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DEFINIR
SIPOC
INDICATOR KPI
SIGNAL CHART
GRÁFICO DE PIZZA
MEDIR
MSA  R&R
TRADICIONAL
MSA  TENDENCIA
FISHBONE
FISHBONE
BRAINSTORMING 
GUITE
CAPABILITY  CP AND
CPK
POLIVALENCE MATRIX
MELHORAR
FMEA
KPI INDICATOR
CONTROLAR
SIGMA LEVEL  DPMO
Release 5.4 28 Fev 2013  São Paulo
Excel 2010
Melhoria Contínua (ANDRADE)
entas do Lean 6 Sigm
STATISTICAL
OAD MAP REFERENCE TOOL DMAIC SCHEDULE
OC PROCESS MAP ( EM
BENCHMARKING
OBRAS )
R&R
IONAL MSA  R&R ANOVA MSA  ATRIBUTOS
MSA  ESTABILIDADE
NDENCIA E TENDENCIA MSA  LINEARIEDADE
Y  CP AND
PK NORMAL CURVE
SWOT
EA DOE ANOVA
CAPABILITY  CP AND
DUAL CPK
ART
STATISTICAL
REFERENCE TOOL
UTOS
HISTOGRAM NORMAL
CURVE
RIEDADE
CT SHEET CORRELATION
MATRIX
CORRELATION
SIGMA LEVEL  CYCLE
TIME
E SIGNA L CHART
UAL
kaiz
Con
Ferramentas Estatísticas Av
HYPOTHESIS TEST 
REGRESSION PROPORTION 2 SAMPLE SAMPLE SIZE
HYPOTHESIS TEST 
REGRESSION SAMPLE SIZE
PROPORTION 2 SAMPLE
LEITURAS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
1ª LEITURA 9.88 10.09 10.77 9.94 9.58 10.34 9.55 10.91 10.07 10.53 9.62 9.88 10.09 10.77 9.94 9.58 10.34 9.55 10.91 10.07 10.53 9.62 10.07 10.53 9.62
2ª LEITURA
3ª LEITURA
4ª LEITURA
5ª LEITURA
MÉDIA 9.88 10.09 10.77 9.94 9.58 10.34 9.55 10.91 10.07 10.53 9.62 9.88 10.09 10.77 9.94 9.58 10.34 9.55 10.91 10.07 10.53 9.62 10.07 10.53 9.62
AMPLITUDE 0.00 0.22 0.68 0.83 0.37 0.76 0.79 1.36 0.84 0.46 0.91 0.25 0.22 0.68 0.83 0.37 0.76 0.79 1.36 0.84 0.46 0.91 0.45 0.46 0.91
S 0.611 ICP 354.790 Cp 3.548 LSC X 11.944 Máx. 10.907 Range 1.36
12.00
10.00
8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
20
HISTOGRAMA 80.0%
18
70.0%
16
60.0%
14
50.0%
12
10 40.0%
8
30.0%
20.0%
4
10.0%
2
0 0.0%
2  3,3 3.3  4.6 4.6  5.9 5.9  7.2 7.2  8.5 8.5  9.8 9.8  11.1 11.1  12.4 12.4  13.7 13.7  15
CONTRATO DE ABERTURA DE PROJETO
Título do Projeto: Nr xx
Data abertura : Data prevista de conclusão:
Líder do Projeto: Padrinho :
Fábrica: Tipo de projeto:
Área Afetada: Benefícios Tipo:
Participantes :
Nome: Área Ramal:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
APOIO:
Indicadores do Projeto & Metas: ( ex: Scrap, refugo, Lead Time, ppm, etc.)
Oportunidades :
Priorização:
Sim Não
1 O projeto está alinhado com as metas estratégicas da empresa ?
x
2 Este projeto busca solução para problemas que impactam os clientes?
GERÊNCIA DE PRODUTO
Nome:
Ass: _______________________
Nome:
Ass: _______________________
Nome:
Ass: _______________________
64.31
Voltar
Controle Estatístico de Processo Controle Estatístico de Processo
Gráfico de Controle  Amostras Gráfico de Controle  Carta X/R
Característica:
Preencher: Carta X/
4
n* = 5 k** = 8 LSE = 5.00 LIE = 2.00
3.5
3
* n = Quantidade de amostras por subgrupos LSE = Limite Superior de Especificação 2.5
2
** k = Quantidade de Subgrupos LIE = Limite Inferior de Especificação
1.5
0.5
15
0
16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
POSITIVO NEGATIVO
POSITIVO NEGATIVO
Tecnologia sdsds
Forças
Forças Fraquezas
Fraquezas
INTERNOS
INTERNOS
ssds
(S)
(S) (W)
(W)
Oportunidades
Oportunidades sdsdsds Ameaças
Ameaças
EXTERNOS
EXTERNOS
(O)
(O) (T)
(T)
TIPO CUSTO
queimada 77000 REFUGO MOLDAGEM  2013
quebrada 55000
esgarçado 15000
cortado 250000
riscado 11000 esgarçado; 3%
manchado 71500 cortado; 52%
quebrada; 11%
queimada; 16%
riscado; 2%
manchado; 15%
Calculadora Sigma
Tool to use: What does it do? Why use it? When to use?
A worst case analysis is a nonstatistical Worst case analysis tells you the minimum and You should use worst case analysis : To analyze safetycritical Ys,
tolerance analysis tool used to identify maximum limits within which your total product or and when no process data is available and only the tolerances on
whether combinations of inputs (Xs) at process will vary. You can then compare these Xs are known. Worst case analysis should be used sparingly
their upper and lower specification limits limits with the required specification limits to see if because it does not take into account the probabilistic nature (that
Data Type: always produce an acceptable output they are acceptable. By testing these limits in is, the likelihood of variance from the specified values) of the
measure (Y). advance, you can modify any incorrect tolerance inputs.
all settings before actually beginning production of the
product or process.
N/A
Jairo Brandão 
Definitions
Term Definition
1Sample sign test Tests the probability of sample median being equal to hypothesized value.
Accuracy refers to the variation between a measurement and what actually exists. It is the difference between an individual's average
Accuracy measurements and that of a known standard, or accepted "truth."
Alpha risk is defined as the risk of accepting the alternate hypothesis when, in fact, the null hypothesis is true; in other words, stating a difference
exists where actually there is none. Alpha risk is stated in terms of probability (such as 0.05 or 5%). The acceptable level of alpha risk is determined
by an organization or individual and is based on the nature of the decision being made. For decisions with high consequences (such as those
Alpha risk involving risk to human life), an alpha risk of less than 1% would be expected. If the decision involves minimal time or money, an alpha risk of 10%
may be appropriate. In general, an alpha risk of 5% is considered the norm in decision making. Sometimes alpha risk is expressed as its inverse,
which is confidence level. In other words, an alpha risk of 5% also could be expressed as a 95% confidence level.
The alternate hypothesis (H a) is a statement that the observed difference or relationship between two populations is real and not due to chance or
Alternative hypothesis (Ha) sampling error. The alternate hypothesis is the opposite of the null hypothesis (P < 0.05). A dependency exists between two or more factors
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Analysis of variance is a statistical technique for analyzing data that tests for a difference between two or more means. See the tool 1Way ANOVA.
Beta risk is defined as the risk of accepting the null hypothesis when, in fact, the alternate hypothesis is true. In other words, stating no difference
exists when there is an actual difference. A statistical test should be capable of detecting differences that are important to you, and beta risk is the
Beta risk probability (such as 0.10 or 10%) that it will not. Beta risk is determined by an organization or individual and is based on the nature of the decision
being made. Beta risk depends on the magnitude of the difference between sample means and is managed by increasing test sample size. In
general, a beta risk of 10% is considered acceptable in decision making.
Bias in a sample is the presence or influence of any factor that causes the population or process being sampled to appear different from what it
Bias actually is. Bias is introduced into a sample when data is collected without regard to key factors that may influence the population or process.
Blocking Blocking neutralizes background variables that can not be eliminated by randomizing. It does so by spreading them across the experiment
Boxplot A box plot, also known as a box and whisker diagram, is a basic graphing tool that displays centering, spread, and distribution of a continuous data set
Cap Tools A group of templates,statistical and analytical tools that helps Belts to develop their projects in a standardized way. Developed by Capgemini DEX
Capability Analysis Capability analysis is a MinitabTM tool that visually compares actual process performance to the performance standards. See the tool Capability
Analysis.
Cause A factor (X) that has an impact on a response variable (Y); a source of variation in a process or product.
A cause and effect diagram is a visual tool used to logically organize possible causes for a specific problem or effect by graphically displaying them
Cause and Effect Diagram in increasing detail. It helps to identify root causes and ensures common understanding of the causes that lead to the problem. Because of its
fishbone shape, it is sometimes called a "fishbone diagram." See the tool Cause and Effect Diagram.
Center The center of a process is the average value of its data. It is equivalent to the mean and is one measure of the central tendency.
A center point is a run performed with all factors set halfway between their low and high levels. Each factor must be continuous to have a logical
Center points halfway point. For example, there are no logical center points for the factors vendor, machine, or location (such as city); however, there are logical
center points for the factors temperature, speed, and length.
Central Limit Theorem The central limit theorem states that given a distribution with a mean m and variance s2, the sampling distribution of the mean appraches a normal
distribution with a mean and variance/N as N, the sample size, increases
Characteristic A characteristic is a definable or measurable feature of a process, product, or variable.
A chi square test, also called "test of association," is a statistical test of association between discrete variables. It is based on a mathematical
comparison of the number of observed counts with the number of expected counts to determine if there is a difference in output counts based on the
Chi Square test input category. See the tool Chi SquareTest of Independence. Used with Defects data (counts) & defectives data (how many good or bad).
Critical ChiSquare is Chisquared value where p=.05.
Common cause variability is a source of variation caused by unknown factors that result in a steady but random distribution of output around the
average of the data. Common cause variation is a measure of the process's potential, or how well the process can perform when special cause
Common cause variability variation is removed. Therefore, it is a measure of the process technology. Common cause variation is also called random variation, noise,
noncontrollable variation, withingroup variation, or inherent variation. Example: many X's with a small impact.
Measurement of the certainty of the shape of the fitted regression line. A 95% confidence band implies a 95% chance that the true regression line
Confidence band (or interval) fits within the confidence bands. Measurement of certainty.
Factors or interactions are said to be confounded when the effect of one factor is combined with that of another. In other words, their effects can not
Confounding be analyzed independently.
Consumers Risk Concluding something is bad when it is actually good (TYPE II Error)
Continuous data is information that can be measured on a continuum or scale. Continuous data can have almost any numeric value and can be
meaningfully subdivided into finer and finer increments, depending upon the precision of the measurement system. Examples of continuous data
Continuous Data include measurements of time, temperature, weight, and size. For example, time can be measured in days, hours, minutes, seconds, and in even
smaller units. Continuous data is also called quantitative data.
Control limits define the area three standard deviations on either side of the centerline, or mean, of data plotted on a control chart. Do not confuse
control limits with specification limits. Control limits reflect the expected variation in the data and are based on the distribution of the data points.
Control limits Minitab™ calculates control limits using collected data. Specification limits are established based on customer or regulatory requirements.
Specification limits change only if the customer or regulatory body so requests.
Correlation is the degree or extent of the relationship between two variables. If the value of one variable increases when the value of the other
Correlation increases, they are said to be positively correlated. If the value of one variable decreases when the value of the other decreases, they are said to be
negatively correlated. The degree of linear association between two variables is quantified by the correlation coefficient
The correlation coefficient quantifies the degree of linear association between two variables. It is typically denoted by r and will have a value ranging
Correlation coefficient (r) between negative 1 and positive 1.
A critical element is an X that does not necessarily have different levels of a specific scale but can be configured according to a variety of
independent alternatives. For example, a critical element may be the routing path for an incoming call or an item request form in an ordertaking
Critical element process. In these cases the critical element must be specified correctly before you can create a viable solution; however, numerous alternatives may
be considered as possible solutions.
CTQs (stands for Critical to Quality) are the key measurable characteristics of a product or process whose performance standards, or specification
CTQ limits, must be met in order to satisfy the customer. They align improvement or design efforts with critical issues that affect customer satisfaction.
CTQs are defined early in any Six Sigma project, based on Voice of the Customer (VOC) data.
Cycle time is the total time from the beginning to the end of your process, as defined by you and your customer. Cycle time includes process time,
Cycle time during which a unit is acted upon to bring it closer to an output, and delay time, during which a unit of work waits to be processed.
Dashboard A dashboard is a tool used for collecting and reporting information about vital customer requirements and your business's performance for key
customers. Dashboards provide a quick summary of process performance.
Data Data is factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation; often this term refers to quantitative information
Defect A defect is any nonconformity in a product or process; it is any event that does not meet the performance standards of a Y.
Defective The word defective describes an entire unit that fails to meet acceptance criteria, regardless of the number of defects within the unit. A unit may be
defective because of one or more defects.
Descriptive statistics Descriptive statistics is a method of statistical analysis of numeric data, discrete or continuous, that provides information about centering, spread,
and normality. Results of the analysis can be in tabular or graphic format.
A design risk assessment is the act of determining potential risk in a design process, either in a concept design or a detailed design. It provides a
Design Risk Assessment broader evaluation of your design beyond just CTQs, and will enable you to eliminate possible failures and reduce the impact of potential failures.
This ensures a rigorous, systematic examination in the reliability of the design and allows you to capture systemlevel risk
When you are deciding what factors and interactions you want to get information about, you also need to determine the smallest effect you will
Detectable Effect Size consider significant enough to improve your process. This minimum size is known as the detectable effect size, or DES. Large effects are easier to
detect than small effects. A design of experiment compares the total variability in the experiment to the variation caused by a factor. The smaller the
effect you are interested in, the more runs you will need to overcome the variability in your experimentation.
DF (degrees of freedom) Equal to: (#rows  1)(#cols  1)
Discrete data is information that can be categorized into a classification. Discrete data is based on counts. Only a finite number of values is possible,
Discrete Data and the values cannot be subdivided meaningfully. For example, the number of parts damaged in shipment produces discrete data because parts
are either damaged or not damaged.
Distribution refers to the behavior of a process described by plotting the number of times a variable displays a specific value or range of values
Distribution rather than by plotting the value itself.
DMADV DMADV is a datadriven quality strategy for designing products and processes, and it is an integral part of Six Sigma Quality Initiative. DMADV
consists of five interconnected phases: Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify.
DMAIC DMAIC refers to a datadriven quality strategy for improving processes, and is an integral part of the company's Six Sigma Quality Initiative. DMAIC
is an acronym for five interconnected phases: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control.
DOE A design of experiment is a structured, organized method for determining the relationship between factors (Xs) affecting a process and the output of
that process.
DPMO Defects per million opportunities (DPMO) is the number of defects observed during a standard production run divided by the number of opportunities
to make a defect during that run, multiplied by one million.
DPO Defects per opportunity (DPO) represents total defects divided by total opportunities. DPO is a preliminary calculation to help you calculate DPMO
(defects per million opportunities). Multiply DPO by one million to calculate DPMO.
DPU Defects per unit (DPU) represents the number of defects divided by the number of products.
Dunnett's(1way ANOVA): Check to obtain a twosided confidence interval for the difference between each treatment mean and a control mean. Specify a family error rate
between 0.5 and 0.001. Values greater than or equal to 1.0 are interpreted as percentages. The default error rate is 0.05.
Effect An effect is that which is produced by a cause; the impact a factor (X) has on a response variable (Y).
Entitlement As good as a process can get without capital investment
Error Error, also called residual error, refers to variation in observations made under identical test conditions, or the amount of variation that can not be
attributed to the variables included in the experiment.
Error (type I) Error that concludes that someone is guilty, when in fact, they really are not. (Ho true, but I rejected itconcluded Ha) ALPHA
Error (type II) Error that concludes that someone is not guilty, when in fact, they really are. (Ha true, but I concluded Ho). BETA
Factor A factor is an independent variable; an X.
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a disciplined approach used to identify possible failures of a product or service and then determine the
frequency and impact of the failure. See the tool Failure Mode and Effects Analysis.
Fisher's (1way ANOVA): Check to obtain confidence intervals for all pairwise differences between level means using Fisher's LSD procedure. Specify an individual rate
between 0.5 and 0.001. Values greater than or equal to 1.0 are interpreted as percentages. The default error rate is 0.05.
Fits Predicted values of "Y" calculated using the regression equation for each value of "X"
Fitted value A fitted value is the Y output value that is predicted by a regression equation.
A fractional factorial design of experiment (DOE) includes selected combinations of factors and levels. It is a carefully prescribed and representative
subset of a full factorial design. A fractional factorial DOE is useful when the number of potential factors is relatively large because they reduce the
Fractional factorial DOE total number of runs required. By reducing the number of runs, a fractional factorial DOE will not be able to evaluate the impact of some of the
factors independently. In general, higherorder interactions are confounded with main effects or lowerorder interactions. Because higher order
interactions are rare, usually you can assume that their effect is minimal and that the observed effect is caused by the main effect or lowerlevel
interaction.
Frequency plot A frequency plot is a graphical display of how often data values occur.
Full factorial DOE A full factorial design of experiment (DOE) measures the response of every possible combination of factors and factor levels. These responses are
analyzed to provide information about every main effect and every interaction effect. A full factorial DOE is practical when fewer than five factors are
being investigated. Testing all combinations of factor levels becomes too expensive and timeconsuming with five or more factors.
Fvalue (ANOVA) Measurement of distance between individual distributions. As F goes up, P goes down (i.e., more confidence in there being a difference between
two means). To calculate: (Mean Square of X / Mean Square of Error)
Gage R&R Gage R&R, which stands for gage repeatability and reproducibility, is a statistical tool that measures the amount of variation in the measurement
system arising from the measurement device and the people taking the measurement. See Gage R&R tools.
Gannt Chart
A Gantt chart is a visual project planning device used for production scheduling. A Gantt chart graphically displays time needed to complete tasks.
GoodmanKruskal Gamma Term used to describe % variation explained by X
GRPI GRPI stands for four critical and interrelated aspects of teamwork: goals, roles, processes, and interpersonal relationships, and it is a tool used to
assess them. See the tool GRPI.
A histogram is a basic graphing tool that displays the relative frequency or occurrence of continuous data values showing which values occur most
Histogram and least frequently. A histogram illustrates the shape, centering, and spread of data distribution and indicates whether there are any outliers. See
the tool Histogram.
Homegeneity of variance
Homogeneity of variance is a test used to determine if the variances of two or more samples are different. See the tool Homogeneity of Variance.
Hypothesis testing refers to the process of using statistical analysis to determine if the observed differences between two or more samples are due
to random chance (as stated in the null hypothesis) or to true differences in the samples (as stated in the alternate hypothesis). A null hypothesis
(H0) is a stated assumption that there is no difference in parameters (mean, variance, DPMO) for two or more populations. The alternate hypothesis
Hypothesis testing (Ha) is a statement that the observed difference or relationship between two populations is real and not the result of chance or an error in sampling.
Hypothesis testing is the process of using a variety of statistical tools to analyze data and, ultimately, to accept or reject the null hypothesis. From a
practical point of view, finding statistical evidence that the null hypothesis is false allows you to reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate
hypothesis.
IMR Chart An IMR chart, or individual and moving range chart, is a graphical tool that displays process variation over time. It signals when a process may be
going out of control and shows where to look for sources of special cause variation. See the tool IMR Control.
In control In control refers to a process unaffected by special causes. A process that is in control is affected only by common causes. A process that is out of
control is affected by special causes in addition to the common causes affecting the mean and/or variance of a process.
Independent variable An independent variable is an input or process variable (X) that can be set directly to achieve a desired output
Intangible benefits Intangible benefits, also called soft benefits, are the gains attributable to your improvement project that are not reportable for formal accounting
purposes. These benefits are not included in the financial calculations because they are nonmonetary or are difficult to attribute directly to quality.
Examples of intangible benefits include cost avoidance, customer satisfaction and retention, and increased employee morale.
Interaction An interaction occurs when the response achieved by one factor depends on the level of the other factor. On interaction plot, when lines are not
parallel, there's an interaction.
Interrelationship digraph An interrelationship digraph is a visual display that maps out the cause and effect links among complex, multivariable problems or desired outcomes.
IQR Intraquartile range (from box plot) representing range between 25th and 75th quartile.
Kano Analysis Kano analysis is a quality measurement used to prioritize customer requirements.
KruskalWallis performs a hypothesis test of the equality of population medians for a oneway design (two or more populations). This test is a
generalization of the procedure used by the MannWhitney test and, like Mood’s median test, offers a nonparametric alternative to the oneway
KruskalWallis analysis of variance. The KruskalWallis test looks for differences among the populations medians. The KruskalWallis test is more powerful (the
confidence interval is narrower, on average) than Mood’s median test for analyzing data from many distributions, including data from the normal
distribution, but is less robust against outliers.
Kurtosis Kurtosis is a measure of how peaked or flat a curve's distribution is.
DPMO Calc A spreadsheet calculates defects per million opportunities (DPMO) and a process Z value for discrete data.
A leptokurtic distribution is symmetrical in shape, similar to a normal distribution, but the center peak is much higher; that is, there is a higher
Leptokurtic Distribution frequency of values near the mean. In addition, a leptokurtic distribution has a higher frequency of data in the tail area.
Levels Levels are the different settings a factor can have. For example, if you are trying to determine how the response (speed of data transmittal) is
affected by the factor (connection type), you would need to set the factor at different levels (modem and LAN) then measure the change in response.
Linearity is the variation between a known standard, or "truth," across the low and high end of the gage. It is the difference between an individual's
Linearity measurements and that of a known standard or truth over the full range of expected values.
A lower specification limit is a value above which performance of a product or process is acceptable. This is also known as a lower spec limit or LSL.
LSL
Lurking variable A lurking variable is an unknown, uncontrolled variable that influences the output of an experiment.
Main Effect A main effect is a measurement of the average change in the output when a factor is changed from its low level to its high level. It is calculated as
the average output when a factor is at its high level minus the average output when the factor is at its low level.
Mallows Statistic (Cp) Statistic within Regression>Best Fits which is used as a measure of bias (i.e., when predicted is different than truth). Should equal (#vars + 1)
MannWhitney MannWhitney performs a hypothesis test of the equality of two population medians and calculates the corresponding point estimate and
confidence interval. Use this test as a nonparametric alternative to the twosample ttest.
The mean is the average data point value within a data set. To calculate the mean, add all of the individual data points then divide that figure by the
Mean total number of data points.
Measurement system analysis Measurement system analysis is a mathematical method of determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes to
overall process variability.
Median The median is the middle point of a data set; 50% of the values are below this point, and 50% are above this point.
