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Metabolic Pathways

CONH 2 COO

HYALURONIC ACID DERMATAN BLOOD GROUP ALGINATES O-ANTIGENS STARCH GLYCOGEN + O O COO
P GLYCOPROTEINS SUBSTANCES CH2COO OH
+
N
O O
Ribose -O - P - O - P - O- Adenosine(P)
N
Ribose - O - P - O - P - O -Adenosine + NICOTINATE COO COO

O GANGLIOSIDES PEPTIDO- CH2OH CH2OH N


11 + COO
MUCINS GLYCAN CH OHCHITIN CHONDROITIN PECTIN INULIN CELLULOSE O O NH NH O O O O Ribose- P 2.4.2. N N RP

L Indoleacetate Indoxyl 6.3.5.1 2.7.7.18


2
O O
HO
O (Auxin) NAD( +P) 6.3.1.5 Desamino-NAD Nicotinate- 2.4.2.19
Quinolinate- A
Y AcNH
CHOH
O
COO - 6.3.2.7-10
O
COO - 2.4.1.68
2.4.1.69
1.1.1.132 HO CH3
OH OH OH
1.2.3.7
nucleotide nucleotide
2.4.2.19 R
S
CHOH O
CH2OH
OPC
2.4.99.7 6.3.2.13 HO O OPPU
2.4.1.17
HO OH OPPU CH3
OPPT
2.4.1.29
OH
LACTOSE
OH
HO
+
CH2CH(NH3)COO HO CH 2CH2NH 2 HO CH2CH2NHCOCH 3 CH3O CH 2CH2NHCOCH 3 COO O
A CH3CH NHAC
UDP-
OH
HO HO OPPG
TDP-Rhamnose
OH OH
CH2OH
CH2CHO
NH NH NH NH N
COO
M
C COO- GDP- 2.4.1.21 O
5-Hydroxy- 4.1.1.28
5-Hydroxytryptamine 2.3.1.5 N-Acetyl-serotonin 2.1.1.4
N-Acetyl-5-O-methyl-serotonin Quinolinate A
HO NH NH
UDP-N-Ac-Muramate Iduronate OH
Mannuronate CH3
2.4.1.1 2.4.1.11 HO
etc. 3.2.1.23 Indole- Indole
C CMP-N-Acetyl GDP-Fucose O 2.4.1.21
OH OH 2.7.1.38 acetaldehyde 1.14.16.4
tryptophan (SEROTONIN) (MELATONIN)
T
H neuraminate
HO
CH2OH
O COO 5.1.3.12
CH2OH
O
5.1.3.13 O
OH OPPT OH 4.1.1.43 +
+
COO I
A CHOH
O
COO
2.4.1.16
COO -
4.2.1.47 2.4.1.33
OH ADP- CH2OH GALACTOSE
CH 2COCOO
CO CH2CH(NH 3)COO
CHO
+
CO CH2CH(NH 3)COO
COCH2CH(NH 3)COO
NH2
COO
NH2 OCH OCH C
R AcNH CHOH NH2 NH2
CH2OH OH OPPU O
HO OH HO OPPG CH2OH
O
TDP-4-Oxo- Glucose
O
CH2OH 4.1.99.1 NH
3.5.1.9
NH2
1.14.13.9
OH OH COO COO
3-Hydroxy 1.13.11.6 2-Amino-3-carboxy 4.1.1.45
OH 3.7.1.3
HO 6-deoxyglucose NH
Formylkynurenine Kynurenine 3-Hydroxy 2-Aminomuconate-
I OH 2.7.7.43
3.1.3.29
1.1.1.158 CH2OH
O
NHCOCH 3 GDP-Mannose HO OH OPPU
2.7.1.6
HO
O
Indolepyruvate kynurenine anthranilate muconate semialdehyde 6-semialdehyde A
D HO UDP-N-Ac-
OH OPPU
CH2OH
HO OH HO OH
GDP-Glucose HO 1.13.11.11 COO H H Catechol M
N-Ac-Neuraminate Galactosamine OH
UDP-Glucose
OH OP 2.4.1.22
E MANNOSE I

1.
HO O O + COO
OPPU UDP- 4.2.1.46 1.2.1.32

4.
(Sialate) 2.7.7.13 OH CH2CH(NH 3)COO C-CH(OH)CH(OH)CH 2OP NH C C CH CH2OP
Galactose-P

