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- Ferramentas

5.4 DMAIC - ROAD MAP

DEFINIR
SIPOC

INDICATOR KPI

SIGNAL CHART

GRÁFICO DE PIZZA
MEDIR
MSA - R&R
TRADICIONAL

MSA - TENDENCIA

FISHBONE
FISHBONE

BRAINSTORMING -
GUITE

ANALISAR SCATTER DIAGRAM

TIM WOOD - WASTE

CAPABILITY - CP AND
CPK

POLIVALENCE MATRIX

MELHORAR
FMEA

KPI INDICATOR

CONTROLAR
SIGMA LEVEL - DPMO
Release 5.4- 28 Fev 2013 - São Paulo
Excel 2010
Melhoria Contínua (ANDRADE)
entas do Lean 6 Sigm
STATISTICAL
OAD MAP REFERENCE TOOL DMAIC SCHEDULE

OC PROCESS MAP ( EM
BENCHMARKING
OBRAS )

OR KPI CEP CEP INDIVIDUAL

HISTOGRAMA- VOC VOICE OF THE


CHART CURVA NORMAL CUSTOMER

DE PIZZA OEE PARETO CHART

R&R
IONAL MSA - R&R ANOVA MSA - ATRIBUTOS

MSA - ESTABILIDADE
NDENCIA E TENDENCIA MSA - LINEARIEDADE

BONE DATA ANALYSIS PROCESS MAPPING


CAPABILITY
DATA ANALYSIS PROCESS MAPPING
BONE CAPABILITY

ORMING - FMEA TIME COLLECT SHEET


ITE

DIAGRAM XY MATRIX CEP

D - WASTE IS ISN'T IT ? TAKT TIME

Y - CP AND
PK NORMAL CURVE
SWOT

CE MATRIX IMPACT AND EFFORT BRAINSTORMING -


MATRIX GUITE

EA DOE ANOVA

DICATOR CEP TAKT TIME

VEL - DPMO NORMAL CURVE CEP INDIVIDUAL


Paulo
Sigma V
EDULE PROJECT CHARTER

RKING MINITAB GUIDE

CAPABILITY - CP AND
DUAL CPK

F THE NORMAL CURVE


ER PLOT

ART
STATISTICAL
REFERENCE TOOL

UTOS

HISTOGRAM NORMAL
CURVE
RIEDADE

PPING RELATION DIAGRAM - REGRESSION


TY 5 WHY
PPING RELATION DIAGRAM - REGRESSION
TY 5 WHY

CT SHEET CORRELATION
MATRIX

CORRELATION
SIGMA LEVEL - CYCLE
TIME

ME TIME CONVERSION Obs. Estas opções n

MING - ACTION PLAN - 5W e


E 2H

E SIGNA L CHART

UAL
kaiz
Con

Ferramentas Estatísticas Av

STATISTICAL MINITAB GUIDE


REFERENCE TOOL DOE

HISTOGRAM NORMAL HYPOTHESIS TEST MEAN -


CURVE CHI SQUARE P
2 SAMPLE

HYPOTHESIS TEST -
REGRESSION PROPORTION 2 SAMPLE SAMPLE SIZE
HYPOTHESIS TEST -
REGRESSION SAMPLE SIZE
PROPORTION 2 SAMPLE

HYPOTHESIS TEST - SAMPLE SIZE


CORRELATION PROPORTION - 1 SAMPLE PROPORTION

Obs. Estas opções necessitam da instalação do suplemento análise de


suplementos.
GRÁFICO DE CONTROLE INDIVIDUAL - CEP
ENGAGEMENT CARACT. DATA:

TORRE: ATIVIDADE: INSTR.:

ESPECIFICAÇÕES LSE: 15.000 LIE: 2.000 RESPONSÁVEL OBS

SPC - STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL

LEITURAS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

1ª LEITURA 9.88 10.09 10.77 9.94 9.58 10.34 9.55 10.91 10.07 10.53 9.62 9.88 10.09 10.77 9.94 9.58 10.34 9.55 10.91 10.07 10.53 9.62 10.07 10.53 9.62

2ª LEITURA

3ª LEITURA

4ª LEITURA

5ª LEITURA

MÉDIA 9.88 10.09 10.77 9.94 9.58 10.34 9.55 10.91 10.07 10.53 9.62 9.88 10.09 10.77 9.94 9.58 10.34 9.55 10.91 10.07 10.53 9.62 10.07 10.53 9.62

AMPLITUDE 0.00 0.22 0.68 0.83 0.37 0.76 0.79 1.36 0.84 0.46 0.91 0.25 0.22 0.68 0.83 0.37 0.76 0.79 1.36 0.84 0.46 0.91 0.45 0.46 0.91

S 0.611 ICP 354.790 Cp 3.548 LSC X 11.944 Máx. 10.907 Range 1.36

X 10.111 Z SUP 8.005 Cpk 2.668 LIC X 8.279 Média 10.111

R 0.689 Z INF 13.282 LSC R 2.253 Mín. 9.546

GRÁFICO DAS MÉDIAS


14.00

12.00

10.00

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

GRÁFICO DAS AMPLITUDES


2.50

2.00

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

20
HISTOGRAMA 80.0%

18
70.0%

16

60.0%
14

50.0%
12

10 40.0%

8
30.0%

20.0%
4

10.0%
2

0 0.0%
2 - 3,3 3.3 - 4.6 4.6 - 5.9 5.9 - 7.2 7.2 - 8.5 8.5 - 9.8 9.8 - 11.1 11.1 - 12.4 12.4 - 13.7 13.7 - 15
CONTRATO DE ABERTURA DE PROJETO
Título do Projeto: Nr xx
Data abertura : Data prevista de conclusão:
Líder do Projeto: Padrinho :
Fábrica: Tipo de projeto:
Área Afetada: Benefícios Tipo:

Participantes :
Nome: Área Ramal:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
APOIO:

Descrição do Problema: ( Sintomas, razão do projeto )

Indicadores do Projeto & Metas: ( ex: Scrap, refugo, Lead Time, ppm, etc.)

Oportunidades :

Escopo do Projeto ( Abrangência, áreas e fábricas envolvidas, restrições, suporte requerido)

Benefícios aos Clientes e Acionistas:

Resultados financeiros estimados ao ano:

F02 ­ GMC REVISAO 3 ­02/12/13 INYLBRA  Kaizen ­ Melhoria Contínua


CONTRATO DE ABERTURA DE PROJETO
Título do Projeto: Nr xx

Priorização:
Sim Não
1 O projeto está alinhado com as metas estratégicas da empresa ?
x
2 Este projeto busca solução para problemas que impactam os clientes?

3 A data de conclusão é aceita por todos envolvidos e afetados ?

4 O lider / padrinho tem domínio de todas etapas do processo?

5 Já existe uma solução conhecida e aprovada para este problema ?

6 Você necessita encontrar a causa do problema ?

7 Este projeto conflita com algum outro ?

8 Este projeto gera investimento ? ( estimativa : )

9 Os resultados deste projeto podem ser aplicados em outros processos -


abrangência
10 Este projeto gera redução de custos ? ( Estimativa anual: )

APROVAÇÕES PARA ABERTURA APROVAÇÕES PARA FECHAMENTO


______________________________________ ______________________________________
GERÊNCIA DA ÁREA AFETADA: GERÊNCIA DA ÁREA AFETADA:
Nome: Nome:

Ass: _______________________ Ass: _______________________


GERÊNCIA DE MELHORIA CONTÍNUA : GERÊNCIA DE MELHORIA CONTÍNUA :
Nome: Nome:

Ass: _______________________ Ass: _______________________

GERÊNCIA DE PRODUTO

Nome:

Ass: _______________________

GERÊNCIA DA QUALIDADE, MEIO AMBIENTE E SEGURANÇA

Nome:

Ass: _______________________

GERÊNCIA DA ÁREA FINANCEIRA

Nome:
Ass: _______________________

F02 ­ GMC REVISAO 3 ­02/12/13 INYLBRA  Kaizen ­ Melhoria Contínua


CONTRATO DE ABERTURA DE PROJETO
Título do Projeto: Nr xx
F-02 - GMC Revisão 3

F02 ­ GMC REVISAO 3 ­02/12/13 INYLBRA  Kaizen ­ Melhoria Contínua


OEE Overall Efficie
OEE
TOTAL PEÇAS PRODUZIDAS PEÇAS BOAS
QUALIDADE ( FTY ou FTT ) 1200 980 0.8167
QTD PEÇAS
TEMPO USADO TEMPO PLANEJADO
DISPONIBILIDADE 21 24 0.8750
QTDE HORAS
REALIZADO PROGRAMADO
PERFORMANCE - DESEMP 90 100 0.9000
QTDE HORAS
OEE - TOTAL 0.6431
Voltar
Overall Efficiency Effectiveness

81.67 Dúvidas frequentes:

Parada de almoço deve estar no planejado ?


87.50
Paradas para treinamento deve ser tirado do programado ?

90.00 Quebra de máquina deve ser considerado na disponibilidade ?

64.31
Voltar
Controle Estatístico de Processo Controle Estatístico de Processo
Gráfico de Controle - Amostras Gráfico de Controle - Carta X/R

Característica:

Preencher: Carta X/
4
n* = 5 k** = 8 LSE = 5.00 LIE = 2.00
3.5

3
* n = Quantidade de amostras por subgrupos LSE = Limite Superior de Especificação 2.5

2
** k = Quantidade de Subgrupos LIE = Limite Inferior de Especificação
1.5

0.5

Subgrupo Amostras (n) Média Range 0


k 1 2 3 4 5 X R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
1 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 3.00 2.200 1.000
2 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 0.00
3 2.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.20 1.00 Carta R
4 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 0.00 3.5
5 2.00 2.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.20 2.00
6 3
5.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.60 3.00
7 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 0.00 2.5
8 3.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.80 1.00
9 2
10
1.5
11
12 1
13
14 0.5

15
0
16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

449367488.xlsx\CARTA DE CONTROLE Miguel Acorsi11/27/201918/312


Matriz SWOT
[Empresa]

POSITIVO NEGATIVO
POSITIVO NEGATIVO
Tecnologia sdsds

Forças
Forças Fraquezas
Fraquezas
INTERNOS
INTERNOS
ssds
(S)
(S) (W)
(W)

Oportunidades
Oportunidades sdsdsds Ameaças
Ameaças
EXTERNOS
EXTERNOS

(O)
(O) (T)
(T)

Forças - vantagens competitivas internas


# Vantagens Descrição
1 Tecnologia sdsdsds
2
3
4
5
6
7 ssds sdsdsds
8
9
10
Fraquezas - vulnerabilidades da empresa
# Fraquezas Descrição
1 sdsds
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Oportunidades - forças externas favoráveis
# Oportunidades Descrição
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Gráfico de Pizza

TIPO CUSTO
queimada 77000 REFUGO MOLDAGEM - 2013
quebrada 55000
esgarçado 15000
cortado 250000
riscado 11000 esgarçado; 3%
manchado 71500 cortado; 52%
quebrada; 11%

queimada; 16%

riscado; 2%
manchado; 15%
Calculadora Sigma

Capabilidade de Processos Seis Sigma


Defeitos por unidade (dpu)= 0.0000034
Percentual de defeitos (%) = 0.00034%
Defeitos por milhão (dpm) = 3.4
Nível Sigma = 6.00
Capabilidade do Processo (Cpk)= 2.00
FERRAMENTAS ESTATISTICAS - GLOSSARIO E APLICAÇÃO VOLTAR
Definition:
Tests the probability of sample median being equal to hypothesized value.

Tool to use: What does it do? Why use it? When to use?
A worst case analysis is a nonstatistical Worst case analysis tells you the minimum and You should use worst case analysis : To analyze safety-critical Ys,
tolerance analysis tool used to identify maximum limits within which your total product or and when no process data is available and only the tolerances on
whether combinations of inputs (Xs) at process will vary. You can then compare these Xs are known. Worst case analysis should be used sparingly
their upper and lower specification limits limits with the required specification limits to see if because it does not take into account the probabilistic nature (that
Data Type: always produce an acceptable output they are acceptable. By testing these limits in is, the likelihood of variance from the specified values) of the
measure (Y). advance, you can modify any incorrect tolerance inputs.
all settings before actually beginning production of the
product or process.

P < .05 Indicates:

N/A

Jairo Brandão -
Definitions

Term Definition
1-Sample sign test Tests the probability of sample median being equal to hypothesized value.
Accuracy refers to the variation between a measurement and what actually exists. It is the difference between an individual's average
Accuracy measurements and that of a known standard, or accepted "truth."

Alpha risk is defined as the risk of accepting the alternate hypothesis when, in fact, the null hypothesis is true; in other words, stating a difference
exists where actually there is none. Alpha risk is stated in terms of probability (such as 0.05 or 5%). The acceptable level of alpha risk is determined
by an organization or individual and is based on the nature of the decision being made. For decisions with high consequences (such as those
Alpha risk involving risk to human life), an alpha risk of less than 1% would be expected. If the decision involves minimal time or money, an alpha risk of 10%
may be appropriate. In general, an alpha risk of 5% is considered the norm in decision making. Sometimes alpha risk is expressed as its inverse,
which is confidence level. In other words, an alpha risk of 5% also could be expressed as a 95% confidence level.

The alternate hypothesis (H a) is a statement that the observed difference or relationship between two populations is real and not due to chance or
Alternative hypothesis (Ha) sampling error. The alternate hypothesis is the opposite of the null hypothesis (P < 0.05). A dependency exists between two or more factors

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Analysis of variance is a statistical technique for analyzing data that tests for a difference between two or more means. See the tool 1-Way ANOVA.

Anderson-Darling Normality Test P-value < 0.05 = not normal.


Attribute Data see discrete data
A bar chart is a graphical comparison of several quantities in which the lengths of the horizontal or vertical bars represent the relative magnitude of
Bar chart the values.
Benchmarking is an improvement tool whereby a company measures its performance or process against other companies' best practices,
Benchmarking determines how those companies achieved their performance levels, and uses the information to improve its own performance. See the tool
Benchmarking.

Beta risk is defined as the risk of accepting the null hypothesis when, in fact, the alternate hypothesis is true. In other words, stating no difference
exists when there is an actual difference. A statistical test should be capable of detecting differences that are important to you, and beta risk is the
Beta risk probability (such as 0.10 or 10%) that it will not. Beta risk is determined by an organization or individual and is based on the nature of the decision
being made. Beta risk depends on the magnitude of the difference between sample means and is managed by increasing test sample size. In
general, a beta risk of 10% is considered acceptable in decision making.

Bias in a sample is the presence or influence of any factor that causes the population or process being sampled to appear different from what it
Bias actually is. Bias is introduced into a sample when data is collected without regard to key factors that may influence the population or process.

Blocking Blocking neutralizes background variables that can not be eliminated by randomizing. It does so by spreading them across the experiment

Boxplot A box plot, also known as a box and whisker diagram, is a basic graphing tool that displays centering, spread, and distribution of a continuous data set

Cap Tools A group of templates,statistical and analytical tools that helps Belts to develop their projects in a standardized way. Developed by Capgemini DEX

Capability Analysis Capability analysis is a MinitabTM tool that visually compares actual process performance to the performance standards. See the tool Capability
Analysis.
Cause A factor (X) that has an impact on a response variable (Y); a source of variation in a process or product.

A cause and effect diagram is a visual tool used to logically organize possible causes for a specific problem or effect by graphically displaying them
Cause and Effect Diagram in increasing detail. It helps to identify root causes and ensures common understanding of the causes that lead to the problem. Because of its
fishbone shape, it is sometimes called a "fishbone diagram." See the tool Cause and Effect Diagram.
Center The center of a process is the average value of its data. It is equivalent to the mean and is one measure of the central tendency.
A center point is a run performed with all factors set halfway between their low and high levels. Each factor must be continuous to have a logical
Center points halfway point. For example, there are no logical center points for the factors vendor, machine, or location (such as city); however, there are logical
center points for the factors temperature, speed, and length.

Central Limit Theorem The central limit theorem states that given a distribution with a mean m and variance s2, the sampling distribution of the mean appraches a normal
distribution with a mean and variance/N as N, the sample size, increases
Characteristic A characteristic is a definable or measurable feature of a process, product, or variable.
A chi square test, also called "test of association," is a statistical test of association between discrete variables. It is based on a mathematical
comparison of the number of observed counts with the number of expected counts to determine if there is a difference in output counts based on the
Chi Square test input category. See the tool Chi Square-Test of Independence. Used with Defects data (counts) & defectives data (how many good or bad).
Critical Chi-Square is Chi-squared value where p=.05.

Common cause variability is a source of variation caused by unknown factors that result in a steady but random distribution of output around the
average of the data. Common cause variation is a measure of the process's potential, or how well the process can perform when special cause
Common cause variability variation is removed. Therefore, it is a measure of the process technology. Common cause variation is also called random variation, noise,
noncontrollable variation, within-group variation, or inherent variation. Example: many X's with a small impact.

Measurement of the certainty of the shape of the fitted regression line. A 95% confidence band implies a 95% chance that the true regression line
Confidence band (or interval) fits within the confidence bands. Measurement of certainty.
Factors or interactions are said to be confounded when the effect of one factor is combined with that of another. In other words, their effects can not
Confounding be analyzed independently.
Consumers Risk Concluding something is bad when it is actually good (TYPE II Error)
Continuous data is information that can be measured on a continuum or scale. Continuous data can have almost any numeric value and can be
meaningfully subdivided into finer and finer increments, depending upon the precision of the measurement system. Examples of continuous data
Continuous Data include measurements of time, temperature, weight, and size. For example, time can be measured in days, hours, minutes, seconds, and in even
smaller units. Continuous data is also called quantitative data.

Control limits define the area three standard deviations on either side of the centerline, or mean, of data plotted on a control chart. Do not confuse
control limits with specification limits. Control limits reflect the expected variation in the data and are based on the distribution of the data points.
Control limits Minitab™ calculates control limits using collected data. Specification limits are established based on customer or regulatory requirements.
Specification limits change only if the customer or regulatory body so requests.

Correlation is the degree or extent of the relationship between two variables. If the value of one variable increases when the value of the other
Correlation increases, they are said to be positively correlated. If the value of one variable decreases when the value of the other decreases, they are said to be
negatively correlated. The degree of linear association between two variables is quantified by the correlation coefficient

The correlation coefficient quantifies the degree of linear association between two variables. It is typically denoted by r and will have a value ranging
Correlation coefficient (r) between negative 1 and positive 1.

A critical element is an X that does not necessarily have different levels of a specific scale but can be configured according to a variety of
independent alternatives. For example, a critical element may be the routing path for an incoming call or an item request form in an order-taking
Critical element process. In these cases the critical element must be specified correctly before you can create a viable solution; however, numerous alternatives may
be considered as possible solutions.

CTQs (stands for Critical to Quality) are the key measurable characteristics of a product or process whose performance standards, or specification
CTQ limits, must be met in order to satisfy the customer. They align improvement or design efforts with critical issues that affect customer satisfaction.
CTQs are defined early in any Six Sigma project, based on Voice of the Customer (VOC) data.