Mode The most often occurring value in the data set
Mood’s median test can be used to test the equality of medians from two or more populations and, like the KruskalWallis Test, provides an
nonparametric alternative to the oneway analysis of variance. Mood’s median test is sometimes called a median test or sign scores test. Mood’s
Median Test tests:
Moods Median H0: the population medians are all equal versus H1: the medians are not all equal
An assumption of Mood’s median test is that the data from each population are independent random samples and the population distributions have
the same shape. Mood’s median test is robust against outliers and errors in data and is particularly appropriate in the preliminary stages of analysis.
Mood’s Median test is more robust than is the KruskalWallis test against outliers, but is less powerful for data from many distributions, including the
normal.
Multicolinearity is the degree of correlation between Xs. It is an important consideration when using multiple regression on data that has been
collected without the aid of a design of experiment (DOE). A high degree of multicolinearity may lead to regression coefficients that are too large or
are headed in the wrong direction from that you had expected based on your knowledge of the process. High correlations between Xs also may
Multicolinearity result in a large pvalue for an X that changes when the intercorrelated X is dropped from the equation. The variance inflation factor provides a
measure of the degree of multicolinearity.
Multiple regression Multiple regression is a method of determining the relationship between a continuous process output (Y) and several factors (Xs).
Multivari chart A multivari chart is a tool that graphically displays patterns of variation. It is used to identify possible Xs or families of variation, such as variation
within a subgroup, between subgroups, or over time. See the tool MultiVari Chart.
Noise Process input that consistently causes variation in the output measurement that is random and expected and, therefore, not controlled is called
noise. Noise also is referred to as white noise, random variation, common cause variation, noncontrollable variation, and withingroup variation.
Nominal It refers to the value that you estimate in a design process that approximate your real CTQ (Y) target value based on the design element capacity.
Nominals are usually referred to as point estimate and related to yhat model.
Nonparametric Set of tools that avoids assuming a particular distribution.
Normal distribution is the spread of information (such as product performance or demographics) where the most frequently occurring value is in the
middle of the range and other probabilities tail off symmetrically in both directions. Normal distribution is graphically categorized by a bellshaped
Normal Distribution curve, also known as a Gaussian distribution. For normally distributed data, the mean and median are very close and may be identical.
Normal probability Used to check whether observations follow a normal distribution. P > 0.05 = data is normal
Normality test A normality test is a statistical process used to determine if a sample or any group of data fits a standard normal distribution. A normality test can be
performed mathematically or graphically. See the tool Normality Test.
A null hypothesis (H0) is a stated assumption that there is no difference in parameters (mean, variance, DPMO) for two or more populations.
Null Hypothesis (Ho) According to the null hypothesis, any observed difference in samples is due to chance or sampling error. It is written mathematically as follows: H0:
m1 = m2 H0: s1 = s2. Defines what you expect to observe. (e.g., all means are same or independent). (P > 0.05)
Opportunity An opportunity is anything that you inspect, measure, or test on a unit that provides a chance of allowing a defect.
An outlier is a data point that is located far from the rest of the data. Given a mean and standard deviation, a statistical distribution expects data
points to fall within a specific range. Those that do not are called outliers and should be investigated to ensure that the data is correct. If the data is
Outlier correct, you have witnessed a rare event or your process has changed. In either case, you need to understand what caused the outliers to occur.
Percent of tolerance Percent of tolerance is calculated by taking the measurement error of interest, such as repeatability and/or reproducibility, dividing by the total
tolerance range, then multiplying the result by 100 to express the result as a percentage.
A platykurtic distribution is one in which most of the values share about the same frequency of occurrence. As a result, the curve is very flat, or
Platykurtic Distribution plateaulike. Uniform distributions are platykurtic.
Pooled standard deviation is the standard deviation remaining after removing the effect of special cause variationsuch as geographic location or
Pooled Standard Deviation time of year. It is the average variation of your subgroups.
Measurement of the certainty of the scatter about a certain regression line. A 95% prediction band indicates that, in general, 95% of the points will
Prediction Band (or interval) be contained within the bands.
Probability Probability refers to the chance of something happening, or the fraction of occurrences over a large number of trials. Probability can range from 0
(no chance) to 1 (full certainty).
Probability of defect is the statistical chance that a product or process will not meet performance specifications or lie within the defined upper and
Probability of Defect lower specification limits. It is the ratio of expected defects to the total output and is expressed as p(d). Process capability can be determined from
the probability of defect.
Process capability refers to the ability of a process to produce a defectfree product or service. Various indicators are usedsome address overall
Process Capability performance, some address potential performance.
Producers Risk Concluding something is good when it is actually bad (TYPE I Error)
The pvalue represents the probability of concluding (incorrectly) that there is a difference in your samples when no true difference exists. It is a
statistic calculated by comparing the distribution of given sample data and an expected distribution (normal, F, t, etc.) and is dependent upon the
statistical test being performed. For example, if two samples are being compared in a ttest, a pvalue of 0.05 means that there is only 5% chance of
pvalue arriving at the calculated t value if the samples were not different (from the same population). In other words, a pvalue of 0.05 means there is only
a 5% chance that you would be wrong in concluding the populations are different. Pvalue < 0.05 = safe to conclude there's a difference.
Pvalue = risk of wasting time investigating further.
Radar Chart A radar chart is a graphical display of the differences between actual and ideal performance. It is useful for defining performance and identifying
strengths and weaknesses.
Running experiments in a random order, not the standard order in the test layout. Helps to eliminate effect of "lurking variables", uncontrolled factors
Randomization whihc might vary over the length of the experiment.
A rational subgroup is a subset of data defined by a specific factor such as a stratifying factor or a time period. Rational subgrouping identifies and
separates special cause variation (variation between subgroups caused by specific, identifiable factors) from common cause variation (unexplained,
Rational Subgroup random variation caused by factors that cannot be pinpointed or controlled). A rational subgroup should exhibit only common cause variation.
Regression analysis is a method of analysis that enables you to quantify the relationship between two or more variables (X) and (Y) by fitting a line
Regression analysis or plane through all the points such that they are evenly distributed about the line or plane. Visually, the bestfit line is represented on a scatter plot
by a line or plane. Mathematically, the line or plane is represented by a formula that is referred to as the regression equation. The regression
equation is used to model process performance (Y) based on a given value or values of the process variable (X).
Repeatability is the variation in measurements obtained when one person takes multiple measurements using the same techniques on the same
Repeatability parts or items.
Replicates Number of times you ran each corner. Ex. 2 replicates means you ran one corner twice.
Replication occurs when an experimental treatment is set up and conducted more than once. If you collect two data points at each treatment, you
have two replications. In general, plan on making between two and five replications for each treatment. Replicating an experiment allows you to
Replication estimate the residual or experimental error. This is the variation from sources other than the changes in factor levels. A replication is not two
measurements of the same data point but a measurement of two data points under the same treatment conditions. For example, to make a
replication, you would not have two persons time the response of a call from the northeast region during the night shift. Instead, you would time two
calls into the northeast region's help desk during the night shift.
Reproducibility is the variation in average measurements obtained when two or more people measure the same parts or items using the same
Reproducibility measuring technique.
Residual A residual is the difference between the actual Y output value and the Y output value predicted by the regression equation. The residuals in a
regression model can be analyzed to reveal inadequacies in the model. Also called "errors"
Resolution Resolution is a measure of the degree of confounding among effects. Roman numerals are used to denote resolution. The resolution of your design
defines the amount of information that can be provided by the design of experiment. As with a computer screen, the higher the resolution of your
design, the more detailed the information you will see. The lowest resolution you can have is resolution III.
A robust process is one that is operating at 6 sigma and is therefore resistant to defects. Robust processes exhibit very good shortterm process
Robust Process capability (high shortterm Z values) and a small Z shift value. In a robust process, the critical elements usually have been designed to prevent or
eliminate opportunities for defects; this effort ensures sustainability of the process. Continual monitoring of robust processes is not usually needed,
although you may wish to set up periodic audits as a safeguard.
Rolled Throughput Yield Rolled throughput yield is the probability that a single unit can pass through a series of process steps free of defects.
Rsquared A mathematical term describing how much variation is being explained by the X. FORMULA: Rsq = SS(regression) / SS(total)
Answers question of how much of total variation is explained by X. Caution: Rsq increases as number of data points increases. Pg. 13
RSquared analyze
Rsquared (adj) Unlike Rsquared, Rsquared adjusted takes into account the number of X's and the number of data points. FORMULA: Rsq (adj) = 1 
[(SS(regression)/DF(regression)) / (SS(total)/DF(total))]
RSquared adjusted Takes into account the number of X's and the number of data points...also answers: how much of total variation is explained by X.
Sample A portion or subset of units taken from the population whose characteristics are actually measured
Sample Size Calc. The sample size calculator is a spreadsheet tool used to determine the number of data points, or sample size, needed to estimate the properties of
a population. See the tool Sample Size Calculator.
Sampling Sampling is the practice of gathering a subset of the total data available from a process or a population.
scatter plot A scatter plot, also called a scatter diagram or a scattergram, is a basic graphic tool that illustrates the relationship between two variables. The dots
on the scatter plot represent data points. See the tool Scatter Plot.
Scorecard A scorecard is an evaluation device, usually in the form of a questionnaire, that specifies the criteria your customers will use to rate your business's
performance in satisfying their requirements.
A screening design of experiment (DOE) is a specific type of a fractional factorial DOE. A screening design is a resolution III design, which minimizes
Screening DOE the number of runs required in an experiment. A screening DOE is practical when you can assume that all interactions are negligible compared to
main effects. Use a screening DOE when your experiment contains five or more factors. Once you have screened out the unimportant factors, you
may want to perform a fractional or fullfractional DOE.
Segmentation Segmentation is a process used to divide a large group into smaller, logical categories for analysis. Some commonly segmented entities are
customers, data sets, or markets.
Shat Model It describes the relationship between output variance and input nominals
The Greek letter s (sigma) refers to the standard deviation of a population. Sigma, or standard deviation, is used as a scaling factor to convert upper
Sigma and lower specification limits to Z. Therefore, a process with three standard deviations between its mean and a spec limit would have a Z value of 3
and commonly would be referred to as a 3 sigma process.
Simple linear regression is a method that enables you to determine the relationship between a continuous process output (Y) and one factor (X).
Simple Linear Regression
The relationship is typically expressed in terms of a mathematical equation such as Y = b + mX
SIPOC SIPOC stands for suppliers, inputs, process, output, and customers. You obtain inputs from suppliers, add value through your process, and provide
an output that meets or exceeds your customer's requirements.
Most often, the median is used as a measure of central tendency when data sets are skewed. The metric that indicates the degree of asymmetry is
called, simply, skewness. Skewness often results in situations when a natural boundary is present. Normal distributions will have a skewness value
Skewness of approximately zero. Rightskewed distributions will have a positive skewness value; leftskewed distributions will have a negative skewness value.
Typically, the skewness value will range from negative 3 to positive 3. Two examples of skewed data sets are salaries within an organization and
monthly prices of homes for sale in a particular area.
SS Process Report The Six Sigma process report is a Minitab™ tool that calculates process capability and provides visuals of process performance. See the tool Six
Sigma Process Report.
SS Product Report The Six Sigma product report is a Minitab™ tool that calculates the DPMO and shortterm capability of your process. See the tool Six Sigma Product
Report.
Stability represents variation due to elapsed time. It is the difference between an individual's measurements taken of the same parts after an
Stability extended period of time using the same techniques.
Standard deviation is a measure of the spread of data in relation to the mean. It is the most common measure of the variability of a set of data. If the
standard deviation is based on a sampling, it is referred to as "s." If the entire data population is used, standard deviation is represented by the
Greek letter sigma (s). The standard deviation (together with the mean) is used to measure the degree to which the product or process falls within
specifications. The lower the standard deviation, the more likely the product or service falls within spec. When the standard deviation is calculated in
relation to the mean of all the data points, the result is an overall standard deviation. When the standard deviation is calculated in relation to the
Standard Deviation (s) means of subgroups, the result is a pooled standard deviation. Together with the mean, both overall and pooled standard deviations can help you
determine your degree of control over the product or process.
Design of experiment (DOE) treatments often are presented in a standard order. In a standard order, the first factor alternates between the low and
Standard Order high setting for each treatment. The second factor alternates between low and high settings every two treatments. The third factor alternates
between low and high settings every four treatments. Note that each time a factor is added, the design doubles in size to provide all combinations for
each level of the new factor.
Statistic Any number calculated from sample data, describes a sample characteristic
Statistical Process Control (SPC) Statistical process control is the application of statistical methods to analyze and control the variation of a process.
A stratifying factor, also referred to as stratification or a stratifier, is a factor that can be used to separate data into subgroups. This is done to
Stratification investigate whether that factor is a significant special cause factor.
Subgrouping Measurement of where you can get.
Tolerance Range Tolerance range is the difference between the upper specification limit and the lower specification limit.
Total Observed Variation Total observed variation is the combined variation from all sources, including the process and the measurement system.
The total probability of defect is equal to the sum of the probability of defect above the upper spec limitp(d), upperand the probability of defect
Total Prob of Defect below the lower spec limitp(d), lower.
Transfer function A transfer function describes the relationship between lower level requirements and higher level requirements. If it describes the relationship
between the nominal values, then it is called a yhat model. If it describes the relationship between the variations, then it is called an shat model.
Transformations Used to make nonnormal data look more normal.
Trivial many The trivial many refers to the variables that are least likely responsible for variation in a process, product, or service.
Ttest A ttest is a statistical tool used to determine whether a significant difference exists between the means of two distributions or the mean of one
distribution and a target value. See the ttest tools.
Check to obtain confidence intervals for all pairwise differences between level means using Tukey's method (also called Tukey's HSD or Tukey
Tukey's (1wayANOVA): Kramer method). Specify a family error rate between 0.5 and 0.001. Values greater than or equal to 1.0 are interpreted as percentages. The default
error rate is 0.05.
Unexplained Variation (S) Regression statistical output that shows the unexplained variation in the data. Se = sqrt((sum(yiy_bar)^2)/(n1))
Unit A unit is any item that is produced or processed.
USL An upper specification limit, also known as an upper spec limit, or USL, is a value below which performance of a product or process is acceptable.
Variation is the fluctuation in process output. It is quantified by standard deviation, a measure of the average spread of the data around the mean.
Variation Variation is sometimes called noise. Variance is squared standard deviation.
Common cause variation is fluctuation caused by unknown factors resulting in a steady but random distribution of output around the average of the
Variation (common cause) data. It is a measure of the process potential, or how well the process can perform when special cause variation is removed; therefore, it is a
measure of the process's technology. Also called, inherent variation
Special cause variation is a shift in output caused by a specific factor such as environmental conditions or process input parameters. It can be
Variation (special cause) accounted for directly and potentially removed and is a measure of process control, or how well the process is performing compared to its potential.
Also called nonrandom variation.
From box plot...displays minimum and maximum observations within 1.5 IQR (75th25th percentile span) from either 25th or 75th percentile. Outlier
Whisker are those that fall outside of the 1.5 range.
Yield Yield is the percentage of a process that is free of defects.
A Z value is a data point's position between the mean and another location as measured by the number of standard deviations. Z is a universal
measurement because it can be applied to any unit of measure. Z is a measure of process capability and corresponds to the process sigma value
Z that is reported by the businesses. For example, a 3 sigma process means that three standard deviations lie between the mean and the nearest
specification limit. Three is the Z value.
Z bench Z bench is the Z value that corresponds to the total probability of a defect
Z long term (ZLT) is the Z bench calculated from the overall standard deviation and the average output of the current process. Used with continuous
Z lt data, ZLT represents the overall process capability and can be used to determine the probability of making outofspec parts within the current
process.
Z shift is the difference between Z ST and ZLT. The larger the Z shift, the more you are able to improve the control of the special factors identified in the
Z shift subgroups.
ZST represents the process capability when special factors are removed and the process is properly centered. Z ST is the metric by which processes
Z st are compared.
182
What does it do? Why use? When use? Data Type P < .05 Picture
Tool indicates
The 1sample ttest is useful in identifying a significant difference between a sample The 1sample ttest is used with continuous data any time you
mean and a specified value when the difference is not readily apparent from need to compare a sample mean to a specified value. This is
1Sample tTest Compares mean to target
graphical tools. Using the 1sample ttest to compare data gathered before process useful when you need to make judgments about a process based Continuous X & Y Not equal 1
improvements and after is a way to prove that the mean has actually shifted. on a sample output from that process.
The 2sample ttest is useful for identifying a significant difference between means of When you have two samples of continuous data, and you need to There is a
A statistical test used to detect differences between
2Sample tTest means of two populations.
two levels (subgroups) of a factor. It is also extremely useful for identifying important know if they both come from the same population or if they Continuous X & Y difference in the 0
Xs for a project Y. represent two different populations means
ANOVA General Linear Model (GLM) is a statistical tool
You can use ANOVA GLM any time you need to identify a
used to test for differences in means. ANOVA tests to At least one group
statistically significant difference in the mean of the dependent
see if the difference between the means of each level is
variable due to two or more factors with multiple levels, alone and Continuous Y & all of data is different
ANOVA GLM significantly more than the variation within each level. Compare DPUs in combination. ANOVA GLM also can be used to quantify the
0
ANOVA GLM is used to test the effect of two or more X's than at least one
amount of variation in the response that can be attributed to a
factors with multiple levels, alone and in combination, on
specific factor in a designed experiment.
other group.
a dependent variable.
Best Subsets is an efficient way to select a group of "best subsets" for further analysis
Typically used before or after a multipleregression analysis.
Tells you the best X to use when you're comparing by selecting the smallest subset that fulfills certain statistical criteria. The subset
Best Subsets multiple X's in regression assessment. model may actually estimate the regression coefficients and predict future responses
Particularly useful in determining which X combination yields the Continuous X & Y N/A 0
best Rsq value.
with smaller variance than the full model using all predictors
The goodnessof
fit tests, with p
values ranging
from 0.312 to
0.724, indicate
that there is
Binary logistic regression is useful in two applications: analyzing the differences insufficient
among discrete Xs and modeling the relationship between a discrete binary Y and
discrete and/or continuous Xs. Binary logistic regression can be used to model the evidence for the
Binary logistic regression is useful in two important Defectives Y / model not fitting
Binary Logistic relationship between a discrete binary Y and discrete and/or continuous Xs. The
applications: analyzing the differences among discrete Generally speaking, logistic regression is used when the Ys are
predicted values will be probabilities p(d) of an event such as success or failurenot Continuous & the data 0
Regression Xs and modeling the relationship between a discrete
an event count. The predicted values will be bounded between zero and one
discrete and the Xs are continuous
binary Y and discrete and/or continuous Xs. Discrete X adequately. If the
(because they are probabilities).
pvalue is less
than your
accepted a level,
the test would
indicate sufficient
evidence for a
conclusion of an
inadequate fit.
Use the DDA method after the project data collection plan is
The DDA method is an important tool because it provides a method to independently
formulated or modified and before the project data collection plan
The Discrete Data Analysis (DDA) method is a tool used assess the most common types of measurement variationrepeatability,
is finalized and data is collected. Choose the DDA method when
Discrete Data Analysis to assess the variation in a measurement system due to reproducibility, and/or accuracy. Completing the DDA method will help you to discrete (category or
you have discrete data and you want to determine if the N/A 0
Method reproducibility, repeatability, and/or accuracy. This tool determine whether the variation from repeatability, reproducibility, and/or accuracy in
measurement variation due to repeatability, reproducibility, and/or count)
applies to discrete data only. your measurement system is an acceptably small portion of the total observed
accuracy is an acceptably small portion of the total observed
variation.
variation
A means / method to Identify ways a process can fail, Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a disciplined approach used to identify
Failure Mode and estimate th risks of those failures, evaluate a control possible failures of a product or service and then determine the frequency and impact Complex or new processes. Customers are involved. all N/A 0
Effects Analysis plan, prioritize actions related to the process of the failure. See the tool Failure Mode and Effects Analysis.
Gage R&RANOVA method is a tool used to assess the Measure Use Gage R&RANOVA method after the project data
variation in a measurement system due to reproducibility Gage R&RANOVA method is an important tool because it provides a method to collection plan is formulated or modified and before the project
Gage R & RANOVA and/or repeatability. An advantage of this tool is that it independently assess the most common types of measurement variation  data collection plan is finalized and data is collected. Choose the
can separate the individual effects of repeatability and repeatability and reproducibility. This tool will help you to determine whether the ANOVA method when you have continuous data and you want to Continuous X & Y 0
Method reproducibility and then break down reproducibility into variation from repeatability and/or reproducibility in your measurement system is an determine if the measurement variation due to repeatability
the components "operator" and "operator by part." This acceptably small portion of the total observed variation. and/or reproducibility is an acceptably small portion of the total
tool applies to continuous data only. observed variation.
Use Gage R&RShort Method after the project data collection
Gage R&RShort Method is a tool used to assess the plan is formulated or modified and before the project data
variation in a measurement system due to the combined collection plan is finalized and data is collected. Choose the
Gage R&RShort Method is an important tool because it provides a quick method of
effect of reproducibility and repeatability. An advantage Gage R&RShort Method when you have continuous data and
assessing the most common types of measurement variation using only five parts
Gage R & RShort of this tool is that it requires only two operators and five you believe the total measurement variation due to repeatability
and two operators. Completing the Gage R&RShort Method will help you determine Continuous X & Y 0
Method samples to complete the analysis. A disadvantage of this
whether the combined variation from repeatability and reproducibility in your
and reproducibility is an acceptably small portion of the total
tool is that the individual effects of repeatability and observed variation, but you need to confirm this belief. For
measurement system is an acceptably small portion of the total observed variation.
reproducibility cannot be separated. This tool applies to example, you may want to verify that no changes occurred since
continuous data only a previous Gage R&R study. Gage R&RShort Method can also
be used in cases where sample size is limited.
nonparametric
At least one mean
KruskalWallis Test Compare two or more means with unknown distributions (measurement or 0
is different
count)
You should use mistake proofing in the Measure phase when you
are developing your data collection plan, in the Improve phase
when you are developing your proposed solution, and in the
Mistakeproofing devices prevent defects by preventing Mistake proofing is an important tool because it allows you to take a proactive Control phase when developing the control plan.Mistake proofing
Mistake Proofing errors or by predicting when errors could occur. approach to eliminating errors at their source before they become defects. is appropriate when there are :1. Process steps where human all N/A 0
intervention is required2. Repetitive tasks where physical
manipulation of objects is required3. Steps where errors are
known to occur4. Opportunities for predictable errors to occur
Monte Carlo analysis is a decisionmaking and problem
solving tool used to evaluate a large number of possible
scenarios of a process. Each scenario represents one
possible set of values for each of the variables of the
process and the calculation of those variables using the
transfer function to produce an outcome Y. By repeating Performing a Monte Carlo analysis is one way to understand the variation that
this method many times, you can develop a distribution naturally exists in your process. One of the ways to reduce defects is to decrease the Continuous Y & all
Monte Carlo Analysis for the overall process performance. Monte Carlo can be output variation. Monte Carlo focuses on understanding what variations exist in the N/A 0
X's
used in such broad areas as finance, commercial input Xs in order to reduce the variation in output Y.
quality, engineering design, manufacturing, and process
design and improvement. Monte Carlo can be used with
any type of distribution; its value comes from the
increased knowledge we gain in terms of variation of the
output
Multiple regression will help you to understand the relationship between the process
output (Y) and several factors (Xs) that may affect the Y. Understanding this You can use multiple regression during the Analyze phase to help
relationship allows you to1. Identify important Xs2. Identify the amount of variation identify important Xs and during the Improve phase to define the
method that enables you to determine the relationship explained by the model3. Reduce the number of Xs prior to design of experiment optimized solution. Multiple regression can be used with both
A correlation is
Multiple Regression between a continuous process output (Y) and several (DOE )4. Predict Y based on combinations of X values5. Identify possible nonlinear continuous and discrete Xs. If you have only discrete Xs, use Continuous X & Y 0
factors (Xs). relationships such as a quadratic (X12) or an interaction (X1X2)The output of a ANOVAGLM. Typically you would use multiple regression on detected
multiple regression analysis may demonstrate the need for designed experiments existing data. If you need to collect new data, it may be more
that establish a cause and effect relationship or identify ways to further improve the efficient to use a DOE.
process.