1.
CH2 C CH2CH 2NH2 HOC-CH(OH)CH(OH)CH 2OP
S
COO
1.1.1.22
COO
NHAC Galacturonate N

19
CH2OP CH 1.14.12.1
COO O 2.7.1.7 2.7.7.27 NH CH OH OH NH2
O HO OH HO O P CH 2OH NH 4.2.1.20 N N O
H H NH 2
UDP-N-Ac-
3.1.3.29 5.1.3.7 Mannose-1-P
TDP-Glucose
2.7.7.34 2.7.7.9 5.1.3.2 HO
O
Tryptamine
4.1.1.28
TRYPTOPHAN Indole-3-glycerol-P 1-(o-Carboxy phenylamino)
4.1.1.48
N-(5-P-Ribosyl)
2.4.2.18
Anthranilate
OOC
OOC
2-Amino
O
HO OH Glucosamine
ACNH
OH
4.1.3.20 HO OH OPPU 5.1.3.6 CH 2OP
O 2.7.7.10 COO 1-deoxyribulose-5-P anthranilate
pyruvate OH 2.7.7.12 OH OPPU OC muconate
N-Ac-Mannosamine-6-P UDP-Glucuronate 5.4.2.8
HO OH HO OH
2.7.7.24 CH 2OH
O OH P OCH 2 CH2
HO COO COO COO
COO COO COO
4.1.3.27
OOC CH 2COCOO
A
CH2OH
O
CH2OH
O 4.1.3.20
CH2OH
O
CH2OP
O
HOCH HCOH
C OH OH
CH2 CH2
C
I
HO OH P O OH O-C-COO
Mannose-6-P OP UDP-Galactose O O P O OC-COO
H 2.7.1.60 CH 2OP HO OH H OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH
ACNH 2.4.1.13 4.6.1.3 4.2.1.10 1.1.1.25 2.7.1.71 2.5.1.19 4.6.1.4 5.4.99.5
HO OH OPPU HO OH OP O HO 3-Deoxy-D-arabino- Dehydro- Dehydro- Shikimate Shikimate-3-P Shikimate-5 Chorismate Prephenate D
E
HO OH OH HO OH OH 2.4.1.9 enolpyruvate 3-P
heptulosonate-7-P quinate shikimate
X
NHAC NHCOCH 3 5.4.2.3
N-Ac-Glucosamine-6-P
NHCOCH 3 Glucose-1-P O O
OH CH2COCOO
PEP +
CH2CH(NH3) COO CH2CH(NH3) COO
+
S
N-Ac-Mannosamine UDP-N-Ac-Glucosamine N-Ac-Glucosamine-1-P HO OH OH CH2OH
O CH2COO
CH2COCOO
4.2.1.51
O 5.1.3.14 2.7.7.23
H H OH
2.3.1.
4 NH2
-OOC
O
CH2COO
O
CH2COO
1.3.1.13
S Glucosamine-6-P
COO OH OH OH OH COO
5.3.1.8 HO OH OH OH OH OH
O 5.2.1.2 1.13.11.5 1.13.11.27 2.6.1.5 1.14.16.1 2.6.1.5
OH HOCH 2 C C C CO CH2OH
Fumaryl Maleyl Homogentisate Hydroxyphenyl TYROSINE PHENYLALANINE Phenylpyruvate
E OH H OH OH OP
OH OH H OH
acetoacetate acetoacetate pyruvate 4.3.1.
5
COO -
1.3.1.13 1.3.1.13
S HOCH 2 C C C C HO OH OH HO OH HO OH
Fructose SUCROSE 3.2.1.26 3.2.1.48
GLUCOSE CHOHCH 2NHCH 3 CHOHCH 2NH2 CH2CH2NH2
+
CH2CH(NH3) COO-
H OH H H OH OH OH 4.1
Gulonate
1.1.1.19
Glucuronate
1.13.99.1
Inositol
3.1.3.25
Inositol-P 5.5.1.4
.1.2
5
CH2CH2NH2 CH=CHCOO
C
5.4.2.2 OH OH OH Ubiquinone Cinnamate A
ATP
OH H OH OH OH H OH OH 1.14.16.2
21
OH H OH OH 1.1.1. OH OH OH OH Menaquinone
3.1.1.18 HOCH 2 C
H
C C
H
C
H
CO HOCH 2 C
H
C C
H
CO CO
HOCH 2 C C C C CO 1.1.1.14 H H OH H CH2OP 3.1.3.9 2.7.1.2 Epinephrine 2.1.1.28
Norepinephrine 1.14.17.1
Dopamine 4.1.1.28
Dopa CH2CH(NH3) COO
+ OH
Tyramine 1.14.13.11 T
E
O 2.7.1.1
O O H O HOCH 2 C C C C CH2OH
2.6.1.16 (Adrenaline) (Noradrenaline)
CHOHCH 2NH2 O
Gulonolactone 1.1.3.8 2-Oxogulonolactone ASCORBATE ADP HN
C
OH OH H OH
.1.6
O 1.14.18.1 H2 I I CH=CHCOO
1.10.2.1 2.7
OH H OH OH H OH H Sorbitol .1.4 HO OH CH2 OP 2.1 O C Coumarate
1.10.3.3 α-Tocopherol
1.1.1.45
C COO- CO COO - OH
1.1.1.49 O OCH 3
CH-COO O O
H
Glucose-6-P
HOCH 2 C C CO HOCH 2 C C CO HOCH2 C C CO CO CO CH(OH)COO OH CHOHCH 2OH (Vitamin E) +
H OH H H OH H O 2.7.1.3 P-Glucono Normetepinephrine O NH3 O
OH
O
P 3-Dehydrogulonate
1.1.1.130
2, 3-Dioxogulonate Dehydroascorbate H H OH H 3.1
.1 .17 lactone HO OH OH
OH
OCH 3
.3.4
(Normetadrenaline) OCH 3 Dopaquinone
O NH
I
OH
I
L
E OH H OH H H OH H H POCH2 C C C C COO - NADP +
5.3.1.9
OH
4-OH-3-Methoxy-
1.4
4-OH-3-Methoxy-
OH
Plastoquinone 1.14.18.1
MELANIN THYROXINE LIGNIN Tannins Plant Pigments A
N 5.3.1.8
6-P-Gluconate NADPH
OH OH H OH
HOCH 2 C C C CHO HOCH 2 C C C CHO HOCH 2 C C CO CH 2OH
H H OH
D-mandelate phenylglycol M
T H OH H OH OH H OH OH
HOCH 2 C C C CO CH2OP NADP + CH2OP
I
O L-Xylose 4.1.1.34 D-Arabinose 5.3.1.3 D-Ribulose 2.7.1.47
H H HO O NHCOCH 2NH2
OOC-CH-CH 2COO
O
N
OH OH H 1.1.1.44 NH NH N OOC N N
HNCO C N C
S OH H H OH H OH H
Fructose-1-P 2.2.1.1 POCH2 C C C CO CH2OH H 2C CHO H 2C CHO
HC
CH
C
CH CH H 2N C CH

E HOCH 2 C C C CH2OH HOCH 2 C C CO CH 2OH POCH2 C C CO CH2OH


H H H NADPH
OH OH H
OH OH
OC
NH
HN C
NH
H 2N C
N
RP H2 N
C
N
H 2N C
N
RP H 2N
C N RP E
Fructose-6-P
RP RP RP

S
H OH OH H OH
2.7.1.53
H OH
HOCH 2 C C C CH2OH
5.1.3.1
Glycinamide- 2.1.2.2 Formyl 6.3.5.3 Formyl 6.3.3.1 5-Amino 4.1.1.21 5-Amino-4-imidazole 6.3.2.6 5-Amino-4-imidazole 4.3.2.2 5-Aminoimidazole O S
L-Arabitol L-Xylulose L-Xylulose-5-P H H
ribosyl-P glycinamide-R P glycinamidine-R P imidazole-R P carboxylate-R P (N-succinylcarboxamide)-R P carboxamide-R P C C N
OH OH H H OH H H OH H OH OH OH
Ribitol
POCH2 C C CO CH2OH ATP H2 N
HCO C
CH