Cycle time is the total time from the beginning to the end of your process, as defined by you and your customer. Cycle time includes process time,
Cycle time during which a unit is acted upon to bring it closer to an output, and delay time, during which a unit of work waits to be processed.

Dashboard A dashboard is a tool used for collecting and reporting information about vital customer requirements and your business's performance for key
customers. Dashboards provide a quick summary of process performance.
Data Data is factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation; often this term refers to quantitative information
Defect A defect is any nonconformity in a product or process; it is any event that does not meet the performance standards of a Y.

Defective The word defective describes an entire unit that fails to meet acceptance criteria, regardless of the number of defects within the unit. A unit may be
defective because of one or more defects.

Descriptive statistics Descriptive statistics is a method of statistical analysis of numeric data, discrete or continuous, that provides information about centering, spread,
and normality. Results of the analysis can be in tabular or graphic format.

A design risk assessment is the act of determining potential risk in a design process, either in a concept design or a detailed design. It provides a
Design Risk Assessment broader evaluation of your design beyond just CTQs, and will enable you to eliminate possible failures and reduce the impact of potential failures.
This ensures a rigorous, systematic examination in the reliability of the design and allows you to capture system-level risk

When you are deciding what factors and interactions you want to get information about, you also need to determine the smallest effect you will
Detectable Effect Size consider significant enough to improve your process. This minimum size is known as the detectable effect size, or DES. Large effects are easier to
detect than small effects. A design of experiment compares the total variability in the experiment to the variation caused by a factor. The smaller the
effect you are interested in, the more runs you will need to overcome the variability in your experimentation.
DF (degrees of freedom) Equal to: (#rows - 1)(#cols - 1)
Discrete data is information that can be categorized into a classification. Discrete data is based on counts. Only a finite number of values is possible,
Discrete Data and the values cannot be subdivided meaningfully. For example, the number of parts damaged in shipment produces discrete data because parts
are either damaged or not damaged.
Distribution refers to the behavior of a process described by plotting the number of times a variable displays a specific value or range of values
Distribution rather than by plotting the value itself.

DMADV DMADV is a data-driven quality strategy for designing products and processes, and it is an integral part of Six Sigma Quality Initiative. DMADV
consists of five interconnected phases: Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify.

DMAIC DMAIC refers to a data-driven quality strategy for improving processes, and is an integral part of the company's Six Sigma Quality Initiative. DMAIC
is an acronym for five interconnected phases: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control.

DOE A design of experiment is a structured, organized method for determining the relationship between factors (Xs) affecting a process and the output of
that process.

DPMO Defects per million opportunities (DPMO) is the number of defects observed during a standard production run divided by the number of opportunities
to make a defect during that run, multiplied by one million.

DPO Defects per opportunity (DPO) represents total defects divided by total opportunities. DPO is a preliminary calculation to help you calculate DPMO
(defects per million opportunities). Multiply DPO by one million to calculate DPMO.
DPU Defects per unit (DPU) represents the number of defects divided by the number of products.

Dunnett's(1-way ANOVA): Check to obtain a two-sided confidence interval for the difference between each treatment mean and a control mean. Specify a family error rate
between 0.5 and 0.001. Values greater than or equal to 1.0 are interpreted as percentages. The default error rate is 0.05.
Effect An effect is that which is produced by a cause; the impact a factor (X) has on a response variable (Y).
Entitlement As good as a process can get without capital investment

Error Error, also called residual error, refers to variation in observations made under identical test conditions, or the amount of variation that can not be
attributed to the variables included in the experiment.
Error (type I) Error that concludes that someone is guilty, when in fact, they really are not. (Ho true, but I rejected it--concluded Ha) ALPHA
Error (type II) Error that concludes that someone is not guilty, when in fact, they really are. (Ha true, but I concluded Ho). BETA
Factor A factor is an independent variable; an X.

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a disciplined approach used to identify possible failures of a product or service and then determine the
frequency and impact of the failure. See the tool Failure Mode and Effects Analysis.

Fisher's (1-way ANOVA): Check to obtain confidence intervals for all pairwise differences between level means using Fisher's LSD procedure. Specify an individual rate
between 0.5 and 0.001. Values greater than or equal to 1.0 are interpreted as percentages. The default error rate is 0.05.
Fits Predicted values of "Y" calculated using the regression equation for each value of "X"
Fitted value A fitted value is the Y output value that is predicted by a regression equation.

A fractional factorial design of experiment (DOE) includes selected combinations of factors and levels. It is a carefully prescribed and representative
subset of a full factorial design. A fractional factorial DOE is useful when the number of potential factors is relatively large because they reduce the
Fractional factorial DOE total number of runs required. By reducing the number of runs, a fractional factorial DOE will not be able to evaluate the impact of some of the
factors independently. In general, higher-order interactions are confounded with main effects or lower-order interactions. Because higher order
interactions are rare, usually you can assume that their effect is minimal and that the observed effect is caused by the main effect or lower-level
interaction.
Frequency plot A frequency plot is a graphical display of how often data values occur.

Full factorial DOE A full factorial design of experiment (DOE) measures the response of every possible combination of factors and factor levels. These responses are
analyzed to provide information about every main effect and every interaction effect. A full factorial DOE is practical when fewer than five factors are
being investigated. Testing all combinations of factor levels becomes too expensive and time-consuming with five or more factors.

F-value (ANOVA) Measurement of distance between individual distributions. As F goes up, P goes down (i.e., more confidence in there being a difference between
two means). To calculate: (Mean Square of X / Mean Square of Error)

Gage R&R Gage R&R, which stands for gage repeatability and reproducibility, is a statistical tool that measures the amount of variation in the measurement
system arising from the measurement device and the people taking the measurement. See Gage R&R tools.

Gannt Chart
A Gantt chart is a visual project planning device used for production scheduling. A Gantt chart graphically displays time needed to complete tasks.
Goodman-Kruskal Gamma Term used to describe % variation explained by X

GRPI GRPI stands for four critical and interrelated aspects of teamwork: goals, roles, processes, and interpersonal relationships, and it is a tool used to
assess them. See the tool GRPI.
A histogram is a basic graphing tool that displays the relative frequency or occurrence of continuous data values showing which values occur most
Histogram and least frequently. A histogram illustrates the shape, centering, and spread of data distribution and indicates whether there are any outliers. See
the tool Histogram.

Homegeneity of variance
Homogeneity of variance is a test used to determine if the variances of two or more samples are different. See the tool Homogeneity of Variance.

Hypothesis testing refers to the process of using statistical analysis to determine if the observed differences between two or more samples are due
to random chance (as stated in the null hypothesis) or to true differences in the samples (as stated in the alternate hypothesis). A null hypothesis
(H0) is a stated assumption that there is no difference in parameters (mean, variance, DPMO) for two or more populations. The alternate hypothesis
Hypothesis testing (Ha) is a statement that the observed difference or relationship between two populations is real and not the result of chance or an error in sampling.
Hypothesis testing is the process of using a variety of statistical tools to analyze data and, ultimately, to accept or reject the null hypothesis. From a
practical point of view, finding statistical evidence that the null hypothesis is false allows you to reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate
hypothesis.

I-MR Chart An I-MR chart, or individual and moving range chart, is a graphical tool that displays process variation over time. It signals when a process may be
going out of control and shows where to look for sources of special cause variation. See the tool I-MR Control.

In control In control refers to a process unaffected by special causes. A process that is in control is affected only by common causes. A process that is out of
control is affected by special causes in addition to the common causes affecting the mean and/or variance of a process.
Independent variable An independent variable is an input or process variable (X) that can be set directly to achieve a desired output

Intangible benefits Intangible benefits, also called soft benefits, are the gains attributable to your improvement project that are not reportable for formal accounting
purposes. These benefits are not included in the financial calculations because they are nonmonetary or are difficult to attribute directly to quality.
Examples of intangible benefits include cost avoidance, customer satisfaction and retention, and increased employee morale.

Interaction An interaction occurs when the response achieved by one factor depends on the level of the other factor. On interaction plot, when lines are not
parallel, there's an interaction.

Interrelationship digraph An interrelationship digraph is a visual display that maps out the cause and effect links among complex, multivariable problems or desired outcomes.
IQR Intraquartile range (from box plot) representing range between 25th and 75th quartile.
Kano Analysis Kano analysis is a quality measurement used to prioritize customer requirements.

Kruskal-Wallis performs a hypothesis test of the equality of population medians for a one-way design (two or more populations). This test is a
generalization of the procedure used by the Mann-Whitney test and, like Mood’s median test, offers a nonparametric alternative to the one-way
Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. The Kruskal-Wallis test looks for differences among the populations medians. The Kruskal-Wallis test is more powerful (the
confidence interval is narrower, on average) than Mood’s median test for analyzing data from many distributions, including data from the normal
distribution, but is less robust against outliers.
Kurtosis Kurtosis is a measure of how peaked or flat a curve's distribution is.
DPMO Calc A spreadsheet calculates defects per million opportunities (DPMO) and a process Z value for discrete data.
A leptokurtic distribution is symmetrical in shape, similar to a normal distribution, but the center peak is much higher; that is, there is a higher
Leptokurtic Distribution frequency of values near the mean. In addition, a leptokurtic distribution has a higher frequency of data in the tail area.

Levels Levels are the different settings a factor can have. For example, if you are trying to determine how the response (speed of data transmittal) is
affected by the factor (connection type), you would need to set the factor at different levels (modem and LAN) then measure the change in response.
Linearity is the variation between a known standard, or "truth," across the low and high end of the gage. It is the difference between an individual's
Linearity measurements and that of a known standard or truth over the full range of expected values.
A lower specification limit is a value above which performance of a product or process is acceptable. This is also known as a lower spec limit or LSL.
LSL
Lurking variable A lurking variable is an unknown, uncontrolled variable that influences the output of an experiment.

Main Effect A main effect is a measurement of the average change in the output when a factor is changed from its low level to its high level. It is calculated as
the average output when a factor is at its high level minus the average output when the factor is at its low level.

Mallows Statistic (C-p) Statistic within Regression-->Best Fits which is used as a measure of bias (i.e., when predicted is different than truth). Should equal (#vars + 1)

Mann-Whitney Mann-Whitney performs a hypothesis test of the equality of two population medians and calculates the corresponding point estimate and
confidence interval. Use this test as a nonparametric alternative to the two-sample t-test.
The mean is the average data point value within a data set. To calculate the mean, add all of the individual data points then divide that figure by the
Mean total number of data points.

Measurement system analysis Measurement system analysis is a mathematical method of determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes to
overall process variability.
Median The median is the middle point of a data set; 50% of the values are below this point, and 50% are above this point.
Mode The most often occurring value in the data set

Mood’s median test can be used to test the equality of medians from two or more populations and, like the Kruskal-Wallis Test, provides an
nonparametric alternative to the one-way analysis of variance. Mood’s median test is sometimes called a median test or sign scores test. Mood’s
Median Test tests:
Moods Median H0: the population medians are all equal versus H1: the medians are not all equal
An assumption of Mood’s median test is that the data from each population are independent random samples and the population distributions have
the same shape. Mood’s median test is robust against outliers and errors in data and is particularly appropriate in the preliminary stages of analysis.
Mood’s Median test is more robust than is the Kruskal-Wallis test against outliers, but is less powerful for data from many distributions, including the
normal.
Multicolinearity is the degree of correlation between Xs. It is an important consideration when using multiple regression on data that has been
collected without the aid of a design of experiment (DOE). A high degree of multicolinearity may lead to regression coefficients that are too large or
are headed in the wrong direction from that you had expected based on your knowledge of the process. High correlations between Xs also may
Multicolinearity result in a large p-value for an X that changes when the intercorrelated X is dropped from the equation. The variance inflation factor provides a
measure of the degree of multicolinearity.

Multiple regression Multiple regression is a method of determining the relationship between a continuous process output (Y) and several factors (Xs).

Multi-vari chart A multi-vari chart is a tool that graphically displays patterns of variation. It is used to identify possible Xs or families of variation, such as variation
within a subgroup, between subgroups, or over time. See the tool Multi-Vari Chart.
Noise Process input that consistently causes variation in the output measurement that is random and expected and, therefore, not controlled is called
noise. Noise also is referred to as white noise, random variation, common cause variation, noncontrollable variation, and within-group variation.

Nominal It refers to the value that you estimate in a design process that approximate your real CTQ (Y) target value based on the design element capacity.
Nominals are usually referred to as point estimate and related to y-hat model.
Non-parametric Set of tools that avoids assuming a particular distribution.
Normal distribution is the spread of information (such as product performance or demographics) where the most frequently occurring value is in the
middle of the range and other probabilities tail off symmetrically in both directions. Normal distribution is graphically categorized by a bell-shaped
Normal Distribution curve, also known as a Gaussian distribution. For normally distributed data, the mean and median are very close and may be identical.

Normal probability Used to check whether observations follow a normal distribution. P > 0.05 = data is normal

Normality test A normality test is a statistical process used to determine if a sample or any group of data fits a standard normal distribution. A normality test can be
performed mathematically or graphically. See the tool Normality Test.

A null hypothesis (H0) is a stated assumption that there is no difference in parameters (mean, variance, DPMO) for two or more populations.
Null Hypothesis (Ho) According to the null hypothesis, any observed difference in samples is due to chance or sampling error. It is written mathematically as follows: H0:
m1 = m2 H0: s1 = s2. Defines what you expect to observe. (e.g., all means are same or independent). (P > 0.05)

Opportunity An opportunity is anything that you inspect, measure, or test on a unit that provides a chance of allowing a defect.
An outlier is a data point that is located far from the rest of the data. Given a mean and standard deviation, a statistical distribution expects data
points to fall within a specific range. Those that do not are called outliers and should be investigated to ensure that the data is correct. If the data is
Outlier correct, you have witnessed a rare event or your process has changed. In either case, you need to understand what caused the outliers to occur.

Percent of tolerance Percent of tolerance is calculated by taking the measurement error of interest, such as repeatability and/or reproducibility, dividing by the total
tolerance range, then multiplying the result by 100 to express the result as a percentage.
A platykurtic distribution is one in which most of the values share about the same frequency of occurrence. As a result, the curve is very flat, or
Platykurtic Distribution plateau-like. Uniform distributions are platykurtic.
Pooled standard deviation is the standard deviation remaining after removing the effect of special cause variation-such as geographic location or
Pooled Standard Deviation time of year. It is the average variation of your subgroups.
Measurement of the certainty of the scatter about a certain regression line. A 95% prediction band indicates that, in general, 95% of the points will
Prediction Band (or interval) be contained within the bands.

Probability Probability refers to the chance of something happening, or the fraction of occurrences over a large number of trials. Probability can range from 0
(no chance) to 1 (full certainty).
Probability of defect is the statistical chance that a product or process will not meet performance specifications or lie within the defined upper and
Probability of Defect lower specification limits. It is the ratio of expected defects to the total output and is expressed as p(d). Process capability can be determined from
the probability of defect.
Process capability refers to the ability of a process to produce a defect-free product or service. Various indicators are used-some address overall
Process Capability performance, some address potential performance.
Producers Risk Concluding something is good when it is actually bad (TYPE I Error)

The p-value represents the probability of concluding (incorrectly) that there is a difference in your samples when no true difference exists. It is a
statistic calculated by comparing the distribution of given sample data and an expected distribution (normal, F, t, etc.) and is dependent upon the
statistical test being performed. For example, if two samples are being compared in a t-test, a p-value of 0.05 means that there is only 5% chance of
p-value arriving at the calculated t value if the samples were not different (from the same population). In other words, a p-value of 0.05 means there is only
a 5% chance that you would be wrong in concluding the populations are different. P-value < 0.05 = safe to conclude there's a difference.
P-value = risk of wasting time investigating further.

Q1 25th percentile (from box plot)


Q3 75th percentile (from box plot)
Qualitative data Discrete data
Quality function deployment (QFD) is a structured methodology used to identify customers' requirements and translate them into key process
Quality Function Deployment deliverables. In Six Sigma, QFD helps you focus on ways to improve your process or product to meet customers' expectations. See the tool Quality
Function Deployment.
Quantitative data Continuous data

Radar Chart A radar chart is a graphical display of the differences between actual and ideal performance. It is useful for defining performance and identifying
strengths and weaknesses.
Running experiments in a random order, not the standard order in the test layout. Helps to eliminate effect of "lurking variables", uncontrolled factors
Randomization whihc might vary over the length of the experiment.
A rational subgroup is a subset of data defined by a specific factor such as a stratifying factor or a time period. Rational subgrouping identifies and
separates special cause variation (variation between subgroups caused by specific, identifiable factors) from common cause variation (unexplained,
Rational Subgroup random variation caused by factors that cannot be pinpointed or controlled). A rational subgroup should exhibit only common cause variation.

Regression analysis is a method of analysis that enables you to quantify the relationship between two or more variables (X) and (Y) by fitting a line
Regression analysis or plane through all the points such that they are evenly distributed about the line or plane. Visually, the best-fit line is represented on a scatter plot
by a line or plane. Mathematically, the line or plane is represented by a formula that is referred to as the regression equation. The regression
equation is used to model process performance (Y) based on a given value or values of the process variable (X).
Repeatability is the variation in measurements obtained when one person takes multiple measurements using the same techniques on the same
Repeatability parts or items.
Replicates Number of times you ran each corner. Ex. 2 replicates means you ran one corner twice.

Replication occurs when an experimental treatment is set up and conducted more than once. If you collect two data points at each treatment, you
have two replications. In general, plan on making between two and five replications for each treatment. Replicating an experiment allows you to
Replication estimate the residual or experimental error. This is the variation from sources other than the changes in factor levels. A replication is not two
measurements of the same data point but a measurement of two data points under the same treatment conditions. For example, to make a
replication, you would not have two persons time the response of a call from the northeast region during the night shift. Instead, you would time two
calls into the northeast region's help desk during the night shift.
Reproducibility is the variation in average measurements obtained when two or more people measure the same parts or items using the same
Reproducibility measuring technique.

Residual A residual is the difference between the actual Y output value and the Y output value predicted by the regression equation. The residuals in a
regression model can be analyzed to reveal inadequacies in the model. Also called "errors"

Resolution Resolution is a measure of the degree of confounding among effects. Roman numerals are used to denote resolution. The resolution of your design
defines the amount of information that can be provided by the design of experiment. As with a computer screen, the higher the resolution of your
design, the more detailed the information you will see. The lowest resolution you can have is resolution III.