There are two occasions when you should use a normality test:
1. When you are first trying to characterize raw data, normality
A normality test is a statistical process used to determine
Many statistical tests (tests of means and tests of variances) assume that the data testing is used in conjunction with graphical tools such as
if a sample, or any group of data, fits a standard normal
Normality Test distribution. A normality test can be done mathematically
being tested is normally distributed. A normality test is used to determine if that histograms and box plots. cont (measurement) not normal 0
assumption is valid. 2. When you are analyzing your data, and you need to calculate
or graphically.
basic statistics such as Z values or employ statistical tests that
assume normality, such as ttest and ANOVA.
You will use an np chart in the Control phase to verify that the
The np chart is a tool that will help you determine if your process is in control by process remains in control after the sources of special cause
a graphical tool that allows you to view the actual seeing if special causes are present. The presence of special cause variation variation have been removed. The np chart is used for processes Defectives Y /
np Chart number of defectives and detect the presence of special indicates that factors are influencing the output of your process. Eliminating the that generate discrete data. The np chart is used to graph the Continuous & N/A 1
causes. influence of these factors will improve the performance of your process and bring actual number of defectives in a sample. The sample size for the Discrete X
your process into control. np chart is constant, with between 5 and 10 defectives per
sample on the average.
a graphical tool that allows you to view the proportion of The p chart is a tool that will help you determine if your process is in control by You will use a p chart in the Control phase to verify that the
defectives and detect the presence of special causes. determining whether special causes are present. The presence of special cause process remains in control after the sources of special cause Defectives Y /
p Chart The p chart is used to understand the ratio of variation indicates that factors are influencing the output of your process. Eliminating variation have been removed. The p chart is used for processes Continuous & N/A 1
nonconforming units to the total number of units in a the influence of these factors will improve the performance of your process and bring that generate discrete data. The sample size for the p chart can Discrete X
sample. your process into control vary but usually consists of 100 or more
A correlation is
Reqression see Multiple Regression Continuous X & Y 0
detected
RSS analysis is a quick method for estimating the variation in system output given the Use RSS when you need to quantify the variation in the output
variation in system component inputs, provided the system behavior can be modeled given the variation in inputs. However, the following conditions
Root sum of squares (RSS) is a statistical tolerance
using a linear transfer function with unit (± 1) coefficients. RSS can quickly tell you the must be met in order to perform RSS analysis: 1. The inputs (Xs)
analysis method used to estimate the variation of a
Root Sum of Squares system output Y from variations in each of the system's probability that the output (Y) will be outside its upper or lower specification limits. are independent. 2. The transfer function is linear with Continuous X & Y N/A 0
Based on this information, you can decide whether some or all of your inputs need to coefficients of +1 and/or  1. 3. In addition, you will need to know
inputs Xs.
be modified to meet the specifications on system output, and/or if the specifications (or have estimates of) the means and standard deviations of
on system output need to be changed. each X.
The sample size calculator simplifies the use of the The calculation helps link allowable risk with cost. If your sample size is statistically
Sample Size sample size formula and provides you with a statistical sound, you can have more confidence in your data and greater assurance that
basis for determining the required sample size for given all N/A 1
Calculator resources spent on data collection efforts and/or planned improvements will not be
levels of a and b risks wasted
You will use a u chart in the Control phase to verify that the
The u chart is a tool that will help you determine if your process is in control by process remains in control after the sources of special cause
A u chart, shown in figure 1, is a graphical tool that determining whether special causes are present. The presence of special cause variation have been removed. The u chart is used for processes
u Chart allows you to view the number of defects per unit variation indicates that factors are influencing the output of your process. Eliminating that generate discrete data. The u chart monitors the number of N/A 1
sampled and detect the presence of special causes the influence of these factors will improve the performance of your process and bring defects per unit taken from a process. You should record
your process into control between 20 and 30 readings, and the sample size may be
variable.
You can use VOC tools at the start of a project to determine what
Each VOC tool provides the team with an organized method for gathering information
The following tools are commonly used to collect VOC key issues are important to the customers, understand why they
from customers. Without the use of structured tools, the data collected may be
data: Dashboard ,Focus group, Interview, Scorecard, are important, and subsequently gather detailed information
Voice of the Customer and Survey.. Tools used to develop specific CTQs and incomplete or biased. Key groups may be inadvertently omitted from the process,
about each issue. VOC tools can also be used whenever you all N/A 0
information may not be gathered to the required level of detail, or the VOC data
associated priorities. need additional customer input such as ideas and suggestions
collection effort may be biased because of your viewpoint.
for improvement or feedback on new solutions
X's Xbar R
ANOVA KruskalWallis Chi Square
Box plots Ttest Pareto
Attribute Data
Process Capability
Stat Response data must be stacked in (Use Levene's Test) At
Determine if the variation in one group of
Compare the variation between ANOVA one column and the individual least one group of data
Homogeneity of Variance data is different than the variation in Variable Attribute
teams Homogeneity points must be tagged (numerically) is different than at least
other (multiple) groups of data
of Variance in another column. one other group
Stat
Response data must be stacked in
Determine if the means of nonnormal Compare the means of cycle time for one column and the individual At least one mean is
KruskalWallis Test Nonparametrics Variable Attribute
data are different different delivery methods points must be tagged (numerically) different
Kruskal
in another column.
Wallis
Response data must be stacked in
Compare within piece, piece to piece
Multi Vari Analysis (See also Run Helps identify most important types or Graph one column and the individual
or time to time making of airfoils Variable Attribute N/A
Chart / Time Series Plot) families of variation Interval Plot points must be tagged (numerically)
leading edge thickness
in another column in time order.
Combinação A B C
1 1 1 1
2 1 1 1
3 1 1 1
4 1 1 1
5 1 1 1
6 1 1 1
7 1 1 1
8 1 1 1
Combinação A B C
1
2 179.67
3 214.67
4 145.67 145.67
5 473.00
6 290.00 290.00
7 328.33 328.33
8 223.33 223.33 223.33
Média YMédio (+) 328.67 228.00 209.67
Combinação A B C
1 272.67 272.67 272.67
2 179.67 179.67
3 214.67 214.67
4 145.67
5 473.00 473.00
6 290.00
7 328.33
8
Média YMédio () 203.17 303.83 322.17
Combinação A B C
1
2 8.02
3 11.24
4 7.02 7.02
5 21.00
6 6.56 6.56
7 25.38 25.38
8 8.08 8.08 8.08
Média s (+) 15.26 12.93 7.42
Combinação A B C
1 10.79 10.79 10.79
2 8.02 8.02
3 11.24 11.24
4 7.02
5 21.00 21.00
6 6.56
7 25.38
8
Média s () 9.27 11.59 17.10
eamento de Experimentos
ojeto de Experimentos
AB AC BC ABC Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 YMedio s
B(1)
o de A com B
o de A com B A(1) ###
A(+1) ###
Valor de C
B(
1)
B(+
1)
A(+1)
AB AC BC ABC
272.67 272.67 272.67
179.67 179.67
214.67 214.67
145.67
473.00 473.00
290.00
328.33
223.33 223.33 223.33 223.33
251.00 250.17 278.67 272.67
AB AC BC ABC
272.67
179.67 179.67
214.67 214.67
145.67 145.67 145.67
473.00 473.00
290.00 290.00 290.00
328.33 328.33 328.33
AB AC BC ABC
10.79 10.79 10.79
8.02 8.02
11.24 11.24
7.02
21.00 21.00
6.56
25.38
8.08 8.08 8.08 8.08
13.07 9.17 11.72 12.09
AB AC BC ABC
10.79
8.02 8.02
11.24 11.24
7.02 7.02 7.02
21.00 21.00
6.56 6.56 6.56
25.38 25.38 25.38
df s2
2 116.33
2 126.33 A
Sequência
Ângulo de
2 49.33 Disparo
2 441.00 1 160
2 43.00 2 160
2 644.33 3 160
2 65.33 4 160
5 180
N MSE 6 180
24 193.75 7 180
8 180
B(+1)
###
###
1
Modelo de Previsão de Y
Constante 265.917
A Ângulo de Disparo 62.750
B Posição da Base da Bola 37.917
C Altura do Esticador do Elástico 56.250
AB 14.917
AC 15.750
BC 12.750
ABC 6.75000
R2 0.9862
R2 Ajustado 0.9813
Menor Maior
o de Experimentos Fator Nome
Valor Valor
B C A Ângulo de Disparo 160 180
Altura do
Posição da Base
da Bola
Esticador B Posição da Base da Bola 1 3
do Elástico
1 1 C Altura do Esticador do Elástico 1 3
1 3
3 1
3 3
Insira aqui os
1 1 nomes dos
fatores e os seus
1 3 valores limite
3 1
3 3
Análise de Regressão Múltipla
o de Y Ajustes de Previsão
Ativo
Menor Maior
Valor p Fator Nome
Valor Valor
0.0000
0.0000 X A Ângulo de Disparo 160 180
0.0000 X B Posição da Base da Bola 1 3
0.0000 X C Altura do Esticador do Elástico 1 3
0.0001 X Valores de Previsão
0.0000 X
0.0004 X Previsão de Y Médio 265.917
0.0304 X Previsão de s 12.2618
Enable us to:
qui os
Estimate levels to set factors as for best
s dos
os seus
limite Provides a mathematical model to predi
Ativo
Ajuste
Codifica Fator Nome Coeficiente
Real
do
Constante 12.262
0.00 A Ângulo de Disparo 2.99424 X
0.00 BPosição da Base da 0.67077
Bola X
0.00 Altura
C do Esticador do4.84055
Elástico X
AB 0.80653 X
AC 3.09529 X
265.917 BC 0.53866 X
12.2618 ABC 0.17590 X
de Y Médio
229.13
302.70
rmine which factor and setting combination
n the ranges tested
el to predict results
nship
B() B(+)
A() 1 1 1 1
A(+) 1 1 1 1
Constante 265.91667
A Ângulo de Disparo62.75
BPosição da Base da37.91667
Bola
Altura
C do Esticador do Elástico
56.25
AB 0 14.91667
AC 0 15.75
BC 0 12.75
ABC 0 6.75
Teste de Hipóteses  Pr
Entrada Saída
Amostra 1 Amostra 2
n 250 785 Z0
r 15 9 P (Z0)
p 0.06 0.01
risco a 0.05
Conclusão
Hipóteses  Proporção 2 amostras
r beyond the confidence interval determines that two things are the same or
uired.
terest is a p1 p2 p Z0 P(Z0) Conclusão
0.03 0.060 0.011 0.02 4.441 0.000 DIFERENTES
the same or
Teste de Hipóteses  Pr
Entrada Saída
Amostra
n 100 Z0 2.240
proporção atual 0.07 P (Z0) 0.013
Exemplo:
Uma pesquisa mostrou que determinado produto era conhecido por 30% da população
foi então montada uma campanha para divulgar o produto, seguida por uma nova pesquisa
onde 50 pessoas foram selecionadas aleatóriamente na cidade onde a campanha foi executada.
O resultado da nova pesquisa apontou que 20 pessoas conheciam o referido produto.
óteses  Proporção  1 amostra Voltar
Whether the value falls within or beyond the confidence interval determine
different.
Tell us whether or not two sets of data are truly different with a certain lev
nova pesquisa
nha foi executada.
Voltar
Entrada Saída
Amostra 1 Amostra 2
n 5 3 Valor p 1.000
Média 12.00 12.00
Desvio Padrão 0.40 0.50 Conclusão IGUAIS
risco a 0.05
dia  2 amostras Voltar
Tell us whether or not two sets of data are truly different with a
.
is
ame or
Distribuição de Poisson  Probab
Distribuição de Poisson
Objective : In probability theory and statistics, the Poisson distribution is a discrete probability distrib
that expresses the probability of a given number of events occurring in a fixed interval of time and/or
these events occur with a known average rate and independently of the time since the last event.
The Poisson distribution can also be used for the number of events in other specified intervals such as
distance, area or volume.)
the Poisson distribution is a discrete probability distribution
er of events occurring in a fixed interval of time and/or space if
and independently of the time since the last event.
Distribuição Binomial
P(X = 1) 0.00977
P(X < 1) 0.00098
P(X <= 1) 0.01074
P(X > 1) 0.98926
P(X >= 1) 0.99902
on  probability GO BACK
robability theory and statistics, the binomial distribution is the discrete probability
he number of successes in a sequence of n independent yes/no experiments, each of which
th probability p.
tribution is frequently used to model the number of successes in a sample of size n drawn
nt from a population of size N. If the sampling is carried out without replacement, the draws
dent and so the resulting distribution is a hypergeometric distribution, not a binomial one.
much larger than n, the binomial distribution is a good approximation, and widely used.
Tamanho de amostra para
Entrada Saída
NOTA
(1) N: 3 a 100000
(2) Deixe [População N] em BRANCO caso a população seja infinita
mostra para Proporção Voltar
ra para Proporções Objective : Sample size determination is the act of choosing the num
include in a statistical sample. The sample size is an important featur
is to make inferences about a population from a sample.
Saída
In practice, the sample size used in a study is determined based on th
Tamanho da Amostra 120 need to have sufficient statistical power
Voltar
0.05 900 7.50 119.99 120
População
act of choosing the number Infinita or replicates to
of observations
e is an important feature of any empirical
1536.584study in0.09
which the goal
138.29 139
m a sample.
determined based on the expense of data collection, and the
Tamanho de Amostra  Variáveis
Entrada
NOTE
(1) N: 3 to 100000
(2) Leave [Population N] Blank in case of Infinite population
(3) Precision is represented by F as shown in following equation.
a  Variáveis Voltar
wing equation.
Sample size determination is the act of choosing the number of observations or replicates to
statistical sample. The sample size is an important feature of any empirical study in which the goal
nferences about a population from a sample.
the sample size used in a study is determined based on the expense of data collection, and the
e sufficient statistical power
es to
ch the goal
nd the
Intervalo de Confiança para Proporçã
Entrada Saída
erro 0.031
f a range of values (interval) that act as good estimates of the
alfa none ofZ theses/raiz(n)
r, in infrequent cases, values mayerro
cover the value of
the confidence 0.05
interval would indicate
1.959964 the probability
0.02 0.03 that the
ation parameter given a distribution of samples. It does not describe
ed by a percentage, so when we say, "we are 99% confident that the
dence interval", we express that 99% of the observed confidence
rameter.
Intervalo de Confiança  Desvio Padrã
Entrada Saída
ia Desconhecida) Objective :
Rarely will any value ( such as a mean os standard deviation
s , that we c
exactly the same as the true value of the population or of another sam
Saída 0.10
Confidence intervals consist of a range of values (interval) that act as go
0.123 population parameter. However, in infrequent cases, none of these valu
parameter. The level of confidence of the confidence interval would ind
confidence range captures this true population parameter given a distrib
0.084 any single sample. This value is represented by a percentage, so when w
true value of the parameter is in our confidence interval", we express th
intervals will hold the true value of the parameter.
rd deviation , that
a / 2 we calculate
df from aP(X
sample
2
)min of data be
P(X2)max smin smax
tion or of another sample .
0.025 54 76.192 35.586 0.084 0.123
(interval) that act as good estimates of the unknown
ses, none of these values may cover the value of the
ence interval would indicate the probability that the
arameter given a distribution of samples. It does not describe
percentage, so when we say, "we are 99% confident that the
interval", we express that 99% of the observed confidence
er.
Intervalo de confiança para média  d
Entrada Saída
Z s/raiz(n) erro Z LS LI
os standard1.959964
deviation , 0.01
that we calculate
0.03 from a sample of1.47
1.53 data be
the population or of another sample .
t (n1,a/2)
e of values (interval) that erroestimates
act as good t of the unknown
frequent cases, none of2.305625
these values may
0.03 cover the value of the
the confidence interval would indicate the probability that the
opulation parameter given a distribution of samples. It does not describe
ented by a percentage, so when we say, "we are 99% confident that the
onfidence interval", we express that 99% of the observed confidence
e parameter.