HOCH 2 C C C CHO HOCH 2 C C C CH 2OH HOCH 2 C C C CHO OH OH H H 2.7.1.11 NH


O
NH O
2.1.2.3 NH N RP
NH2 H2 N C N O
H H OH 1.1.1.10 OH H OH OH H OH D-Ribulose-5-P POCH 2 C C CHO 3.1.3.11 H2NCONH 2 H 2N COO OC
CO HN C CO C
C C N
Inosine Formylamido-
2.7.1.47 ADP 6.3.4.13 Urea C
CO
OC C C
HN CH HN C CH 3.2.2.
2 3.1.3.
5 imidazole-
L-Arabinose 5.3 Xylitol D-Xylose H H H OH OH OC
N H NH N H NH OC
N NH OC C HC C
OH H H
.1.4
OH OH OH OH HOCH 2 C C C CHO 5.1.3.1
Erythrose-4-P 3.5.3.4 H
3.5.2.5
H
1.7.3.3
H
1.1.1.204
NH NH
1.1.3.22
N NH
2.4.2.1 carboxamide-R P
OH OH OH
H H HO
+ Allantoate Allantoin URATE 1.1.3.22 Xanthine Hypoxanthine 3.5.4.10 O
HOCH 2 C C C CHO HOCH 2 C C CO CH2OH POCH2 C C CO CH OH POCH 2 C C C CO CH2OP CH2(NH3)COOH NH2 C N
2
D-Ribose .1.4
NH2 N
N
HN C
H OH OH H H
L-Ribulose 2.7.1.16 L-Ribulose-5-P
H H
5.3.1.6
H OH OH OH H
2.6 .10 GLYCINE N
N
CH O O O HC
CH NH2 N
C
OOC-CH-CH 2COO
HC C
CH
P
L-Lyxose 5.1.3.4 N N N RP
Fructose-
N N
C C CO CH 2OH CH2OP .1 20 O C
U
POCH 2 4.1.2.- HC NH
O NH2 1.4 1. N N -O P~O P~O P O CH CH
H OH 2.7 2.2.1.2 1. 2 O HC C C N
INOSINE-P
1.1.1 OH H
2. O P O CH2 O
Fumarate Aspartate
.9 HOCH 2 C C CO CH2OH
.1.1
5 D-Xylulose-5-P 1:6-bis-P OOCCH 2NHCH3
O O O N N RP(P) N
HC
C
C
CH (IMP) R
Sarcosine 2.7.4.3
OH H
D-Xylulose
2.7.1.17 OH OH
Glyoxylate
O
OH
4.6.1.1 ATP
OH OH
2.7.4.6
ADP
2.7.4.4 4.3.2.2
N NH RP
Adenylo- 6.3.4.4 O
N
I
P-Ribosyl ADENOSINE-P C
N
1.5.99.2 Cyclic AMP (AMP) succinate 3.1.4.6
HN C CH
H+
H H H amine 1.4.4.2 1.17.4.1 1.1.1.205 OC C
E
H+ PHOTO- H+ POCH 2 C C C CHO
H H H OH
OOCCH 2N(CH3)2 d-ADP Adenine 2.4.2.1
N
H
N RP
H+
2H+ yclic Ph
otophosphoryla SYSTEM lic
n-cyc electr
POCH2 C C C C CO CH2OP 4.1.2.13 Dimethylglycine 2.7.4.6 XANTHOSINE-P S
No (electric cur on
tion l OH OH OH 2.7.7.7 2.4.2.15 3.5.4.
PHOTO-
SYSTEM C
2H+ H+ ren
t)
flo D-Ribose-5-P Sedoheptulose-PP
OH OH OH H
2.1.1.5 2.7.7
.7 DNA 2.7.7.7
d-GTP d-GDP 3 (XMP)
O
II
Ferredoxin H+ 1.1
7.4 Guanine 6.3.4.1 C N
P
w

2.4.2.
*-
HN C
2.2.1.1
+
d-ATP 2.7 d-CTP .1 1 6.3.5.2 CH

H 2e-
2e-
2e H+ OOCCH2N(CH3)3 .7.7 H2 N C C
.
PQ _
Betaine 2.7.4.6 2.7.4.8
N N RP

O PQH2
PQ
PQ
POCH 2CHOHCHO FOLIC ATP 2.7.7.6
RNA 2.7.7.6
GTP GDP
GUANOSINE-P
T
QB 1e- 1e-
Fe-S H+ NADP+ HOCH2COCH2OP
2.2.1.1 3-P-Glyceraldehyde 1.2.1.8 2.1.2.1 ACID 2.7
.7.6 TTP 2.7.4 1.17.4
.1 (GMP)
PQH2 Cyt bf
Dihydroxy- 5.3.1
.1 + C1 .6
O QA 2e- A1
H+
H+
acetone-P Pi 6.3.4.7
2.4.2.14 OHCCH 2N(CH3)3
Betaine POOL NH2
P
S Cyt bc Pi 4.2.1.
20 O O 2.7 TDP
O O C
.1 aldehyde CH
Y
NADPH+H+
Pheophytin Chl.A0 (Glycerone-P) 4.1.2.5 C .7.6 C N
5.3.1
C
NAD+ 2.7
.
C C-CH3
_ 2e- HN CH-CH3
.4.9 HN CH
Y P680 2PQH2
2PQ 2PQ 2.7.1.28 1.1.99.1
CH3
CH3
OC CH 2
HN
OC
C CH3
CH
OC CH 2.1.1.45
HN
OC CH
OC
N
CH
R
N Chl.a
2e-
P700 Pi ADP + H2NCH 2 CHCOO H2NCONHCH 2CHCOO NH
2.4.2.4
N
DP N DP
3.5.4.12 2.7.4.14
DP

I
PC
H+ HOCH2CH2N (CH3) 3 NH
2e- Fe-S 2e- Cyt.f H+ Glyceraldehyde 3-Amino- ß-Ureido Dihydro Thymine THYMIDINE-P d-UMP d-CMP d-CDP
T Mn H+
Ribulose-1,5-bis-P
1.2.1.12 CHOLINE
isobutyrate
3.5.1.6
isobutyrate
3.5.2.2
thymine
1.3.1.2
M
PC PC O O
α

+
α

1.2.1.13
α

H 2.4.2 NH 2
4H+ Pi
1

HOCH2CH(NH3)COO 2. C C
NADH 4.2.1.22 1. CH2 .4 C
a

HN CH
H 2O
H+ H+ H+ ADP 1. HN CH
I
8
N
SERINE 1.17.4.1
β

Translocated protons
E
8

CO2
13
2

H+ CH2
β

OC OC CH OC CH
1

H+ H+ 2.6.1.51
D
CH2OP 4.1.1.11 H2NCONHCH 2CH 2COO NH N H
S H+
H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H2NCH 2CH2COO NH
Carbamoyl Dihydro- CDP
3

3.5.1.6 3.5.2.2 1.3.1.2 3.5.4.1


3

O
H+ γ ATP Fixation POCH 2CHOHCOOP 1.4.1.7
ß-Alanine Uracil Cytosine
I O2 Protons from Water H+ H+ H+
1:3-bis-P-Glycerate ß-alanine uracil NH 2
I
H+

