million in China by 2025, according to projections by
U.N. population researchers. AIDS death toll in Africa
may reach 90–100 million by 2025.
 AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a
chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused
by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
 By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes
with your body's ability to fight the organisms that
cause disease.
 Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused
by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
 The main symptoms are watery diarrhea and vomiting.
This may result in dehydration and in severe cases
grayish-bluish skin.
 The disease is most common in places with poor
sanitation, crowding, war, and famine.
 Influenza (also known as the flu) is a contagious
respiratory illness caused by flu viruses.
 It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can
lead to death.
 The flu is different from a cold. The flu usually comes
on suddenly.
 Pneumonia, bronchitis, sinus and ear infections are
examples of complications from flu.
 In virus classification influenza viruses are:-
(i) Influenza virus A
(ii) Influenza virus B
(iii) Influenza virus C
• Wild aquatic birds are the natural hosts for a large
variety of influenza A.
• Occasionally, viruses are transmitted to other species
and may then cause devastating outbreaks in domestic
poultry or give rise to human influenza pandemics.
 H1N1 flu is also known as swine flu.
 In 2009, H1N1 was spreading fast around the world, so
the World Health Organization called it a pandemic.
 Typhus fevers are caused by the rickettsiae bacteria
and transmitted by arthropod (e.g. flea, mite, tick)
 When arthropods bite a victim, they leave the
rickettsaie bacteria behind. Scratching the bite opens
the skin to the bacteria, allowing them to enter the
bloodstream. Within the blood stream, the bacteria
grow and replicate.
 Different arthropods carry specific rickettsaie bacteria
for each type of typhus.
 Typhus is not transmitted from person to person like a
cold or the flu.
 Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by either of
two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
 Transmission occurs through inhalation of airborne
variola virus or from one person to another through
prolonged face-to-face contact with an infected
 No cure or treatment for smallpox exists.
 A vaccine can prevent smallpox, but the risk of the
vaccine's side effects is too high to justify routine
vaccination for people at low risk of exposure to the
smallpox virus.
 After vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and
20th centuries, the WHO certified the eradication of
naturally occurring smallpox in 1979.
 Samples of smallpox virus have been kept for research
purposes. This has led to concerns that smallpox could
someday be used as a biological warfare agent.
 Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been
eradicated, the other being rinderpest, which was
declared eradicated in 2011.
 Measles is a very contagious (easily spread) infection
that causes a rash all over your body. It is also called
rubeola or red measles.
 Measles is caused by a virus. It is spread when an
infected person coughs, sneezes, or shares food or
drinks. The measles virus can travel through the air.
 The measles vaccine protects against the illness. This
vaccine is part of the MMR (measles, mumps, and
rubella) and MMRV (measles, mumps, rubella, and
varicella [chickenpox]) vaccines.
 Tuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious bacterial disease
caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most
commonly affects the lungs.
 It is transmitted from person to person via droplets
from the throat and lungs of people with the active
respiratory disease.
 TB can remain in an inactive (dormant) state for years
without causing symptoms or spreading to other
 When the immune system of a patient with dormant
TB is weakened, the TB can become active (reactivate)
and cause infection in the lungs or other parts of the
 The occurrence of HIV has been responsible for an
increased frequency of tuberculosis. Control of HIV in
the future, however, should substantially decrease the
frequency of TB.
 Leprosy is an infectious disease that causes severe,
disfiguring skin sores and nerve damage in the arms
and legs.
 Leprosy is caused by a slow-growing type of bacteria
called Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae). Leprosy is
also known as Hansen's disease, after the scientist who
discovered M. leprae in 1873.
 Malaria is a disease of the blood that is caused by the
Plasmodium parasite, which is transmitted from
person to person by a particular type of mosquito.
 The female Anopheles mosquito is the only mosquito
that transmits malaria.
 There are more than 100 species of malaria parasite.
 In humans, malaria is caused by P. falciparum,
P. malariae, P. ovale, P. vivax and P. knowlesi
 The most deadly – and most common in Africa - is
known as Plasmodium falciparum.
 Once the parasite enters the human body, it lodges
itself in the liver where it multiplies approximately
10,000 times.
 Two weeks after entering the body, the parasite bursts
into the blood stream where it begins infecting red
blood cells.

 Yellow fever is caused by a virus that is spread by the
Aedes aegypti mosquito.
 These mosquitoes thrive in and near human
habitations where they breed in even the cleanest
 Humans and monkeys are most commonly infected
with the yellow fever virus.
 When a mosquito bites a human or a monkey infected
with yellow fever, the virus enters the mosquito's
bloodstream and circulates before settling in the
salivary glands.
 When the infected mosquito bites another monkey or
human, the virus then enters the host's bloodstream,
where it may cause illness.
 Viral hemorrhagic fevers
 Antibiotic resistance
 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
 H5N1 (Avian Flu)
 Biological warfare