A robust process is one that is operating at 6 sigma and is therefore resistant to defects. Robust processes exhibit very good short-term process
Robust Process capability (high short-term Z values) and a small Z shift value. In a robust process, the critical elements usually have been designed to prevent or
eliminate opportunities for defects; this effort ensures sustainability of the process. Continual monitoring of robust processes is not usually needed,
although you may wish to set up periodic audits as a safeguard.
Rolled Throughput Yield Rolled throughput yield is the probability that a single unit can pass through a series of process steps free of defects.
R-squared A mathematical term describing how much variation is being explained by the X. FORMULA: R-sq = SS(regression) / SS(total)
Answers question of how much of total variation is explained by X. Caution: R-sq increases as number of data points increases. Pg. 13
R-Squared analyze

R-squared (adj) Unlike R-squared, R-squared adjusted takes into account the number of X's and the number of data points. FORMULA: R-sq (adj) = 1 -
[(SS(regression)/DF(regression)) / (SS(total)/DF(total))]
R-Squared adjusted Takes into account the number of X's and the number of data points...also answers: how much of total variation is explained by X.
Sample A portion or subset of units taken from the population whose characteristics are actually measured

Sample Size Calc. The sample size calculator is a spreadsheet tool used to determine the number of data points, or sample size, needed to estimate the properties of
a population. See the tool Sample Size Calculator.
Sampling Sampling is the practice of gathering a subset of the total data available from a process or a population.

scatter plot A scatter plot, also called a scatter diagram or a scattergram, is a basic graphic tool that illustrates the relationship between two variables. The dots
on the scatter plot represent data points. See the tool Scatter Plot.

Scorecard A scorecard is an evaluation device, usually in the form of a questionnaire, that specifies the criteria your customers will use to rate your business's
performance in satisfying their requirements.

A screening design of experiment (DOE) is a specific type of a fractional factorial DOE. A screening design is a resolution III design, which minimizes
Screening DOE the number of runs required in an experiment. A screening DOE is practical when you can assume that all interactions are negligible compared to
main effects. Use a screening DOE when your experiment contains five or more factors. Once you have screened out the unimportant factors, you
may want to perform a fractional or full-fractional DOE.

Segmentation Segmentation is a process used to divide a large group into smaller, logical categories for analysis. Some commonly segmented entities are
customers, data sets, or markets.
S-hat Model It describes the relationship between output variance and input nominals
The Greek letter s (sigma) refers to the standard deviation of a population. Sigma, or standard deviation, is used as a scaling factor to convert upper
Sigma and lower specification limits to Z. Therefore, a process with three standard deviations between its mean and a spec limit would have a Z value of 3
and commonly would be referred to as a 3 sigma process.

Simple linear regression is a method that enables you to determine the relationship between a continuous process output (Y) and one factor (X).
Simple Linear Regression
The relationship is typically expressed in terms of a mathematical equation such as Y = b + mX

SIPOC SIPOC stands for suppliers, inputs, process, output, and customers. You obtain inputs from suppliers, add value through your process, and provide
an output that meets or exceeds your customer's requirements.
Most often, the median is used as a measure of central tendency when data sets are skewed. The metric that indicates the degree of asymmetry is
called, simply, skewness. Skewness often results in situations when a natural boundary is present. Normal distributions will have a skewness value
Skewness of approximately zero. Right-skewed distributions will have a positive skewness value; left-skewed distributions will have a negative skewness value.
Typically, the skewness value will range from negative 3 to positive 3. Two examples of skewed data sets are salaries within an organization and
monthly prices of homes for sale in a particular area.

Span A measure of variation for "S-shaped" fulfillment Y's


Unlike common cause variability, special cause variation is caused by known factors that result in a non-random distribution of output. Also referred
Special cause variability to as "exceptional" or "assignable" variation. Example: Few X's with big impact.
The spread of a process represents how far data points are distributed away from the mean, or center. Standard deviation is a measure of spread.
Spread

SS Process Report The Six Sigma process report is a Minitab™ tool that calculates process capability and provides visuals of process performance. See the tool Six
Sigma Process Report.

SS Product Report The Six Sigma product report is a Minitab™ tool that calculates the DPMO and short-term capability of your process. See the tool Six Sigma Product
Report.
Stability represents variation due to elapsed time. It is the difference between an individual's measurements taken of the same parts after an
Stability extended period of time using the same techniques.
Standard deviation is a measure of the spread of data in relation to the mean. It is the most common measure of the variability of a set of data. If the
standard deviation is based on a sampling, it is referred to as "s." If the entire data population is used, standard deviation is represented by the
Greek letter sigma (s). The standard deviation (together with the mean) is used to measure the degree to which the product or process falls within
specifications. The lower the standard deviation, the more likely the product or service falls within spec. When the standard deviation is calculated in
relation to the mean of all the data points, the result is an overall standard deviation. When the standard deviation is calculated in relation to the
Standard Deviation (s) means of subgroups, the result is a pooled standard deviation. Together with the mean, both overall and pooled standard deviations can help you
determine your degree of control over the product or process.

Design of experiment (DOE) treatments often are presented in a standard order. In a standard order, the first factor alternates between the low and
Standard Order high setting for each treatment. The second factor alternates between low and high settings every two treatments. The third factor alternates
between low and high settings every four treatments. Note that each time a factor is added, the design doubles in size to provide all combinations for
each level of the new factor.
Statistic Any number calculated from sample data, describes a sample characteristic
Statistical Process Control (SPC) Statistical process control is the application of statistical methods to analyze and control the variation of a process.
A stratifying factor, also referred to as stratification or a stratifier, is a factor that can be used to separate data into subgroups. This is done to
Stratification investigate whether that factor is a significant special cause factor.
Subgrouping Measurement of where you can get.
Tolerance Range Tolerance range is the difference between the upper specification limit and the lower specification limit.
Total Observed Variation Total observed variation is the combined variation from all sources, including the process and the measurement system.
The total probability of defect is equal to the sum of the probability of defect above the upper spec limit-p(d), upper-and the probability of defect
Total Prob of Defect below the lower spec limit-p(d), lower.

Transfer function A transfer function describes the relationship between lower level requirements and higher level requirements. If it describes the relationship
between the nominal values, then it is called a y-hat model. If it describes the relationship between the variations, then it is called an s-hat model.
Transformations Used to make non-normal data look more normal.
Trivial many The trivial many refers to the variables that are least likely responsible for variation in a process, product, or service.

T-test A t-test is a statistical tool used to determine whether a significant difference exists between the means of two distributions or the mean of one
distribution and a target value. See the t-test tools.
Check to obtain confidence intervals for all pairwise differences between level means using Tukey's method (also called Tukey's HSD or Tukey-
Tukey's (1-wayANOVA): Kramer method). Specify a family error rate between 0.5 and 0.001. Values greater than or equal to 1.0 are interpreted as percentages. The default
error rate is 0.05.
Unexplained Variation (S) Regression statistical output that shows the unexplained variation in the data. Se = sqrt((sum(yi-y_bar)^2)/(n-1))
Unit A unit is any item that is produced or processed.

USL An upper specification limit, also known as an upper spec limit, or USL, is a value below which performance of a product or process is acceptable.

Variation is the fluctuation in process output. It is quantified by standard deviation, a measure of the average spread of the data around the mean.
Variation Variation is sometimes called noise. Variance is squared standard deviation.
Common cause variation is fluctuation caused by unknown factors resulting in a steady but random distribution of output around the average of the
Variation (common cause) data. It is a measure of the process potential, or how well the process can perform when special cause variation is removed; therefore, it is a
measure of the process's technology. Also called, inherent variation
Special cause variation is a shift in output caused by a specific factor such as environmental conditions or process input parameters. It can be
Variation (special cause) accounted for directly and potentially removed and is a measure of process control, or how well the process is performing compared to its potential.
Also called non-random variation.
From box plot...displays minimum and maximum observations within 1.5 IQR (75th-25th percentile span) from either 25th or 75th percentile. Outlier
Whisker are those that fall outside of the 1.5 range.
Yield Yield is the percentage of a process that is free of defects.
A Z value is a data point's position between the mean and another location as measured by the number of standard deviations. Z is a universal
measurement because it can be applied to any unit of measure. Z is a measure of process capability and corresponds to the process sigma value
Z that is reported by the businesses. For example, a 3 sigma process means that three standard deviations lie between the mean and the nearest
specification limit. Three is the Z value.

Z bench Z bench is the Z value that corresponds to the total probability of a defect
Z long term (ZLT) is the Z bench calculated from the overall standard deviation and the average output of the current process. Used with continuous
Z lt data, ZLT represents the overall process capability and can be used to determine the probability of making out-of-spec parts within the current
process.
Z shift is the difference between Z ST and ZLT. The larger the Z shift, the more you are able to improve the control of the special factors identified in the
Z shift subgroups.
ZST represents the process capability when special factors are removed and the process is properly centered. Z ST is the metric by which processes
Z st are compared.
182
What does it do? Why use? When use? Data Type P < .05 Picture
Tool indicates

The 1-sample t-test is useful in identifying a significant difference between a sample The 1-sample t-test is used with continuous data any time you
mean and a specified value when the difference is not readily apparent from need to compare a sample mean to a specified value. This is
1-Sample t-Test Compares mean to target
graphical tools. Using the 1-sample t-test to compare data gathered before process useful when you need to make judgments about a process based Continuous X & Y Not equal 1
improvements and after is a way to prove that the mean has actually shifted. on a sample output from that process.

ANOVA tests to see if the difference between the means


of each level is significantly more than the variation Use 1-way ANOVA when you need to compare three or more At least one group
within each level. 1-way ANOVA is used when two or One-way ANOVA is useful for identifying a statistically significant difference between means (a single factor with three or more levels) and determine Continuous Y, of data is different
1-Way ANOVA more means (a single factor with three or more levels) means of three or more levels of a factor. how much of the total observed variation can be explained by the
0
Discrete Xs than at least one
must be compared with each other. factor.
other group.

The 2-sample t-test is useful for identifying a significant difference between means of When you have two samples of continuous data, and you need to There is a
A statistical test used to detect differences between
2-Sample t-Test means of two populations.
two levels (subgroups) of a factor. It is also extremely useful for identifying important know if they both come from the same population or if they Continuous X & Y difference in the 0
Xs for a project Y. represent two different populations means
ANOVA General Linear Model (GLM) is a statistical tool
You can use ANOVA GLM any time you need to identify a
used to test for differences in means. ANOVA tests to At least one group
statistically significant difference in the mean of the dependent
see if the difference between the means of each level is
variable due to two or more factors with multiple levels, alone and Continuous Y & all of data is different
ANOVA GLM significantly more than the variation within each level. Compare DPUs in combination. ANOVA GLM also can be used to quantify the
0
ANOVA GLM is used to test the effect of two or more X's than at least one
amount of variation in the response that can be attributed to a
factors with multiple levels, alone and in combination, on
specific factor in a designed experiment.
other group.
a dependent variable.

Benchmarking is an improvement tool whereby a


company: Measures its performance or process
Benchmarking can be done at any point in the Six Sigma process Best in the
against other companies' best in class practices,
Benchmarking Determines how those companies achieved their Compare length of service of technicians when you need to develop a new process or improve an existing all N/A world 1
one
performance levels, Uses the information to improve its
own performance.

Best Subsets is an efficient way to select a group of "best subsets" for further analysis
Typically used before or after a multiple-regression analysis.
Tells you the best X to use when you're comparing by selecting the smallest subset that fulfills certain statistical criteria. The subset
Best Subsets multiple X's in regression assessment. model may actually estimate the regression coefficients and predict future responses
Particularly useful in determining which X combination yields the Continuous X & Y N/A 0
best R-sq value.
with smaller variance than the full model using all predictors

The goodness-of-
fit tests, with p-
values ranging
from 0.312 to
0.724, indicate
that there is
Binary logistic regression is useful in two applications: analyzing the differences insufficient
among discrete Xs and modeling the relationship between a discrete binary Y and
discrete and/or continuous Xs. Binary logistic regression can be used to model the evidence for the
Binary logistic regression is useful in two important Defectives Y / model not fitting
Binary Logistic relationship between a discrete binary Y and discrete and/or continuous Xs. The
applications: analyzing the differences among discrete Generally speaking, logistic regression is used when the Ys are
predicted values will be probabilities p(d) of an event such as success or failure-not Continuous & the data 0
Regression Xs and modeling the relationship between a discrete
an event count. The predicted values will be bounded between zero and one
discrete and the Xs are continuous
binary Y and discrete and/or continuous Xs. Discrete X adequately. If the
(because they are probabilities).
p-value is less
than your
accepted a level,
the test would
indicate sufficient
evidence for a
conclusion of an
inadequate fit.

A box plot is a basic graphing tool that displays the


centering, spread, and distribution of a continuous data
set. In simplified terms, it is made up of a box and a box plot can help you visualize the centering, spread, and distribution of your data You can use a box plot throughout an improvement project,
whiskers (and occasional outliers) that correspond to quickly. It is especially useful to view more than one box plot simultaneously to although it is most useful in the Analyze phase. In the Measure
each fourth, or quartile, of the data set. The box compare the performance of several processes such as the price quote cycle phase you can use a box plot to begin to understand the nature
Box Plot represents the second and third quartiles of data. The between offices or the accuracy of component placement across several production of a problem. In the Analyze phase a box plot can help you Continuous X & Y N/A 1
line that bisects the box is the median of the entire data lines. A box plot can help identify candidates for the causes behind your list of identify potential Xs that should be investigated further. It also
set-50% of the data points fall below this line and 50% potential Xs. It also is useful in tracking process improvement by comparing can help eliminate potential Xs. In the Improve phase you can
fall above it. The first and fourth quartiles are successive plots generated over time use a box plot to validate potential improvements
represented by "whiskers," or lines that extend from both
ends of the box.

If your data is not normally distributed, you may encounter


used to find the mathematical function needed to
problems in Calculating Z values with continuous data. You could
translate a continuous but nonnormal distribution into a
Many tools require that data be normally distributed to produce accurate results. If the calculate an inaccurate representation of your process capability.
Box-Cox normal distribution. After you have entered your data,
data set is not normal, this may reduce significantly the confidence in the results In constructing control charts.... Your process may appear more Continuous X & Y N/A 1
Transformation Minitab tells you what mathematical function can be
obtained. or less in control than it really is. In Hypothesis testing... As your
applied to each of your data points to bring your data
data becomes less normal, the results of your tests may not be
closer to a normal distribution.
valid.
Brainstorming can be used any time you and your team need to
creatively generate numerous ideas on any topic. You will use
Brainstorming is a tool that allows for open and creative
Brainstorming is helpful because it allows your team to generate many ideas on a brainstorming many times throughout your project whenever you
Brainstorming thinking. It encourages all team members to participate
topic creatively and efficiently without criticism or judgment. feel it is appropriate. You also may incorporate brainstorming into all N/A 0
and to build on each other's creativity
other tools, such as QFD, tree diagrams, process mapping, or
FMEA.

a graphical tool that allows you to view the actual


number of defects in each subgroup. Unlike continuous Control phase to verify that your process remains in control after
data control charts, discrete data control charts can The c chart is a tool that will help you determine if your process is in control by the sources of special cause variation have been removed. The c
monitor many product quality characteristics determining whether special causes are present. The presence of special cause chart is used for processes that generate discrete data. The c Continuous X,
c Chart simultaneously. For example, you could use a c chart to variation indicates that factors are influencing the output of your process. Eliminating chart monitors the number of defects per sample taken from a N/A 0
monitor many types of defects in a call center process the influence of these factors will improve the performance of your process and bring process. You should record between 5 and 10 readings, and the Attribute Y
(like hang ups, incorrect information given, your process into control sample size must be constant. The c chart can be used in both
disconnections) on a single chart when the subgroup low- and high- volume environments
size is constant.

A group of templates,statistical and analytical tools that


Cap Tools helps Belts to develop their projects in a standardized To deliver a project in according DMAIC expectation. During the project development All n/A
way.
A group exercise used to establish scope and facilitate Encourages group participation. Increases individual involvement and understanding
CAP discussion. Effort focuses on delineating project of team efforts. Prevents errant team efforts in later project stages (waste). Helps to Define all N/A 0
Includes/Excludes boundaries. orient new team members.
CAP Stakeholder Confirms management or stakeholder acceptance and Helps to eliminate low priority projects. Insure management support and
prioritization of Project and team efforts. compatibility with business goals.
Defone all N/A 0
Analysis

Capability analysis is a MinitabTM tool that visually


compares actual process performance to the
performance standards. The capability analysis output
Capability analysis is used with continuous data whenever you
includes an illustration of the data and several
When describing a process, it is important to identify sources of variation as well as need to compare actual process performance to the performance
performance statistics. The plot is a histogram with the
process segments that do not meet performance standards. Capability analysis is a standards. You can use this tool in the Measure phase to
performance standards for the process expressed as
useful tool because it illustrates the centering and spread of your data in relation to describe process performance in statistical terms. In the Improve
Capability Analysis upper and lower specification limits (USL and LSL). A
the performance standards and provides a statistical summary of process phase, you can use capability analysis when you optimize and Continuous X & Y N/A 1
normal distribution curve is calculated from the process
performance. Capability analysis will help you describe the problem and evaluate the confirm your proposed solution. In the Control phase, capability
mean and standard deviation; this curve is overlaid on
proposed solution in statistical terms. analysis will help you compare the actual improvement of your
the histogram. Beneath this graphic is a table listing
process to the performance standards.
several key process parameters such as mean,
standard deviation, capability indexes, and parts per
million (ppm) above and below the specification limits.