εε

H+
2.7.6.1 O
2

H+ H+ HOCH2COCOO
c

H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+
2

H+ β2 -OOC C
CH 2.7.4.6
OP O P O O O
α

N
O C
α

S H+ H+
Hydroxy- 3.1.3.3
NH2 CH2 C C C
CH C HN CH N

ATP
THYLAKOID LUMEN CH2 HN CH
3

OH OH CH HN CH
ATP HN HN OC
α

2.4.2.9
H+

THYLAKOID MEMBRANE P-Ribosyl-PP pyruvate OC


N
CH-COO
OC CH-COO OC C-COO OC C-COO OC N CH
OC
N
CH N
E
RPPP
β

+ N
ATP synthase
e ADP H NH NH RP RP RPPP
ADP 6.3.4.2
S
P OCH2CH(NH3)COO
STROMA 3.6.1.34 Phospho- Carbamoyl Dihydro Orotate Orotidine-P Uridine-P UDP URIDINE- CYTIDINE-
3.5.2.3 4.1.1.23 (UMP) 2.7.4.4
CHLOROPLAST OUTER MEMBRANE 2.7.2.3 serine aspartate orotate 1.3.1.14 2.4.2.10 2.7.4.6 triphosphate triphosphate
1.1.1.29 (UTP) (CTP)
COO
HO HO
COO ATP 2.6.1.52
2.6.1.22
NH2 NH2
COO H H H H H H H H H H CONH 2
+ C N OC N N H H
P OCH2 C N C P OCH 2 NH C NH C
γ-Linolenate
1.14.99.25 C C C C C C C P OCH 2 C C CO CH2
Linoleate Arachidonate 1.13.11.34 Leukotriene B4 OH
POCH2CHOH COO
1.1.1.95
P OCH2COCOO CH CH CH
P OCH 2 C C C CH
COO 5. O
3-P-Glycerate P-Hydroxy- OH OH HC
N
C
N OH OH HC
N
C
N OH OH HC
N
C
N
1.1 3.99 COO O O RP OH OH HN N
1.3.1.35 4.9 .3
COO pyruvate 3.6.1.31
RP(PP)
3.5.4.19
RP
C
9.1 2.4.2.17
P-Ribosyl-ATP P-Ribosyl-AMP P-Ribosylformimino P-Ribulosylformimino Imidazole H
L COSCoA O
CO-S-ACP
HO OH 5.3.99.5
HO
OH 2.7.1.31 5-aminoimidazole- 5.3.1.16 5-aminoimidazole- glycerol-P
I Oleoyl-CoA Palmitoleoyl-ACP Prostaglandin PGE 2 Thromboxane B2 POCH2CH(OP) COO
HC C CH 2CHCOO
+ carboxamide-R P +
carboxamide-R P+
HOCH2CH(OH) COO + HC C CH2COCH 2OP
1.14.99.5 2, 3-Diphospho- 5.4.2.1 N NH NHCOCH 2CH2NH2 HC C CH2CH(NH 3)COO HC C HC C CH 2CH(NH 3)CH2OH HC C CH2CH(NH 3)CH2OP
P
CH2CH(NH 3)CHO 4.2.1.19
COSCoA CH3(CH2)14CH=CHCOS-CoA CH3(CH2)14CH(OH)CH 2COS
COS-CoA CH3(CH2)14COCH 2COS-CoA
glycerate Glycerate C
H Carnosine N NH
N NH N NH N NH
N NH
C
I Stearoyl-CoA Dehydrostearoyl-CoA OH-Stearoyl-CoA Oxostearoyl-CoA CH 3COO
CH
CH CH CH H
CH3(CH2)14COCH 2COS-CoA
HISTIDINE Histidinal Histidinol Histidinol-P Imidazole
D Endoplasmic Reticulum ACETATE 4.1.1.22 1.1.1.23 1.1.1.23 3.1.3.15 2.6.1.9
acetol-P
CH3(CH2)14COS-ACP CH 3(CH2)14COSCoA HOCH2CH(O P)COO HC C CH2CH2NH2
4.3.1.3
Chain elongation Mitochondrial
Palmitoyl-ACP Palmitoyl-CoA 2-P-Glycerate OOC CHCH 2CH2COO OC CHCH 2CH2COO CH C CH CHCOO
B CH3(CH2)n CH=CHCOS-CoA CH 3(CH2)n CH(OH)CH 2COSACP CH 3(CH2)n COCH 2COSACP
1.2.1.4
N
C
NH
HN NH N NH N NH 4.3.1.3
I 1.3.1.9 4.2.1.60 1.1.1.100
H HISTAMINE CH
3.5.2.7 CH
4.2.1.49 CH
ACYL-ACP 2, 3-Enoyl-ACP 4.2.1.61
3-OH-Acyl-ACP 3-Oxoacyl-ACP Formimino Imidazolone Urocanate
O 1.3.1.10 2.3.1.41
4.2.1.11
CH3CH 2OH
ETHANOL 2.3
glutamate propionate
S CH3(CH2)5CH=CHCH 2COSACP
4.2.1.
2.1.3.2 .1.3
0
CH3(CH2)6CH2CH 2COSACP 3, 4-Decenoyl-ACP 60 CH3(CH2)6CH(OH)CH 2COSACP 1.1.1.100 CH 3(CH2)6COCH 2COSACP +
Y Decanoyl-ACP 1.3.1. 3-OH-Decanoyl-ACP 3-Oxo-Decanoyl-ACP 1.1.1.1
CH2CO-OCH2CH(NH 3)COO
HS HSO - Phosphoadenylyl- Adenylylsulphate 2-
SO 4
9 CH3(CH2)6CH=CHCOSACP Acetylserine
N 2, 3-Decenoyl-ACP 4.2.1
.60 2.3.1.41 CH2=C(OP ) COO +
1.8.99.1 1.8.99.2
sulphate 2.7.1.25 (APS) 2.7.7.4

T
CH3CHO (PAPS)
S-CH 2CH(NH 3)COO 4.2
CH 3(CH2)2CH 2CH2COSACP CH3(CH2)2CH=CHCO-S-ACP CH3(CH2)2CH(OH)CH 2COSACP
1.1.1.100
CH3(CH2)2COCH 2COSACP P-enolpyruvate Acetaldehyde + .99 +
+
CH2CH(NH 3)COO +
H Hexanoyl-ACP
1.3.1.9
2, 3-Hexenoyl-ACP
4.2.1.59
3-OH-Hexanoyl-ACP 3-Oxo-Hexanoyl-ACP
HS
S-CH 2CH(NH 3)COO .8 HSCH 2CH(NH 3)COO
4.4.1.1
+
SCH 2CH2CH(NH 3)COO 4.2.1.22
+
HSCH 2CH2CH(NH 3)COO
2.1.1.13
CH 3 SCH CH CH(NH )COO
2 2 3
1.2.1.32
E CH3CH=CHCO.S-ACP 2.3.1.41 CYSTINE 1.6.4.1 CYSTEINE
4.2.99.9
Cystathionine 4.4.1.8
Homocysteine 2.1.1.14
METHIONINE
S CH3CH2CH2COSACP
1.3.1.9
CH3CH=CHCO-S-ACP
4.2.1.58
CH3CH(OH)CH 2COS-ACP
1.1.1.100
CH3COCH 2COSACP ADP .1.1 1.13.11.20 Adenosyl
4.1 4.4.1.15 3.3.1.1 2.5.1.6
I Butanoyl-ACP Crotonoyl-ACP 3-OH-Butanoyl-ACP
CH2OH CH2OH
Acetoacetyl-ACP HOOCCH 2CO-S-ACP
Malonyl-ACP 2.7.1.40 Glutamate
Adenosyl
+ +
CH 3 SCH CH CH(NH )COO
S SCH 2CH2CH(NH 3)COO + 2 2
+ + 3
R-CH2COO 1.1.1.8 HO 2SCH 2CH(NH 3)COO HO3SCH 2CH(NH 3)COO
2.3.1.41 S-Adenosyl S-Adenosyl
ATP
HOCH HOCH
4.4.1.15 HSO3- Cysteine Cysteate 2.1.1.10
CH3(CH2)n+2COS-CoA
6.2.1.3 3.1.2.20 FATTY ACID CH2OH CH2O P
2.3.1.39 .1.2 sulphinate 4.1 6.3.2 homocysteine 2.1.1.20 methionine
ACYL-CoA Glycerol
2.7.1.30
3-P-Glycerol KETONE BODIES
3.7 HO2SCH 2COCOO .1.2
9
.2 +
CH2SH (SAM)
(Cytosol) 3-Sulphinyl OOCCH(NH 3)CH2CH2CONHCHCOO
PYRUVATE
2.3.1.15 2.3.1.51 CH3COCH 3 CH3CH(OH)CH 2COO
HOOCCH 2CO-SCoA 1.4.1.1 + pyruvate HO2SCH 2CH2NH2
1.8.1.3
HO3SCH 2CH2NH2 γ-Glutamylcysteine
2.3.1.7
CH2O-CO-R Acetone 3-OH-Butyrate Malonyl-Co-A 1.2.4.1
2.6.1.2 CH3CH(NH3)COO Hypotaurine Taurine Glycine
Carnitine 3.1.1.3 CH2O-CO-R CH2O-CO-R
2.7.8.5 2.3.1.12 ALANINE 4.1.2.5
4.1.1.29
+ 6.3.2 +
CH2SH