Capabiliade de Processo  Demonstraçã
250 240
330
X Y1 Y2
### 2.58935877405209E34 0.000000004
### 1.65678436399219E16 0.0027165938
### 3.34575564412213E05 4.41597992627428E13
### 1.9997069392517E38 1.01762805632901E10
### 5.69840700163789E49 4.90571057139286E15
### 3.71679878683574E07 1.01045421670738E15
### 1.19296591353012E05 0.0666449206
### 7.51514881524936E40 2.77335998833063E11
### 2.04155890791739E17 0.0015830903
### 3.99593527672637E06 0.0736540281
### 1.19296591353012E05 0.0666449206
### 2.65317203478804E41 7.2619230035836E12
### 2.20618874364871E47 2.28831298036027E14
### 3.28500454538971E10 0.0483941449
### 0.0966670292 1.1788613551308E05
### 8.02395452604989E46 1.02555072735933E13
### 1.04462188613566E31 3.71472368911058E08
### 0.0456622713 2.9734390294686E07
### 0.000507262 0.0299454931
### 1.04462188613566E31 3.71472368911058E08
### 6.59810800892643E09 0.0666449206
### 5.69840700163789E49 4.90571057139286E15
### 3.99593527672637E06 2.28831298036027E14
### 1.1438438976302E25 4.98849425801071E06
### 2.58935877405209E34 0.000000004
### 0.0604926811 0.0004768176
### 0.0043820751 0.0107981933
### 1.26306777088422E15 0.0044789061
### 0.0011079621 1.01762805632901E10
### 0.0997355701 0.000026766
### 0.0134977416 0.0044789061
### 1.9104138528968E30 1.07220706893952E07
### 1.9104138528968E30 1.07220706893952E07
### 9.04573612778129E15 0.0070949186
### 2.65317203478804E41 7.2619230035836E12
### 2.65317203478804E41 7.2619230035836E12
### 0.0134977416 1.23652410003317E08
### 8.0310446790536E27 2.02817041309735E06
### 1.17379883949379E35 1.21517656996466E09
### 0.0456622713 2.9734390294686E07
### 2.62536245749259E20 0.0002464438
### 8.0310446790536E27 2.02817041309735E06
### 3.99593527672637E06 0.0736540281
### 8.81489205918614E05 0.0483941449
### 0.0215693297 3.71472368911058E08
### 0.0966670292 1.1788613551308E05
### 3.34575564412213E05 4.41597992627428E13
### 7.51514881524936E40 2.77335998833063E11
### 8.81489205918614E05 1.82694408167292E12
### 1.26306777088422E15 0.0044789061
### 2.27138357799417E22 5.83893851582921E05
### 1.27373448971092E11 0.0299454931
### 1.1438438976302E25 4.98849425801071E06
### 0.0966670292 1.1788613551308E05
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 1.19296591353012E05 0.0666449206
### 2.56994339291723E19 0.0004768176
### 1.27373448971092E11 0.0299454931
### 1.0321177471575E07 0.0782085388
### 1.53044621631178E24 1.1788613551308E05
### 1.9104138528968E30 1.07220706893952E07
### 1.27373448971092E11 0.0299454931
### 2.519483848575E21 0.0001223804
### 1.25737682214811E06 0.0782085388
### 0.0604926811 7.92259818206415E07
### 2.519483848575E21 0.0001223804
### 2.58935877405209E34 0.000000004
### 3.99593527672637E06 0.0736540281
### 4.99863835554636E37 3.58756781592816E10
### 5.29704813377338E28 7.92259818206415E07
### 8.79933459498842E43 1.82694408167292E12
### 3.84634487640319E13 0.0157900317
### 1.65678436399219E16 0.0027165938
### 0.0134977416 1.23652410003317E08
### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
### 3.99593527672637E06 2.28831298036027E14
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 1.92364965667661E23 0.000026766
### 3.34575564412213E05 4.41597992627428E13
### 0.0011079621 1.01762805632901E10
### 2.519483848575E21 0.0001223804
### 6.67389153690713E11 0.038837211
### 3.99593527672637E06 0.0736540281
### 2.20618874364871E47 2.28831298036027E14
### 8.79933459498842E43 1.82694408167292E12
### 1.51897071245582E09 0.0579383106
### 7.51514881524936E40 2.77335998833063E11
### 2.20618874364871E47 2.28831298036027E14
### 5.29704813377338E28 7.92259818206415E07
### 2.04155890791739E17 0.0015830903
### 9.04573612778129E15 0.0070949186
### 0.0002181707 7.2619230035836E12
### 0.0011079621 1.01762805632901E10
### 0.075284358 2.02817041309735E06
### 1.26306777088422E15 0.0044789061
### 3.84634487640319E13 0.0157900317
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 2.58935877405209E34 0.000000004
### 1.27373448971092E11 0.0299454931
### 2.69244001063582E08 0.0736540281
### 2.65317203478804E41 7.2619230035836E12
### 3.28500454538971E10 0.0483941449
### 0.0011079621 0.0221841669
### 2.519483848575E21 0.0001223804
### 0.007934913 0.000000004
### 2.56994339291723E19 0.0004768176
### 0.0880163317 4.98849425801071E06
### 1.51897071245582E09 0.0579383106
### 1.9997069392517E38 1.01762805632901E10
### 1.51897071245582E09 0.0579383106
### 0.0604926811 7.92259818206415E07
### 1.25737682214811E06 0.0782085388
### 3.99593527672637E06 0.0736540281
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 8.81489205918614E05 0.0483941449
### 1.19296591353012E05 0.0666449206
### 2.36327597047571E18 0.0008863697
### 2.56994339291723E19 0.0004768176
### 0.0966670292 5.83893851582921E05
### 8.02395452604989E46 1.02555072735933E13
### 0.0011079621 1.01762805632901E10
### 1.0321177471575E07 0.0782085388
### 0.000507262 2.77335998833063E11
### 0.000507262 0.0299454931
### 3.71679878683574E07 0.0797884561
### 3.71679878683574E07 1.01045421670738E15
### 0.0880163317 0.0001223804
### 1.0321177471575E07 0.0782085388
### 0.0604926811 7.92259818206415E07
### 1.27373448971092E11 0.0299454931
### 0.0022733906 0.0157900317
### 1.25737682214811E06 4.90571057139286E15
### 0.0966670292 5.83893851582921E05
### 1.1438438976302E25 4.98849425801071E06
### 7.51514881524936E40 2.77335998833063E11
### 1.25737682214811E06 0.0782085388
### 1.9997069392517E38 1.01762805632901E10
### 0.000507262 0.0299454931
### 7.51514881524936E40 2.77335998833063E11
### 0.0134977416 1.23652410003317E08
### 2.65317203478804E41 7.2619230035836E12
### 0.007934913 0.000000004
### 0.007934913 0.0070949186
### 1.53044621631178E24 1.1788613551308E05
### 2.74151639847243E44 4.41597992627428E13
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 1.1438438976302E25 4.98849425801071E06
### 0.0002181707 7.2619230035836E12
### 7.51514881524936E40 2.77335998833063E11
### 2.65317203478804E41 7.2619230035836E12
### 8.0310446790536E27 2.02817041309735E06
### 8.02395452604989E46 1.02555072735933E13
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E07
### 0.075284358 2.02817041309735E06
### 6.59810800892643E09 0.0666449206
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 2.69244001063582E08 0.0736540281
### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 3.28210440153851E29 2.9734390294686E07
### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
### 8.81489205918614E05 0.0483941449
### 1.19296591353012E05 0.0666449206
### 1.26306777088422E15 0.0044789061
### 3.34575564412213E05 4.41597992627428E13
### 1.0321177471575E07 0.0782085388
### 0.0966670292 1.1788613551308E05
### 1.26306777088422E15 0.0044789061
### 9.04573612778129E15 0.0070949186
### 0.0022733906 0.0157900317
### 1.1438438976302E25 4.98849425801071E06
### 6.67389153690713E11 0.038837211
### 0.0966670292 1.1788613551308E05
### 0.0011079621 0.0221841669
### 2.74151639847243E44 4.41597992627428E13
### 2.04155890791739E17 0.0015830903
### 1.92364965667661E23 0.000026766
### 2.28368010209115E12 0.0221841669
### 6.08580133257252E14 0.0107981933
### 1.26306777088422E15 0.0044789061
### 1.3826773874611E50 1.01045421670738E15
### 2.62536245749259E20 0.0002464438
### 1.0321177471575E07 0.0782085388
### 2.04155890791739E17 0.0015830903
### 0.000507262 0.0299454931
### 3.99593527672637E06 0.0736540281
### 0.0323793989 0.0015830903
### 8.81489205918614E05 1.82694408167292E12
### 1.0321177471575E07 0.0782085388
### 0.0134977416 0.0044789061
### 2.56994339291723E19 0.0004768176
### 3.34575564412213E05 4.41597992627428E13
### 0.0022733906 3.58756781592816E10
### 1.25737682214811E06 0.0782085388
### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E07
### 3.34575564412213E05 0.0579383106
### 0.0997355701 0.000026766
### 3.99593527672637E06 2.28831298036027E14
### 0.0043820751 1.21517656996466E09
### 0.0880163317 0.0001223804
### 2.519483848575E21 0.0001223804
### 0.0966670292 1.1788613551308E05
### 2.27138357799417E22 5.83893851582921E05
### 1.0321177471575E07 0.0782085388
### 0.0134977416 0.0044789061
### 2.65317203478804E41 7.2619230035836E12
### 7.51514881524936E40 2.77335998833063E11
### 1.27373448971092E11 0.0299454931
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 0.000507262 2.77335998833063E11
### 4.99863835554636E37 3.58756781592816E10
### 0.007934913 0.0070949186
### 1.53044621631178E24 1.1788613551308E05
### 6.08580133257252E14 0.0107981933
### 4.99863835554636E37 3.58756781592816E10
### 0.007934913 0.0070949186
### 0.0323793989 0.0015830903
### 0.0002181707 7.2619230035836E12
### 2.62536245749259E20 0.0002464438
### 3.99593527672637E06 2.28831298036027E14
### 1.51897071245582E09 0.0579383106
### 2.65317203478804E41 7.2619230035836E12
### 0.007934913 0.000000004
### 2.58935877405209E34 0.000000004
### 1.19296591353012E05 1.02555072735933E13
### 3.34575564412213E05 4.41597992627428E13
### 3.99593527672637E06 2.28831298036027E14
### 1.1438438976302E25 4.98849425801071E06
### 1.53044621631178E24 1.1788613551308E05
### 2.36327597047571E18 0.0008863697
### 1.25737682214811E06 0.0782085388
### 2.20618874364871E47 2.28831298036027E14
### 1.17379883949379E35 1.21517656996466E09
### 0.0134977416 0.0044789061
### 3.99593527672637E06 2.28831298036027E14
### 2.58935877405209E34 0.000000004
### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
### 0.0022733906 0.0157900317
### 0.0966670292 5.83893851582921E05
### 0.0134977416 0.0044789061
### 3.99593527672637E06 2.28831298036027E14
### 1.0321177471575E07 0.0782085388
### 0.0134977416 0.0044789061
### 0.0604926811 0.0004768176
### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
### 5.29704813377338E28 7.92259818206415E07
### 8.79933459498842E43 1.82694408167292E12
### 3.84634487640319E13 0.0157900317
### 0.0997355701 0.000026766
### 2.65317203478804E41 7.2619230035836E12
### 4.99863835554636E37 3.58756781592816E10
### 1.3826773874611E50 1.01045421670738E15
### 0.007934913 0.0070949186
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### 6.59810800892643E09 0.0666449206
### 8.0310446790536E27 2.02817041309735E06
### 0.0043820751 1.21517656996466E09
### 1.25737682214811E06 0.0782085388
### 5.29704813377338E28 7.92259818206415E07
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 2.20618874364871E47 2.28831298036027E14
### 0.000507262 2.77335998833063E11
### 1.9997069392517E38 1.01762805632901E10
### 9.04573612778129E15 0.0070949186
### 1.0321177471575E07 0.0782085388
### 1.0321177471575E07 0.0782085388
### 3.99593527672637E06 0.0736540281
### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E07
### 1.27373448971092E11 0.0299454931
### 1.25737682214811E06 4.90571057139286E15
### 2.04155890791739E17 0.0015830903
### 6.67389153690713E11 0.038837211
### 1.17379883949379E35 1.21517656996466E09
### 4.99863835554636E37 3.58756781592816E10
### 3.71679878683574E07 1.01045421670738E15
### 8.02395452604989E46 1.02555072735933E13
### 1.53044621631178E24 1.1788613551308E05
### 1.53044621631178E24 1.1788613551308E05
### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
### 1.53044621631178E24 1.1788613551308E05
### 0.000507262 2.77335998833063E11
### 2.74151639847243E44 4.41597992627428E13
### 1.04462188613566E31 3.71472368911058E08
### 3.71679878683574E07 1.01045421670738E15
### 0.075284358 2.02817041309735E06
### 0.0456622713 0.0008863697
### 0.0011079621 0.0221841669
### 3.71679878683574E07 1.01045421670738E15
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 0.0604926811 0.0004768176
### 0.007934913 0.000000004
### 5.69840700163789E49 4.90571057139286E15
### 0.0043820751 1.21517656996466E09
### 1.04462188613566E31 3.71472368911058E08
### 3.28210440153851E29 2.9734390294686E07
### 6.08580133257252E14 0.0107981933
### 0.075284358 2.02817041309735E06
### 2.74151639847243E44 4.41597992627428E13
### 0.0604926811 0.0004768176
### 0.000507262 0.0299454931
### 2.27138357799417E22 5.83893851582921E05
### 0.0215693297 3.71472368911058E08
### 4.99863835554636E37 3.58756781592816E10
### 2.65317203478804E41 7.2619230035836E12
### 3.28500454538971E10 0.0483941449
### 1.3826773874611E50 1.01045421670738E15
### 3.34575564412213E05 0.0579383106
### 2.20618874364871E47 2.28831298036027E14
### 0.0215693297 3.71472368911058E08
### 0.0022733906 3.58756781592816E10
### 2.20618874364871E47 2.28831298036027E14
### 2.28368010209115E12 0.0221841669
### 0.0002181707 7.2619230035836E12
### 2.20618874364871E47 2.28831298036027E14
### 1.17379883949379E35 1.21517656996466E09
### 0.0604926811 0.0004768176
### 0.0022733906 3.58756781592816E10
### 2.20618874364871E47 2.28831298036027E14
### 3.84634487640319E13 0.0157900317
### 1.04462188613566E31 3.71472368911058E08
### 3.34575564412213E05 4.41597992627428E13
### 0.000507262 2.77335998833063E11
### 1.26306777088422E15 0.0044789061
### 2.20618874364871E47 2.28831298036027E14
### 0.0011079621 0.0221841669
### 1.26306777088422E15 0.0044789061
### 0.0043820751 0.0107981933
### 0.0134977416 1.23652410003317E08
### 1.04462188613566E31 3.71472368911058E08
### 6.59810800892643E09 0.0666449206
### 6.67389153690713E11 0.038837211
### 0.0456622713 2.9734390294686E07
### 0.0011079621 1.01762805632901E10
### 8.0310446790536E27 2.02817041309735E06
### 1.19296591353012E05 0.0666449206
### 4.99863835554636E37 3.58756781592816E10
### 2.69244001063582E08 0.0736540281
### 8.81489205918614E05 1.82694408167292E12
### 0.0134977416 1.23652410003317E08
### 0.0011079621 0.0221841669
### 5.69840700163789E49 4.90571057139286E15
### 3.71679878683574E07 0.0797884561
### 1.0321177471575E07 0.0782085388
### 1.26306777088422E15 0.0044789061
### 5.69840700163789E49 4.90571057139286E15
### 8.0310446790536E27 2.02817041309735E06
### 0.0966670292 1.1788613551308E05
### 1.25737682214811E06 4.90571057139286E15
### 8.81489205918614E05 1.82694408167292E12
### 1.92364965667661E23 0.000026766
### 3.34575564412213E05 0.0579383106
### 0.0323793989 0.0015830903
### 0.0604926811 0.0004768176
### 1.53044621631178E24 1.1788613551308E05
### 0.075284358 2.02817041309735E06
### 5.69840700163789E49 4.90571057139286E15
### 6.59810800892643E09 0.0666449206
### 2.36327597047571E18 0.0008863697
### 0.0880163317 4.98849425801071E06
### 0.000507262 2.77335998833063E11
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 5.29704813377338E28 7.92259818206415E07
### 0.000507262 0.0299454931
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 3.71679878683574E07 0.0797884561
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 0.0134977416 1.23652410003317E08
### 2.62536245749259E20 0.0002464438
### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E07
### 2.27138357799417E22 5.83893851582921E05
### 2.20618874364871E47 2.28831298036027E14
### 2.36327597047571E18 0.0008863697
### 3.99593527672637E06 0.0736540281
### 2.04155890791739E17 0.0015830903
### 1.17379883949379E35 1.21517656996466E09
### 0.075284358 2.02817041309735E06
### 8.81489205918614E05 1.82694408167292E12
### 3.34575564412213E05 4.41597992627428E13
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 2.20618874364871E47 2.28831298036027E14
### 3.28210440153851E29 2.9734390294686E07
### 6.59810800892643E09 0.0666449206
### 0.0011079621 0.0221841669
### 2.519483848575E21 0.0001223804
### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E07
### 1.25737682214811E06 4.90571057139286E15
### 3.84634487640319E13 0.0157900317
### 3.34575564412213E05 0.0579383106
### 8.81489205918614E05 0.0483941449
### 1.04462188613566E31 3.71472368911058E08
### 0.0215693297 3.71472368911058E08
### 1.0321177471575E07 0.0782085388
### 8.02395452604989E46 1.02555072735933E13
### 9.04573612778129E15 0.0070949186
### 1.27373448971092E11 0.0299454931
### 1.04462188613566E31 3.71472368911058E08
### 2.74151639847243E44 4.41597992627428E13
### 6.67389153690713E11 0.038837211
### 8.81489205918614E05 0.0483941449
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 3.99593527672637E06 0.0736540281
### 0.0215693297 3.71472368911058E08
### 7.51514881524936E40 2.77335998833063E11
### 8.0310446790536E27 2.02817041309735E06
### 9.04573612778129E15 0.0070949186
### 0.0604926811 7.92259818206415E07
### 1.65678436399219E16 0.0027165938
### 1.25737682214811E06 4.90571057139286E15
### 3.84634487640319E13 0.0157900317
### 0.0134977416 0.0044789061
### 3.34575564412213E05 0.0579383106
### 0.0134977416 0.0044789061
### 0.0456622713 0.0008863697
### 0.007934913 0.0070949186
### 0.0880163317 4.98849425801071E06
### 2.27138357799417E22 5.83893851582921E05
### 0.0043820751 0.0107981933
### 3.28210440153851E29 2.9734390294686E07
### 3.99593527672637E06 0.0736540281
### 1.26306777088422E15 0.0044789061
### 0.007934913 0.0070949186
### 0.0215693297 3.71472368911058E08
### 1.26306777088422E15 0.0044789061
### 0.075284358 2.02817041309735E06
### 0.0043820751 1.21517656996466E09
### 1.92364965667661E23 0.000026766
### 2.20618874364871E47 2.28831298036027E14
### 3.34575564412213E05 4.41597992627428E13
### 8.81489205918614E05 1.82694408167292E12
### 2.519483848575E21 0.0001223804
### 1.65678436399219E16 0.0027165938
### 0.0966670292 5.83893851582921E05
### 4.99863835554636E37 3.58756781592816E10
### 5.69840700163789E49 4.90571057139286E15
### 1.19296591353012E05 1.02555072735933E13
### 0.0011079621 1.01762805632901E10
### 3.34575564412213E05 4.41597992627428E13
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 0.000507262 2.77335998833063E11
### 1.26306777088422E15 0.0044789061
### 0.0997355701 0.000026766
### 8.79933459498842E43 1.82694408167292E12
### 0.0134977416 0.0044789061
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 0.007934913 0.000000004
### 2.20618874364871E47 2.28831298036027E14
### 0.0043820751 0.0107981933
### 2.04155890791739E17 0.0015830903
### 0.0022733906 3.58756781592816E10
### 1.51897071245582E09 0.0579383106
### 8.02395452604989E46 1.02555072735933E13
### 1.3826773874611E50 1.01045421670738E15
### 6.67389153690713E11 0.038837211
### 0.000507262 2.77335998833063E11
### 1.19296591353012E05 0.0666449206
### 8.79933459498842E43 1.82694408167292E12
### 1.92364965667661E23 0.000026766
### 1.17379883949379E35 1.21517656996466E09
### 0.007934913 0.0070949186
### 1.3826773874611E50 1.01045421670738E15
### 8.0310446790536E27 2.02817041309735E06
### 5.69840700163789E49 4.90571057139286E15
### 2.04155890791739E17 0.0015830903
### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E07
### 5.36595933915765E33 1.23652410003317E08
### 0.0022733906 0.0157900317
### 1.51897071245582E09 0.0579383106
### 5.29704813377338E28 7.92259818206415E07
### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
### 0.0604926811 0.0004768176
### 0.000507262 0.0299454931
### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
### 2.62536245749259E20 0.0002464438
### 0.0997355701 0.000026766
### 2.36327597047571E18 0.0008863697
### 3.34575564412213E05 0.0579383106
### 9.04573612778129E15 0.0070949186
### 2.27138357799417E22 5.83893851582921E05
### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E07
### 2.519483848575E21 0.0001223804
### 3.99593527672637E06 2.28831298036027E14
### 0.000507262 0.0299454931
### 0.0022733906 3.58756781592816E10
### 0.0456622713 2.9734390294686E07
### 2.27138357799417E22 5.83893851582921E05
### 0.0134977416 1.23652410003317E08
### 0.0880163317 4.98849425801071E06
### 0.0022733906 3.58756781592816E10
### 2.04155890791739E17 0.0015830903
### 1.26306777088422E15 0.0044789061
### 3.99593527672637E06 2.28831298036027E14
### 2.62536245749259E20 0.0002464438
### 2.56994339291723E19 0.0004768176
### 3.34575564412213E05 4.41597992627428E13
### 0.0215693297 3.71472368911058E08
### 6.08580133257252E14 0.0107981933
### 1.19296591353012E05 0.0666449206
### 8.81489205918614E05 0.0483941449
### 4.99863835554636E37 3.58756781592816E10
### 2.65317203478804E41 7.2619230035836E12
### 1.9104138528968E30 1.07220706893952E07
### 1.53044621631178E24 1.1788613551308E05
### 8.81489205918614E05 0.0483941449
### 6.08580133257252E14 0.0107981933
### 0.0604926811 7.92259818206415E07
### 1.9104138528968E30 1.07220706893952E07
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 1.53044621631178E24 1.1788613551308E05
### 2.56994339291723E19 0.0004768176
### 6.59810800892643E09 0.0666449206
### 1.51897071245582E09 0.0579383106
### 3.71679878683574E07 1.01045421670738E15
### 1.04462188613566E31 3.71472368911058E08
### 3.71679878683574E07 0.0797884561
### 6.67389153690713E11 0.038837211
### 0.0880163317 0.0001223804
### 3.34575564412213E05 4.41597992627428E13
### 0.0215693297 3.71472368911058E08
### 5.36595933915765E33 1.23652410003317E08
### 3.34575564412213E05 4.41597992627428E13
### 0.0323793989 0.0015830903
### 2.74151639847243E44 4.41597992627428E13
### 2.27138357799417E22 5.83893851582921E05
### 2.28368010209115E12 0.0221841669
### 0.0011079621 1.01762805632901E10
### 2.04155890791739E17 0.0015830903
### 2.69244001063582E08 0.0736540281
### 4.99863835554636E37 3.58756781592816E10
### 1.25737682214811E06 0.0782085388
### 1.3826773874611E50 1.01045421670738E15
### 0.0043820751 1.21517656996466E09
### 3.71679878683574E07 1.01045421670738E15
### 3.34575564412213E05 0.0579383106
### 3.34575564412213E05 4.41597992627428E13
### 5.69840700163789E49 4.90571057139286E15
### 0.0022733906 0.0157900317
### 4.99863835554636E37 3.58756781592816E10
### 3.71679878683574E07 0.0797884561
### 0.0011079621 1.01762805632901E10
### 1.27373448971092E11 0.0299454931
### 6.67389153690713E11 0.038837211
### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 4.99863835554636E37 3.58756781592816E10
### 1.9997069392517E38 1.01762805632901E10
### 8.79933459498842E43 1.82694408167292E12
### 2.58935877405209E34 0.000000004
### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E07
### 2.28368010209115E12 0.0221841669
### 8.81489205918614E05 1.82694408167292E12
### 0.0604926811 7.92259818206415E07
### 3.71679878683574E07 0.0797884561
### 2.58935877405209E34 0.000000004
### 3.28500454538971E10 0.0483941449
### 0.0002181707 7.2619230035836E12
### 1.1438438976302E25 4.98849425801071E06
### 2.519483848575E21 0.0001223804
### 2.519483848575E21 0.0001223804
### 0.0215693297 3.71472368911058E08
### 2.36327597047571E18 0.0008863697
### 8.81489205918614E05 0.0483941449
### 2.20618874364871E47 2.28831298036027E14
### 6.67389153690713E11 0.038837211
### 2.27138357799417E22 5.83893851582921E05
### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E07
### 0.0043820751 0.0107981933
### 5.69840700163789E49 4.90571057139286E15
### 0.0022733906 3.58756781592816E10
### 2.36327597047571E18 0.0008863697
### 1.9104138528968E30 1.07220706893952E07
### 2.62536245749259E20 0.0002464438
### 1.51897071245582E09 0.0579383106
### 8.81489205918614E05 0.0483941449
### 1.53044621631178E24 1.1788613551308E05
### 5.29704813377338E28 7.92259818206415E07
### 0.0022733906 3.58756781592816E10
### 2.519483848575E21 0.0001223804
### 0.0022733906 3.58756781592816E10
Demonstração da Curva de Gauss Voltar
300
Voltar
Histograma  Curva Normal 
18 16 30 29 28 21 17 41 6 17 n
32 26 16 24 27 17 17 33 19 18 Máx
31 27 23 38 33 14 13 26 11 28 Menor
21 19 25 22 17 12 21 21 25 26 Range
23 33 22 3 4 14 47 15 24 34 k
22 33 22 33 22 w
22
Classes
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
18
16
16
14
12 12
12
10
6
4
4
2
2
0
6 12 18 24 30
Freq. Observ.
0
6 12 18 24 30
Freq. Observ.
rva Normal  Curva de Gauss Voltar
56 Média 22.82
47 Desvio 8.65 Histograma
3
44 18
8 16
6 16
14
Inicio Fim Freq. Observ. Freq. Normal 12 12
12
0 6 2 1.5
6 12 4 4.5 10 9
12 18 12 10.3 8
18 24 16 14.9
24 30 12 13.6 6
4
30 36 9 7.8 4
36 42 2 2.8 2 2
2
42 48 1 0.6
48 54 0 0.1 0
54 60 0 0.0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42
16
12
2
1
24 30 36 42 48 0
54
24 30 36 42 48 0
54
Histograms are used to plot density of data, and often for density e
density function of the underlying variable. The total area of a histo
normalized to 1. If the length of the intervals on the xaxis are all 1,
2 frequency plot.
1
24 30 36 42 48 0
54
0
54
0
54
graphical representation showing a visual impression of the distribution
lity distribution of a continuous variable
ncies, shown as adjacent rectangles, erected over discrete intervals
ncy of the observations in the interval. The height of a rectangle is also
nterval, i.e., the frequency divided by the width of the interval. The total
umber of data. A histogram may also be normalized displaying relative
on of cases that fall into each of several categories, with the total area
pecified as consecutive, nonoverlapping intervals of a variable. The
, and often are chosen to be of the same size.[2] The rectangles of a
h each other to indicate that the original variable is continuous.[3]
Internal or External Firm / Business Unit Process Strenghts Weaknesses Best Practice(s) Estimated Performance level
Expected Results
# of Non
# of Defects Defects Total
Group # 1 38.4 21.6 60
Group # 2 25.6 14.4 40
64 36 100
to MAIN
SWITCH
Continuous Data
To apply this tool, you need to install Excel Data Analysis tool, available in Excel  ( see excel options), Add ins )
BOARD
Excel Menu Selections: Tools, Data Analysis, ANOVA: Single Factor, Input Range (select $A$7:end of data), select Labels in First Row, Output Range ($H$9), OK
Definition:
example: example:
To compare three or more samples to each other to see if any
of the sample means is statistically different from the others
"Y" Data "X1" Data "X2" Data "X3" Data Use in analyse to confirm the impact of variables. Use to
48 47 24 88
68 87 34 81 Anova: Single Factor
improve to help select the best option from several
14 89 7 55 alternatives.