A cause and effect diagram is a visual tool that logically


A cause and effect diagram allows your team to explore, identify, and display all of the
organizes possible causes for a specific problem or
possible causes related to a specific problem. The diagram can increase in detail as
effect by graphically displaying them in increasing detail. You can use the cause and effect diagram whenever you need to
Cause and Effect necessary to identify the true root cause of the problem. Proper use of the tool helps
It is sometimes called a fishbone diagram because of its break an effect down into its root causes. It is especially useful in
the team organize thinking so that all the possible causes of the problem, not just all N/A 0
Diagram fishbone shape. This shape allows the team to see how
those from one person's viewpoint, are captured. Therefore, the cause and effect
the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of the DMAIC
each cause relates to the effect. It then allows you to process
diagram reflects the perspective of the team as a whole and helps foster consensus
determine a classification related to the impact and ease
in the results because each team member can view all the inputs
of addressing each cause

The chi square-test of independence is a test of


association (nonindependence) between discrete
variables. It is also referred to as the test of association.
It is based on a mathematical comparison of the number When you have discrete Y and X data (nominal data in a table-of-
The chi square-test of independence is useful for identifying a significant difference
of observed counts against the expected number of total-counts format, shown in fig. 1) and need to know if the Y At least one group
Chi Square--Test of between count data for two or more levels of a discrete variable Many statistical discrete (category or
counts to determine if there is a difference in output output counts differ for two or more subgroup categories (Xs),
problem statements and performance improvement goals are written in terms of is statistically 0
Independence counts based on the input category. Example: The
reducing DPMO/DPU. The chi square-test of independence applied to before and
use the chi square test. If you have raw data (untotaled), you count)
number of units failing inspection on the first shift is need to form the contingency table. Use Stat > Tables > Cross different.
after data is a way to prove that the DPMO/DPU have actually been reduced.
greater than the number of units failing inspection on the Tabulation and check the Chisquare analysis box.
second shift. Example: There are fewer defects on the
revised application form than there were on the previous
application form

Control charts are time-ordered graphical displays of


data that plot process variation over time. Control charts
are the major tools used to monitor processes to ensure
they remain stable. Control charts are characterized by
A centerline, which represents the process average, or
the middle point about which plotted measures are
expected to vary randomly. Upper and lower control
In the Measure phase, use control charts to understand the
limits, which define the area three standard deviations
performance of your process as it exists before process
on either side of the centerline. Control limits reflect the
improvements. In the Analyze phase, control charts serve as a
expected range of variation for that process. Control
Control charts serve as a tool for the ongoing control of a process and provide a troubleshooting guide that can help you identify sources of
charts determine whether a process is in control or out
common language for discussing process performance. They help you understand variation (Xs). In the Control phase, use control charts to : 1.
of control. A process is said to be in control when only
variation and use that knowledge to control and improve your process. In addition, Make sure the vital few Xs remain in control to sustain the
Control Charts common causes of variation are present. This is
control charts function as a monitoring system that alerts you to the need to respond solution - 2. Show process performance after full-scale all N/A 0
represented on the control chart by data points
to special cause variation so you can put in place an immediate remedy to contain implementation of your solution. You can compare the control
fluctuating randomly within the control limits. Data
any damage. chart created in the Control phase with that from the Measure
points outside the control limits and those displaying
phase to show process improvement -3. Verify that the process
nonrandom patterns indicate special cause variation.
remains in control after the sources of special cause variation
When special cause variation is present, the process is
have been removed
said to be out of control. Control charts identify when
special cause is acting on the process but do not identify
what the special cause is. There are two categories of
control charts, characterized by type of data you are
working with: continuous data control charts and
discrete data control charts.
Failing to establish a data collection plan can be an
expensive mistake in a project. Without a plan, data Failing to establish a data collection plan can be an expensive mistake in a project.
collection may be haphazard, resulting in insufficient, Without a plan, data collection may be haphazard, resulting in insufficient, Any time data is needed, you should draft a data collection plan
Data Collection Plan unnecessary, or inaccurate information. This is often unnecessary, or inaccurate information. This is often called "bad" data. A data before beginning to collect it. all N/A 0
called "bad" data. A data collection plan provides a basic collection plan provides a basic strategy for collecting accurate data efficiently
strategy for collecting accurate data efficiently

The design analysis spreadsheet is an MS-Excel™


Partial derivative analysis is widely used in product design,
workbook that has been designed to perform partial
manufacturing, process improvement, and commercial services
derivative analysis and root sum of squares analysis.
The design analysis spreadsheet can help you improve, revise, and optimize your during the concept design, capability assessment, and creation of
The design analysis spreadsheet provides a quick way
design. It can also:Improve a product or process by identifying the Xs which have the the detailed design.When the Xs are known to be highly non-
to predict the mean and standard deviation of an output
most impact on the response.Identify the factors whose variability has the highest normal (and especially if the Xs have skewed distributions),
measure (Y), given the means and standard deviations
Design Analysis influence on the response and target their improvement by adjusting Monte Carlo analysis may be a better choice than partial
of the inputs (Xs). This will help you develop a statistical
tolerances.Identify the factors that have low influence and can be allowed to vary derivative analysis.Unlike root sum of squares (RSS) analysis, Continuous X & Y N/A 0
Spreadsheet model of your product or process, which in turn will help
over a wider range.Be used with the Solver** optimization routine for complex partial derivative analysis can be used with nonlinear transfer
you improve that product or process. The partial
functions (Y equations) with many constraints. ** Note that you must unprotect the functions.Use partial derivative analysis when you want to predict
derivative of Y with respect to X is called the sensitivity
worksheet before using Solver.Be used with process simulation to visualize the the mean and standard deviation of a system response (Y), given
of Y with respect to X or the sensitivity coefficient of X.
response given a set of constrained the means and standard deviations of the inputs (Xs), when the
For this reason, partial derivative analysis is sometimes
transfer function Y=f(X1, X2, ., Xn) is known. However, the inputs
called sensitivity analysis.
(Xs) must be independent of one another (i.e., not correlated).

Design of experiment (DOE) is a tool that allows you to


obtain information about how factors (Xs), alone and in
combination, affect a process and its output (Y).
Traditional experiments generate data by changing one DOE uses an efficient, cost-effective, and methodical approach to collecting and In general, use DOE when you want toIdentify and quantify the
Design of Experiment factor at a time, usually by trial and error. This approach analyzing data related to a process output and the factors that affect it. By testing impact of the vital few Xs on your process outputDescribe the Continuous Y & all
N/A 0
(DOE) often requires a great many runs and cannot capture the more than one factor at a time, DOE is able to identify all factors and combinations of relationship between Xs and a Y with a mathematical X's
effect of combined factors on the output. By allowing you factors that affect the process Y modelDetermine the best configuration
to test more than one factor at a time-as well as different
settings for each factor-DOE is able to identify all factors
and combinations of factors that affect the process Y.

Design scorecards are a means for gathering data,


predicting final quality, analyzing drivers of poor quality,
and modifying design elements before a product is built.
This makes proactive corrective action possible, rather
Design scorecards are a means for gathering data, predicting final quality, analyzing
than initiating reactive quality efforts during pre-
drivers of poor quality, and modifying design elements before a product is built. This
production. Design scorecards are an MS-Excel™
makes proactive corrective action possible, rather than initiating reactive quality
workbook that has been designed to automatically
efforts during pre-production. Design scorecards are an MS-Excel™ workbook that
calculate Z values for a product based on user-provided
has been designed to automatically calculate Z values for a product based on user-
inputs of for all the sub-processes and parts that make Design scorecards can be used anytime that a product or
provided inputs of for all the sub-processes and parts that make up the product.
up the product. Design scorecards have six basic process is being designed or modified and it is necessary to
Design Scorecards components: 1 Top-level scorecard-used to report the
Design scorecards have six basic components: 1 Top-level scorecard-used to report
predict defect levels before implementing a process. They can be all N/A 0
the rolled-up ZST prediction 2. Performance worksheet-used to estimate defects
rolled-up ZST prediction 2. Performance worksheet- used in either the DMADV or DMAIC processes.
caused by lack of design margin 3. Process worksheet-used to estimate defects in
used to estimate defects caused by lack of design
process as a result of the design configuration 4.Parts worksheet-used to estimate
margin 3. Process worksheet-used to estimate defects
defects due to incoming materialsSoftware worksheet-used to estimate defects in
in process as a result of the design configuration
software 5. Software worksheet-used to estimate defects in software 6. Reliability
4.Parts worksheet-used to estimate defects due to
worksheet-used to estimate defects due to reliability
incoming materialsSoftware worksheet-used to estimate
defects in software 5. Software worksheet-used to
estimate defects in software 6. Reliability worksheet-
used to estimate defects due to reliability

Use the DDA method after the project data collection plan is
The DDA method is an important tool because it provides a method to independently
formulated or modified and before the project data collection plan
The Discrete Data Analysis (DDA) method is a tool used assess the most common types of measurement variation-repeatability,
is finalized and data is collected. Choose the DDA method when
Discrete Data Analysis to assess the variation in a measurement system due to reproducibility, and/or accuracy. Completing the DDA method will help you to discrete (category or
you have discrete data and you want to determine if the N/A 0
Method reproducibility, repeatability, and/or accuracy. This tool determine whether the variation from repeatability, reproducibility, and/or accuracy in
measurement variation due to repeatability, reproducibility, and/or count)
applies to discrete data only. your measurement system is an acceptably small portion of the total observed
accuracy is an acceptably small portion of the total observed
variation.
variation

Discrete event simulation is used in the Analyze phase of a


Discrete event simulation is conducted for processes DMAIC project to understand the behavior of important process
that are dictated by events at distinct points in time; each variables. In the Improve phase of a DMAIC project, discrete
Discrete Event occurrence of an event impacts the current state of the ProcessModelTM is a process modeling and analysis tool that accelerates the process event simulation is used to predict the performance of an existing
improvement effort. It combines a simple flowcharting function with a simulation Continuous Y,
Simulation (Process process. Examples of discrete events are arrivals of process under different conditions and to test new process ideas N/A 0
phone calls at a call center. Timing in a discrete event process to produce a quick and easy tool for documenting, analyzing, and improving or alternatives in an isolated environment. Use ProcessModelTM Discrete Xs
ModelTM)
model increases incrementally based on the arrival and business processes. when you reach step 4, Implement, of the 10-step simulation
departure of the inputs or resources process.

Quick graphical comparison of two or more processes' Continuous Y,


Dot Plot variation or spread
Quick graphical comparison of two or more processes' variation or spread Comparing two or more processes' variation or spread N/A
Discrete Xs

A means / method to Identify ways a process can fail, Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a disciplined approach used to identify
Failure Mode and estimate th risks of those failures, evaluate a control possible failures of a product or service and then determine the frequency and impact Complex or new processes. Customers are involved. all N/A 0
Effects Analysis plan, prioritize actions related to the process of the failure. See the tool Failure Mode and Effects Analysis.

Gage R&R-ANOVA method is a tool used to assess the Measure -Use Gage R&R-ANOVA method after the project data
variation in a measurement system due to reproducibility Gage R&R-ANOVA method is an important tool because it provides a method to collection plan is formulated or modified and before the project
Gage R & R--ANOVA and/or repeatability. An advantage of this tool is that it independently assess the most common types of measurement variation - data collection plan is finalized and data is collected. Choose the
can separate the individual effects of repeatability and repeatability and reproducibility. This tool will help you to determine whether the ANOVA method when you have continuous data and you want to Continuous X & Y 0
Method reproducibility and then break down reproducibility into variation from repeatability and/or reproducibility in your measurement system is an determine if the measurement variation due to repeatability
the components "operator" and "operator by part." This acceptably small portion of the total observed variation. and/or reproducibility is an acceptably small portion of the total
tool applies to continuous data only. observed variation.
Use Gage R&R-Short Method after the project data collection
Gage R&R-Short Method is a tool used to assess the plan is formulated or modified and before the project data
variation in a measurement system due to the combined collection plan is finalized and data is collected. Choose the
Gage R&R-Short Method is an important tool because it provides a quick method of
effect of reproducibility and repeatability. An advantage Gage R&R-Short Method when you have continuous data and
assessing the most common types of measurement variation using only five parts
Gage R & R--Short of this tool is that it requires only two operators and five you believe the total measurement variation due to repeatability
and two operators. Completing the Gage R&R-Short Method will help you determine Continuous X & Y 0
Method samples to complete the analysis. A disadvantage of this
whether the combined variation from repeatability and reproducibility in your
and reproducibility is an acceptably small portion of the total
tool is that the individual effects of repeatability and observed variation, but you need to confirm this belief. For
measurement system is an acceptably small portion of the total observed variation.
reproducibility cannot be separated. This tool applies to example, you may want to verify that no changes occurred since
continuous data only a previous Gage R&R study. Gage R&R-Short Method can also
be used in cases where sample size is limited.

GRPI is an excellent team-building tool and, as such, should be


initiated at one of the first team meetings. In the DMAIC process,
GRPI is an excellent tool for organizing newly formed teams. It is valuable in helping
this generally happens in the Define phase, where you create
GRPI a group of individuals work as an effective team-one of the key ingredients to success
your charter and form your team. Continue to update your GRPI all N/A 0
in a DMAIC project
checklist throughout the DMAIC process as your project unfolds
and as your team develops

A histogram is a basic graphing tool that displays the


relative frequency or occurrence of data values-or which Histograms can be used throughout an improvement project. In
data values occur most and least frequently. A histogram the Measure phase, you can use histograms to begin to
it is important to identify and control all sources of variation. Histograms allow you to
illustrates the shape, centering, and spread of data understand the statistical nature of the problem. In the Analyze
visualize large quantities of data that would otherwise be difficult to interpret. They
distribution and indicates whether there are any outliers. phase, histograms can help you identify potential Xs that should
give you a way to quickly assess the distribution of your data and the variation that Continuous Y & all
Histogram The frequency of occurrence is displayed on the y-axis,
exists in your process. The shape of a histogram offers clues that can lead you to
be investigated further. They can also help eliminate potential Xs. N/A 1
where the height of each bar indicates the number of In the Improve phase, you can use histograms to characterize X's
possible Xs. For example, when a histogram has two distinct peaks, or is bimodal,
occurrences for that interval (or class) of data, such as 1 and confirm your solution. In the Control phase, histograms give
you would look for a cause for the difference in peaks.
to 3 days, 4 to 6 days, and so on. Classes of data are you a visual reference to help track and maintain your
displayed on the x-axis. The grouping of data into improvements.
classes is the distinguishing feature of a histogram

There are two main reasons for using the homogeneity of


variance test:1. A basic assumption of many statistical tests is (Use Levene's
that the variances of the different samples are equal. Some
Homogeneity of variance is a test used to determine if Test) At least one
statistical procedures, such as 2-sample t-test, gain additional
Homogeneity of the variances of two or more samples are different, or While large differences in variance between a small number of samples are Continuous Y, group of data is
test power if the variances of the two samples can be considered
not homogeneous. The homogeneity of variance test is detectable with graphical tools, the homogeneity of variance test is a quick way to 1
Variance equal.2. Many statistical problem statements and performance Discrete Xs different than at
a comparison of the variances (sigma, or standard reliably detect small differences in variance between large numbers of samples.
improvement goals are written in terms of "reducing the
deviations) of two or more distributions.
variance." Homogeneity of variance tests can be performed on
least one other
before and after data, as a way to prove that the variance has group
been reduced.

The Measure phase to separate common causes of variation


The I-MR chart is a tool to help you determine if your The presence of special cause variation indicates that factors are influencing the from special causesThe Analyze and Improve phases to ensure
I-MR Chart process is in control by seeing if special causes are output of your process. Eliminating the influence of these factors will improve the process stability before completing a hypothesis testThe Control Continuous X & Y N/A 1
present. performance of your process and bring your process into control phase to verify that the process remains in control after the
sources of special cause variation have been removed

Kano analysis is a customer research method for


classifying customer needs into four categories; it relies
on a questionnaire filled out by or with the customer. It
helps you understand the relationship between the
fulfillment or nonfulfillment of a need and the satisfaction
Use Kano analysis after a list of potential needs that have to be
or dissatisfaction experienced by the customer. The four
satisfied is generated (through, for example, interviews, focus
categories are 1. delighters, 2. Must Be elements, 3. Kano analysis provides a systematic, data-based method for gaining deeper
Kano Analysis One - dimensionals, & 4. Indeifferent elements. There understanding of customer needs by classifying them
groups, or observations). Kano analysis is useful when you all N/A 0
need to collect data on customer needs and prioritize them to
are two additional categories into which customer
focus your efforts.
responses to the Kano survey can fall: they are reverse
elements and questionable result. --The categories in
Kano analysis represent a point in time, and needs are
constantly evolving. Often what is a delighter today can
become simply a must-be over time.

non-parametric
At least one mean
Kruskal-Wallis Test Compare two or more means with unknown distributions (measurement or 0
is different
count)

Tool used for high-level look at relationships between


Matrix plots can save time by allowing you to drill-down into data and determine Continuous Y & all
Matrix Plot several parameters. Matrix plots are often a first step at
which parameters best relate to your Y.
You should use matrix plots early in your analyze phase. N/A
determining which X's contribute most to your Y. X's

You should use mistake proofing in the Measure phase when you
are developing your data collection plan, in the Improve phase
when you are developing your proposed solution, and in the
Mistake-proofing devices prevent defects by preventing Mistake proofing is an important tool because it allows you to take a proactive Control phase when developing the control plan.Mistake proofing
Mistake Proofing errors or by predicting when errors could occur. approach to eliminating errors at their source before they become defects. is appropriate when there are :1. Process steps where human all N/A 0
intervention is required2. Repetitive tasks where physical
manipulation of objects is required3. Steps where errors are
known to occur4. Opportunities for predictable errors to occur
Monte Carlo analysis is a decision-making and problem-
solving tool used to evaluate a large number of possible
scenarios of a process. Each scenario represents one
possible set of values for each of the variables of the
process and the calculation of those variables using the
transfer function to produce an outcome Y. By repeating Performing a Monte Carlo analysis is one way to understand the variation that
this method many times, you can develop a distribution naturally exists in your process. One of the ways to reduce defects is to decrease the Continuous Y & all
Monte Carlo Analysis for the overall process performance. Monte Carlo can be output variation. Monte Carlo focuses on understanding what variations exist in the N/A 0
X's
used in such broad areas as finance, commercial input Xs in order to reduce the variation in output Y.
quality, engineering design, manufacturing, and process
design and improvement. Monte Carlo can be used with
any type of distribution; its value comes from the
increased knowledge we gain in terms of variation of the
output

Multigenerational product/process planning (MGPP) is a


procedure that helps you create, upgrade, leverage, and Most products or processes, once introduced, tend to remain unchanged for many You should follow an MGPP in conjunction with your business's
Multi-Generational maintain a product or process in a way that can reduce years. Yet, competitors, technology, and the marketplace-as personified by the ever overall marketing strategy. The market process applied to MGPP
Product/Process production costs and increase market share. A key more demanding consumer-change constantly. Therefore, it makes good business usually takes place over three or more generations. These all N/A 0
Planning element of MGPP is its ability to help you follow up sense to incorporate into product/process design a method for anticipating and taking generations cover the first three to five years of product/process
product/process introduction with improved, derivative advantage of these changes. development and introduction.
versions of the original product.

Multiple regression will help you to understand the relationship between the process
output (Y) and several factors (Xs) that may affect the Y. Understanding this You can use multiple regression during the Analyze phase to help
relationship allows you to1. Identify important Xs2. Identify the amount of variation identify important Xs and during the Improve phase to define the
method that enables you to determine the relationship explained by the model3. Reduce the number of Xs prior to design of experiment optimized solution. Multiple regression can be used with both
A correlation is
Multiple Regression between a continuous process output (Y) and several (DOE )4. Predict Y based on combinations of X values5. Identify possible nonlinear continuous and discrete Xs. If you have only discrete Xs, use Continuous X & Y 0
factors (Xs). relationships such as a quadratic (X12) or an interaction (X1X2)The output of a ANOVA-GLM. Typically you would use multiple regression on detected
multiple regression analysis may demonstrate the need for designed experiments existing data. If you need to collect new data, it may be more
that establish a cause and effect relationship or identify ways to further improve the efficient to use a DOE.
process.