L
R’-CO-OCH 1.8.1.4 OOCCH2CH2COOCH2CH2CH(NH 3)COO .3 OOCCH(NH 3)CH2CH2CONHCHCONHCH 2COO
R’-CO-OCH 4.1.1.4 1.1.1.30 4.1.3.
O-Acyl-carnitine R’-CO-OCH
CH 3CO-S-ACP 4.1.1.9 18 Succinylhomoserine
CH2O-CO-R"
4.1.1.12 Glutathione
I Triacylglycerol Diacyl
CH2OH CH2O P CH3COCH 2COO
Acetoacetate
Acetyl-ACP 1.1 +
CH3CH(OH)CH(NH 3)COO + + Bile Acids
P O-Acyl-carnitine FAT 2.3.1.20 glycerol 3.1.3.4 2.7.1.107
Phosphatidate .1.2
7
2.6.1.18 POCH 2CH2CH(NH 3)COO HOCH 2CH2CH(NH 3)COO
3.1.2.11 2.3.1.38 O-Phospho- 2.7.1.39Homoserine
THREONINE HOCH 2 C(CH 3)2COCOO
I 3.1.1.28 CH3COCOO- CH3CH(OH)COO
4.2.99.2
homoserine
2.3.1.46 HCHO
4.1.2.12
Oxopantoate
D CH3(CH2)n CH2CH2COSCoA PYRUVATE LACTATE OHCCH 2COO-
4.1.3.
18 CH3 CH3
+
ACYL-CoA CH3(CH2)n CH=CHCOSCoA CH3(CH n CH(OH)CH 2COSCoA CH3(CH2)n COCH 2COSCoA 4.
2. Malonic
COO
1.1.1.3
C (OH)CH(OH)COO
CH3
CHCOCOO
CHCH(NH 3)COO 1.1.1.169
(Mitochondria) 1.3.99.3
2, 3-Enoyl-CoA 4.2.1.17
3-OH-Acyl-CoA 1.1.1.35
3-Oxoacyl-CoA 2.3.1. NAD HOH 1. 4.2.1.16 CH3
D CH3(CH2)2COCH 2COSCoA
16
ATP 1.2.4.1
GDP
52 semi- CH3COC(OH)CH 3
2-Acetolactate
1.1.1.86
CH3
2-3-Dihydroxy 4.2.1.9 2-Oxo- 1.4.1.8 VALINE
CH3 2.6.1.32
HOCH 2 C(CH 3)2CH(OH)COO

E
CH3(CH2)2CH2CH2COSCoA
1.3.99.3
CH3(CH2)2CH=CHCOSCoA
4.2.1.17
CH3(CH2)2CH(OH)CH 2COSCoA 1.1.1.35
2.3.1.
2.3.1.12
1.2.1.18 aldehyde Pantoate
Hexanoyl-CoA 2, 3-Hexenoyl-CoA 3-OH-Hexanoyl-CoA 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoA 16 CO2 3.1.3.43
CO2
CH3CH2COCOO isovalerate isovalerate ß-Alanine
G 4.1.1.32
Oxobutyrate 3.5.1.22
6.4.1.1 CH3 CH3 CH3
1.2.1.25 6.3.2.1
CH3CH2CH2COSCoA CH3CH=CHCOSCoA CH3CH(OH)CH 2COSCoA CH3COCH 2COSCoA 2.3.1.9 CH3
R Butanoyl-CoA
1.3.99.2
Crotonoyl-CoA
4.2.1.55
3-OH-Butanoyl-CoA
1.1.1.157
Acetoacetyl-CoA NADH+H+ HOCH 2CHCOO HOCH 2CHCOS-CoA- CH2 = CCOSCoA CH3CHCO-SCoA HOCH 2 C(CH 3)2CH(OH)CO NHCH 2CH2COO
GTP 3.1.2.4
3-Hydroxy- 4.2.1.17 Methyl 1.3.99.3 Isobutyryl-CoA
A Odd C Fatty acids CH3COSCoA
CH3
4.1
.3.1
8
3-Hydroxy- PANTOTHENATE
D CH 3CH2CH 2CH2COSCoA CH3CH2CH=CHCOSCoA CH3CH2CH(OH)CH 2COSCoA CH3CH2COCH 2COSCoA
4.1.3.5 ACETYL-CoA 31 isobutyrate Isobutyryl-CoA acrylyl-CoA
Pentanoyl-CoA Pentenoyl-CoA 3-OH-Pentanoyl-CoA
1.1.1.35
3-Oxopentanoyl-CoA NAD+ OHCCHCOO 1.1.1. 2.7.1.33
A .1.44
Methylmalonyl
CH3 CH3
CH 3
+
T 2.6.1.4 2.6 semialdehyde COO
CHCH(NH 3)COO P OCH 2C(CH 3)2CH(OH)CONHCH 2CH2COO
C(OH)CH(OH)COO CHCOCOO
CH3CH2 4-P-Pantothenate
I CH2O-CO-R CH 2O-CO-R CH 2O-CO-R OHCCOO 4.1.3.5 4.1.3.4
1.1.1.39 CH3COC(OH)CH 2CH3 CH3CH2 CH3CH2 2.6.1.32 Cysteine
OH OH 2.7.7.41 Glyoxylate 2-Aceto-2- 2:3-Di-OH-
4.2.1.9
2-Oxo-3-methyl 6.3.2.5
O R'-CO-OCH O R'-CO-OCH O COO
+
R'-CO-OCH O
CH2COO
-OOCCOCH COO-
2 2.3.1.
16
hydroxy- 1.1.1.86 3-methylvalerate
ISOLEUCINE COO
CH 2O PO CH 2CHNH 3
NADH+H+ OXALOACETATE 2.6.1.1 valerate
N CH2O-PO 1.3.99.7
- Serine
CH2O POCMP 1.1.1.79
1.2.3.5
CH3C(OH)CH 2COSCoA
butyrate
P OCH 2C(CH 3)2CH(OH)CONHCH 2CH 2CO NHCHCH 2SH
4-P-Pantothenylcysteine
O - HO OH O
2.7.8.8
O
ß-OH-ß-Methyl- 4.1.3.7
CH2COO-
PHOSPHATIDYL CDP-diacyl HOCH 2COO 4.2.1.
18 NAD+ CH3 CH 3 CH3 CH 3 1.2.1.25
OH
Inositol Glycolate glutaryl-CoA 4.1.3.8 C(OH)COO- CH3COCHCOSCoA CH3CH(OH)CHCOSCoA CH3CH=CHCOSCoA CH3CH 2CHCOSCoA 4.1.1.36
SERINE 2.7.8.11 glycerol CH2COO-
Phosphatidyl 2-Methylaceto-1.1.1.35 2-Methyl-3-4.2.1.17Tiglyl-CoA 2 Methylbutyryl-
inositol CH2O-CO-R
1.2.1.21 HOOC-COOH CITRATE acetyl-CoA hydroxy- 1.3.99.3
CoA P OCH 2C(CH 3)2CH(OH)CONHCH 2CH 2CO NHCH 2CH 2SH
CH2O-CO-R CH 2O-CO-R’ Oxalate 1.1.1.34
FMN I 4.1.3.2
R'-CO-OCH O O HCO-CO-R R'-CO-OCH O 2.7.8.5 HOCH 2CHO
I -OOCCHO 4.2.1.3
CH 3CH2COSCoA
butyryl-CoA 4-P-Pantetheine
P CH 2O-CO-R
4.1.1.65 CH2 O-POCH 2CH(OH)CH 2 O-P-OCH 2 CH2O-PO CH 2CHOHCH 2OH Glycol Glyoxylate CH(OH)COO- Propanoyl-CoA 2.7.7.3
- - O- aldehyde CH2COO Cycle CHCOO-
H O
1.6.5.3