13 82 3 67 SUMMARY
9 11 4 71 Groups Count Sum Average Variance To apply this tool,, you need to install Excel Data Analysis
77 38 40 21 "Y" Data 32 1588 49.625 739.5967741935 tool, available in Excel  ( see excel options), Add ins )
54 49 27 81 "X1" Data 32 1797 56.15625 814.5877016129
92 90 46 39 "X2" Data 32 800 25 220.2580645161
41 54 22 28 "X3" Data 32 1551 48.46875 735.6764112903
15 15 8 71
43 89 21 88
83 90 4 91 ANOVA
73 84 45 0 Source of Variation SS df MS F Pvalue F crit
44 44 22 20 Between Groups 17847.8125 3 5949.2708333333 9.4804604053 1.09843691E05 2.6776945106
26 18 13 68 Within Groups 77813.6875 124 627.5297379032
11 13 7 66
28 32 14 52 Total 95661.5 127
79 78 40 45
65 70 34 48
17 18 8 54 Anova: TwoFactor With Replication
50 50 25 17
44 39 22 21 SUMMARY "X1" Data "X2" Data "X3" Data Total
85 80 33 28 48
45 50 33 59 Count 32 32 32 96
5 5 5 6 Sum 1797 800 1551 4148
62 60 31 35 Average 56.15625 25 48.46875 43.2083333333
43 43 33 4 Variance 814.5877016129 220.2580645161 735.6764112903 755.2192982456
67 86 55 54
90 91 45 26 Total
77 75 44 19 Count 32 32 32
31 30 16 63 Sum 1797 800 1551
89 90 35 85 Average 56.15625 25 48.46875
Variance 814.5877016129 220.2580645161 735.6764112903
ANOVA
Source of Variation SS df MS F Pvalue F crit
Sample 0 0 65535 65535 #NUM! #NUM!
Columns 16859.645833333 2 8429.8229166667 14.2836215623 3.89481377E06 3.09434256
Interaction 2.910383046E11 0 65535 65535 #NUM! #NUM!
Within 54886.1875 93 590.1740591398
Total 71745.833333333 95
Excel Menu Selections: Tools, Data Analysis, Regression, Input Range (select $A$7:end of data), select Labels in First Row, Output Range ($F$8), OK
Objective:
example: example:
Its used in conjunction with correlation calculations and scatter plots to
"Y" Data "X1" Data predicte the future performance based on past results .
48 47 SUMMARY OUTPUT
68 87
14 89 Regression Statistics
13 82 Multiple R 0.7112882084
9 11 R Square 0.5059309154
77 38 Adjusted R Square 0.489461946
54 49 Standard Error 19.4317342991
92 90 Observations 32
41 54
15 15 ANOVA
43 89 df SS MS F Significance F
83 90 Regression 1 11599.731063855 11599.731063855 30.7202533771 5.03629597457E06
73 84 Residual 30 11327.768936146 377.5922978715
44 44 Total 31 22927.5
26 18
11 13 Coefficients Standard Error t Stat Pvalue Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
28 32 Intercept 11.564692954 7.678143931 1.5061834029 0.1424781829 4.1161527612 27.2455386691 4.1161527612 27.2455386691
79 78 "X1" Data 0.6777572763 0.1222817913 5.5425854416 5.036295975E06 0.4280247992 0.9274897534 0.4280247992 0.9274897534
65 70
17 18
50 50
44 39 RESIDUAL OUTPUT PROBABILITY OUTPUT
85 80
45 50 Observation Predicted "Y" Data Residuals Percentile "Y" Data
5 5 1 43.4192849391 4.5807150609 1.5625 5
62 60 2 70.5295759902 2.5295759902 4.6875 9
43 43 3 71.8850905428 57.8850905428 7.8125 11
67 86 4 67.1407896088 54.1407896088 10.9375 13
90 91 5 19.020022993 10.020022993 14.0625 14
77 75 6 37.3194694526 39.6805305474 17.1875 15
31 30 7 44.7747994916 9.2252005084 20.3125 17
89 90 8 72.5628478191 19.4371521809 23.4375 26
9 48.163585873 7.163585873 26.5625 28
10 21.7310520981 6.7310520981 29.6875 31
11 71.8850905428 28.8850905428 32.8125 41
12 72.5628478191 10.4371521809 35.9375 43
13 68.4963041614 4.5036958386 39.0625 43
14 41.3860131102 2.6139868898 42.1875 44
15 23.764323927 2.235676073 45.3125 44
16 20.3755375456 9.3755375456 48.4375 45
17 33.2529257949 5.2529257949 51.5625 48
18 64.4297605037 14.5702394963 54.6875 50
19 59.0077022935 5.9922977065 57.8125 54
20 23.764323927 6.764323927 60.9375 62
21 45.4525567679 4.5474432321 64.0625 65
22 37.9972267288 6.0027732712 67.1875 67
23 65.7852750563 19.2147249437 70.3125 68
24 45.4525567679 0.4525567679 73.4375 73
25 14.9534793354 9.9534793354 76.5625 77
26 52.2301295307 9.7698704693 79.6875 77
27 40.708255834 2.291744166 82.8125 79
28 69.8518187139 2.8518187139 85.9375 83
29 73.2406050953 16.7593949047 89.0625 85
30 62.3964886749 14.6035113251 92.1875 89
31 31.8974112423 0.8974112423 95.3125 90
32 72.5628478191 16.4371521809 98.4375 92
Excel Menu Selections: Tools, Data Analysis, Correlation, Input Range (select $A$7:end of data), select Labels in First Row, Output Range ($H$9), OK
example: example:
Return to
MAIN
SWITCHBO
ARD
Continuous Data
example: example:
MAIN
VOZ DO CLIENTE  CRITICO PARA A QUALIDADE
Alpha risk is defined as the risk of accepting the alternate hypothesis when, in fact, the null hypothesis is true; in other words, stating a difference
exists where actually there is none. Alpha risk is stated in terms of probability (such as 0.05 or 5%). The acceptable level of alpha risk is determined
by an organization or individual and is based on the nature of the decision being made. For decisions with high consequences (such as those
Alpha risk involving risk to human life), an alpha risk of less than 1% would be expected. If the decision involves minimal time or money, an alpha risk of 10%
may be appropriate. In general, an alpha risk of 5% is considered the norm in decision making. Sometimes alpha risk is expressed as its inverse,
which is confidence level. In other words, an alpha risk of 5% also could be expressed as a 95% confidence level.
The alternate hypothesis (Ha) is a statement that the observed difference or relationship between two populations is real and not due to chance or
Alternative hypothesis (Ha) sampling error. The alternate hypothesis is the opposite of the null hypothesis (P < 0.05). A dependency exists between two or more factors
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Analysis of variance is a statistical technique for analyzing data that tests for a difference between two or more means. See the tool 1Way ANOVA.
Beta risk is defined as the risk of accepting the null hypothesis when, in fact, the alternate hypothesis is true. In other words, stating no difference
exists when there is an actual difference. A statistical test should be capable of detecting differences that are important to you, and beta risk is the
Beta risk probability (such as 0.10 or 10%) that it will not. Beta risk is determined by an organization or individual and is based on the nature of the decision
being made. Beta risk depends on the magnitude of the difference between sample means and is managed by increasing test sample size. In
general, a beta risk of 10% is considered acceptable in decision making.
Bias in a sample is the presence or influence of any factor that causes the population or process being sampled to appear different from what it
Bias actually is. Bias is introduced into a sample when data is collected without regard to key factors that may influence the population or process.
Blocking Blocking neutralizes background variables that can not be eliminated by randomizing. It does so by spreading them across the experiment
A box plot, also known as a box and whisker diagram, is a basic graphing tool that displays centering, spread, and distribution of a continuous data
Boxplot set
CAP Includes/Excludes CAP Includes/Excludes is a tool that can help your team define the boundaries of your project, facilitate discussion about issues related to your
project scope, and challenge you to agree on what is included and excluded within the scope of your work. See the tool CAP Includes/Excludes.
CAP Stakeholder Analysis CAP Stakeholder Analysis is a tool to identify and enlist support from stakeholders. It provides a visual means of identifying stakeholder support so
that you can develop an action plan for your project. See the tool CAP Stakeholder Analysis.
Capability Analysis Capability analysis is a MinitabTM tool that visually compares actual process performance to the performance standards. See the tool Capability
Analysis.
Cause A factor (X) that has an impact on a response variable (Y); a source of variation in a process or product.
A cause and effect diagram is a visual tool used to logically organize possible causes for a specific problem or effect by graphically displaying them
Cause and Effect Diagram in increasing detail. It helps to identify root causes and ensures common understanding of the causes that lead to the problem. Because of its
fishbone shape, it is sometimes called a "fishbone diagram." See the tool Cause and Effect Diagram.
Center The center of a process is the average value of its data. It is equivalent to the mean and is one measure of the central tendency.
A center point is a run performed with all factors set halfway between their low and high levels. Each factor must be continuous to have a logical
Center points halfway point. For example, there are no logical center points for the factors vendor, machine, or location (such as city); however, there are logical
center points for the factors temperature, speed, and length.
Central Limit Theorem The central limit theorem states that given a distribution with a mean m and variance s2, the sampling distribution of the mean appraches a normal
distribution with a mean and variance/N as N, the sample size, increases
Characteristic A characteristic is a definable or measurable feature of a process, product, or variable.
A chi square test, also called "test of association," is a statistical test of association between discrete variables. It is based on a mathematical
comparison of the number of observed counts with the number of expected counts to determine if there is a difference in output counts based on the
Chi Square test input category. See the tool Chi SquareTest of Independence. Used with Defects data (counts) & defectives data (how many good or bad).
Critical ChiSquare is Chisquared value where p=.05.
Common cause variability is a source of variation caused by unknown factors that result in a steady but random distribution of output around the
average of the data. Common cause variation is a measure of the process's potential, or how well the process can perform when special cause
Common cause variability variation is removed. Therefore, it is a measure of the process technology. Common cause variation is also called random variation, noise,
noncontrollable variation, withingroup variation, or inherent variation. Example: many X's with a small impact.
Measurement of the certainty of the shape of the fitted regression line. A 95% confidence band implies a 95% chance that the true regression line
Confidence band (or interval) fits within the confidence bands. Measurement of certainty.
Factors or interactions are said to be confounded when the effect of one factor is combined with that of another. In other words, their effects can not
Confounding be analyzed independently.
Consumers Risk Concluding something is bad when it is actually good (TYPE II Error)
Continuous data is information that can be measured on a continuum or scale. Continuous data can have almost any numeric value and can be
meaningfully subdivided into finer and finer increments, depending upon the precision of the measurement system. Examples of continuous data
Continuous Data include measurements of time, temperature, weight, and size. For example, time can be measured in days, hours, minutes, seconds, and in even
smaller units. Continuous data is also called quantitative data.
Control limits define the area three standard deviations on either side of the centerline, or mean, of data plotted on a control chart. Do not confuse
control limits with specification limits. Control limits reflect the expected variation in the data and are based on the distribution of the data points.
Control limits Minitab™ calculates control limits using collected data. Specification limits are established based on customer or regulatory requirements.
Specification limits change only if the customer or regulatory body so requests.
Correlation is the degree or extent of the relationship between two variables. If the value of one variable increases when the value of the other
Correlation increases, they are said to be positively correlated. If the value of one variable decreases when the value of the other decreases, they are said to be
negatively correlated. The degree of linear association between two variables is quantified by the correlation coefficient
The correlation coefficient quantifies the degree of linear association between two variables. It is typically denoted by r and will have a value ranging
Correlation coefficient (r) between negative 1 and positive 1.
A critical element is an X that does not necessarily have different levels of a specific scale but can be configured according to a variety of
independent alternatives. For example, a critical element may be the routing path for an incoming call or an item request form in an ordertaking
Critical element process. In these cases the critical element must be specified correctly before you can create a viable solution; however, numerous alternatives may
be considered as possible solutions.
CTQs (stands for Critical to Quality) are the key measurable characteristics of a product or process whose performance standards, or specification
CTQ limits, must be met in order to satisfy the customer. They align improvement or design efforts with critical issues that affect customer satisfaction.
CTQs are defined early in any Six Sigma project, based on Voice of the Customer (VOC) data.
Cycle time is the total time from the beginning to the end of your process, as defined by you and your customer. Cycle time includes process time,
Cycle time during which a unit is acted upon to bring it closer to an output, and delay time, during which a unit of work waits to be processed.
Dashboard A dashboard is a tool used for collecting and reporting information about vital customer requirements and your business's performance for key
customers. Dashboards provide a quick summary of process performance.
Data Data is factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation; often this term refers to quantitative information
Defect A defect is any nonconformity in a product or process; it is any event that does not meet the performance standards of a Y.
Defective The word defective describes an entire unit that fails to meet acceptance criteria, regardless of the number of defects within the unit. A unit may be
defective because of one or more defects.
Descriptive statistics Descriptive statistics is a method of statistical analysis of numeric data, discrete or continuous, that provides information about centering, spread,
and normality. Results of the analysis can be in tabular or graphic format.
A design risk assessment is the act of determining potential risk in a design process, either in a concept design or a detailed design. It provides a
Design Risk Assessment broader evaluation of your design beyond just CTQs, and will enable you to eliminate possible failures and reduce the impact of potential failures.
This ensures a rigorous, systematic examination in the reliability of the design and allows you to capture systemlevel risk
When you are deciding what factors and interactions you want to get information about, you also need to determine the smallest effect you will
Detectable Effect Size consider significant enough to improve your process. This minimum size is known as the detectable effect size, or DES. Large effects are easier to
detect than small effects. A design of experiment compares the total variability in the experiment to the variation caused by a factor. The smaller the
effect you are interested in, the more runs you will need to overcome the variability in your experimentation.
DF (degrees of freedom) Equal to: (#rows  1)(#cols  1)
Discrete data is information that can be categorized into a classification. Discrete data is based on counts. Only a finite number of values is possible,
Discrete Data and the values cannot be subdivided meaningfully. For example, the number of parts damaged in shipment produces discrete data because parts
are either damaged or not damaged.
Distribution refers to the behavior of a process described by plotting the number of times a variable displays a specific value or range of values
Distribution rather than by plotting the value itself.
DMADV DMADV is a datadriven quality strategy for designing products and processes, and it is an integral part of Six Sigma Quality Initiative. DMADV
consists of five interconnected phases: Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify.
DMAIC DMAIC refers to a datadriven quality strategy for improving processes, and is an integral part of the company's Six Sigma Quality Initiative. DMAIC
is an acronym for five interconnected phases: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control.
DOE A design of experiment is a structured, organized method for determining the relationship between factors (Xs) affecting a process and the output of
that process.
DPMO Defects per million opportunities (DPMO) is the number of defects observed during a standard production run divided by the number of opportunities
to make a defect during that run, multiplied by one million.
DPO Defects per opportunity (DPO) represents total defects divided by total opportunities. DPO is a preliminary calculation to help you calculate DPMO
(defects per million opportunities). Multiply DPO by one million to calculate DPMO.
DPU Defects per unit (DPU) represents the number of defects divided by the number of products.
Dunnett's(1way ANOVA): Check to obtain a twosided confidence interval for the difference between each treatment mean and a control mean. Specify a family error rate
between 0.5 and 0.001. Values greater than or equal to 1.0 are interpreted as percentages. The default error rate is 0.05.
Effect An effect is that which is produced by a cause; the impact a factor (X) has on a response variable (Y).
Entitlement As good as a process can get without capital investment
Error Error, also called residual error, refers to variation in observations made under identical test conditions, or the amount of variation that can not be
attributed to the variables included in the experiment.
Error (type I) Error that concludes that someone is guilty, when in fact, they really are not. (Ho true, but I rejected itconcluded Ha) ALPHA
Error (type II) Error that concludes that someone is not guilty, when in fact, they really are. (Ha true, but I concluded Ho). BETA
Factor A factor is an independent variable; an X.
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a disciplined approach used to identify possible failures of a product or service and then determine the
frequency and impact of the failure. See the tool Failure Mode and Effects Analysis.
Fisher's (1way ANOVA): Check to obtain confidence intervals for all pairwise differences between level means using Fisher's LSD procedure. Specify an individual rate
between 0.5 and 0.001. Values greater than or equal to 1.0 are interpreted as percentages. The default error rate is 0.05.
Fits Predicted values of "Y" calculated using the regression equation for each value of "X"
Fitted value A fitted value is the Y output value that is predicted by a regression equation.
A fractional factorial design of experiment (DOE) includes selected combinations of factors and levels. It is a carefully prescribed and representative
subset of a full factorial design. A fractional factorial DOE is useful when the number of potential factors is relatively large because they reduce the
Fractional factorial DOE total number of runs required. By reducing the number of runs, a fractional factorial DOE will not be able to evaluate the impact of some of the
factors independently. In general, higherorder interactions are confounded with main effects or lowerorder interactions. Because higher order
interactions are rare, usually you can assume that their effect is minimal and that the observed effect is caused by the main effect or lowerlevel
interaction.
Frequency plot A frequency plot is a graphical display of how often data values occur.
Full factorial DOE A full factorial design of experiment (DOE) measures the response of every possible combination of factors and factor levels. These responses are
analyzed to provide information about every main effect and every interaction effect. A full factorial DOE is practical when fewer than five factors are
being investigated. Testing all combinations of factor levels becomes too expensive and timeconsuming with five or more factors.
Fvalue (ANOVA) Measurement of distance between individual distributions. As F goes up, P goes down (i.e., more confidence in there being a difference between
two means). To calculate: (Mean Square of X / Mean Square of Error)
Gage R&R Gage R&R, which stands for gage repeatability and reproducibility, is a statistical tool that measures the amount of variation in the measurement
system arising from the measurement device and the people taking the measurement. See Gage R&R tools.
Gannt Chart
A Gantt chart is a visual project planning device used for production scheduling. A Gantt chart graphically displays time needed to complete tasks.
GoodmanKruskal Gamma Term used to describe % variation explained by X
GRPI GRPI stands for four critical and interrelated aspects of teamwork: goals, roles, processes, and interpersonal relationships, and it is a tool used to
assess them. See the tool GRPI.
A histogram is a basic graphing tool that displays the relative frequency or occurrence of continuous data values showing which values occur most
Histogram and least frequently. A histogram illustrates the shape, centering, and spread of data distribution and indicates whether there are any outliers. See
the tool Histogram.
Homegeneity of variance
Homogeneity of variance is a test used to determine if the variances of two or more samples are different. See the tool Homogeneity of Variance.
Hypothesis testing refers to the process of using statistical analysis to determine if the observed differences between two or more samples are due
to random chance (as stated in the null hypothesis) or to true differences in the samples (as stated in the alternate hypothesis). A null hypothesis
(H0) is a stated assumption that there is no difference in parameters (mean, variance, DPMO) for two or more populations. The alternate hypothesis
Hypothesis testing (Ha) is a statement that the observed difference or relationship between two populations is real and not the result of chance or an error in sampling.
Hypothesis testing is the process of using a variety of statistical tools to analyze data and, ultimately, to accept or reject the null hypothesis. From a
practical point of view, finding statistical evidence that the null hypothesis is false allows you to reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate
hypothesis.
IMR Chart An IMR chart, or individual and moving range chart, is a graphical tool that displays process variation over time. It signals when a process may be
going out of control and shows where to look for sources of special cause variation. See the tool IMR Control.
In control In control refers to a process unaffected by special causes. A process that is in control is affected only by common causes. A process that is out of
control is affected by special causes in addition to the common causes affecting the mean and/or variance of a process.
Independent variable An independent variable is an input or process variable (X) that can be set directly to achieve a desired output
Intangible benefits Intangible benefits, also called soft benefits, are the gains attributable to your improvement project that are not reportable for formal accounting
purposes. These benefits are not included in the financial calculations because they are nonmonetary or are difficult to attribute directly to quality.
Examples of intangible benefits include cost avoidance, customer satisfaction and retention, and increased employee morale.
Interaction An interaction occurs when the response achieved by one factor depends on the level of the other factor. On interaction plot, when lines are not
parallel, there's an interaction.
Interrelationship digraph An interrelationship digraph is a visual display that maps out the cause and effect links among complex, multivariable problems or desired outcomes.
IQR Intraquartile range (from box plot) representing range between 25th and 75th quartile.
Kano Analysis Kano analysis is a quality measurement used to prioritize customer requirements.
KruskalWallis performs a hypothesis test of the equality of population medians for a oneway design (two or more populations). This test is a
generalization of the procedure used by the MannWhitney test and, like Mood’s median test, offers a nonparametric alternative to the oneway
KruskalWallis analysis of variance. The KruskalWallis test looks for differences among the populations medians. The KruskalWallis test is more powerful (the
confidence interval is narrower, on average) than Mood’s median test for analyzing data from many distributions, including data from the normal
distribution, but is less robust against outliers.
Kurtosis Kurtosis is a measure of how peaked or flat a curve's distribution is.
L1 Spreadsheet An L1 spreadsheet calculates defects per million opportunities (DPMO) and a process Z value for discrete data.
L2 Spreadsheet An L2 spreadsheet calculates the shortterm and longterm Z values for continuous data sets.
A leptokurtic distribution is symmetrical in shape, similar to a normal distribution, but the center peak is much higher; that is, there is a higher
Leptokurtic Distribution frequency of values near the mean. In addition, a leptokurtic distribution has a higher frequency of data in the tail area.
Levels Levels are the different settings a factor can have. For example, if you are trying to determine how the response (speed of data transmittal) is
affected by the factor (connection type), you would need to set the factor at different levels (modem and LAN) then measure the change in response.
Linearity is the variation between a known standard, or "truth," across the low and high end of the gage. It is the difference between an individual's
Linearity measurements and that of a known standard or truth over the full range of expected values.
A lower specification limit is a value above which performance of a product or process is acceptable. This is also known as a lower spec limit or LSL.
LSL
Lurking variable A lurking variable is an unknown, uncontrolled variable that influences the output of an experiment.
Main Effect A main effect is a measurement of the average change in the output when a factor is changed from its low level to its high level. It is calculated as
the average output when a factor is at its high level minus the average output when the factor is at its low level.
Mallows Statistic (Cp) Statistic within Regression>Best Fits which is used as a measure of bias (i.e., when predicted is different than truth). Should equal (#vars + 1)
MannWhitney MannWhitney performs a hypothesis test of the equality of two population medians and calculates the corresponding point estimate and
confidence interval. Use this test as a nonparametric alternative to the twosample ttest.
The mean is the average data point value within a data set. To calculate the mean, add all of the individual data points then divide that figure by the
Mean total number of data points.
Measurement system analysis Measurement system analysis is a mathematical method of determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes to
overall process variability.