A multi-vari chart is a tool that graphically displays


A multi-vari chart enables you to see the effect multiple variables have on a Y. It also
patterns of variation. It is used to identify possible Xs or Continuous Y & all
Multi-Vari Chart families of variation, such as variation within a subgroup,
helps you see variation within subgroups, between subgroups, and over time. By N/A 0
looking at the patterns of variation, you can identify or eliminate possible Xs X's
between subgroups, or over time

Data does not


Normal Probability Plot Allows you to determine the normality of your data. To determine the normality of data. To see if multiple X's exist in your data. cont (measurement) follow a normal 1
distribution

There are two occasions when you should use a normality test:
1. When you are first trying to characterize raw data, normality
A normality test is a statistical process used to determine
Many statistical tests (tests of means and tests of variances) assume that the data testing is used in conjunction with graphical tools such as
if a sample, or any group of data, fits a standard normal
Normality Test distribution. A normality test can be done mathematically
being tested is normally distributed. A normality test is used to determine if that histograms and box plots. cont (measurement) not normal 0
assumption is valid. 2. When you are analyzing your data, and you need to calculate
or graphically.
basic statistics such as Z values or employ statistical tests that
assume normality, such as t-test and ANOVA.

You will use an np chart in the Control phase to verify that the
The np chart is a tool that will help you determine if your process is in control by process remains in control after the sources of special cause
a graphical tool that allows you to view the actual seeing if special causes are present. The presence of special cause variation variation have been removed. The np chart is used for processes Defectives Y /
np Chart number of defectives and detect the presence of special indicates that factors are influencing the output of your process. Eliminating the that generate discrete data. The np chart is used to graph the Continuous & N/A 1
causes. influence of these factors will improve the performance of your process and bring actual number of defectives in a sample. The sample size for the Discrete X
your process into control. np chart is constant, with between 5 and 10 defectives per
sample on the average.

Out-of-the-box thinking is an approach to creativity


Out-of-the-Box Many businesses are successful for a brief time due to a single innovation, while
based on overcoming the subconscious patterns of Root cause analysis and new product / process development all N/A 0
Thinking thinking that we all develop.
continued success is dependent upon continued innovation

a graphical tool that allows you to view the proportion of The p chart is a tool that will help you determine if your process is in control by You will use a p chart in the Control phase to verify that the
defectives and detect the presence of special causes. determining whether special causes are present. The presence of special cause process remains in control after the sources of special cause Defectives Y /
p Chart The p chart is used to understand the ratio of variation indicates that factors are influencing the output of your process. Eliminating variation have been removed. The p chart is used for processes Continuous & N/A 1
nonconforming units to the total number of units in a the influence of these factors will improve the performance of your process and bring that generate discrete data. The sample size for the p chart can Discrete X
sample. your process into control vary but usually consists of 100 or more

A Pareto chart is a graphing tool that prioritizes a list of


variables or factors based on impact or frequency of . It is easy to interpret, which makes it a convenient communication tool for use by In the Define phase to stratify Voice of the Customer data...In the
occurrence. This chart is based on the Pareto principle, individuals not familiar with the project. The Pareto chart will not detect small Measure phase to stratify data collected on the project Y…..In the
Pareto Chart which states that typically 80% of the defects in a differences between categories; more advanced statistical tools are required in such Analyze phase to assess the relative impact or frequency of all N/A 0
process or product are caused by only 20% of the cases. different factors, or Xs
possible causes

In the Define phase, you create a high-level process map to get


an overview of the steps, events, and operations that make up
the process. This will help you understand the process and verify
the scope you defined in your charter. It is particularly important
Process mapping is a tool that provides structure for
As you examine your process in greater detail, your map will evolve from the process that your high-level map reflects the process as it actually is,
defining a process in a simplified, visual manner by
Process Mapping displaying the steps, events, and operations (in
you "think" exists to what "actually" exists. Your process map will evolve again to since it serves as the basis for more detailed maps.In the all N/A 0
reflect what "should" exist-the process after improvements are made. Measure and Analyze phases, you create a detailed process map
chronological order) that make up a process
to help you identify problems in the process. Your improvement
project will focus on addressing these problems.In the Improve
phase, you can use process mapping to develop solutions by
creating maps of how the process "should be."
the tool used to facilitate a disciplined, team-based
process for concept selection and generation. Several The Pugh matrix is the recommended method for selecting the
concepts are evaluated according to their strengths and provides an objective process for reviewing, assessing, and enhancing design most promising concepts in the Analyze phase of the DMADV
weaknesses against a reference concept called the concepts the team has generated with reference to the project's CTQs. Because it process. It is used when the team already has developed several
Pugh Matrix datum. The datum is the best current concept at each employs agreed-upon criteria for assessing each concept, it becomes difficult for one alternative concepts that potentially can meet the CTQs all N/A 0
iteration of the matrix. The Pugh matrix encourages team member to promote his or her own concept for irrational reasons. developed during the Measure phase and must choose the one
comparison of several different concepts against a base or two concepts that will best meet the performance requirements
concept, creating stronger concepts and eliminating for further development in the Design phase
weaker ones until an optimal concept finally is reached

a methodology that provides a flowdown process for


QFD drives a cross-functional discussion to define what is important. It provides a
CTQs from the highest to the lowest level. The flowdown
vehicle for asking how products/services will be measured and what are the critical
process begins with the results of the customer needs QFD produces the greatest results in situations where1.
Quality Function variables to control processes.The QFD process highlights trade-offs between
mapping (VOC) as input. From that point we cascade Customer requirements have not been clearly defined 2. There
through a series of four Houses of Quality to arrive at
conflicting properties and forces the team to consider each trade off in light of the
must be trade-offs between the elements of the business 3. all N/A 0
Deployment customer's requirements for the product/service.Also, it points out areas for
the internal controllable factors. QFD is a prioritization There are significant investments in resources required
improvement by giving special attention to the most important customer wants and
tool used to show the relative importance of factors
systematically flowing them down through the QFD process.
rather than as a transfer function.

A correlation is
Reqression see Multiple Regression Continuous X & Y 0
detected

In DMAIC, risk assessment is used in the Improve phase before


Any time you make a change in a process, there is potential for unforeseen failure or
The risk-management process is a methodology used to you make changes in the process (before running a DOE,
unintended consequences. Performing a risk assessment allows you to identify
identify risks,analyze risks,plan, communicate, and piloting, or testing solutions) and in the Control phase to develop
Risk Assessment implement abatement actions, andtrack resolution of
potential risks associated with planned process changes and develop abatement
the control plan. In DMADV, risk assessment is used in all all N/A 0
actions to minimize the probability of their occurrence. The risk-assessment process
abatement actions. phases of design, especially in the Analyze and Verify phases
also determines the ownership and completion date for each abatement action.
where you analyze and verify your concept design.

RSS analysis is a quick method for estimating the variation in system output given the Use RSS when you need to quantify the variation in the output
variation in system component inputs, provided the system behavior can be modeled given the variation in inputs. However, the following conditions
Root sum of squares (RSS) is a statistical tolerance
using a linear transfer function with unit (± 1) coefficients. RSS can quickly tell you the must be met in order to perform RSS analysis: 1. The inputs (Xs)
analysis method used to estimate the variation of a
Root Sum of Squares system output Y from variations in each of the system's probability that the output (Y) will be outside its upper or lower specification limits. are independent. 2. The transfer function is linear with Continuous X & Y N/A 0
Based on this information, you can decide whether some or all of your inputs need to coefficients of +1 and/or - 1. 3. In addition, you will need to know
inputs Xs.
be modified to meet the specifications on system output, and/or if the specifications (or have estimates of) the means and standard deviations of
on system output need to be changed. each X.

used in many phases of the DMAIC process. Consider using a


A run chart is a graphical tool that allows you to view the
run chart to 1. Look for possible time-related Xs in the Measure
variation of your process over time. The patterns in the The patterns in the run chart allow you to see if special causes are influencing your
Run Chart run chart can help identify the presence of special cause process. This will help you to identify Xs affecting your process run chart.
phase 2. Ensure process stability before completing a hypothesis cont (measurement) N/A 1
test 3. Look at variation within a subgroup; compare subgroup to
variation.
subgroup variation

The sample size calculator simplifies the use of the The calculation helps link allowable risk with cost. If your sample size is statistically
Sample Size sample size formula and provides you with a statistical sound, you can have more confidence in your data and greater assurance that
basis for determining the required sample size for given all N/A 1
Calculator resources spent on data collection efforts and/or planned improvements will not be
levels of a and b risks wasted

a basic graphic tool that illustrates the relationship


between two variables.The variables may be a process
Scatter plots are used with continuous and discrete data and are
output (Y) and a factor affecting it (X), two factors
Scatter Plot affecting a Y (two Xs), or two related process outputs
Useful in determining whether trends exist between two or more sets of data. especially useful in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of all N/A 0
DMAIC projects.
(two Ys).

indicate that there


Simple linear regression is a method that enables you to is sufficient
determine the relationship between a continuous
Simple linear regression will help you to understand the relationship between the evidence that the
Simple Linear process output (Y) and one factor (X). The relationship is You can use simple linear regression during the Analyze phase to coefficients are
process output (Y) and any factor that may affect it (X). Understanding this
typically expressed in terms of a mathematical equation, help identify important Xs and during the Improve phase to define Continuous X & Y 0
Regression such as Y = b + mX, where Y is the process output, b is
relationship will allow you to predict the Y, given a value of X. This is especially useful
the settings needed to achieve the desired output. not zero for likely
when the Y variable of interest is difficult or expensive to measure
a constant, m is a coefficient, and X is the process input Type I error rates
or factor (a levels)... SEE
MINITAB

Simulation is a powerful analysis tool used to


experiment with a detailed process model to determine
how the process output Y will respond to changes in its
structure, inputs, or surroundings Xs. Simulation model
is a computer model that describes relationships and
interactions among inputs and process activities. It is Simulation is used in the Analyze phase of a DMAIC project to
used to evaluate process output under a range of understand the behavior of important process variables. In the
Simulation can help you: 1. Identify interactions and specific problems in an existing
different conditions. Different process situations need Improve phase of a DMAIC project, simulation is used to predict
Simulation different types of simulation models. Discrete event
or proposed process 2. Develop a realistic model for a process 3. Predict the
the performance of an existing process under different conditions all N/A 0
behavior of the process under different conditions 4. Optimize process performance
simulation is conducted for processes that are dictated and to test new process ideas or alternatives in an isolated
by events at distinct points in time; each occurrence of environment
an event impacts the current state of the process.
ProcessModel software tool for running discrete event
models.Continuous simulation is used for processes
whose variables or parameters do not experience
distinct start and end points.

Regression tool that filters out unwanted X's based on


Stepwise Regression specified criteria. Continuous X & Y N/A 0
A tree diagram is helpful when you want to 1. Relate a CTQ to
A tree diagram is a tool that is used to break any subprocess elements (Project CTQs) 2. Determine the project Y
Useful in organizing information into logical categories. See "When use?" section for
Tree Diagram concept (such as a goal, idea, objective, issue, or CTQ)
more detail
(Project Y) 3. Select the appropriate Xs (Prioritized List of All Xs) all N/A 0
into subcomponents, or lower levels of detail. 4. Determine task-level detail for a solution to be implemented
(Optimized Solution)

You will use a u chart in the Control phase to verify that the
The u chart is a tool that will help you determine if your process is in control by process remains in control after the sources of special cause
A u chart, shown in figure 1, is a graphical tool that determining whether special causes are present. The presence of special cause variation have been removed. The u chart is used for processes
u Chart allows you to view the number of defects per unit variation indicates that factors are influencing the output of your process. Eliminating that generate discrete data. The u chart monitors the number of N/A 1
sampled and detect the presence of special causes the influence of these factors will improve the performance of your process and bring defects per unit taken from a process. You should record
your process into control between 20 and 30 readings, and the sample size may be
variable.

You can use VOC tools at the start of a project to determine what
Each VOC tool provides the team with an organized method for gathering information
The following tools are commonly used to collect VOC key issues are important to the customers, understand why they
from customers. Without the use of structured tools, the data collected may be
data: Dashboard ,Focus group, Interview, Scorecard, are important, and subsequently gather detailed information
Voice of the Customer and Survey.. Tools used to develop specific CTQs and incomplete or biased. Key groups may be inadvertently omitted from the process,
about each issue. VOC tools can also be used whenever you all N/A 0
information may not be gathered to the required level of detail, or the VOC data
associated priorities. need additional customer input such as ideas and suggestions
collection effort may be biased because of your viewpoint.
for improvement or feedback on new solutions

You should use worst case analysis : To analyze safety-critical


Worst case analysis tells you the minimum and maximum limits within which your
A worst case analysis is a nonstatistical tolerance Ys, and when no process data is available and only the
total product or process will vary. You can then compare these limits with the required
analysis tool used to identify whether combinations of tolerances on Xs are known. Worst case analysis should be
Worst Case Analysis inputs (Xs) at their upper and lower specification limits specification limits to see if they are acceptable. By testing these limits in advance,
used sparingly because it does not take into account the all N/A 0
you can modify any incorrect tolerance settings before actually beginning production
always produce an acceptable output measure (Y). probabilistic nature (that is, the likelihood of variance from the
of the product or process.
specified values) of the inputs.

Xbar-R charts can be used in many phases of the DMAIC


process when you have continuous data broken into subgroups.
Consider using an Xbar-R chart· in the Measure phase to
The Xbar-R chart is a tool to help you decide if your The presence of special cause variation indicates that factors are influencing the
separate common causes of variation from special causes,· in
Xbar-R Chart process is in control by determining whether special output of your process. Eliminating the influence of these factors will improve the
the Analyze and Improve phases to ensure process stability Continuous X & Y N/A 1
causes are present. performance of your process and bring your process into control
before completing a hypothesis test, or· in the Control phase to
verify that the process remains in control after the sources of
special cause variation have been removed.

An Xbar-S chart, or mean and standard deviation chart,


is a graphical tool that allows you to view the variation in An Xbar-S chart can be used in many phases of the DMAIC
your process over time. An Xbar-S chart lets you process when you have continuous data. Consider using an
perform statistical tests that signal when a process may The Xbar-S chart is a tool to help you determine if your process is in control by Xbar-S chart……in the Measure phase to separate common
be going out of control. A process that is out of control seeing if special causes are present. The presence of special cause variation causes of variation from special causes, in the Analyze and
Xbar-S Chart has been affected by special causes as well as common indicates that factors are influencing the output of your process. Eliminating the Improve phases to ensure process stability before completing a Continuous X & Y N/A 1
causes. The chart can also show you where to look for influence of these factors will improve the performance of your process and bring it hypothesis test, or in the Control phase to verify that the
sources of special cause variation. The X portion of the into control process remains in control after the sources of special cause
chart contains the mean of the subgroups distributed variation have been removed. NOTE - Use Xbar-R if the sample
over time. The S portion of the chart represents the size is small.
standard deviation of data points in a subgroup
Tool Summary
Y's
Continuous Data Attribute Data
Regression Scatter plot Logistic regression
Time series plots Matrix Plot Time series plot
General Linear model Fitted line C chart
Compare DPUs

Multi-Vari plot Step wise Regression P chart


Histogram N chart
DOE NP chart
Best Subsets
ImR

X's X-bar R
ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis Chi Square
Box plots T-test Pareto
Attribute Data

Dot plots Logistic Regression


MV plot
Histogram
DOE
Homogeneity of variance
General linear model
Matrix plot
Tool Use When Example Minitab Format Data Format Y Xs p < 0.05 indicates

Stat Response data must be stacked in


Determine if the average of a group of Compare multiple fixtures to At least one group of
ANOVA one column and the individual
ANOVA data is different than the average of determine if one or more performs Variable Attribute data is different than at
points must be tagged (numerically)
other (multiple) groups of data differently least one other group.
Oneway in another column.
Response data must be stacked in
Compare median and variation between Compare turbine blade weights Graph one column and the individual
Box & Whisker Plot Variable Attribute N/A
groups of data. Also identifies outliers. using different scales. Boxplot points must be tagged (numerically)
in another column.
Stat Input ideas in proper column
Cause & Effect Diagram/ Brainstorming possible sources of Potential sources of variation in gage Quality Tools heading for main branches of
All All N/A
Fishbone variation for a particular effect r&r Cause fishbone. Type effect in pulldown
and Effect window.
Stat Input two columns; one column
Determine if one set of defectives data is
Tables containing the number of non- At least one group is
Chi-Square different than other sets of defectives Compare DPUs Discrete Discrete
Chi- defective, and the other containing statistically different.
data.
square Test the number of defective.
Graph
Quick graphical comparison of two or Compare length of service of Character Input multiple columns of data of
Dot Plot Variable Attribute N/A
more processes' variation or spread technicians Graphs equal length
Dotplot
Response data must be stacked in
Stat one column and the individual
Determine if difference in categorical Determine if height and weight are At least one group of
ANOVA points must be tagged (numerically) Attribute/
General Linear Models data between groups is real when taking significant variables between two Variable data is different than at
in another column. Other variables Variable
into account other variable x's groups when looking at pay least one other group.
General Linear Model must be stacked in separate
columns.
Graph
Histogram
or
View the distribution of data (spread,
Histogram View the distribution of Y Stat Input one column of data Variable Attribute N/A
mean, mode, outliers, etc.)
Quality Tools

Process Capability
Stat Response data must be stacked in (Use Levene's Test) At
Determine if the variation in one group of
Compare the variation between ANOVA one column and the individual least one group of data
Homogeneity of Variance data is different than the variation in Variable Attribute
teams Homogeneity points must be tagged (numerically) is different than at least
other (multiple) groups of data
of Variance in another column. one other group
Stat
Response data must be stacked in
Determine if the means of non-normal Compare the means of cycle time for one column and the individual At least one mean is
Kruskal-Wallis Test Nonparametrics Variable Attribute
data are different different delivery methods points must be tagged (numerically) different
Kruskal-
in another column.
Wallis
Response data must be stacked in
Compare within piece, piece to piece
Multi Vari Analysis (See also Run Helps identify most important types or Graph one column and the individual
or time to time making of airfoils Variable Attribute N/A
Chart / Time Series Plot) families of variation Interval Plot points must be tagged (numerically)
leading edge thickness
in another column in time order.