R'-CO-OCH O 1.1.1.37 2.1.3.1 6.4.1.3 +


O COOH COOH
Cardiolipin Phosphatidylglycerol CH3C(OH)CH 2CHO CH2COO-
C (CH3)2CHCH 2 CH(NH 3)COO
+ FMNH2 4.1.1.41
O CH 2O P OCH 2CH2 NH 3
-
+ +
1.4.3.8 Mevaldate ISOCITRATE 5.1.99.1
(CH3)2CHC(OH)CH 2COO (CH3)2CHCHCH(OH)COO (CH3)2CHCH 2COCOO 2.6.1.6
LEUCINE
ADP- OCH2 C(CH 3)2CH(OH)CONHCH 2CH2CO NHCH 2CH2SH
Dephospho-Coenzyme A
CPP- OCH 2CH2 NH3 POCH2CH2 NH3 + 2-Isopropyl- 3-Isopropyl- 1.1.1.85 Oxoleucine
S
O +
2.7.8.1 CDP-Ethanolamine 2.7.7.14
Ethanolamine-P 2.7.1.82 HOCH 2CH 2NH 3 2H 4.1.3.1 4.2.1.33 1.4.1.9
Phosphatidyl 1.1.1.32 1.1.1.41 CH3 malate malate 2.7.1.24
P CH2OH Ethanolamine 2Fe -S CH3CH(OH)CH2CO.SCoA
ethanolamine (5 Clusters) MALATE OOC-CH-COSCoA
4.2.1.18
CH3 CH3 1.2.1.25
H
CH2O-CO-R
CEPHALIN
HOCH O CH3COCH 2CH2N(CH3 )3 Methylmalonyl-CoA OOCCH 2C = CHCOSCoA CH3C = CHCOSCoA (CH3)2CHCH 2COSCoA P-ADP- OCH 2 C(CH 3)2CH(OH)CONHCH 2CH 2CO NHCH 2CH2SH
A
+ -OOCCOCH CH COO-
4H+
4.1.1.71
4H+
HOCH O CH COO 2 2 6.4.1.4 1.3.99.10
O + CH2OPO CH2CH 2N(CH 3) Acetylcholine CH C(OH)CH
2
2-OXO- 3-Methyl- 3-Methyl- Isovaleryl-CoA Coenzyme A
CH2OPO CH2CH2N(CH 3)3 - O
Glycerophosphocholine 3.1 3 2 CH2OH 1.6. 5.3 ASPARTATE 2.7.2 4.2.1.18
glutaconyl-CoA crotonyl-CoA M
L CH2OCH=CHR
2.1.1.17
2.1.1.71 O - Lysolecithin 3.1.1.5 .4.2 Mevalonate 2H+ 4.2.1.2 GLUTARATE .4
1.1.1.3
I R-CO-OCH O
CH 2 O-CO-R
3.1.1.32
3.1.4.4 2.3.1.6 or 1.2.4.2
2.3.1.61
I
2.7.1.36
2H+ -
O +
N
+ R'-CO-OCH 3.1.4.3
+ P OOCCH 2CH(NH3)COO
2.7.4.2 OOCCH=CHCOO-
P CH2OPO CH2CH2N(CH 3)3
-
CH2OPOCH2CH2N(CH 3)3 + + +
FUMARATE
4.3.1.1
Aspartyl-P H H2
+
NH3
- O
OOCCH 2CH2CONH
O O CPP-O CH2CH2N(CH 3)3 OCH 2CH2 N(CH 3)3 HOCH 2CH2N(CH 3)3 1.2 C C
I Choline LECITHIN CDP-choline 2.7.7.15
Choline-P CHOLINE CH2COO UQH2 6.3.5.4 .1.1
1 +
HC CH 2
CH-COO
H 2C CH2 OOCCH 2CH2CONH OOCCHCH 2CH2CH 2CH-COO
+
OOCCH-CH 2CH2CH2CHCOO
+
plasmalogen 1.3.1.35 2.7.8.2 2.7.1.32 OOCC OOCC CH-COO
D 2.7.8
.3
3.1.4.12 CH3C(OH)CH 2CH2OPP FADH2 +
-OOCCH2CH2CO.SCoA 5.1.99.1 OHCCH 2CH (NH3)COO N N OOCCOCH 2CH2CH2CH-COO NH3 NH 3