Median The median is the middle point of a data set; 50% of the values are below this point, and 50% are above this point.
Mode The most often occurring value in the data set
Mood’s median test can be used to test the equality of medians from two or more populations and, like the KruskalWallis Test, provides an
nonparametric alternative to the oneway analysis of variance. Mood’s median test is sometimes called a median test or sign scores test. Mood’s
Median Test tests:
Moods Median H0: the population medians are all equal versus H1: the medians are not all equal
An assumption of Mood’s median test is that the data from each population are independent random samples and the population distributions have
the same shape. Mood’s median test is robust against outliers and errors in data and is particularly appropriate in the preliminary stages of analysis.
Mood’s Median test is more robust than is the KruskalWallis test against outliers, but is less powerful for data from many distributions, including the
normal.
Multicolinearity is the degree of correlation between Xs. It is an important consideration when using multiple regression on data that has been
collected without the aid of a design of experiment (DOE). A high degree of multicolinearity may lead to regression coefficients that are too large or
are headed in the wrong direction from that you had expected based on your knowledge of the process. High correlations between Xs also may
Multicolinearity result in a large pvalue for an X that changes when the intercorrelated X is dropped from the equation. The variance inflation factor provides a
measure of the degree of multicolinearity.
Multiple regression Multiple regression is a method of determining the relationship between a continuous process output (Y) and several factors (Xs).
Multivari chart A multivari chart is a tool that graphically displays patterns of variation. It is used to identify possible Xs or families of variation, such as variation
within a subgroup, between subgroups, or over time. See the tool MultiVari Chart.
Noise Process input that consistently causes variation in the output measurement that is random and expected and, therefore, not controlled is called
noise. Noise also is referred to as white noise, random variation, common cause variation, noncontrollable variation, and withingroup variation.
Nominal It refers to the value that you estimate in a design process that approximate your real CTQ (Y) target value based on the design element capacity.
Nominals are usually referred to as point estimate and related to yhat model.
Nonparametric Set of tools that avoids assuming a particular distribution.
Normal distribution is the spread of information (such as product performance or demographics) where the most frequently occurring value is in the
middle of the range and other probabilities tail off symmetrically in both directions. Normal distribution is graphically categorized by a bellshaped
Normal Distribution curve, also known as a Gaussian distribution. For normally distributed data, the mean and median are very close and may be identical.
Normal probability Used to check whether observations follow a normal distribution. P > 0.05 = data is normal
Normality test A normality test is a statistical process used to determine if a sample or any group of data fits a standard normal distribution. A normality test can be
performed mathematically or graphically. See the tool Normality Test.
A null hypothesis (H0) is a stated assumption that there is no difference in parameters (mean, variance, DPMO) for two or more populations.
Null Hypothesis (Ho) According to the null hypothesis, any observed difference in samples is due to chance or sampling error. It is written mathematically as follows: H0:
m1 = m2 H0: s1 = s2. Defines what you expect to observe. (e.g., all means are same or independent). (P > 0.05)
Opportunity An opportunity is anything that you inspect, measure, or test on a unit that provides a chance of allowing a defect.
An outlier is a data point that is located far from the rest of the data. Given a mean and standard deviation, a statistical distribution expects data
points to fall within a specific range. Those that do not are called outliers and should be investigated to ensure that the data is correct. If the data is
Outlier correct, you have witnessed a rare event or your process has changed. In either case, you need to understand what caused the outliers to occur.
Percent of tolerance Percent of tolerance is calculated by taking the measurement error of interest, such as repeatability and/or reproducibility, dividing by the total
tolerance range, then multiplying the result by 100 to express the result as a percentage.
A platykurtic distribution is one in which most of the values share about the same frequency of occurrence. As a result, the curve is very flat, or
Platykurtic Distribution plateaulike. Uniform distributions are platykurtic.
Pooled standard deviation is the standard deviation remaining after removing the effect of special cause variationsuch as geographic location or
Pooled Standard Deviation time of year. It is the average variation of your subgroups.
Measurement of the certainty of the scatter about a certain regression line. A 95% prediction band indicates that, in general, 95% of the points will
Prediction Band (or interval) be contained within the bands.
Probability Probability refers to the chance of something happening, or the fraction of occurrences over a large number of trials. Probability can range from 0
(no chance) to 1 (full certainty).
Probability of defect is the statistical chance that a product or process will not meet performance specifications or lie within the defined upper and
Probability of Defect lower specification limits. It is the ratio of expected defects to the total output and is expressed as p(d). Process capability can be determined from
the probability of defect.
Process capability refers to the ability of a process to produce a defectfree product or service. Various indicators are usedsome address overall
Process Capability performance, some address potential performance.
Producers Risk Concluding something is good when it is actually bad (TYPE I Error)
The pvalue represents the probability of concluding (incorrectly) that there is a difference in your samples when no true difference exists. It is a
statistic calculated by comparing the distribution of given sample data and an expected distribution (normal, F, t, etc.) and is dependent upon the
statistical test being performed. For example, if two samples are being compared in a ttest, a pvalue of 0.05 means that there is only 5% chance of
pvalue arriving at the calculated t value if the samples were not different (from the same population). In other words, a pvalue of 0.05 means there is only
a 5% chance that you would be wrong in concluding the populations are different. Pvalue < 0.05 = safe to conclude there's a difference.
Pvalue = risk of wasting time investigating further.
Radar Chart A radar chart is a graphical display of the differences between actual and ideal performance. It is useful for defining performance and identifying
strengths and weaknesses.
Running experiments in a random order, not the standard order in the test layout. Helps to eliminate effect of "lurking variables", uncontrolled factors
Randomization whihc might vary over the length of the experiment.
A rational subgroup is a subset of data defined by a specific factor such as a stratifying factor or a time period. Rational subgrouping identifies and
separates special cause variation (variation between subgroups caused by specific, identifiable factors) from common cause variation (unexplained,
Rational Subgroup random variation caused by factors that cannot be pinpointed or controlled). A rational subgroup should exhibit only common cause variation.
Regression analysis is a method of analysis that enables you to quantify the relationship between two or more variables (X) and (Y) by fitting a line
Regression analysis or plane through all the points such that they are evenly distributed about the line or plane. Visually, the bestfit line is represented on a scatter plot
by a line or plane. Mathematically, the line or plane is represented by a formula that is referred to as the regression equation. The regression
equation is used to model process performance (Y) based on a given value or values of the process variable (X).
Repeatability is the variation in measurements obtained when one person takes multiple measurements using the same techniques on the same
Repeatability parts or items.
Replicates Number of times you ran each corner. Ex. 2 replicates means you ran one corner twice.
Replication occurs when an experimental treatment is set up and conducted more than once. If you collect two data points at each treatment, you
have two replications. In general, plan on making between two and five replications for each treatment. Replicating an experiment allows you to
Replication estimate the residual or experimental error. This is the variation from sources other than the changes in factor levels. A replication is not two
measurements of the same data point but a measurement of two data points under the same treatment conditions. For example, to make a
replication, you would not have two persons time the response of a call from the northeast region during the night shift. Instead, you would time two
calls into the northeast region's help desk during the night shift.
Reproducibility is the variation in average measurements obtained when two or more people measure the same parts or items using the same
Reproducibility measuring technique.
Residual A residual is the difference between the actual Y output value and the Y output value predicted by the regression equation. The residuals in a
regression model can be analyzed to reveal inadequacies in the model. Also called "errors"
Resolution Resolution is a measure of the degree of confounding among effects. Roman numerals are used to denote resolution. The resolution of your design
defines the amount of information that can be provided by the design of experiment. As with a computer screen, the higher the resolution of your
design, the more detailed the information you will see. The lowest resolution you can have is resolution III.
A robust process is one that is operating at 6 sigma and is therefore resistant to defects. Robust processes exhibit very good shortterm process
Robust Process capability (high shortterm Z values) and a small Z shift value. In a robust process, the critical elements usually have been designed to prevent or
eliminate opportunities for defects; this effort ensures sustainability of the process. Continual monitoring of robust processes is not usually needed,
although you may wish to set up periodic audits as a safeguard.
Rolled Throughput Yield Rolled throughput yield is the probability that a single unit can pass through a series of process steps free of defects.
Rsquared A mathematical term describing how much variation is being explained by the X. FORMULA: Rsq = SS(regression) / SS(total)
Answers question of how much of total variation is explained by X. Caution: Rsq increases as number of data points increases. Pg. 13
RSquared analyze
Rsquared (adj) Unlike Rsquared, Rsquared adjusted takes into account the number of X's and the number of data points. FORMULA: Rsq (adj) = 1 
[(SS(regression)/DF(regression)) / (SS(total)/DF(total))]
RSquared adjusted Takes into account the number of X's and the number of data points...also answers: how much of total variation is explained by X.
Sample A portion or subset of units taken from the population whose characteristics are actually measured
Sample Size Calc. The sample size calculator is a spreadsheet tool used to determine the number of data points, or sample size, needed to estimate the properties of
a population. See the tool Sample Size Calculator.
Sampling Sampling is the practice of gathering a subset of the total data available from a process or a population.
scatter plot A scatter plot, also called a scatter diagram or a scattergram, is a basic graphic tool that illustrates the relationship between two variables. The dots
on the scatter plot represent data points. See the tool Scatter Plot.
Scorecard A scorecard is an evaluation device, usually in the form of a questionnaire, that specifies the criteria your customers will use to rate your business's
performance in satisfying their requirements.
A screening design of experiment (DOE) is a specific type of a fractional factorial DOE. A screening design is a resolution III design, which minimizes
Screening DOE the number of runs required in an experiment. A screening DOE is practical when you can assume that all interactions are negligible compared to
main effects. Use a screening DOE when your experiment contains five or more factors. Once you have screened out the unimportant factors, you
may want to perform a fractional or fullfractional DOE.
Segmentation Segmentation is a process used to divide a large group into smaller, logical categories for analysis. Some commonly segmented entities are
customers, data sets, or markets.
Shat Model It describes the relationship between output variance and input nominals
The Greek letter s (sigma) refers to the standard deviation of a population. Sigma, or standard deviation, is used as a scaling factor to convert upper
Sigma and lower specification limits to Z. Therefore, a process with three standard deviations between its mean and a spec limit would have a Z value of 3
and commonly would be referred to as a 3 sigma process.
Simple linear regression is a method that enables you to determine the relationship between a continuous process output (Y) and one factor (X).
Simple Linear Regression
The relationship is typically expressed in terms of a mathematical equation such as Y = b + mX
SIPOC SIPOC stands for suppliers, inputs, process, output, and customers. You obtain inputs from suppliers, add value through your process, and provide
an output that meets or exceeds your customer's requirements.
Most often, the median is used as a measure of central tendency when data sets are skewed. The metric that indicates the degree of asymmetry is
called, simply, skewness. Skewness often results in situations when a natural boundary is present. Normal distributions will have a skewness value
Skewness of approximately zero. Rightskewed distributions will have a positive skewness value; leftskewed distributions will have a negative skewness value.
Typically, the skewness value will range from negative 3 to positive 3. Two examples of skewed data sets are salaries within an organization and
monthly prices of homes for sale in a particular area.
SS Process Report The Six Sigma process report is a Minitab™ tool that calculates process capability and provides visuals of process performance. See the tool Six
Sigma Process Report.
SS Product Report The Six Sigma product report is a Minitab™ tool that calculates the DPMO and shortterm capability of your process. See the tool Six Sigma Product
Report.
Stability represents variation due to elapsed time. It is the difference between an individual's measurements taken of the same parts after an
Stability extended period of time using the same techniques.
Standard deviation is a measure of the spread of data in relation to the mean. It is the most common measure of the variability of a set of data. If the
standard deviation is based on a sampling, it is referred to as "s." If the entire data population is used, standard deviation is represented by the
Greek letter sigma (s). The standard deviation (together with the mean) is used to measure the degree to which the product or process falls within
specifications. The lower the standard deviation, the more likely the product or service falls within spec. When the standard deviation is calculated in
relation to the mean of all the data points, the result is an overall standard deviation. When the standard deviation is calculated in relation to the
Standard Deviation (s) means of subgroups, the result is a pooled standard deviation. Together with the mean, both overall and pooled standard deviations can help you
determine your degree of control over the product or process.
Design of experiment (DOE) treatments often are presented in a standard order. In a standard order, the first factor alternates between the low and
Standard Order high setting for each treatment. The second factor alternates between low and high settings every two treatments. The third factor alternates
between low and high settings every four treatments. Note that each time a factor is added, the design doubles in size to provide all combinations for
each level of the new factor.
Statistic Any number calculated from sample data, describes a sample characteristic
Statistical Process Control (SPC) Statistical process control is the application of statistical methods to analyze and control the variation of a process.
A stratifying factor, also referred to as stratification or a stratifier, is a factor that can be used to separate data into subgroups. This is done to
Stratification investigate whether that factor is a significant special cause factor.
Subgrouping Measurement of where you can get.
Tolerance Range Tolerance range is the difference between the upper specification limit and the lower specification limit.
Total Observed Variation Total observed variation is the combined variation from all sources, including the process and the measurement system.
The total probability of defect is equal to the sum of the probability of defect above the upper spec limitp(d), upperand the probability of defect
Total Prob of Defect below the lower spec limitp(d), lower.
Transfer function A transfer function describes the relationship between lower level requirements and higher level requirements. If it describes the relationship
between the nominal values, then it is called a yhat model. If it describes the relationship between the variations, then it is called an shat model.
Transformations Used to make nonnormal data look more normal.
Trivial many The trivial many refers to the variables that are least likely responsible for variation in a process, product, or service.
Ttest A ttest is a statistical tool used to determine whether a significant difference exists between the means of two distributions or the mean of one
distribution and a target value. See the ttest tools.
Check to obtain confidence intervals for all pairwise differences between level means using Tukey's method (also called Tukey's HSD or Tukey
Tukey's (1wayANOVA): Kramer method). Specify a family error rate between 0.5 and 0.001. Values greater than or equal to 1.0 are interpreted as percentages. The default
error rate is 0.05.
Unexplained Variation (S) Regression statistical output that shows the unexplained variation in the data. Se = sqrt((sum(yiy_bar)^2)/(n1))
Unit A unit is any item that is produced or processed.
USL An upper specification limit, also known as an upper spec limit, or USL, is a value below which performance of a product or process is acceptable.
Variation is the fluctuation in process output. It is quantified by standard deviation, a measure of the average spread of the data around the mean.
Variation Variation is sometimes called noise. Variance is squared standard deviation.
Common cause variation is fluctuation caused by unknown factors resulting in a steady but random distribution of output around the average of the
Variation (common cause) data. It is a measure of the process potential, or how well the process can perform when special cause variation is removed; therefore, it is a
measure of the process's technology. Also called, inherent variation
Special cause variation is a shift in output caused by a specific factor such as environmental conditions or process input parameters. It can be
Variation (special cause) accounted for directly and potentially removed and is a measure of process control, or how well the process is performing compared to its potential.
Also called nonrandom variation.
From box plot...displays minimum and maximum observations within 1.5 IQR (75th25th percentile span) from either 25th or 75th percentile. Outlier
Whisker are those that fall outside of the 1.5 range.
Yield Yield is the percentage of a process that is free of defects.
A Z value is a data point's position between the mean and another location as measured by the number of standard deviations. Z is a universal
measurement because it can be applied to any unit of measure. Z is a measure of process capability and corresponds to the process sigma value
Z that is reported by the businesses. For example, a 3 sigma process means that three standard deviations lie between the mean and the nearest
specification limit. Three is the Z value.
Z bench Z bench is the Z value that corresponds to the total probability of a defect
Z long term (ZLT) is the Z bench calculated from the overall standard deviation and the average output of the current process. Used with continuous
Z lt data, ZLT represents the overall process capability and can be used to determine the probability of making outofspec parts within the current
process.
Z shift is the difference between ZST and ZLT. The larger the Z shift, the more you are able to improve the control of the special factors identified in the
Z shift subgroups.
ZST represents the process capability when special factors are removed and the process is properly centered. Z ST is the metric by which processes
Z st are compared.
184
Fórmulas  Curva Normal GO BACK
Minitab Guia voltar
Tool Use When Example Minitab Format Data Format Y Xs p < 0.05 indicates
Determine if the average of a group of data is Response data must be stacked in one column and the
Compare multiple fixtures to determine if one Stat ANOVA At least one group of data is different than
ANOVA different than the average of other (multiple)
or more performs differently Oneway
individual points must be tagged (numerically) in another Variable Attribute
groups of data column. at least one other group.
Response data must be stacked in one column and the
Compare median and variation between groups of Compare turbine blade weights using
Box & Whisker Plot data. Also identifies outliers. different scales.
Graph Boxplot individual points must be tagged (numerically) in another Variable Attribute N/A
column.
Cause & Effect Diagram/ Brainstorming possible sources of variation for a Stat Quality Tools Input ideas in proper column heading for main branches of
particular effect
Potential sources of variation in gage r&r
Cause and Effect fishbone. Type effect in pulldown window.
All All N/A
Fishbone
Input two columns; one column containing the number of
Determine if one set of defectives data is different Stat Tables
ChiSquare than other sets of defectives data.
Compare DPUs
Chisquare Test
nondefective, and the other containing the number of Discrete Discrete At least one group is statistically different.
defective.
Quick graphical comparison of two or more Graph Character Graphs
Dot Plot processes' variation or spread
Compare length of service of technicians
Dotplot
Input multiple columns of data of equal length Variable Attribute N/A
Response data must be stacked in one column and the
Determine if difference in categorical data Determine if height and weight are significant
Stat ANOVA individual points must be tagged (numerically) in another Attribute/ At least one group of data is different than
General Linear Models between groups is real when taking into account variables between two groups when looking
General Linear Model column. Other variables must be stacked in separate
Variable
Variable
other variable x's at pay at least one other group.
columns.
Graph Histogram or
View the distribution of data (spread, mean, mode,
Histogram outliers, etc.)
View the distribution of Y Stat Quality Tools Input one column of data Variable Attribute N/A
Process Capability
Determine if the variation in one group of data is Response data must be stacked in one column and the (Use Levene's Test) At least one group of
Stat ANOVA
Homogeneity of Variance different than the variation in other (multiple) Compare the variation between teams
Homogeneity of Variance
individual points must be tagged (numerically) in another Variable Attribute data is different than at least one other
groups of data column. group
Response data must be stacked in one column and the
Determine if the means of nonnormal data are Compare the means of cycle time for Stat Nonparametrics
KruskalWallis Test different different delivery methods KruskalWallis
individual points must be tagged (numerically) in another Variable Attribute At least one mean is different
column.
Multi Vari Analysis (See Compare within piece, piece to piece or time Response data must be stacked in one column and the
Helps identify most important types or families of
also Run Chart / Time variation
to time making of airfoils leading edge Graph Interval Plot individual points must be tagged (numerically) in another Variable Attribute N/A
Series Plot) thickness column in time order.
Compare different hole drilling patterns to Response data must be stacked in one column and the
Compare median of a given confidence interval Graph Character Graphs
Notched Box Plot and variation between groups of data
see if the median and spread of the
Boxplot
individual points must be tagged (numerically) in another Variable Attribute N/A
diameters are the same column.
Manufacturer claims the average number of
cookies in a 1 lb. package is 250. You
Determine if average of a group of data is Stat Basic Statistics 1
Onesample ttest statistically equal to a specific target
sample 10 packages and find that the
Sample t
Input one column of data Variable N/A Not equal
average is 235. Use this test to disprove the
manufacturer's claim.
Determine which defect occurs the most Stat Quality Tools
Pareto Compare how frequently different causes occur
often for a particular engine program Pareto Chart
Input two columns of equal length Variable Attribute N/A
Create visual aide of each step in the process Map engine horizontal area with all rework Use rectangles for process steps and diamonds for
Process Mapping being evaluated loops and inspection points
N/A
decision points
N/A N/A N/A
Determine if a group of data incrementally Determine if a runout changes with Stat Regression
Regression changes with another group temperature Regression
Input two columns of equal length Variable Variable A correlation is detected
Stat Quality Tools
Run Chart/Time Series Input one column of data. Must also input a subgroup size
Look for trends, outliers, oscillations, etc. View runout values over time Run Chart or
(1 will show all points)
Variable N/A N/A
Plot Graph Time Series Plot
Graph Plot or
Look for correlations between groups of variable Determine if rotor blade length varies with
Scatter Plot data home position
Graph Marginal Plot or Input two or more groups of data of equal length Variable Variable N/A
Graph Matrix Plot (multiples)
Determine if the average of one group of data is Determine if the average radius produced by
Stat Basic Statistics
Twosample ttest greater than (or less than) the average of another one grinder is different than the average
2 Sample t
Input two columns of equal length Variable Variable There is a difference in the means
group of data radius produced by another grinder
STATISTICS TOOLS GUIDELINE GO BACK
What does it do? Why use? When use? Data Type P < .05 Picture
Tool indicates
The 1sample ttest is useful in identifying a significant difference between a sample The 1sample ttest is used with continuous data any time you
mean and a specified value when the difference is not readily apparent from need to compare a sample mean to a specified value. This is
1Sample tTest Compares mean to target
graphical tools. Using the 1sample ttest to compare data gathered before process useful when you need to make judgments about a process based Continuous X & Y Not equal 1
improvements and after is a way to prove that the mean has actually shifted. on a sample output from that process.
The 2sample ttest is useful for identifying a significant difference between means of When you have two samples of continuous data, and you need to There is a
A statistical test used to detect differences between
2Sample tTest means of two populations.
two levels (subgroups) of a factor. It is also extremely useful for identifying important know if they both come from the same population or if they Continuous X & Y difference in the 0
Xs for a project Y. represent two different populations means
Best Subsets is an efficient way to select a group of "best subsets" for further analysis
Typically used before or after a multipleregression analysis.
Tells you the best X to use when you're comparing by selecting the smallest subset that fulfills certain statistical criteria. The subset
Best Subsets multiple X's in regression assessment. model may actually estimate the regression coefficients and predict future responses
Particularly useful in determining which X combination yields the Continuous X & Y N/A 0
best Rsq value.
with smaller variance than the full model using all predictors
The goodnessof
fit tests, with p
values ranging
from 0.312 to
0.724, indicate
that there is
Binary logistic regression is useful in two applications: analyzing the differences insufficient
among discrete Xs and modeling the relationship between a discrete binary Y and
discrete and/or continuous Xs. Binary logistic regression can be used to model the evidence for the
Binary logistic regression is useful in two important Defectives Y / model not fitting
Binary Logistic relationship between a discrete binary Y and discrete and/or continuous Xs. The
applications: analyzing the differences among discrete Generally speaking, logistic regression is used when the Ys are
predicted values will be probabilities p(d) of an event such as success or failurenot Continuous & the data 0
Regression Xs and modeling the relationship between a discrete
an event count. The predicted values will be bounded between zero and one
discrete and the Xs are continuous
binary Y and discrete and/or continuous Xs. Discrete X adequately. If the
(because they are probabilities).
pvalue is less
than your
accepted a level,
the test would
indicate sufficient
evidence for a
conclusion of an
inadequate fit.