Compare different hole drilling Graph Response data must be stacked in


Compare median of a given confidence
patterns to see if the median and Character one column and the individual
Notched Box Plot interval and variation between groups of Variable Attribute N/A
spread of the diameters are the Graphs points must be tagged (numerically)
data
same Boxplot in another column.
Manufacturer claims the average
number of cookies in a 1 lb. package Stat
Determine if average of a group of data is 250. You sample 10 packages Basic Statistics
One-sample t-test Input one column of data Variable N/A Not equal
is statistically equal to a specific target and find that the average is 235. 1
Use this test to disprove the Sample t
manufacturer's claim.
Stat
Determine which defect occurs the
Compare how frequently different causes Quality Tools
Pareto most often for a particular engine Input two columns of equal length Variable Attribute N/A
occur Pareto
program
Chart
Create visual aide of each step in the Map engine horizontal area with all Use rectangles for process steps
Process Mapping N/A N/A N/A N/A
process being evaluated rework loops and inspection points and diamonds for decision points
Stat
Determine if a group of data
Determine if a runout changes with Regression A correlation is
Regression incrementally changes with another Input two columns of equal length Variable Variable
temperature detected
group
Regression
Quality Tools
Run
Chart Input one column of data. Must also
Run Chart/Time Series Plot Look for trends, outliers, oscillations, etc. View runout values over time or input a subgroup size (1 will show Variable N/A N/A
all points)
Graph
Time
Graph
Plot or
Graph
Look for correlations between groups of Determine if rotor blade length varies Input two or more groups of data of
Scatter Plot Variable Variable N/A
variable data with home position Marginal Plot or equal length
Graph

Matrix Plot (multiples)


Determine if the average radius Stat
Determine if the average of one group of
produced by one grinder is different Basic Statistics There is a difference in
Two-sample t-test data is greater than (or less than) the Input two columns of equal length Variable Variable
than the average radius produced by the means
average of another group of data
another grinder 2 Sample t
DOE - Delineament

Matriz COMPUTACIONAL do Projeto de Experimentos

Combinação A B C

1 -1 -1 -1

2 -1 -1 1

3 -1 1 -1

4 -1 1 1

5 1 -1 -1

6 1 -1 1

7 1 1 -1

8 1 1 1

Média Y-Médio (+) 328.67 228.00 209.67

Média Y-Médio (-) 203.17 303.83 322.17

DY 125.50 -75.83 -112.50


DY / 2 62.75 -37.92 -56.25

Média s (+) 15.26 12.93 7.42

Média s (-) 9.27 11.59 17.10


DS 5.99 1.34 -9.68
DS / 2 2.99 0.67 -4.84

MSB 94,501.50 34,504.17 75,937.50


F0 487.75 178.09 391.94
P(Fo) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

500.0 Gráfico de Interação de A com B


450.0
500.0 Gráfico de Interação de A com B
450.0
400.0
350.0
300.0
250.0
200.0
150.0
100.0
50.0
0.0
A(-1)

Combinação A B C
1
2 179.67
3 214.67
4 145.67 145.67
5 473.00
6 290.00 290.00
7 328.33 328.33
8 223.33 223.33 223.33
Média Y-Médio (+) 328.67 228.00 209.67
Combinação A B C
1 272.67 272.67 272.67
2 179.67 179.67
3 214.67 214.67
4 145.67
5 473.00 473.00
6 290.00
7 328.33
8
Média Y-Médio (-) 203.17 303.83 322.17

Combinação A B C
1
2 8.02
3 11.24
4 7.02 7.02
5 21.00
6 6.56 6.56
7 25.38 25.38
8 8.08 8.08 8.08
Média s (+) 15.26 12.93 7.42

Combinação A B C
1 10.79 10.79 10.79
2 8.02 8.02
3 11.24 11.24
4 7.02
5 21.00 21.00
6 6.56
7 25.38
8
Média s (-) 9.27 11.59 17.10
eamento de Experimentos

ojeto de Experimentos

AB AC BC ABC Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y-Medio s

1 1 1 -1 285 265 268 272.67 10.79

1 -1 -1 1 188 172 179 179.67 8.02

-1 1 -1 1 212 205 227 214.67 11.24

-1 -1 1 -1 145 139 153 145.67 7.02

-1 -1 1 1 464 458 497 473.00 21.00

-1 1 -1 -1 289 284 297 290.00 6.56

1 -1 -1 -1 349 300 336 328.33 25.38

1 1 1 1 228 228 214 223.33 8.08

251.00 250.17 278.67 272.67


Média s
280.83 281.67 253.17 259.17 Insira aqui os Geral Médio
valores
-29.83 -31.50 25.50 13.50 obtidos no 265.9167 12.26

-14.92 -15.75 12.75 6.75


processo

13.07 9.17 11.72 12.09

11.46 15.36 12.80 12.44

1.61 -6.19 -1.08 -0.35

0.81 -3.10 -0.54 -0.18

5,340.17 5,953.50 3,901.50 1,093.50

27.56 30.73 20.14 5.64

0.0001 0.0000 0.0004 0.0304

B(-1)
o de A com B
o de A com B A(-1) ###
A(+1) ###

Valor de C

B(-
1)
B(+
1)

A(+1)

AB AC BC ABC
272.67 272.67 272.67
179.67 179.67
214.67 214.67
145.67
473.00 473.00
290.00
328.33
223.33 223.33 223.33 223.33
251.00 250.17 278.67 272.67
AB AC BC ABC
272.67
179.67 179.67
214.67 214.67
145.67 145.67 145.67
473.00 473.00
290.00 290.00 290.00
328.33 328.33 328.33

280.83 281.67 253.17 259.17

AB AC BC ABC
10.79 10.79 10.79
8.02 8.02
11.24 11.24
7.02
21.00 21.00
6.56
25.38
8.08 8.08 8.08 8.08
13.07 9.17 11.72 12.09

AB AC BC ABC
10.79
8.02 8.02
11.24 11.24
7.02 7.02 7.02
21.00 21.00
6.56 6.56 6.56
25.38 25.38 25.38

11.46 15.36 12.80 12.44


Voltar

df s2

2 116.33

2 64.33 Matriz REAL do Projeto de Experimento

2 126.33 A
Sequência
Ângulo de
2 49.33 Disparo
2 441.00 1 160

2 43.00 2 160

2 644.33 3 160

2 65.33 4 160

5 180

N MSE 6 180

24 193.75 7 180

8 180

B(+1)
###
###

-1

Modelo de Previsão de Y

Fator Nome Coeficiente

Constante 265.917
A Ângulo de Disparo 62.750
B Posição da Base da Bola -37.917
C Altura do Esticador do Elástico -56.250
AB -14.917
AC -15.750
BC 12.750
ABC 6.75000

R2 0.9862
R2 Ajustado 0.9813
Menor Maior
o de Experimentos Fator Nome
Valor Valor
B C A Ângulo de Disparo 160 180
Altura do
Posição da Base
da Bola
Esticador B Posição da Base da Bola 1 3
do Elástico
1 1 C Altura do Esticador do Elástico 1 3

1 3

3 1

3 3
Insira aqui os
1 1 nomes dos
fatores e os seus
1 3 valores limite
3 1

3 3
Análise de Regressão Múltipla

o de Y Ajustes de Previsão
Ativo

Menor Maior
Valor p Fator Nome
Valor Valor
0.0000
0.0000 X A Ângulo de Disparo 160 180
0.0000 X B Posição da Base da Bola 1 3
0.0000 X C Altura do Esticador do Elástico 1 3
0.0001 X Valores de Previsão
0.0000 X
0.0004 X Previsão de Y Médio 265.917
0.0304 X Previsão de s 12.2618

Intervalo de 99% de Previsão de Y Médio

Limite Inferior 229.13


Limite Superior 302.70
Objective: Allow you to determine whi
will give the best results within the ran

Enable us to:

Determine main effects that the manipu


response variables.

qui os
Estimate levels to set factors as for best
s dos
os seus
limite Provides a mathematical model to predi

Quantifies the Y = f(x) relationship


isão Modelo de Previsão de s
Ajuste

Ativo
Ajuste
Codifica Fator Nome Coeficiente
Real
do
Constante 12.262
0.00 A Ângulo de Disparo 2.99424 X
0.00 BPosição da Base da 0.67077
Bola X
0.00 Altura
C do Esticador do-4.84055
Elástico X
AB 0.80653 X
AC -3.09529 X
265.917 BC -0.53866 X
12.2618 ABC -0.17590 X

de Y Médio

229.13
302.70
rmine which factor and setting combination
n the ranges tested

he manipulated factors will have on

s for best results

el to predict results

nship
B(-) B(+)
A(-) -1 -1 -1 1
A(+) 1 -1 1 1

Constante 265.91667
A Ângulo de Disparo62.75
BPosição da Base da-37.91667
Bola
Altura
C do Esticador do Elástico
-56.25
AB 0 -14.91667
AC 0 -15.75
BC 0 12.75
ABC 0 6.75
Teste de Hipóteses - Pr

Teste de Hipóteses para Proporção da População - 2 Amostras

Entrada Saída
Amostra 1 Amostra 2
n 250 785 Z0
r 15 9 P (Z0)
p 0.06 0.01

risco a 0.05
Conclusão
Hipóteses - Proporção 2 amostras

População - 2 Amostras Objective: Its a branch of statistics that specifically d


contained within a calculated range ( the confidence i
Saída
Whether the value falls within or beyond the confiden
4.441 different.
0.000
Allows us to determine statiscally wheter or not a valu

Tell us whether or not two sets of data are truly differ


DIFERENTES
Normally distributed data is required.
Voltar

tics that specifically determines whether a particular value of interest is


nge ( the confidence interval ).

r beyond the confidence interval determines that two things are the same or

y wheter or not a value is cause for alarm .

of data are truly different with a certain level of confidence.

uired.
terest is a p1 p2 p Z0 P(Z0) Conclusão
0.03 0.060 0.011 0.02 4.441 0.000 DIFERENTES

the same or
Teste de Hipóteses - Pr

Teste de Hipóteses para Proporção da População - 1 Amostra

Entrada Saída
Amostra
n 100 Z0 2.240
proporção atual 0.07 P (Z0) 0.013

proporção anterior 0.15


risco a 0.05 Conclusão DIFERENTES

Exemplo:
Uma pesquisa mostrou que determinado produto era conhecido por 30% da população
foi então montada uma campanha para divulgar o produto, seguida por uma nova pesquisa
onde 50 pessoas foram selecionadas aleatóriamente na cidade onde a campanha foi executada.
O resultado da nova pesquisa apontou que 20 pessoas conheciam o referido produto.
óteses - Proporção - 1 amostra Voltar

Objective: Its a branch of statistics that specifically determines whether a


contained within a calculated range ( the confidence interval ).

Whether the value falls within or beyond the confidence interval determine
different.

Allows us to determine statiscally whether or not a value is cause for alarm

Tell us whether or not two sets of data are truly different with a certain lev

Normally distributed data is required.

nova pesquisa
nha foi executada.
Voltar

ally determines whether a particular value of interest is


nce interval ). a Z 0
P(Z )
0 Conclusão
0.05 2.24 0.013 DIFERENTES
fidence interval determines that two things are the same or

a value is cause for alarm .

ifferent with a certain level of confidence.


Teste de Hipotesis - Média - 2 amo

Teste de Hipóteses para Média da População - Dados Contínuos

Entrada Saída
Amostra 1 Amostra 2
n 5 3 Valor p 1.000
Média 12.00 12.00
Desvio Padrão 0.40 0.50 Conclusão IGUAIS

risco a 0.05
dia - 2 amostras Voltar

Objective: Its a branch of statistics that specifically determines


tínuos contained within a calculated range ( the confidence interval ).

Whether the value falls within or beyond the confidence interval


different.

Allows us to determine statiscally whether or not a value is cause

Tell us whether or not two sets of data are truly different with a

Normally distributed data is required.


tar

that specifically determines whether a particular value of interest is


the confidence interval a). gl 1 gl 2 Sp t0

0.05 4 2 0.436 0.00


ond the confidence interval determines that two things are the same or
P(to) Z(t0) P Conclusão
1.000 0.500 1.000 IGUAIS
ether or not a value is cause for alarm .

ta are truly different with a certain level of confidence.

.
is

ame or
Distribuição de Poisson - Probab

Distribuição de Poisson

Média (lambda) = 1 Número de 100


Ocorrências
P(X = 100) 3.9418661E-159
P(X < 100) 1
P(X <= 100) 1
P(X > 100) 0
P(X >= 100) 0
son - Probabilidade Voltar

Objective : In probability theory and statistics, the Poisson distribution is a discrete probability distrib
that expresses the probability of a given number of events occurring in a fixed interval of time and/or
these events occur with a known average rate and independently of the time since the last event.

The Poisson distribution can also be used for the number of events in other specified intervals such as
distance, area or volume.)
the Poisson distribution is a discrete probability distribution
er of events occurring in a fixed interval of time and/or space if
and independently of the time since the last event.

he number of events in other specified intervals such as


Binomal distribution - probability

Distribuição Binomial

Número de Experimentos (n) 10


Probabilidade de sucesso 0.5
Em cada experimento (p)

P(X = 1) 0.00977
P(X < 1) 0.00098
P(X <= 1) 0.01074
P(X > 1) 0.98926
P(X >= 1) 0.99902
on - probability GO BACK

Objective : In probability theory and statistics, the binom


uição Binomial distribution of the number of successes in a sequence of
yields success with probability p.
Número de 1
The binomial distribution is frequently used to model the
Sucessos em with replacement from a population of size N. If the sam
n experimentos are not independent and so the resulting distribution is a
However, for N much larger than n, the binomial distribu
GO BACK

robability theory and statistics, the binomial distribution is the discrete probability
he number of successes in a sequence of n independent yes/no experiments, each of which
th probability p.

tribution is frequently used to model the number of successes in a sample of size n drawn
nt from a population of size N. If the sampling is carried out without replacement, the draws
dent and so the resulting distribution is a hypergeometric distribution, not a binomial one.
much larger than n, the binomial distribution is a good approximation, and widely used.
Tamanho de amostra para

Determinação de Tamanho de Amostra para Proporções

Entrada Saída

População N 900 Tamanho da Amostra


Proporção 0.1
Precisão (erro) 0.05
Intervalo de Confiança 0.95

NOTA
(1) N: 3 a 100000
(2) Deixe [População N] em BRANCO caso a população seja infinita
mostra para Proporção Voltar

ra para Proporções Objective : Sample size determination is the act of choosing the num
include in a statistical sample. The sample size is an important featur
is to make inferences about a population from a sample.
Saída
In practice, the sample size used in a study is determined based on th
Tamanho da Amostra 120 need to have sufficient statistical power
Voltar
0.05 900 7.50 119.99 120

População
act of choosing the number Infinita or replicates to
of observations
e is an important feature of any empirical
1536.584study in0.09
which the goal
138.29 139
m a sample.
determined based on the expense of data collection, and the
Tamanho de Amostra - Variáveis

Determinação Tamanho Amostra Variáveis

Entrada

Tamanho da População N 900


Desvio Padrão Estimado 5
Precisão (erro) 1
Intervalo de Confiança 0.95

NOTE
(1) N: 3 to 100000
(2) Leave [Population N] Blank in case of Infinite population
(3) Precision is represented by F as shown in following equation.
a - Variáveis Voltar

manho Amostra Variáveis Objective : Sample size determination is the


include in a statistical sample. The sample siz
Saída is to make inferences about a population from

In practice, the sample size used in a study is


Tamanho da Amostra 87 need to have sufficient statistical power

wing equation.
Sample size determination is the act of choosing the number of observations or replicates to
statistical sample. The sample size is an important feature of any empirical study in which the goal
nferences about a population from a sample.

the sample size used in a study is determined based on the expense of data collection, and the
e sufficient statistical power
es to
ch the goal

nd the
Intervalo de Confiança para Proporçã

Determinação de Intervalo de Confiança para Proporções

Entrada Saída

Tamanho da Amostra N 1,000 Limite Superior de Confiança


Proporção 0.52
Intervalo de Confiança 0.95 Limite Inferior de Confiança
a para Proporção Voltar

Objective : Confidence intervals consist of a range of values (interva


ara Proporções unknown population parameter. However, in infrequent cases, non
the parameter. The level of confidence of the confidence interval w
confidence range captures this true population parameter given a d
Saída any single sample. This value is represented by a percentage, so wh
true value of the parameter is in our confidence interval", we expre
e Superior de Confiança 0.551 intervals will hold the true value of the parameter.

te Inferior de Confiança 0.489

erro 0.031
f a range of values (interval) that act as good estimates of the
alfa none ofZ theses/raiz(n)
r, in infrequent cases, values mayerro
cover the value of
the confidence 0.05
interval would indicate
1.959964 the probability
0.02 0.03 that the
ation parameter given a distribution of samples. It does not describe
ed by a percentage, so when we say, "we are 99% confident that the
dence interval", we express that 99% of the observed confidence
rameter.
Intervalo de Confiança - Desvio Padrã

Determinação de Intervalo de Confiança para Desvio Padrão (Média Desconhecida)

Entrada Saída

Tamanho da Amostra N 55 Limite Superior de Confiança


Desvio Padrão da Amostra 0.10
Intervalo de Confiança 0.95 Limite Inferior de Confiança
esvio Padrão - Média DesconhecidaVoltar

ia Desconhecida) Objective :
Rarely will any value ( such as a mean os standard deviation
s , that we c
exactly the same as the true value of the population or of another sam
Saída 0.10
Confidence intervals consist of a range of values (interval) that act as go
0.123 population parameter. However, in infrequent cases, none of these valu
parameter. The level of confidence of the confidence interval would ind
confidence range captures this true population parameter given a distrib
0.084 any single sample. This value is represented by a percentage, so when w
true value of the parameter is in our confidence interval", we express th
intervals will hold the true value of the parameter.
rd deviation , that
a / 2 we calculate
df from aP(X
sample
2
)min of data be
P(X2)max smin smax
tion or of another sample .
0.025 54 76.192 35.586 0.084 0.123
(interval) that act as good estimates of the unknown
ses, none of these values may cover the value of the
ence interval would indicate the probability that the
arameter given a distribution of samples. It does not describe
percentage, so when we say, "we are 99% confident that the
interval", we express that 99% of the observed confidence
er.
Intervalo de confiança para média - d

Determinação de Intervalo de Confiança para médias (s desconhecido)

Entrada Saída

Tamanho da Amostra N 55 Limite Superior de Confiança


Media da Amostra 1.5
Desvio Padrão da Amostra 0.1 Limite Inferior de Confiança
Intervalo de Confiança 0.95
ra média - desvio padrão desconhecido GO BACK

conhecido) Objective : alfa


Rarely will any value ( such as a mean os0.05
standard deviation , th
exactly the same as the true value of the population or of anot
Saída
Confidence intervals consist of a range of values (interval) that a
1.53 population parameter. However, in infrequent cases, none of th
parameter. The level of confidence of the confidence interval w
confidence range captures this true population parameter given
1.47 any single sample. This value is represented by a percentage, so
true value of the parameter is in our confidence interval", we ex
intervals will hold the true value of the parameter.
GO BACK Means - confidence interval

Z s/raiz(n) erro Z LS LI
os standard1.959964
deviation , 0.01
that we calculate
0.03 from a sample of1.47
1.53 data be
the population or of another sample .
t (n-1,a/2)
e of values (interval) that erroestimates
act as good t of the unknown
frequent cases, none of2.305625
these values may
0.03 cover the value of the
the confidence interval would indicate the probability that the
opulation parameter given a distribution of samples. It does not describe
ented by a percentage, so when we say, "we are 99% confident that the
onfidence interval", we express that 99% of the observed confidence
e parameter.
Capabiliade de Processo - Demonstraçã