S Serine +NH +
NH 3
+
NH 3
+
NH 3 Diphospho- Fe-S 1.3.5.1 SUCCINYL-CoA 5.4.99.2 OOCCH 2CH2CHO Aspartyl 4.2.1.52 2, 3-Dihydro-1.3.1.26 Piperideine- N-Succinyl- 2.6.1.17 N-Succinyl-2, 6 3.5.1.18 Diamino- A
2.3.1.50 3
mevalonate 6.2.1.4 1.2.1.16
Succinic Semialdehyde dipicolinate 2, 6-dicarboxylate 2-amino-6-oxo- diaminopimelate pimelate C
CH3(CH2)12CH=CHCH(OH)CHCH 2OH CH3(CH2)12CH=CHCH(OH)CHCH 2O- Galactose
CH 3(CH2)14COCHCH 2OH CH3(CH2)14CH(OH)CHCH 2OH
semialdehyde pimelate
Dehydrosphinganin
1.1.1.102
Sphinganin 4-Sphingenin Psychosine Cyt.b FAD
-OOCCH2CH2COO-
SUCCINATE
OH
+ + + + + + 5.1.1
.7 I
Gangliosides UDP-Sugars Acyl-CoA
2.4.1.23 UQ II Glycine (CH3)3NCH2CH(OH)CH 2COO (CH3)3N(CH 2)3 CH2CH(NH 3)COO (CH3)3N(CH 2)3 CH2CH(NH 3)COO H2N(CH 2)4 CH(NH 3)COO
4.1.1.
20
D
3.5.1.23 Acyl-CoA 4.1.1.33 + Carnitine N6-Trimethyl- N6-Trimethyllysine LYSINE
2.4.1.62
UDP-Galactose UQH2 2H+
2.3.1.37 H2NOCCH 2CH (NH3 COO
1.14.11.1
3-OH-lysine
1.14.11.8
1.5.1.7 - 10
S
+
NHAcyl O
NHCOR
NHCOR Asparagine 2.6.1.19 COO
CH3(CH2)12CH=CHCH(OH)CHCH 2O PO CH2CH2N(CH 3)3
O - CH3(CH2)12CH=CHCH(OH)CHCH 2OH CH3(CH2)12CH=CHCH(OH)CHCH 2O- Galactose CH2 5-Amino- +
NH CHCH 2CH2COO
+ +
SPHINGOMYELIN
2.7.8.3
Ceramide Cerebroside levulinate OOCCH 2CH 2CH2COSCoA OOCCH 2CH2CH2COCOO OOCCH 2CH2CH2CH (NH3) COO OHCCH 2CH2CH2CH (NH 3) COO CH 2CH2CH2CH2CH (NH3) COO
3.1.4.12 3.2.1.46 2.4.1.47
CH3C-CH2CH2OPP
2UQH2 UQH2 1.3.99.7
1.3.99.7 Isopentenyl-PP 1.10.2.2 + 4.1.1.70
Glutaryl-CoA 2-Oxoadipate 2.6.1.39
2-Aminoadipate 1.2.1.31 2-Aminoadipate 1.5.1.9
Saccharopine
CH3
(C5) 4H+
R-CH(NH3) COO
OOCCH 2CH2CH2NH2 semialdehyde
I CH3C = CHCH 2OPP
2e- 2UQ_ 2H+ 2-AMINO ACID 4-Aminobutyrate Adenosyl
Lycopene (C40) Phytoene Dimethylallyl-PP . (GABA)
S
CH3-SCH 2CH2CHNH 2
(C40)
III 1e- _ R-CO-COO H2N(CH 2)3NH(CH2)4NH (CH2)3NH2 +
(C5) 2.5.1.1 2e- UQ. 2-OXO ACID Spermine S-Adenosylmethyl
TRA

To Brain - VISION
O hv CH 3 CH3 Fe-S +
OOCCH 2CH 2CH (NH3) COO 1.
1.
15
thiopropylamine LEGEND
1e- 2.6.1.- 4.
P
NS

ß-CAROTENE (C40) 2.5.1.32 2.5.1.29 (Decarboxylated SAM)


CH3C= CHCH 2 CH2C= CHCH 2OPP Cyt.bL Cyt.bH MI
GLUTAMATE
A

NA
R Metarhodopsin Rhodopsin O
CH2OPP Geranyl-PP TIO N 2.7.2.
11 POOCCH CH CH(NH ) COO
+
2.5.1.22 Carbohydrates Amino Acids
E 1.13.11.21 CH3O CH3
Geranyl-geranyl-PP (C10) Cyt.c1 2 2 3 H2N(CH 2)4NH (CH2)3NH2
Biosynthesis Biosynthesis
COO- Opsin (C20) Glutamyl-P Spermidine Degradation Degradation
N
CH3O n
2UQ UQ
Retinoate
O Ubiquinone 2.5.1.10 1.10.2.2
O 1.2.1.36
CHO (Coenzyme Q) OPP Cyt.c 1.4.1.2 1.4.1.14 3.5.1.2
6.3.1.2 1.2.1.41
Lipids Purines &
I trans-Retinal 5.2.1.3
11-cis-Retinal CHO Menaquinone CH2OH CH2 2.5.1.16 Biosynthesis Pyrimidines
D
Light Phytol (C20) or ting ATP NO3- NH4+ + Degradation Biosynthesis
1.1.1.105 nsp 3.6.1.34 synt H2NOCCH 2CH2CH (NH3) COO + H2NCH2CH2CH2CH2NH2
Retinol esters 1.1.1.105 Plastoquinone CuA CuA +-
tra h 1.6.6.1 Glutamine OHCCH 2CH 2CH(NH3) COO
Putrescine Degradation
S CH3
Farnesyl-PP oscp 1.7.99.4 .7.1
1.7 .6.4 ATP Glutamic
as

O
H

HO CH 3 1.6 .1
e

2.3.1.76 CH2OH CH 3 O (C15)


2H+ NO2- .6 CO2 semialdehyde Vitamins Co-enzymes & Hormones
3.1.1.21 CH2OH Heme a 18 6.3.4.16
S
CH3 1. CH3COCOO OHCCOO Biosynthesis Degradation
5.2.1.7 O 6.3.5.5 CH2 CH2
11-cis-Retinol Phylloquinone
5

trans-Retinol α-Tocopherol F1 Pyruvate Glyoxylate


5.

2.5.1.21 δ
3.

T (Vitamin A) Dark (Vitamin K) (Vitamin E) N2


6.

CH CHCOO
F6 H2NCOOP 2.6.1.13 Pentose Phosphate Pathway
E STEROIDS 2H+ CuB Heme a3 Carbamoyl-P +
H 2NCONHCH 2CH2CH2CH(NH3) COO
N
Pyrroline-5-
2H + ATP
R 2
β ATP CITRULLINE carboxylate
4.1.3.16
Photosynthesis Dark Reactions
O 2e- γ 3 OOCCH(OH)CH 2COCOO
Progesterone β 4.1.1.17
AD

β 2.1.3.3
I
H
AαT 1.5.99.8 4-Hydroxy-
P

H H 1.9.3.1
HO HO HO P +1 P i CH2 CH2 Human Metabolism is identified as far possible by black arrows
HO
Pi α 1.5.1.2 2-oxoglutarate
D IV ADP +
H
1/ O 2.1.3.3 Biosynthesis Degradation
Pregnenolone CHOLESTEROL Desmosterol Zymosterol
H
Lanosterol 5.4.99.7
Squalene 2 2 H+ + CH2 CHCOO
H+ H2NCH2CH2CH2CH (NH3) COO
S 1.14.99.7 (C30) H+
H+
β
F1 ORNITHINE
NH
2.6.1.23 COMPARTMENTATION
HEMOGLOBIN CHLOROPHYLL H+
γ 6.3.4.5
PROLINE
COO-
COO-
H 2O 1.14.11.2
+
OOCCH(OH)CH 2CH(NH 3)COO
The "Backbone" of metabolism involves