Brainstorming can be used any time you and your team need to
creatively generate numerous ideas on any topic. You will use
Brainstorming is a tool that allows for open and creative
Brainstorming is helpful because it allows your team to generate many ideas on a brainstorming many times throughout your project whenever you
Brainstorming thinking. It encourages all team members to participate
topic creatively and efficiently without criticism or judgment. feel it is appropriate. You also may incorporate brainstorming into all N/A 0
and to build on each other's creativity
other tools, such as QFD, tree diagrams, process mapping, or
FMEA.
CAP A group exercise used to establish scope and facilitate Encourages group participation. Increases individual involvement and understanding
discussion. Effort focuses on delineating project of team efforts. Prevents errant team efforts in later project stages (waste). Helps to Define all N/A 0
Includes/Excludes boundaries. orient new team members.
CAP Stakeholder Confirms management or stakeholder acceptance and Helps to eliminate low priority projects. Insure management support and
Defone all N/A 0
Analysis prioritization of Project and team efforts. compatibility with business goals.
Failure Mode and A means / method to Identify ways a process can fail,
estimate th risks of those failures, evaluate a control Complex or new processes. Customers are involved. all N/A 0
Effects Analysis plan, prioritize actions related to the process
Gage R&RANOVA method is a tool used to assess the Measure Use Gage R&RANOVA method after the project data
variation in a measurement system due to reproducibility Gage R&RANOVA method is an important tool because it provides a method to collection plan is formulated or modified and before the project
Gage R & RANOVA and/or repeatability. An advantage of this tool is that it independently assess the most common types of measurement variation  data collection plan is finalized and data is collected. Choose the
can separate the individual effects of repeatability and repeatability and reproducibility. This tool will help you to determine whether the ANOVA method when you have continuous data and you want to Continuous X & Y 0
Method reproducibility and then break down reproducibility into variation from repeatability and/or reproducibility in your measurement system is an determine if the measurement variation due to repeatability
the components "operator" and "operator by part." This acceptably small portion of the total observed variation. and/or reproducibility is an acceptably small portion of the total
tool applies to continuous data only. observed variation.
nonparametric
At least one mean
KruskalWallis Test Compare two or more means with unknown distributions (measurement or 0
is different
count)
Tool used for highlevel look at relationships between Continuous Y & all
Matrix plots can save time by allowing you to drilldown into data and determine
Matrix Plot several parameters. Matrix plots are often a first step at
which parameters best relate to your Y.
You should use matrix plots early in your analyze phase. N/A
determining which X's contribute most to your Y. X's
You should use mistake proofing in the Measure phase when you
are developing your data collection plan, in the Improve phase
when you are developing your proposed solution, and in the
Mistakeproofing devices prevent defects by preventing Mistake proofing is an important tool because it allows you to take a proactive Control phase when developing the control plan.Mistake proofing
Mistake Proofing errors or by predicting when errors could occur. approach to eliminating errors at their source before they become defects. is appropriate when there are :1. Process steps where human all N/A 0
intervention is required2. Repetitive tasks where physical
manipulation of objects is required3. Steps where errors are
known to occur4. Opportunities for predictable errors to occur
Multiple regression will help you to understand the relationship between the process
output (Y) and several factors (Xs) that may affect the Y. Understanding this You can use multiple regression during the Analyze phase to help
relationship allows you to1. Identify important Xs2. Identify the amount of variation identify important Xs and during the Improve phase to define the
method that enables you to determine the relationship explained by the model3. Reduce the number of Xs prior to design of experiment optimized solution. Multiple regression can be used with both A correlation is
Multiple Regression between a continuous process output (Y) and several (DOE )4. Predict Y based on combinations of X values5. Identify possible nonlinear continuous and discrete Xs. If you have only discrete Xs, use Continuous X & Y 0
factors (Xs). relationships such as a quadratic (X12) or an interaction (X1X2)The output of a ANOVAGLM. Typically you would use multiple regression on detected
multiple regression analysis may demonstrate the need for designed experiments existing data. If you need to collect new data, it may be more
that establish a cause and effect relationship or identify ways to further improve the efficient to use a DOE.
process.
There are two occasions when you should use a normality test:
1. When you are first trying to characterize raw data, normality
A normality test is a statistical process used to determine
Many statistical tests (tests of means and tests of variances) assume that the data testing is used in conjunction with graphical tools such as
if a sample, or any group of data, fits a standard normal
Normality Test distribution. A normality test can be done mathematically
being tested is normally distributed. A normality test is used to determine if that histograms and box plots. cont (measurement) not normal 0
assumption is valid. 2. When you are analyzing your data, and you need to calculate
or graphically.
basic statistics such as Z values or employ statistical tests that
assume normality, such as ttest and ANOVA.
You will use an np chart in the Control phase to verify that the
The np chart is a tool that will help you determine if your process is in control by process remains in control after the sources of special cause
a graphical tool that allows you to view the actual seeing if special causes are present. The presence of special cause variation variation have been removed. The np chart is used for processes Defectives Y /
np Chart number of defectives and detect the presence of special indicates that factors are influencing the output of your process. Eliminating the that generate discrete data. The np chart is used to graph the Continuous & N/A 1
causes. influence of these factors will improve the performance of your process and bring actual number of defectives in a sample. The sample size for the Discrete X
your process into control. np chart is constant, with between 5 and 10 defectives per
sample on the average.
a graphical tool that allows you to view the proportion of The p chart is a tool that will help you determine if your process is in control by You will use a p chart in the Control phase to verify that the
defectives and detect the presence of special causes. determining whether special causes are present. The presence of special cause process remains in control after the sources of special cause Defectives Y /
p Chart The p chart is used to understand the ratio of variation indicates that factors are influencing the output of your process. Eliminating variation have been removed. The p chart is used for processes Continuous & N/A 1
nonconforming units to the total number of units in a the influence of these factors will improve the performance of your process and bring that generate discrete data. The sample size for the p chart can Discrete X
sample. your process into control vary but usually consists of 100 or more
A correlation is
Reqression see Multiple Regression Continuous X & Y 0
detected
RSS analysis is a quick method for estimating the variation in system output given the Use RSS when you need to quantify the variation in the output
variation in system component inputs, provided the system behavior can be modeled given the variation in inputs. However, the following conditions
Root sum of squares (RSS) is a statistical tolerance
using a linear transfer function with unit (± 1) coefficients. RSS can quickly tell you the must be met in order to perform RSS analysis: 1. The inputs (Xs)
analysis method used to estimate the variation of a
Root Sum of Squares system output Y from variations in each of the system's probability that the output (Y) will be outside its upper or lower specification limits. are independent. 2. The transfer function is linear with Continuous X & Y N/A 0
Based on this information, you can decide whether some or all of your inputs need to coefficients of +1 and/or  1. 3. In addition, you will need to know
inputs Xs.
be modified to meet the specifications on system output, and/or if the specifications (or have estimates of) the means and standard deviations of
on system output need to be changed. each X.
The sample size calculator simplifies the use of the The calculation helps link allowable risk with cost. If your sample size is statistically
Sample Size sample size formula and provides you with a statistical sound, you can have more confidence in your data and greater assurance that
basis for determining the required sample size for given all N/A 1
Calculator resources spent on data collection efforts and/or planned improvements will not be
levels of a and b risks wasted
a basic graphic tool that illustrates the relationship
between two variables.The variables may be a process
Scatter plots are used with continuous and discrete data and are
output (Y) and a factor affecting it (X), two factors
Scatter Plot affecting a Y (two Xs), or two related process outputs
Useful in determining whether trends exist between two or more sets of data. especially useful in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of all N/A 0
DMAIC projects.
(two Ys).
You will use a u chart in the Control phase to verify that the
The u chart is a tool that will help you determine if your process is in control by process remains in control after the sources of special cause
A u chart, shown in figure 1, is a graphical tool that determining whether special causes are present. The presence of special cause variation have been removed. The u chart is used for processes
u Chart allows you to view the number of defects per unit variation indicates that factors are influencing the output of your process. Eliminating that generate discrete data. The u chart monitors the number of N/A 1
sampled and detect the presence of special causes the influence of these factors will improve the performance of your process and bring defects per unit taken from a process. You should record
your process into control between 20 and 30 readings, and the sample size may be
variable.
You can use VOC tools at the start of a project to determine what
Each VOC tool provides the team with an organized method for gathering information
The following tools are commonly used to collect VOC key issues are important to the customers, understand why they
from customers. Without the use of structured tools, the data collected may be
data: Dashboard ,Focus group, Interview, Scorecard, are important, and subsequently gather detailed information
Voice of the Customer and Survey.. Tools used to develop specific CTQs and incomplete or biased. Key groups may be inadvertently omitted from the process,
about each issue. VOC tools can also be used whenever you all N/A 0
information may not be gathered to the required level of detail, or the VOC data
associated priorities. need additional customer input such as ideas and suggestions
collection effort may be biased because of your viewpoint.
for improvement or feedback on new solutions
LEITURAS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
1ª LEITURA 13.30 8.70 10.10 7.90 10.40 9.40 8.90 12.60 13.30 8.70 10.10 7.90 10.40 9.40 8.90 12.60 13.30 8.70 10.10 7.90 10.40 9.40 8.90 12.60 13.30
2ª LEITURA 7.30 7.60 11.50 7.10 10.80 9.80 8.30 12.80 7.30 7.60 11.50 7.10 10.80 9.80 8.30 12.80 7.30 7.60 11.50 7.10 10.80 9.80 8.30 12.80 7.30
3ª LEITURA 9.80 8.90 13.60 7.70 8.60 8.70 8.40 12.60 9.80 8.90 13.60 7.70 8.60 8.70 8.40 12.60 9.80 8.90 13.60 7.70 8.60 8.70 8.40 12.60 9.80
4ª LEITURA 8.60 8.30 11.10 10.10 8.90 10.10 8.10 10.30 8.60 8.30 11.10 10.10 8.90 10.10 8.10 10.30 8.60 8.30 11.10 10.10 8.90 10.10 8.10 10.30 8.60
5ª LEITURA 8.10 8.50 9.30 12.70 9.20 12.80 10.60 10.60 8.10 8.50 9.30 12.70 9.20 12.80 10.60 10.60 8.10 8.50 9.30 12.70 9.20 12.80 10.60 10.60 8.10
MÉDIA 9.42 8.40 11.12 9.10 9.58 10.16 8.86 11.78 9.42 8.40 11.12 9.10 9.58 10.16 8.86 11.78 9.42 8.40 11.12 9.10 9.58 10.16 8.86 11.78 9.42
AMPLITUDE 6.00 1.30 4.30 5.60 2.20 4.10 2.50 2.50 6.00 1.30 4.30 5.60 2.20 4.10 2.50 2.50 6.00 1.30 4.30 5.60 2.20 4.10 2.50 2.50 6.00
S 1.574 ICP 2.118 Cp 0.021 LSC X 11.914 Máx. 13.600 Range 6.50
12.00
10.00
8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
8.00
7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
80
HISTOGRAMA 50.0%
45.0%
70
40.0%
60
35.0%
50
30.0%
40 25.0%
20.0%
30
15.0%
20
10.0%
10
5.0%
0 0.0%
10  10,02 10.02  10.04 10.04  10.06 10.06  10.08 10.08  10.1 10.1  10.12 10.12  10.14 10.14  10.16 10.16  10.18 10.18  10.2
Matriz XY Matrix  Causa e Ef
Process:
Demo Date: 11/27/2019
1 2
Delete
Description
Variables (Ys)
material
foreign
broken
Output
Weight 10 6
Input Variables (Xs)
1 pressure 10 a 20 9
2 temperature 100 a 120 9
3 time 3
4 clean room practices 3
5 clean room cleanliness 9
6 washer 9
7 material properties 3
8 robot handling 9 1
9 human handling 9 3
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
 Causa e Efeito combinado Voltar
Ranking Scale:
27/2019 1 none, 3 marginal, 9 highest
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
unbonded
thickness
smears
area
8 7 9
Ranking
3 1 120
9 1 162
9 1 102
9 90
3 78
9 126
3 1 9 130
3 120
3 3 159
1087
Subroutine
Generation
Rework
VA
NVA
Mapa de Proces
INPUTS
Input Number Type Of Input Factors LSL
Time to
1 Controllable 3 hrs
inspect
2 Noise Meeting 2 hrs
3 Controllable Availability 8hrs /day
DEX BRASIL  CAPGEMINI
Processo  In  Out
MAP
USL Measurement Method Output
NVA
Receiving
6 hrs Man Hours Inspection
Installation
3 hrs Meeting hours Time
9hrs /day Man Hours
VA
NVA
Rework
Voltar
OUTPUT STATISTICS
#DIV/0! #DIV/0!
#DIV/0! #DIV/0!
#DIV/0! #DIV/0!
#DIV/0! #DIV/0!
#DIV/0! #DIV/0!
Objetivo: Permite o mapeamento completo de atividades e
determinação de estatísticas de comparação nível sigma e D
identifica as entradas e saidas de cada operação e os resultad
esperados para cada atividade.
Aplicação:
Ideal para mensurar a performance individual de cada operaç
estabelecer prioridades de melhorias.
Permite a comparação entre empresas Benchmarking
Use:
Mainly to measure the individual performance for the operati
established improves priorities.
Identify the entrances and exits of each operation and the e
results.
Use:
Mainly to measure the individual performance for the operati
established improves priorities.
Allows benchmark between companies.
Phase: Analyse
atividades e
ível sigma e DPMO.
o e os resultados
de cada operação e
marking
Meta:
20
15
10
89
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Jan Fev Mar Abr Mai Jun Jul Ago Set Out Nov
Meta 2015 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Real 2015 23 11 11 1 9 22 2 2 2 2 2
Desvio 188% 38% 38% 88% 13% 175% 75% 75% 75% 75% 75%
1 REAL<META
or  KPI  referente a :
1
Þ Menor Melhor
Ý0 Maior Melhor 0
12
120
100
80
60
96
89
40
20
0
7 8 9 10 11 12
1
Dez Acumulado
8 96
2 89
75% 7%
d
d
a
s
i
Gráfico do Farol
Engagement e Área  Torre Característica: Especificaç
3
4
5
14.0
13.0
12.0 O
11.0 O
10.0 O
9.0 O
8.0 O
7.0 O
6.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
x Ação: xx Ação:
xx ou x continuar a atividade ou melhorar a atividade
Voltar
Especificação:
Ano:
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
OUTROS
Ação :
x investigar a causa e melhorar
Intervalo de Confiança  De
Sigma 2.00
Variance 4.00
alpha 0.05
Nota: alpha = 1  % Confiança ( Confidence Level )
n Variancia Inferior
12 2.01
Desvio Padrão
Desvio Inferior
1.42
n Variancia Inferior
10 1.89
20 2.31
30 2.54
40 2.68
50 2.79
60 2.87
70 2.94
80 3.00
90 3.04
100 3.08
Jairo Brandão
o de Confiança  Desvio Padrão
( Desvio padrão )
nfidence Level )
Variancia Superior
11.53 Objetivo: Calcula i
amostrais,permitind
o Padrão foram extraidos.
Desvio superior
3.40 Aplicação: Análise
normal  análise pa
Variancia Superior
13.33
8.53
Fase: Medir ou Ana
7.23
6.59 Desvio padrão ( sigm
6.21 Variância : Desvio p
5.95
5.76
5.61
5.49
5.40
Objective: Calculate
allowing to estimate
extracted.
Use: Analysis of a se
parametric analysis.
Standard deviation (
Variance: Standard d
Use: Analysis of a se
parametric analysis.
Standard deviation (
Variance: Standard d
Voltar
a população supostamente
m torno da média
upposedly normal 
49.86
1.66
0.05
2.13
Note: alpha = 1  % Confidence Objetivo: Calcula intervalos de confi
estimar a faixa de variação na popula
Média Inf. Média Sup.
48.975 50.745
Aplicação: Análise de um grupo de d
Média Inf. Média Sup. normal  análise paramétrica.
48.673 51.047
49.083 50.637 Fase: Medir ou Analisar do DMAIC
49.240 50.480
49.329 50.391
49.388 50.332
49.431 50.289
49.464 50.256
49.491 50.229
49.512 50.208
49.531 50.189
u Analisar do DMAIC
e and Analyze
rmitindo
.
ostamente
g
were
al 
Sigma Level  Cycle time 
Tabela 1  Horas
ATIVIDADE
sss
fff
Tabela 2  Decimais
ATIVIDADE
ssss
1.00
0.50
0.00
ssss
0.50
0.00
ssss
0.50
1.00
1.50
 Tempo de Ciclo Voltar
VOLUME TEMPOS
MPO DE CICLO
MEDIA Tempo Padrão
12:11:10 AM 12:05:00 AM
12:08:21 AM 12:03:00 AM
12:20:12 AM 12:10:00 AM
12:17:15 AM 12:20:00 AM
12:10:24 AM 12:05:00 AM
12:20:21 AM 12:05:00 AM
12:08:10 AM 12:03:07 AM
Nivel sigma 
MEDIA Tempo Padrão Desvio padrão CPK long term
0.1861 0.0833 0.1583 0.2 0.65
0.1393 0.0500 0.0851 0.3 1.05
0.3367 0.1667 0.3618 0.2 0.47
0.2875 0.3333 0.0660 0.2 0.69
0.1733 0.0833 0.0787 0.4 1.14
0.3391 0.0833 0.4180 0.2 0.61
0.1361 0.0519 0.1817 0.2 0.46
Objetivo:
Transforma os tempos obtidos e
permitindo priorizar as melhoria
correções.
Application: In chrono
ssss
ssss
os tempos obtidos em um processo em níveis sigma, quando comparado a um pa
priorizar as melhorias e comparar processos distintos. Gera gráficos que auxilia
ve:
ms the times obtained in a processin sigma levels, w
ed to a standard established, allowing prioritize impr
mpare different processes. Generates graphs that hel
ons.
tion: In chronoanalysis activities, Analyze phase of D
ma levels, when
oritize improvements
phs that help prioritize
e phase of DMAIC
eady included.
FMEA  Análise de Efeito e Modo de Falha Voltar
Time Cliente
Observações Data início Data Versão Data Chave Objetivo: Similar a um plano de contingência, é utilizado quando alteramos um processo e queremos prevenir
possiveis falhas e seus efeitos.
Resultado das ações
S O D
S O D FMEA  Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
Funcões do e c Controles e R
Modo potencial de Efeito Potencial da Causa potencial da Controle Atual e c e R
processo e v o atuais t P Ações recomendadas Responsável/ Data prevista
requisitos
falha falha
e
falha / mecanismo Prevenção
r Detecção e N Ações Tomadas v o t P Cada falha , causa e controle devem ser analisadas quanto a Severidade, Ocorrência e chance de ser detectado,
r r c e r e N criando um critério de importância na tomada de ação corretiva.
r r c
0 5 5 5 125
Aplicação: Fase Analisar do DMAIC
0 0
Definition:
A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is an inductive failure analysis used in product development, systems
engineering, reliability engineering and operations management for analysis of failure modes within a system for
classification by the severity and likelihood of the failures. A successful FMEA activity helps a team to identify potential
failure modes based on past experience with similar products or processes or based on common failure mechanism
logic, enabling the team to design those failures out of the system with the minimum of effort and resource
expenditure, thereby reducing development time and costs. It serves as a form of design review to erase weakness out
of the design or process. It is widely used in development and manufacturing industries in various phases of the
product life cycle. Effects analysis refers to studying the consequences of those failures on different system levels.
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
Visto pela primeira vez 7 de julho Antes de 7 de julho Havia 30% a menos Uma nova linha de 7Jul
de funcionários na produção foi
Quando mais visto Desde então Último ano planta antes de 7 de implantada em 7 de 5. Ações Corretivas Tomando D
julho julho 5a. Avalie a ação corr
Quando
Entrevistas com os
empregados verificam a
Causa Raiz de Escape.
CAUSAS PROVÁVEIS
OBSERVAÇÃO
OPERADOR , ABASTECE, ETIQUETA, BUSCA MATERIAL, DIGITA NO SISTEMA , DA BAIXA, CONFERE ESTOQUE, CONSULTAR SALDO NO ALMOX
✘ ✘
Mostre dados
Colorir dados entre: >>> 650 a 1600
### duplicados ###
Amount Names
$ 256.33 Bill
$ 358.68 Fred
$ 461.03 Jack
$ 563.38 Bill
$ 665.73 Harry
$ 768.08 Mary
$ 870.43 June
$ 972.78 Ned
$ 1,075.13 Mary
$ 1,177.48 Greg
$ 1,279.83 Joe
$ 1,382.18 John
$ 1,484.53 Sam
$ 1,586.88 Paul
$ 1,689.23 Harry
$ 1,791.58 June
$ 1,893.93 Dave
$ 1,996.28 Harry
$ 2,098.63
$ 2,200.98
$ 2,303.33
$ 2,405.68
$ 2,508.03
$ 2,610.38
$ 2,712.73
$ 2,815.08
DEX BRASIL  CAPGEMINI
álise de dados bruto Voltar
Chamados
Controles
Telefonia
BON FRI
Gap to be
BON
MAT
NDB
CON
ADT
CDP
DVC
FRN
RPA
ATV
SER
FCP
FRE
FFR
FAT
J1B
Activity
FRI
achieved
COMPLEXITY
Employee 2 5 5 4 5 2 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 4 4 1 5 4 Total Actual Goal
João 5 5 5 1 5 5 5 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 306 17 17
Maria 4 4 4 1 4 4 4 1 4 3 3 1 3 1 3 4 4 1 1 1 1 175 0 6
José 5 5 5 1 5 5 5 1 3 3 3 1 3 1 5 4 4 1 1 1 1 201 5 6
Benedita 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 110 0 6
Inacio 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 148 6 6
Carlos 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 90 0 6
Luiz 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 5 5 1 1 139 3 6
Rute 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 72 0 5
Moises 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 69 0 5
Noé 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 66 0 5
Mateus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 84 0 5
Esdras 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 162 0 4
Maria 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 66 0 4
Rute 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 99 0 4
Total 84 175 135 64 135 54 108 34 32 99 105 87 102 87 52 25 96 88 28 90 68
Actual 5 5 4 2 0 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
Goal 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 5
PLANO DE AÇÃO
FÁBRICA: GESTOR: LIDER:
Nº
MEDIDA TOMADA PROCEDIMENTO RAZÃO LOCAL RESPONSÁVEL PRAZO PROGRESSO % FAROL Obs
Inicio Fim STATUS SITUAÇÃO COMENTARIOS
WHAT ( O quê ?) HOW ( Como ?) WHY ( Por quê) WHERE ( Onde ?) WHO ( Quem ?)