150 170 190 210 230 250 270 290 310

SITUAÇÃO ATUAL META DE MELHORIA Cpk Atual

Média 270.00 Média 290

Desvio Padrão 4.00 Desvio Padrão 5


Faixa dos Dados Limite Inferior de Especificação

250 240

330
X Y1 Y2
### 2.58935877405209E-34 0.000000004
### 1.65678436399219E-16 0.0027165938
### 3.34575564412213E-05 4.41597992627428E-13
### 1.9997069392517E-38 1.01762805632901E-10
### 5.69840700163789E-49 4.90571057139286E-15
### 3.71679878683574E-07 1.01045421670738E-15
### 1.19296591353012E-05 0.0666449206
### 7.51514881524936E-40 2.77335998833063E-11
### 2.04155890791739E-17 0.0015830903
### 3.99593527672637E-06 0.0736540281
### 1.19296591353012E-05 0.0666449206
### 2.65317203478804E-41 7.2619230035836E-12
### 2.20618874364871E-47 2.28831298036027E-14
### 3.28500454538971E-10 0.0483941449
### 0.0966670292 1.1788613551308E-05
### 8.02395452604989E-46 1.02555072735933E-13
### 1.04462188613566E-31 3.71472368911058E-08
### 0.0456622713 2.9734390294686E-07
### 0.000507262 0.0299454931
### 1.04462188613566E-31 3.71472368911058E-08
### 6.59810800892643E-09 0.0666449206
### 5.69840700163789E-49 4.90571057139286E-15
### 3.99593527672637E-06 2.28831298036027E-14
### 1.1438438976302E-25 4.98849425801071E-06
### 2.58935877405209E-34 0.000000004
### 0.0604926811 0.0004768176
### 0.0043820751 0.0107981933
### 1.26306777088422E-15 0.0044789061
### 0.0011079621 1.01762805632901E-10
### 0.0997355701 0.000026766
### 0.0134977416 0.0044789061
### 1.9104138528968E-30 1.07220706893952E-07
### 1.9104138528968E-30 1.07220706893952E-07
### 9.04573612778129E-15 0.0070949186
### 2.65317203478804E-41 7.2619230035836E-12
### 2.65317203478804E-41 7.2619230035836E-12
### 0.0134977416 1.23652410003317E-08
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### 1.17379883949379E-35 1.21517656996466E-09
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### 1.1438438976302E-25 4.98849425801071E-06
### 0.0966670292 1.1788613551308E-05
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 1.19296591353012E-05 0.0666449206
### 2.56994339291723E-19 0.0004768176
### 1.27373448971092E-11 0.0299454931
### 1.0321177471575E-07 0.0782085388
### 1.53044621631178E-24 1.1788613551308E-05
### 1.9104138528968E-30 1.07220706893952E-07
### 1.27373448971092E-11 0.0299454931
### 2.519483848575E-21 0.0001223804
### 1.25737682214811E-06 0.0782085388
### 0.0604926811 7.92259818206415E-07
### 2.519483848575E-21 0.0001223804
### 2.58935877405209E-34 0.000000004
### 3.99593527672637E-06 0.0736540281
### 4.99863835554636E-37 3.58756781592816E-10
### 5.29704813377338E-28 7.92259818206415E-07
### 8.79933459498842E-43 1.82694408167292E-12
### 3.84634487640319E-13 0.0157900317
### 1.65678436399219E-16 0.0027165938
### 0.0134977416 1.23652410003317E-08
### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
### 3.99593527672637E-06 2.28831298036027E-14
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 1.92364965667661E-23 0.000026766
### 3.34575564412213E-05 4.41597992627428E-13
### 0.0011079621 1.01762805632901E-10
### 2.519483848575E-21 0.0001223804
### 6.67389153690713E-11 0.038837211
### 3.99593527672637E-06 0.0736540281
### 2.20618874364871E-47 2.28831298036027E-14
### 8.79933459498842E-43 1.82694408167292E-12
### 1.51897071245582E-09 0.0579383106
### 7.51514881524936E-40 2.77335998833063E-11
### 2.20618874364871E-47 2.28831298036027E-14
### 5.29704813377338E-28 7.92259818206415E-07
### 2.04155890791739E-17 0.0015830903
### 9.04573612778129E-15 0.0070949186
### 0.0002181707 7.2619230035836E-12
### 0.0011079621 1.01762805632901E-10
### 0.075284358 2.02817041309735E-06
### 1.26306777088422E-15 0.0044789061
### 3.84634487640319E-13 0.0157900317
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 2.58935877405209E-34 0.000000004
### 1.27373448971092E-11 0.0299454931
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### 2.65317203478804E-41 7.2619230035836E-12
### 3.28500454538971E-10 0.0483941449
### 0.0011079621 0.0221841669
### 2.519483848575E-21 0.0001223804
### 0.007934913 0.000000004
### 2.56994339291723E-19 0.0004768176
### 0.0880163317 4.98849425801071E-06
### 1.51897071245582E-09 0.0579383106
### 1.9997069392517E-38 1.01762805632901E-10
### 1.51897071245582E-09 0.0579383106
### 0.0604926811 7.92259818206415E-07
### 1.25737682214811E-06 0.0782085388
### 3.99593527672637E-06 0.0736540281
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 8.81489205918614E-05 0.0483941449
### 1.19296591353012E-05 0.0666449206
### 2.36327597047571E-18 0.0008863697
### 2.56994339291723E-19 0.0004768176
### 0.0966670292 5.83893851582921E-05
### 8.02395452604989E-46 1.02555072735933E-13
### 0.0011079621 1.01762805632901E-10
### 1.0321177471575E-07 0.0782085388
### 0.000507262 2.77335998833063E-11
### 0.000507262 0.0299454931
### 3.71679878683574E-07 0.0797884561
### 3.71679878683574E-07 1.01045421670738E-15
### 0.0880163317 0.0001223804
### 1.0321177471575E-07 0.0782085388
### 0.0604926811 7.92259818206415E-07
### 1.27373448971092E-11 0.0299454931
### 0.0022733906 0.0157900317
### 1.25737682214811E-06 4.90571057139286E-15
### 0.0966670292 5.83893851582921E-05
### 1.1438438976302E-25 4.98849425801071E-06
### 7.51514881524936E-40 2.77335998833063E-11
### 1.25737682214811E-06 0.0782085388
### 1.9997069392517E-38 1.01762805632901E-10
### 0.000507262 0.0299454931
### 7.51514881524936E-40 2.77335998833063E-11
### 0.0134977416 1.23652410003317E-08
### 2.65317203478804E-41 7.2619230035836E-12
### 0.007934913 0.000000004
### 0.007934913 0.0070949186
### 1.53044621631178E-24 1.1788613551308E-05
### 2.74151639847243E-44 4.41597992627428E-13
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 1.1438438976302E-25 4.98849425801071E-06
### 0.0002181707 7.2619230035836E-12
### 7.51514881524936E-40 2.77335998833063E-11
### 2.65317203478804E-41 7.2619230035836E-12
### 8.0310446790536E-27 2.02817041309735E-06
### 8.02395452604989E-46 1.02555072735933E-13
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E-07
### 0.075284358 2.02817041309735E-06
### 6.59810800892643E-09 0.0666449206
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 2.69244001063582E-08 0.0736540281
### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 3.28210440153851E-29 2.9734390294686E-07
### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
### 8.81489205918614E-05 0.0483941449
### 1.19296591353012E-05 0.0666449206
### 1.26306777088422E-15 0.0044789061
### 3.34575564412213E-05 4.41597992627428E-13
### 1.0321177471575E-07 0.0782085388
### 0.0966670292 1.1788613551308E-05
### 1.26306777088422E-15 0.0044789061
### 9.04573612778129E-15 0.0070949186
### 0.0022733906 0.0157900317
### 1.1438438976302E-25 4.98849425801071E-06
### 6.67389153690713E-11 0.038837211
### 0.0966670292 1.1788613551308E-05
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### 1.3826773874611E-50 1.01045421670738E-15
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### 0.000507262 0.0299454931
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### 0.0323793989 0.0015830903
### 8.81489205918614E-05 1.82694408167292E-12
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### 0.0134977416 0.0044789061
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### 0.007934913 0.000000004
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### 3.34575564412213E-05 4.41597992627428E-13
### 3.99593527672637E-06 2.28831298036027E-14
### 1.1438438976302E-25 4.98849425801071E-06
### 1.53044621631178E-24 1.1788613551308E-05
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### 2.58935877405209E-34 0.000000004
### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
### 0.0022733906 0.0157900317
### 0.0966670292 5.83893851582921E-05
### 0.0134977416 0.0044789061
### 3.99593527672637E-06 2.28831298036027E-14
### 1.0321177471575E-07 0.0782085388
### 0.0134977416 0.0044789061
### 0.0604926811 0.0004768176
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### 8.79933459498842E-43 1.82694408167292E-12
### 3.84634487640319E-13 0.0157900317
### 0.0997355701 0.000026766
### 2.65317203478804E-41 7.2619230035836E-12
### 4.99863835554636E-37 3.58756781592816E-10
### 1.3826773874611E-50 1.01045421670738E-15
### 0.007934913 0.0070949186
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### 0.007934913 0.000000004
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### 1.19296591353012E-05 1.02555072735933E-13
### 2.04155890791739E-17 0.0015830903
### 1.65678436399219E-16 0.0027165938
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### 1.27373448971092E-11 0.0299454931
### 3.34575564412213E-05 4.41597992627428E-13
### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E-07
### 2.36327597047571E-18 0.0008863697
### 8.02395452604989E-46 1.02555072735933E-13
### 6.67389153690713E-11 0.038837211
### 1.92364965667661E-23 0.000026766
### 0.0011079621 0.0221841669
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
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### 0.0604926811 0.0004768176
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### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 3.71679878683574E-07 0.0797884561
### 8.81489205918614E-05 1.82694408167292E-12
### 6.59810800892643E-09 0.0666449206
### 8.0310446790536E-27 2.02817041309735E-06
### 0.0043820751 1.21517656996466E-09
### 1.25737682214811E-06 0.0782085388
### 5.29704813377338E-28 7.92259818206415E-07
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 2.20618874364871E-47 2.28831298036027E-14
### 0.000507262 2.77335998833063E-11
### 1.9997069392517E-38 1.01762805632901E-10
### 9.04573612778129E-15 0.0070949186
### 1.0321177471575E-07 0.0782085388
### 1.0321177471575E-07 0.0782085388
### 3.99593527672637E-06 0.0736540281
### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E-07
### 1.27373448971092E-11 0.0299454931
### 1.25737682214811E-06 4.90571057139286E-15
### 2.04155890791739E-17 0.0015830903
### 6.67389153690713E-11 0.038837211
### 1.17379883949379E-35 1.21517656996466E-09
### 4.99863835554636E-37 3.58756781592816E-10
### 3.71679878683574E-07 1.01045421670738E-15
### 8.02395452604989E-46 1.02555072735933E-13
### 1.53044621631178E-24 1.1788613551308E-05
### 1.53044621631178E-24 1.1788613551308E-05
### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
### 1.53044621631178E-24 1.1788613551308E-05
### 0.000507262 2.77335998833063E-11
### 2.74151639847243E-44 4.41597992627428E-13
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### 3.71679878683574E-07 1.01045421670738E-15
### 0.075284358 2.02817041309735E-06
### 0.0456622713 0.0008863697
### 0.0011079621 0.0221841669
### 3.71679878683574E-07 1.01045421670738E-15
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 0.0604926811 0.0004768176
### 0.007934913 0.000000004
### 5.69840700163789E-49 4.90571057139286E-15
### 0.0043820751 1.21517656996466E-09
### 1.04462188613566E-31 3.71472368911058E-08
### 3.28210440153851E-29 2.9734390294686E-07
### 6.08580133257252E-14 0.0107981933
### 0.075284358 2.02817041309735E-06
### 2.74151639847243E-44 4.41597992627428E-13
### 0.0604926811 0.0004768176
### 0.000507262 0.0299454931
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### 0.0215693297 3.71472368911058E-08
### 4.99863835554636E-37 3.58756781592816E-10
### 2.65317203478804E-41 7.2619230035836E-12
### 3.28500454538971E-10 0.0483941449
### 1.3826773874611E-50 1.01045421670738E-15
### 3.34575564412213E-05 0.0579383106
### 2.20618874364871E-47 2.28831298036027E-14
### 0.0215693297 3.71472368911058E-08
### 0.0022733906 3.58756781592816E-10
### 2.20618874364871E-47 2.28831298036027E-14
### 2.28368010209115E-12 0.0221841669
### 0.0002181707 7.2619230035836E-12
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### 1.17379883949379E-35 1.21517656996466E-09
### 0.0604926811 0.0004768176
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### 3.34575564412213E-05 4.41597992627428E-13
### 0.000507262 2.77335998833063E-11
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### 0.0011079621 0.0221841669
### 1.26306777088422E-15 0.0044789061
### 0.0043820751 0.0107981933
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### 3.71679878683574E-07 0.0797884561
### 1.0321177471575E-07 0.0782085388
### 1.26306777088422E-15 0.0044789061
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### 8.0310446790536E-27 2.02817041309735E-06
### 0.0966670292 1.1788613551308E-05
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### 0.0323793989 0.0015830903
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### 0.075284358 2.02817041309735E-06
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### 0.000507262 2.77335998833063E-11
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
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### 0.000507262 0.0299454931
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
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### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
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### 2.62536245749259E-20 0.0002464438
### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E-07
### 2.27138357799417E-22 5.83893851582921E-05
### 2.20618874364871E-47 2.28831298036027E-14
### 2.36327597047571E-18 0.0008863697
### 3.99593527672637E-06 0.0736540281
### 2.04155890791739E-17 0.0015830903
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### 0.075284358 2.02817041309735E-06
### 8.81489205918614E-05 1.82694408167292E-12
### 3.34575564412213E-05 4.41597992627428E-13
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 2.20618874364871E-47 2.28831298036027E-14
### 3.28210440153851E-29 2.9734390294686E-07
### 6.59810800892643E-09 0.0666449206
### 0.0011079621 0.0221841669
### 2.519483848575E-21 0.0001223804
### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E-07
### 1.25737682214811E-06 4.90571057139286E-15
### 3.84634487640319E-13 0.0157900317
### 3.34575564412213E-05 0.0579383106
### 8.81489205918614E-05 0.0483941449
### 1.04462188613566E-31 3.71472368911058E-08
### 0.0215693297 3.71472368911058E-08
### 1.0321177471575E-07 0.0782085388
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### 1.04462188613566E-31 3.71472368911058E-08
### 2.74151639847243E-44 4.41597992627428E-13
### 6.67389153690713E-11 0.038837211
### 8.81489205918614E-05 0.0483941449
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 3.99593527672637E-06 0.0736540281
### 0.0215693297 3.71472368911058E-08
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### 8.0310446790536E-27 2.02817041309735E-06
### 9.04573612778129E-15 0.0070949186
### 0.0604926811 7.92259818206415E-07
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### 3.84634487640319E-13 0.0157900317
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### 0.0134977416 0.0044789061
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### 0.0043820751 0.0107981933
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### 0.007934913 0.0070949186
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### 2.519483848575E-21 0.0001223804
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### 0.0966670292 5.83893851582921E-05
### 4.99863835554636E-37 3.58756781592816E-10
### 5.69840700163789E-49 4.90571057139286E-15
### 1.19296591353012E-05 1.02555072735933E-13
### 0.0011079621 1.01762805632901E-10
### 3.34575564412213E-05 4.41597992627428E-13
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 0.000507262 2.77335998833063E-11
### 1.26306777088422E-15 0.0044789061
### 0.0997355701 0.000026766
### 8.79933459498842E-43 1.82694408167292E-12
### 0.0134977416 0.0044789061
### 0.0002181707 0.038837211
### 0.007934913 0.000000004
### 2.20618874364871E-47 2.28831298036027E-14
### 0.0043820751 0.0107981933
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### 0.0022733906 3.58756781592816E-10
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### 0.000507262 2.77335998833063E-11
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### 0.007934913 0.0070949186
### 1.3826773874611E-50 1.01045421670738E-15
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### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E-07
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### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
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### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
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### 0.000507262 0.0299454931
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### 3.71679878683574E-07 0.0797884561
### 6.67389153690713E-11 0.038837211
### 0.0880163317 0.0001223804
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### 0.0043820751 1.21517656996466E-09
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### 3.34575564412213E-05 4.41597992627428E-13
### 5.69840700163789E-49 4.90571057139286E-15
### 0.0022733906 0.0157900317
### 4.99863835554636E-37 3.58756781592816E-10
### 3.71679878683574E-07 0.0797884561
### 0.0011079621 1.01762805632901E-10
### 1.27373448971092E-11 0.0299454931
### 6.67389153690713E-11 0.038837211
### 0.075284358 0.0002464438
### 0.0215693297 0.0027165938
### 4.99863835554636E-37 3.58756781592816E-10
### 1.9997069392517E-38 1.01762805632901E-10
### 8.79933459498842E-43 1.82694408167292E-12
### 2.58935877405209E-34 0.000000004
### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E-07
### 2.28368010209115E-12 0.0221841669
### 8.81489205918614E-05 1.82694408167292E-12
### 0.0604926811 7.92259818206415E-07
### 3.71679878683574E-07 0.0797884561
### 2.58935877405209E-34 0.000000004
### 3.28500454538971E-10 0.0483941449
### 0.0002181707 7.2619230035836E-12
### 1.1438438976302E-25 4.98849425801071E-06
### 2.519483848575E-21 0.0001223804
### 2.519483848575E-21 0.0001223804
### 0.0215693297 3.71472368911058E-08
### 2.36327597047571E-18 0.0008863697
### 8.81489205918614E-05 0.0483941449
### 2.20618874364871E-47 2.28831298036027E-14
### 6.67389153690713E-11 0.038837211
### 2.27138357799417E-22 5.83893851582921E-05
### 0.0323793989 1.07220706893952E-07
### 0.0043820751 0.0107981933
### 5.69840700163789E-49 4.90571057139286E-15
### 0.0022733906 3.58756781592816E-10
### 2.36327597047571E-18 0.0008863697
### 1.9104138528968E-30 1.07220706893952E-07
### 2.62536245749259E-20 0.0002464438
### 1.51897071245582E-09 0.0579383106
### 8.81489205918614E-05 0.0483941449
### 1.53044621631178E-24 1.1788613551308E-05
### 5.29704813377338E-28 7.92259818206415E-07
### 0.0022733906 3.58756781592816E-10
### 2.519483848575E-21 0.0001223804
### 0.0022733906 3.58756781592816E-10
Demonstração da Curva de Gauss Voltar

290 310 330 350

2.50 Cpk Meta 0.67


Limite Superior de Especificação

300
Voltar
Histograma - Curva Normal -

18 16 30 29 28 21 17 41 6 17 n
32 26 16 24 27 17 17 33 19 18 Máx
31 27 23 38 33 14 13 26 11 28 Menor
21 19 25 22 17 12 21 21 25 26 Range
23 33 22 3 4 14 47 15 24 34 k
22 33 22 33 22 w
22
Classes

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Frequencia Observada versus Frequ