P ε
COO- H2NCONH 2 OOCCHCH 2COO GLYCOLYSIS in the CYTOPLASM,
CH2 CH2 CH2
COO- COO- δ F0 4-Hydroxy-
CH2
COO- CH2 2.1.4.1 UREA N + HOCH CH2
the TCA CYCLE (mainly) in the Mitochondrial matrix
O
CH3
CH H CH
CH H2 CH3 CH CH2 H2 CH3 H+ H2NCNHCH 2CH 2CH2CH(NH3) COO glutamate and ATP FORMATION spanning the
TRA N S L O

2 CH2 -OOC CH2 H CH2 CH2


C C C 2 CH2 a +
H+ Glycine + Arginino- H2C CHCOO
R 3.5.3.1
C H+ 3.5.3.6 MITOCHONDRIAL INNER MEMBRANE
H3 C CH H3 C CH H2NCH2C=O H+
N N
H3 C CH2
H 2C CH2
5-Amino- α
H+
s NH2 NO succinate
N
H 1.5.1.12
HOCH CH2
N N N N nit
P H H H H N
H H
N
COOlevulinate
10 c-sucb-u + 1.14.13.39 HC CHCOO
An electron flow (an electric current) generated from
NADH and UQH2 drives the translocation of protons
HYDROXY
HC Fe CH H2 C CH2 H2 C CH2 - H2NCNHCH 2CH2CH2CH (NH3) COO N
H H H H H H 2C CH2 AT
ARGININE 3-Hydroxy- from the matrix to the intermembrane space.
C

N N N N N N H H -OOC
CH 2 E H+ H+ PROLINE The retrolocation of these protons through the F0 subunits
Y
N N D PROTONS
H3 C
C
CH3 H3 C CH3 H3 C CH3
H 2C CH2 H+ H+ pyrroline- of ATP synthase to the matrix then supplies the energy
C C CH 2
H2 C 4.2.1.24 4.3.2.1 5-carboxylate
R CH2
H CH2 CH2 H2 CH2 CH2 H2 CH2
-
OOC CH2
C
H2 CH2
COO- ADP Pi
+ NH + NH2 HN C
NH CO
needed to form ATP from ADP and phosphate

I CH2 + NH2 Electron Flow Proton Flow


ATP
CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 H2 C N 2
N CH 2
COO- COO- COO- COO- COO- COO-
H X Y H2NCNHCH 2COO H2NCN(CH 3)CH2COO P- HNCN(CH 3)CH2COO 1.5.1.2
N COO- COO- H2 N
Guanidoacetate
2.1.1.2
Creatine 2.7.3.2 P-Creatine
CH3
Small Numbers ( eg. 2.4.6.7) refer to the IUBMBEnzyme
1.3.3.4 1.3.3.3 4.1.1.37 4.3.1.8 Creatinine
S HEME Protoporphyrinogen Coproporphyrinogen Uroporphyrinogen Porphobilinogen E NDE
RGONIC REACTIO N 3.5.2.10 Commission (EC) Reference Numbers of Enzymes
4.99.1.1 4.2.1.75

©2003 International Union of Biochemistry and 22nd Edition Designed by Donald E. Nicholson, D.Sc.,
Molecular Biology www.iubmb.org The University of Leeds, England – and Sigma-Aldrich Cat. No. M3782

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XXX
Metabolic Pathways

Oxidoreductases 1.14.11.2 Procollagen-proline dioxygenase 2.7.1.31 Glycerate kinase 4.1.1.50 Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase
1.14.11.8 Trimethyllysine dioxygenase 2.7.1.32 Choline kinase 4.1.1.65 Phosphatidylserine decarboxylase
1.1.1.1 Alcohol dehydrogenase
1.14.12.1 Anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase 2.7.1.33 Pantothenate kinase 4.1.1.71 2-Oxoglutarate decarboxylase
1.1.1.3 Homoserine dehydrogenase
(deaminating, decarboxylating) 2.7.1.34 Pantetheine kinase 4.1.2.5 Threonine aldolase
1.1.1.8 Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
1.14.13.5 Imidazoleacetate 4-monooxygenase 2.7.1.36 Mevalonate kinase 4.1.2.12 Ketopantoaldolase
1.1.1.9 D-Xylulose reductase
1.14.13.9 Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase 2.7.1.39 Homoserine kinase 4.1.2.13 Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase
1.1.1.10 l-Xylulose reductase
1.14.13.11 trans-Cinnamate 4-monooxygenase 2.7.1.40 Pyruvate kinase 4.1.2.14 2-Dehydro-3-deoxyphosphogluconate aldolase
1.1.1.14 l-Iditol dehydrogenase
1.14.13.12 Benzoate 4-monooxygenase 2.7 1.47 D-Ribulokinase 4.1.3.1 Isocitrate lyase
1.1.1.19 Glucuronate reductase
1.14.13.39 Nitric oxide synthase 2.7.1.53 l-Xylulokinase 4.1.3.2 Malate synthase
1.1.1.21 Aldehyde reductase
1.14.16.1 Phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase 2.7.1.60 N-Acylmannosamine kinase 4.1.3.4 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA lyase
1.1.1.22 UDPglucose dehydrogenase
1.14.16.2 Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase 2.7.1.71 Shikimate kinase 4.1.3.5 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase
1.1.1.23 Histidinol dehydrogenase
1.14.16.4 Tryptophan 5-monooxygenase 2.7.1.80 Pyrophosphate—serine phosphotransferase 4.1.3.7 Citrate (si)-synthase
1.1.1.25 Shikimate dehydrogenase
1.14.17.1 Dopamine ß-monooxygenase 2.7.1.82 Ethanolamine kinase 4.1.3.8 ATP citrate (pro-S)-lyase
1.1.1.27 Lactate dehydrogenase
1.14.18.1 Monophenol monooxygenase 2.7.1.107 Diacylglycerol kinase 4.1.3.16 4-Hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase
1.1.1.29 Glycerate dehydrogenase
1 14.99.1 Prostaglandin synthase 2.7.2.3 Phosphoglycerate kinase 4.1.3.18 Acetolactate synthase
1.1.1.30 3-Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase
1 14.99.5 Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2.7.2.4 Aspartate kinase 4.1.3.20 N-Acylneuraminate-9-phosphate synthase
1.1.1.31 3-Hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase
1.14.99.7 Squalene monooxygenase 2.7.2.6 Formate kinase 4.1.3.21 Homocitrate synthase
1.1.1.32 Mevaldate reductase
1.14.99.25 Linoleoyl-CoA desaturase 2.7.2.11 Glutamate 5-kinase 4.1.3.22 Citramalate lyase
1.1.1.34 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)
1.17.4.1 Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase 2.7.3.2 Creatine kinase 4.1.3.27 Anthranilate synthase
1.1.1.35 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase
1.18.6.1 Nitrogenase 2.7.4.2 Phosphomevalonate kinase 4.1.99.1 Tryptophanase
1.1.1.37 Malate dehydrogenase
2.7.4.3 Adenylate kinase 4.2.1.2 Fumarate hydratas