1 Atrasada
2 Atrasada
3 Realizada
7
Área Responsável
AGOSTO SETEMBRO OUTUBRO NOVEMBRO DEZEMBRO
Weeks 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Green Belt
D
EXTRUSAO
xxxxx
M
STATUS
DEFINE MEASURE ANALYSE IMPROVE CONTROL
Project Charter
• Voice of the Customer
• SIPOC Map
• Pareto Analysis ( 80 x 20 )
Validate HighLevel Value Stream Map and Scope
Validate Voice of the Customer and Voice of the Business
Validate Financial Benefits
Select and Launch Team
Develop Project Schedule
Measurables baseline
Y  Focus
Is this project important, i.e. has the project been chosen because it is in alignment with <Business Unit> goals and the
strategic direction of the ‘business’?
What is the problem statement –detailing (what) is the problem, (when) was the problem first seen, (where) was is it seen,
and what is the (magnitude or extent) of the problem. Is the problem measured in terms of Quality, Cycle Time or Cost
Efficiency, not expected financial benefits? Ensure there is no mention or assumptions about causes and solutions.
Does a goal statement exist that defines the results expected tobe achieved by the process, with reasonable and
measurable targets? Is the goal developed for the “what”in the problem statement, thus measured in terms of Quality,
Cycle Time or Cost Efficiency?
Does a financial business case exist, explaining the potential impact (i.e. measured in euros) of the project on the
business units, suppliers, external and business customers, etc.?
Is the project scope reasonable? Have constraints and key assumptions been identified? Have IT implications been
addressed and coordinated with IT managers? Have Information security concerns ?
Who is on the team? Are they the right resources and has their required time commitment to the project been confirmed
by Sponsor and Team?
What is the high level work plan? What are the key milestones (i.e. dates of tollgate reviews for DMAIC projects)?
Who are the customers (business units, suppliers, external and business customers) for this process? What are their
requirements? Are they measurable? How were the requirements determined?
Who are the key stakeholders? How will they be involved in the project? How will progress be communicated to them?
Do they agree to the project?
What kinds of barriers/obstacles will need assistance to be removed? Has the development of a risk mitigation plan to
deal with the identified risks been developed?
Has approved this project charter and registered it in IPortal
Y – Focus ( sometimes X )
Has a more detailed Value Stream Map been completed to better understand the process and problem, and where in the
process the root causes might reside?
Has the team conducted a valueadded and cycle time analysis, identifying areas where time and resources are devoted to
tasks not critical to the customer?
Has the team identified the specific input (x), process (x), and output (y) measures needing to be collected for both
effectiveness and efficiency categories (i.e. Quality, Speed and Cost Efficiency measures)?
Has the team developed clear, unambiguous operational definitions for each measurement and tested them with others to
ensure clarity and consistent interpretation?
Has a clear, reasonable choice been made between gathering new data or taking advantage of existing data?
Sample size & sampling frequency established to ensure valid representation of the process we’re measuring?
Has the team developed & tested the data collection form for usability and that it can provide consistent, complete data?
Has baseline performance and process capability been established? How large is the gap between current performance
and the customer (or project) requirements?
Has the team been able to identify any ‘Quick Wins’?
Has the team begun to fill in the financial benefits worksheets ?
Have any opportunities to do Kaizen projects been identified to accelerate momentum and results?
Have ‘learnings’ todate required modification of the Project Charter? If so, have these changes been approved by the
Project Sponsor and the Key Stakeholders?
New risks to project success have been identified, added to the Risk Mitigation Plan, & mitigation strategy put in place?
X  Focus
Has the team examined the process and identified potential bottlenecks, disconnects and redundancies that could contribute to the problem
statement?
Has the team analyzed data about the process and its performance to help stratify the problem, understand reasons for variation in the
process, and generate hypothesis as to the rootcauses of the current process performance?
Has an evaluation been done to determine whether the problem canbe solved without a fundamental ‘white paper’recreation of the process?
Has the decision been confirmed withthe Project Sponsor?
Has the team investigated and validated the root cause hypotheses generated earlier, to gain confidence that the “vital few”root causes have
been uncovered?
Does the team understand why the problem (the Quality, Cycle Time or Cost Efficiency issue identified in the Problem Statement) is being
seen?
Has the team been able to identify any additional ‘Quick Wins’?
Have ‘learning's todate required modification of the Project Charter? If so, have these changes been approved by the Project Sponsor and
the Key Stakeholders?
Has the team examined the process and identified potential bottlenecks, disconnects and redundancies that could contribute to the problem
statement?
Has the team analyzed data about the process and its performance to help stratify the problem, understand reasons for variation in the
process, and generate hypothesis as to the rootcauses of the current process performance?
Has an evaluation been done to determine whether the problem canbe solved without a fundamental ‘white paper’recreation of the process?
Has the decision been confirmed withthe Project Sponsor?
Has the team investigated and validated the root cause hypotheses generated earlier, to gain confidence that the “vital few”root causes have
been uncovered?
Does the team understand why the problem (the Quality, Cycle Time or Cost Efficiency issue identified in the Problem Statement) is being
seen?
Has the team been able to identify any additional ‘Quick Wins’?
Have ‘learning's todate required modification of the Project Charter? If so, have these changes been approved by the Project Sponsor and
the Key Stakeholders?
Have any new risks to project success been identified, added to the Risk Mitigation Plan, and a mitigation strategy put in place?
X  Focus
Develop Potential Solutions  Brainstorming or Brainwritting ( GUITE )
• Evaluate, Select, and Optimize Best Solutions
• Develop ‘Future state Value Stream Map(s)
• Develop and Implement Pilot Solution
• Confirm Attainment of Project Goals
• Develop Full Scale Implementation Plan•  Schedulle
Has the team prepared all the essential documentation for the improved process, including revised/new Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s), a
training plan and a process control system?
Has the necessary training for process owners/operators been performed
Have the right measures been selected, and documented as part ofthe Process Control System, to monitor performance of the process and the continued
effectiveness of the solution? Has the metrics briefing plan/schedule been documented? Who owns the measures? Has the Process Owner’s job
description been updated to reflect the new responsibilities? What happens if minimum performance is not achieved?
Has the solution been effectively implemented? Has the team compiled results data confirming that the solution has achieved the goalsdefined in the
Project Charter?
Have the Financial Benefit Worksheets been documented? Has the financial controller reviewed?
Has the process been transitioned to the Process Owner, to take over responsibility for managing continuing operations? Do they concur with the control
plan?
Has a final Storyboard documenting the project work been developed?
Has the team forwarded other issues / opportunities, which were not able to be addressed, to senior management?
Have “lessons learned”been captured?
Have replication opportunities been identified and communicated?
Has the team congratuleted and motivated for new chalenges.
Has the GB concluded this project in IPortal.
Has the Controller validated the benefits
Has the sponsor apprived this project
RETRABALHO NAO OK
PLT =
VA=
PCE=
NÃO AGREGA ELIMINAR =
AGREGA = 1 = 4 %
Processo B
Processo A
Exemplo apenas...
CONFERENCIA 
CHECKING
OK
NAO OK
IF  SE 
CONDICIONAL
MINAR = 19 = 65 %
MIZAR = 9 = 31 %
4 HORAS
so A
PLT = PLT = 50
VA= VA= 5
PCE= PCE= 10
PLT =
VA=
PCE=
PLT =
VA=
PCE=
PLT =
VA=
PCE=
QUERY PARA
CONFERCIAS
PLT = 50 PLT =
VA= 5 VA=
PCE= 10 PCE=
PLT = PLT =
VA= VA=
PCE= PCE=
MPLES VOLTAR
2:20 HS
PLT =
VA=
PCE=
PLT =
VA=
PCE=
PLT =
VA=
PCE= PCP
PLT =
VA=
PCE=
PLT =
VA=
PCE=
VOLTAR
VOLTAR
Definition:
Process mapping
It describes how
how work is don
some of the caus
By mapping proc
Process inputs (
non value added
By mapping proc
Process inputs (
non value added
PCP costs, waiting tim
vvv
ENTRY
CLASSIFICATION
TAX
TESTE
tion:
PLT = PLT =
VA= VA=
PCE= PCE=
veness and efficiency of a process.
fficient.
ements
ching
what

nd
work,

nd
work,
MATRIZ CDE PRIORIZAÇÃO DE PROJETOS DE REDUÇÃO DE CUSTOS
sort
G U I T E S
Gráfico de Pizza
EXEQUIBILIDADE
SATISFAÇÃO DO
INVESTIMENTO
CLIENTE FINAL
GRAVIDADE
TENDÊNCIA
URGÊNCIA
Total
Excesso de horas extras Refugo na Extrusora Refugo na Rulli  Resina Plastica
27
33
Problema ou solução
Excesso de horas extras 5 5 5 8 5 5 33
34
Refugo na Extrusora 5 9 5 5 5 5 34
Refugo na Rulli  Resina Plastica 5 4 5 3 5 5 27
0
0
0
0
0
Gráfico de Pareto
40 33 34
30 27
20
10
Refugo na Rul l i  Res i na Pl a stica
Exces s o de hora s extra s
0
0 0 0 0 0
PARETO
1600.00
1400.00
1400.00
1200.00
1000.00
876.00
800.00 766.00
650.00
600.00
600.00
400.00
234.00
200.00 150.00 130.00
45.00 45.00
0.00
DPMO Nível Sigma Calc
CÁLCULO DE DPMO
Número de oportunidades:
DPMO:
Nível Sigma:
0.0000034
4.4998545
3.4
99.99966
ENTRE COM O %
0.00034
el Sigma Calc Voltar
Milhão de Oportunidades
ULO DE DPMO
1
1000000
3.4
3.4
6.00
defeitos para eventual comparação.
Unilateral
longo ou curto
ppk cpk
1.50 2.00
Objetivo= 2
ppk cpk
1.50 2.00
Objetivo= 2
ppk cpk
1.50 2.00
Objetivo= 2
Permite a mensuração do nível sigma de um processo. Um padrão de comparação
ade 6 sigma.
ÃO: Quando expressar em porcentagem não é mais interessante dado o valor baixo
Example: An invoice
The DPMO considers
is indicator considers the failure rate (errors) occurring every million opportunities,
portunities in the same document or service.
PLICATION: When expressed in percentage is not more interesting given the low va
so provides the DPMO  Defects per Million Opportunities, allows an universal lang
easuring defects, considering all possible opportunities.
e sigma level, lets compare different processes, eg time to issue an invoice, in Chile,
ble for chronoanalysis sigma level)  Mistakes made on invoices.
the tables below, starting from volume, defects and opportunities , we can obtain t
e level or sigma or Yield and its equivalence in CPK
ess. A comparison standard widely adopted by the
rking
fields.
just a defective invoice.
Obs. Os dados das colunas em verde não devem ser usados em gráficos ou cálculos de média ou desvio padrão
MÉDIA 55.25
DESVIO PADRÃO 5.49
Qtde de dados 20
Máximo 44.00
Mínimo 66.00
ESPEC SUPERIOR 88.00
Target
ESPEC INFERIOR 33.00
Assimetria 0.36
Curtose 0.21
Pp 1.67
Ppk 1.35
4.0560540078
% Out specification (one side) 0.00250
SIPOC
REQUERIMENTOS FORNECEDORES ENTRADA PROCESSO SAIDA CLIENTES
GESTÃO DE ORDEM DE
FABRICAÇÃO
TI xxx
COPIS
Matriz de Impacto e Esforço
LISTA DE OPORTUNIDADES
ALTO
IMPACTO
( BENEFÍCIOS )
BAIXO
BAIXO
ESFORÇO
ALTO
IMPACTO
( BENEFÍCIOS )
(3) Itens: (4) Itens:
BAIXO
BAIXO
ESFORÇO
o x impacto
(2) Itens:
(4) Itens:
ALTO
e após a definição de uma lista de ações
e geram um menor esforço para um maior
ndo na priorização da aplicação das soluções..
Melhorar do DMAIC
nal: Matriz GUITE e Brainstoming
se
Matrix and Brainstorming
TIM WOOD  Perdas  Administração  Transacional Voltar
T TRANSPORTE Anexos de emails, aprovações múltiplas de um documento, envio de documentos para arquivo.
I INVENTARIO Relatórios, material de escritório, catálogos, caixa de emails, caixa de serviços ( workflow), lista de pendências, etc
M MOVIMENTO Caminhada até a impressora, copiadora, outra operação, excesso de campos no formulário.
W ESPERA Sistema lento ou fora do ar, ramal ocupado, demora no atendimento de telefone, demora a responder emails, demora na aprovação de um documento, espera de uma operação anterior.
O EXCESSO PRODUCAO Imprimir documentos antes do necessário, aquisição antecipada de material ou informação, etc
O EXCESSO PROCESSAMENTRelatórios não necessários ou em excesso, cópias de documentos eletrônicos, reentrada de dados, redundâncias de informação, etc
D DEFEITOS Erros em faturas,pedidos, notas fiscais, cotações, emails, informação equivocada, etc.
Contrato do Projeto  Project Charter VOLTAR
Participantes :
Nome: Área Ramal:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
APOIO:
Indicadores do Projeto & Metas: ( ex: Scrap, refugo, Lead Time, ppm, etc.)
Oportunidades :
Refugo
Produtividade
Satisfação Cliente
Redução de Custos
Segurança
Meio Ambiente
Normas
Administrativo
Qualidade de vida
5S
Outras
Qualidade
Processo
Produto
Todas
Lean
Kaizen
Mini Kaizen
6 Sigma
Outros
Qualidade
Lean e 6 sigma
Diadema
Jacarei
São J. Pinhais
Gravatai
Escobar
Todas
Produção
Engenharia
Qualidade
Manutenção
Ferramentaria
Almoxarifado
Compras
PCM
PCP
Expedição
Vendas
Finanças
Administração
TI
Fiscal
Controladoria
Meio Ambiente
Segurança
Recursos Humano
Outros
Matriz de Correlação Voltar
CAUSAS Relacionamento  Correlação
Sintoma Cliente Interno Atenção Sistema
Duplicidade
Endereço errado
Atraso FRACO
Sigma level  Coleta de dados 
VOLUME
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 5 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
Coleta de dados  Tomada de Tempo
20 32 33 45 36.7 733.3
25 36 32 37 35.0 875.0
21 33 27 33 31.0 651.0
34.2
14 12 11 11 11.3 158.7
14 21 11 11 14.3 200.7
12 12 14 16 14.0 168.0
13.2
DADOS AQUI
6 5 5 6 7 5
8 5 5 6 9 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
Voltar
A  TEMPO DE CICLO
ampling of activities
lyse
586.7
digitar 733.3
432.0
10.85 99.99892
586.7
10.85 99.99892
Extrair informação do SAP 268.0
10.85 99.99892
0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
10.85 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
99.99892 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10
0
10.85 99.99892
10.85 99.99892
alise e seus
padrão e
s and some
on and cpk.
651.0
875.0
733.3
.0
586.7
875.0
733.3
.0
586.7
0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0
60 70 80 90 1 00
Estudo de Linearidade
Part nº Nome do Equipamento nº de peças 5
Característica Nº do Equipamento nº de medições 12
Especificação Tipo do Equipamento Erro Amostral 5.0%
Peças 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Valor de Referência 2 4 6 8 10
1 2.7 5.1 5.8 7.6 9.1
2 2.5 3.9 5.7 7.7 9.3
3 2.4 4.2 5.9 7.8 9.5
4 2.5 5 5.9 7.7 9.3
5 2.7 3.8 6 7.8 9.4
6 2.3 3.9 6.1 7.8 9.5
7 2.5 3.9 6 7.8 9.5
M
e 8 2.5 3.9 6.1 7.7 9.5
d 9 2.4 3.9 6.4 7.8 9.6
i 10 2.4 4 6.3 7.5 9.2
ç 11 2.6 4.1 6 7.6 9.3
õ 12 2.4 3.8 6.1 7.7 9.4
e 13
s 14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Média 2.491667 4.125 6.025 7.708333 9.383333
a= 0.1317 Teste de Hipóteses
y 3.2
b= 0.7367 H0: a = 0 H0: b = 0
s= 0.2395 t = 12.0425594115 t = 10.1575188601
x 360
x x
2 tcrítico 2.0017174841 tcrítico 2.0017174841
480.0000 Análise Análise
xy
i
82.4
A tendência não é igual ao longo da A tendência não é igual a
R2 71.43% faixa de medição zero
x 2
2640
y 2
11.82
Valor de Referência 2 4 6 8 10
0.8
Deslocamento 0.11 0.08 0.06 0.08 0.11
0.6 b + ax0 0.473333 0.21 0.05333 0.31667 0.58
0.4 b + ax0 + deslocamento 0.580551 0.285814 0.008569 0.24085 0.47278
b + ax0
0.2 b + ax0  deslocamento 0.366116 0.134186 0.11524 0.39248 0.68722
b + ax0 + deslocamento
0 b + ax0  deslocamento
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
0.2 Média das Tendências
0.4
0.6
0.8
Estudo de Tendência
Part nº Nome do Equipamento Valor de Referência 6.000
Característica Nº do Equipamento nº de medições 15
Especificação Tipo do Equipamento Erro Amostral 5%
3 81 83 82 81 76 80 81 81 82 78 83 80 s processo = 10
4 82 75 74 78 81 78 76 81 78 81 75 82 %VE (VP) = 25%
5 78 74 75 80 78 79 82 77 81 76 80 81 %VE (TOL) = 15%
Média 80 77.8 78.2 79.4 78.6 79.8 80 80.4 80.8 78.2 79 81.6
Amplitude 4 9 8 8 5 4 6 6 5 5 8 3
76
75
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 R =21 22 23 24 25
Carta R
14
12 LCS = 13.08175
10
8 R_bar 5.916667
6
4
2
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Estudo de Atributos  Análise de Risco
Part No. & Nome Nome do Equipamento
Características Equipamento No.
Tolerância 0.3 Tipo do Equipamento
Data Responsável
3 0.64 0.58 1.27 0.64 0.84 0.21 0.66 0.17 2.01 1.31
Operador
1 0.08 0.47 1.19 0.01 0.56 0.2 0.47 0.63 1.8 1.68
2 0.25 1.22 0.94 1.03 1.2 0.22 0.55 0.08 2.12 1.62
B
3 0.07 0.68 1.34 0.2 1.28 0.06 0.83 0.34 2.19 1.5
1 0.04 1.38 0.88 0.14 1.46 0.29 0.02 0.46 1.77 1.49
2 0.11 1.13 1.09 0.2 1.07 0.67 0.01 0.56 1.45 1.77
C
3 0.15 0.96 0.67 0.11 1.45 0.49 0.21 0.49 1.87 2.16
Média 0.44667 0.606667 1.26 0.53667 0.8533 0.1 0.66667 0.2267 2.08667 1.3067 Xa = 0.1903333333
Amplitude 0.35 0.12 0.17 0.17 0.12 0.23 0.16 0.14 0.27 0.11 Ra = 0.184
1 0.08 0.47 1.19 0.01 0.56 0.2 0.47 0.63 1.8 1.68 0.001
Operador
2 0.25 1.22 0.94 1.03 1.2 0.22 0.55 0.08 2.12 1.62 0.115
3 0.07 0.68 1.34 0.2 1.28 0.06 0.83 0.34 2.19 1.5 0.089
B
Média 0.13333 0.79 1.15667 0.41333 1.0133 0.02667 0.61667 0.2967 2.03667 1.6 Xb = 0.0683333333
Amplitude 0.18 0.75 0.4 1.02 0.72 0.42 0.36 0.71 0.39 0.18 Rb = 0.513
1 0.04 1.38 0.88 0.14 1.46 0.29 0.02 0.46 1.77 1.49 0.223
2 0.11 1.13 1.09 0.2 1.07 0.67 0.01 0.56 1.45 1.77 0.256
3 0.15 0.96 0.67 0.11 1.45 0.49 0.21 0.49 1.87 2.16 0.284
C
Média 0.0733 1.156667 0.88 0.15 1.3267 0.4833 0.08 0.5033 1.69667 1.8067 Xc = 0.254333333
Amplitude 0.19 0.42 0.42 0.09 0.39 0.38 0.2 0.1 0.42 0.67 Rc = 0.328
X = 0.0014444444
Média da peça 0.16889 0.851111 1.09889 0.36667 1.0644 0.1856 0.45444 0.3422 1.94 1.5711 Rp = 3.5111111111
Repetições D 4 R =(Ra+Rb+Rc)/ #Op = 0.34167 Operadores K2
2 3.27 XDIFF = max(X)  min(X) = 0.44467 2 0.7071
3 2.58 UCLR = R x D4 = 0.8815 3 0.5231
Repetitividade Repetições K 1 Variação
VE = R x K1 = 0.20186 2 0.8862 DN
Reprodutibilidade 3 0.5908 VT TOL
VO2 = (XDIFFxK2)2  (VE2/(nr)) Peças K3
%VE
VO = 0.22967 2 0.7071 =100 [VE/DN] 17.61% 12.11%
Repetitividade & Reprodutibilidade 3 0.5231 %VO
R&R2 = VE2 + VO2 4 0.4467 =100 [VO/DN] 20.04% 13.78%
R&R = 0.30577 5 0.403 %R&R
Variação do Processo (VP) 6 0.3742 =100 [R&R/DN] 26.68% 18.35%
VP = Rp x K3 = 1.1046 7 0.3534 %VP
Variação Total (VT) 8 0.3375 = 100[VPDN] 96.38% 66.28%
VT2 = R&R2 + VP2 9 0.3249
VT = 1.14613 10 0.3146 ndc = 1,41[VP/R&R] = 5.1
Resultado do Teste:
VT Sistema de medição deve ser analisado
TOL Sistema de medição deve ser analisado
NDC Sistema de medição adequado
Diagrama de re
MUITO BARULHO
NO AMBIENTE
GITAÇÃO EM
FALTA DE CONCENTRAÇÃO
EXCESSO DE ERROS
DE DIGITAÇÃO EM
NOTAS FISCAIS
s  5 Why ( 5 Porques )
MUITO INFLUENTE
POUCO INFLUENTE
IMPRESSORAS
DIGA
TELEFONES
EXTRAS 
RTIME
O DE ERROS
ITAÇÃO EM
AS FISCAIS
Voltar
.
Takt Time  calc
Exemplo: Objetivo:
Permite o cálculo do
Encontra o tempo id
Tempo disponível para trabalhar= 480 minutos ao dia
especificado.
Intervalos programados = 20 minutos
Tempo disponível líquido 460 minutos ao dia Aplicação : Balance
Demanda do Cliente = 115 Produtos ao dia obra e overtime.
Quando comparado
necessidade ou não
Takt Time = 4 minutos cada produto
Conclusão:
A cada 4 minutos devo produzir um produto para atender ao volume programado e carga horária disponivel
Voltar
Objetivo:
Permite o cálculo do Takt Time  Rítmo do processo para atender a demanda do Cliente.
Encontra o tempo ideal que deve ser gasto em cada transação para atender ao volume
especificado.
horária disponivel