18
16
16

14
12 12
12

10

6
4
4
2
2

0
6 12 18 24 30

Freq. Observ.
0
6 12 18 24 30

Freq. Observ.
rva Normal - Curva de Gauss Voltar

56 Média 22.82
47 Desvio 8.65 Histograma
3
44 18
8 16
6 16
14
Inicio Fim Freq. Observ. Freq. Normal 12 12
12
0 6 2 1.5
6 12 4 4.5 10 9
12 18 12 10.3 8
18 24 16 14.9
24 30 12 13.6 6
4
30 36 9 7.8 4
36 42 2 2.8 2 2
2
42 48 1 0.6
48 54 0 0.1 0
54 60 0 0.0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42

vada versus Frequencia Normal

16

12

2
1

24 30 36 42 48 0
54

Freq. Observ. Freq. Normal


1

24 30 36 42 48 0
54

Freq. Observ. Freq. Normal


Objective In statistics, a histogram is a graphical representation sho
Histograma of data. It is an estimate of the probability distribution of a continuo
A histogram consists of tabular frequencies, shown as adjacent rec
(bins), with an area equal to the frequency of the observations in th
16
equal to the frequency density of the interval, i.e., the frequency di
area of the histogram is equal to the number of data. A histogram m
12
frequencies. It then shows the proportion of cases that fall into eac
equaling 1. The categories are usually specified as consecutive, non
categories (intervals) must be adjacent, and often are chosen to be
9 histogram are drawn so that they touch each other to indicate that

Histograms are used to plot density of data, and often for density e
density function of the underlying variable. The total area of a histo
normalized to 1. If the length of the intervals on the x-axis are all 1,
2 frequency plot.
1

24 30 36 42 48 0
54

0
54
0
54
graphical representation showing a visual impression of the distribution
lity distribution of a continuous variable
ncies, shown as adjacent rectangles, erected over discrete intervals
ncy of the observations in the interval. The height of a rectangle is also
nterval, i.e., the frequency divided by the width of the interval. The total
umber of data. A histogram may also be normalized displaying relative
on of cases that fall into each of several categories, with the total area
pecified as consecutive, non-overlapping intervals of a variable. The
, and often are chosen to be of the same size.[2] The rectangles of a
h each other to indicate that the original variable is continuous.[3]

data, and often for density estimation: estimating the probability


able. The total area of a histogram used for probability density is always
ervals on the x-axis are all 1, then a histogram is identical to a relative
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SWITCHBOARD

Internal or External Firm / Business Unit Process Strenghts Weaknesses Best Practice(s) Estimated Performance level

Key Learnings Improvements Identified

Target Performance after benchmarking & current process assessment

Defect Reduction Targeted:


449367488.xlsx - A-Benchmarking 130
Chi Squared test X2 - Qui quadrado Voltar
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SWITCHBOARD
Discrete Data

Objective : A chi-squared test, also referred to as chi-square test or test, is any


Actual statistical hypothesis test in which the sampling distribution of the test statistic is a
choi- squared distribution when the null hypothesis is true, or any in which this is
# of Non- asymptotically true, meaning that the sampling distribution (if the null hypothesis is
true) can be made to approximate a chi-squared distribution as closely as desired by
example: # of Defects Defects Total making the sample size large enough.
Group # 1 55 5 60
Group # 2 9 31 40
Total 64 36 100

Expected Results
# of Non-
# of Defects Defects Total
Group # 1 38.4 21.6 60
Group # 2 25.6 14.4 40
64 36 100

Calculated Chi Square Value 49.83362269

Critical Chi Square Value 3.841458821

Calculated value > Critical value, so Statistical


Association Exists

449367488.xlsx - A-Chi Square 131


Return ANOVA - Analyse of Variance - Análise de Variancia Voltar

to MAIN
SWITCH
Continuous Data
To apply this tool, you need to install Excel Data Analysis tool, available in Excel - ( see excel options), Add ins )

BOARD
Excel Menu Selections: Tools, Data Analysis, ANOVA: Single Factor, Input Range (select $A$7:end of data), select Labels in First Row, Output Range ($H$9), OK
Definition:

example: example:
To compare three or more samples to each other to see if any
of the sample means is statistically different from the others
"Y" Data "X1" Data "X2" Data "X3" Data Use in analyse to confirm the impact of variables. Use to
48 47 24 88
68 87 34 81 Anova: Single Factor
improve to help select the best option from several
14 89 7 55 alternatives.
13 82 3 67 SUMMARY
9 11 4 71 Groups Count Sum Average Variance To apply this tool,, you need to install Excel Data Analysis
77 38 40 21 "Y" Data 32 1588 49.625 739.5967741935 tool, available in Excel - ( see excel options), Add ins )
54 49 27 81 "X1" Data 32 1797 56.15625 814.5877016129
92 90 46 39 "X2" Data 32 800 25 220.2580645161
41 54 22 28 "X3" Data 32 1551 48.46875 735.6764112903
15 15 8 71
43 89 21 88
83 90 4 91 ANOVA
73 84 45 0 Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit
44 44 22 20 Between Groups 17847.8125 3 5949.2708333333 9.4804604053 1.09843691E-05 2.6776945106
26 18 13 68 Within Groups 77813.6875 124 627.5297379032
11 13 7 66
28 32 14 52 Total 95661.5 127
79 78 40 45
65 70 34 48
17 18 8 54 Anova: Two-Factor With Replication
50 50 25 17
44 39 22 21 SUMMARY "X1" Data "X2" Data "X3" Data Total
85 80 33 28 48
45 50 33 59 Count 32 32 32 96
5 5 5 6 Sum 1797 800 1551 4148
62 60 31 35 Average 56.15625 25 48.46875 43.2083333333
43 43 33 4 Variance 814.5877016129 220.2580645161 735.6764112903 755.2192982456
67 86 55 54
90 91 45 26 Total
77 75 44 19 Count 32 32 32
31 30 16 63 Sum 1797 800 1551
89 90 35 85 Average 56.15625 25 48.46875
Variance 814.5877016129 220.2580645161 735.6764112903

ANOVA
Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit
Sample 0 0 65535 65535 #NUM! #NUM!
Columns 16859.645833333 2 8429.8229166667 14.2836215623 3.89481377E-06 3.09434256
Interaction -2.910383046E-11 0 65535 65535 #NUM! #NUM!
Within 54886.1875 93 590.1740591398

Total 71745.833333333 95

449367488.xlsx - A-ANOVA 132


Return toRegressão Linear Voltar
MAIN
SWITCHBO To apply this tool, you need to install Excel Data Analysis tool, available in Excel - ( see excel options), Add ins )
ARD
Continuous Data

Excel Menu Selections: Tools, Data Analysis, Regression, Input Range (select $A$7:end of data), select Labels in First Row, Output Range ($F$8), OK
Objective:
example: example:
Its used in conjunction with correlation calculations and scatter plots to
"Y" Data "X1" Data predicte the future performance based on past results .
48 47 SUMMARY OUTPUT
68 87
14 89 Regression Statistics
13 82 Multiple R 0.7112882084
9 11 R Square 0.5059309154
77 38 Adjusted R Square 0.489461946
54 49 Standard Error 19.4317342991
92 90 Observations 32
41 54
15 15 ANOVA
43 89 df SS MS F Significance F
83 90 Regression 1 11599.731063855 11599.731063855 30.7202533771 5.03629597457E-06
73 84 Residual 30 11327.768936146 377.5922978715
44 44 Total 31 22927.5
26 18
11 13 Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
28 32 Intercept 11.564692954 7.678143931 1.5061834029 0.1424781829 -4.1161527612 27.2455386691 -4.1161527612 27.2455386691
79 78 "X1" Data 0.6777572763 0.1222817913 5.5425854416 5.036295975E-06 0.4280247992 0.9274897534 0.4280247992 0.9274897534
65 70
17 18
50 50
44 39 RESIDUAL OUTPUT PROBABILITY OUTPUT
85 80
45 50 Observation Predicted "Y" Data Residuals Percentile "Y" Data
5 5 1 43.4192849391 4.5807150609 1.5625 5
62 60 2 70.5295759902 -2.5295759902 4.6875 9
43 43 3 71.8850905428 -57.8850905428 7.8125 11
67 86 4 67.1407896088 -54.1407896088 10.9375 13
90 91 5 19.020022993 -10.020022993 14.0625 14
77 75 6 37.3194694526 39.6805305474 17.1875 15
31 30 7 44.7747994916 9.2252005084 20.3125 17
89 90 8 72.5628478191 19.4371521809 23.4375 26
9 48.163585873 -7.163585873 26.5625 28
10 21.7310520981 -6.7310520981 29.6875 31
11 71.8850905428 -28.8850905428 32.8125 41
12 72.5628478191 10.4371521809 35.9375 43
13 68.4963041614 4.5036958386 39.0625 43
14 41.3860131102 2.6139868898 42.1875 44
15 23.764323927 2.235676073 45.3125 44
16 20.3755375456 -9.3755375456 48.4375 45
17 33.2529257949 -5.2529257949 51.5625 48
18 64.4297605037 14.5702394963 54.6875 50
19 59.0077022935 5.9922977065 57.8125 54
20 23.764323927 -6.764323927 60.9375 62
21 45.4525567679 4.5474432321 64.0625 65
22 37.9972267288 6.0027732712 67.1875 67
23 65.7852750563 19.2147249437 70.3125 68
24 45.4525567679 -0.4525567679 73.4375 73
25 14.9534793354 -9.9534793354 76.5625 77
26 52.2301295307 9.7698704693 79.6875 77
27 40.708255834 2.291744166 82.8125 79
28 69.8518187139 -2.8518187139 85.9375 83
29 73.2406050953 16.7593949047 89.0625 85
30 62.3964886749 14.6035113251 92.1875 89
31 31.8974112423 -0.8974112423 95.3125 90
32 72.5628478191 16.4371521809 98.4375 92

449367488.xlsx - A-Regression 133


Correlação Voltar
Return to
MAIN
SWITCHBOA To apply this tool, you need to install Excel Data Analysis tool, available in Excel - ( see excel options), Add ins )
RD
Continuous Data

Excel Menu Selections: Tools, Data Analysis, Correlation, Input Range (select $A$7:end of data), select Labels in First Row, Output Range ($H$9), OK

example: example:

"Y" Data "X1" Data "X2" Data "X3" Data


48 47 24 88
68 87 34 81 "Y" Data "X1" Data "X2" Data "X3" Data
14 89 7 55 "Y" Data 1
13 82 3 67 "X1" Data 0.7112882084 1
9 11 4 71 "X2" Data 0.8102651865 0.54954087 1
77 38 40 21 "X3" Data -0.1436316416 0.0722835363 -0.3590103716 1
54 49 27 81
92 90 46 39
41 54 22 28
15 15 8 71 Definition: Correlation is a term used to indicate wheter there is a relationship
43 89 21 88 between the values of different measurements.
83 90 4 91
A positive correlation means that higher values of one measurement are associated
73 84 45 0
with higher values of the other measurement , in other words , both rise together.
44 44 22 20
26 18 13 68 A negative correlaton means that higher values of one measurement are associated
11 13 7 66 with lowe values of another , as one goes up, the other goes down )
28 32 14 52 Correlation itself does not imply cause and effect relationship, sometimes an apparent
79 78 40 45 correlation can be coincidence
65 70 34 48
17 18 8 54
50 50 25 17
44 39 22 21
85 80 33 28
45 50 33 59
5 5 5 6
62 60 31 35
43 43 33 4
67 86 55 54
90 91 45 26
77 75 44 19
31 30 16 63
89 90 35 85

Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4


Column 1 1
Column 2 0.6492852639 1
Column 3 0.8029475814 0.4472568509 1
Column 4 -0.1511713387 0.1005262408 -0.397584659 1
449367488.xlsx - A-Correlation 134
Diagrama Scatter Voltar

Return to
MAIN
SWITCHBO
ARD
Continuous Data

Select Data ($A$7:end of Data), Chart Wizard, XY (Scatter), Finish

example: example:

"X" Data "Y" Data


47 48
87 68
"Y" Data
89 14 Objective: A graph showing a relationship ( or correlation )
82 13 between two factors or variables. Helps support or refute theories
11 9 about the data.
38 77 100 Helps create or refine hypotheses.
49 54 The width or tightness of scatter reflects the strength of the
90 92
90 relationship.
54 41
15 15
80 Caution: seeing a relationship in the pattern does not guarantee
89 43 that there ia a cause and effect relationship between the variables
70
90 83
84 73 60
44 44
18 26 50 "Y" Data
13 11
32 28 40
78 79
70 65 30
18 17
50 50 20
39 44
80 85 10
50 45
5 5 0
60 62 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
43 43
86 67
91 90
75 77
30 31
90 89

449367488.xlsx - A-Scatter Diagram 135


Return
to VOC - Voice of the Customer - CTQ - Critical to Quality Voltar

MAIN
VOZ DO CLIENTE - CRITICO PARA A QUALIDADE

Objective: To learn about a specific customer's point of view on service issues,


SWITC product and service attributes and performance indicators / measures.

Establishes communication with individual customers.


HBOAR
Customer Prioritization Methodology & Results
Customers fell " listened to ".
D We use interviews at the beginning of a project, to learn what is important to
Voice of the Customer Data Collection Methodology customers

CTQ Lower Spec Limits Upper Spec Limits


Customer Voice of the Customer Key Issue(s) Customer Requirement (CTQ) Rank (LSL) (USL)

449367488.xlsx - M-Validated CTQ's 136


Definitions
GO BACK
Term Definition
1-Sample sign test Tests the probability of sample median being equal to hypothesized value.
Accuracy refers to the variation between a measurement and what actually exists. It is the difference between an individual's average
Accuracy measurements and that of a known standard, or accepted "truth."

Alpha risk is defined as the risk of accepting the alternate hypothesis when, in fact, the null hypothesis is true; in other words, stating a difference
exists where actually there is none. Alpha risk is stated in terms of probability (such as 0.05 or 5%). The acceptable level of alpha risk is determined
by an organization or individual and is based on the nature of the decision being made. For decisions with high consequences (such as those
Alpha risk involving risk to human life), an alpha risk of less than 1% would be expected. If the decision involves minimal time or money, an alpha risk of 10%
may be appropriate. In general, an alpha risk of 5% is considered the norm in decision making. Sometimes alpha risk is expressed as its inverse,
which is confidence level. In other words, an alpha risk of 5% also could be expressed as a 95% confidence level.

The alternate hypothesis (Ha) is a statement that the observed difference or relationship between two populations is real and not due to chance or
Alternative hypothesis (Ha) sampling error. The alternate hypothesis is the opposite of the null hypothesis (P < 0.05). A dependency exists between two or more factors

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Analysis of variance is a statistical technique for analyzing data that tests for a difference between two or more means. See the tool 1-Way ANOVA.

Anderson-Darling Normality Test P-value < 0.05 = not normal.


Attribute Data see discrete data
A bar chart is a graphical comparison of several quantities in which the lengths of the horizontal or vertical bars represent the relative magnitude of
Bar chart the values.
Benchmarking is an improvement tool whereby a company measures its performance or process against other companies' best practices,
Benchmarking determines how those companies achieved their performance levels, and uses the information to improve its own performance. See the tool
Benchmarking.

Beta risk is defined as the risk of accepting the null hypothesis when, in fact, the alternate hypothesis is true. In other words, stating no difference
exists when there is an actual difference. A statistical test should be capable of detecting differences that are important to you, and beta risk is the
Beta risk probability (such as 0.10 or 10%) that it will not. Beta risk is determined by an organization or individual and is based on the nature of the decision
being made. Beta risk depends on the magnitude of the difference between sample means and is managed by increasing test sample size. In
general, a beta risk of 10% is considered acceptable in decision making.

Bias in a sample is the presence or influence of any factor that causes the population or process being sampled to appear different from what it
Bias actually is. Bias is introduced into a sample when data is collected without regard to key factors that may influence the population or process.

Blocking Blocking neutralizes background variables that can not be eliminated by randomizing. It does so by spreading them across the experiment

A box plot, also known as a box and whisker diagram, is a basic graphing tool that displays centering, spread, and distribution of a continuous data
Boxplot set

CAP Includes/Excludes CAP Includes/Excludes is a tool that can help your team define the boundaries of your project, facilitate discussion about issues related to your
project scope, and challenge you to agree on what is included and excluded within the scope of your work. See the tool CAP Includes/Excludes.

CAP Stakeholder Analysis CAP Stakeholder Analysis is a tool to identify and enlist support from stakeholders. It provides a visual means of identifying stakeholder support so
that you can develop an action plan for your project. See the tool CAP Stakeholder Analysis.

Capability Analysis Capability analysis is a MinitabTM tool that visually compares actual process performance to the performance standards. See the tool Capability
Analysis.
Cause A factor (X) that has an impact on a response variable (Y); a source of variation in a process or product.
A cause and effect diagram is a visual tool used to logically organize possible causes for a specific problem or effect by graphically displaying them
Cause and Effect Diagram in increasing detail. It helps to identify root causes and ensures common understanding of the causes that lead to the problem. Because of its
fishbone shape, it is sometimes called a "fishbone diagram." See the tool Cause and Effect Diagram.
Center The center of a process is the average value of its data. It is equivalent to the mean and is one measure of the central tendency.
A center point is a run performed with all factors set halfway between their low and high levels. Each factor must be continuous to have a logical
Center points halfway point. For example, there are no logical center points for the factors vendor, machine, or location (such as city); however, there are logical
center points for the factors temperature, speed, and length.

Central Limit Theorem The central limit theorem states that given a distribution with a mean m and variance s2, the sampling distribution of the mean appraches a normal
distribution with a mean and variance/N as N, the sample size, increases
Characteristic A characteristic is a definable or measurable feature of a process, product, or variable.
A chi square test, also called "test of association," is a statistical test of association between discrete variables. It is based on a mathematical
comparison of the number of observed counts with the number of expected counts to determine if there is a difference in output counts based on the
Chi Square test input category. See the tool Chi Square-Test of Independence. Used with Defects data (counts) & defectives data (how many good or bad).
Critical Chi-Square is Chi-squared value where p=.05.
Common cause variability is a source of variation caused by unknown factors that result in a steady but random distribution of output around the
average of the data. Common cause variation is a measure of the process's potential, or how well the process can perform when special cause
Common cause variability variation is removed. Therefore, it is a measure of the process technology. Common cause variation is also called random variation, noise,
noncontrollable variation, within-group variation, or inherent variation. Example: many X's with a small impact.

Measurement of the certainty of the shape of the fitted regression line. A 95% confidence band implies a 95% chance that the true regression line
Confidence band (or interval) fits within the confidence bands. Measurement of certainty.
Factors or interactions are said to be confounded when the effect of one factor is combined with that of another. In other words, their effects can not
Confounding be analyzed independently.
Consumers Risk Concluding something is bad when it is actually good (TYPE II Error)
Continuous data is information that can be measured on a continuum or scale. Continuous data can have almost any numeric value and can be
meaningfully subdivided into finer and finer increments, depending upon the precision of the measurement system. Examples of continuous data
Continuous Data include measurements of time, temperature, weight, and size. For example, time can be measured in days, hours, minutes, seconds, and in even
smaller units. Continuous data is also called quantitative data.

Control limits define the area three standard deviations on either side of the centerline, or mean, of data plotted on a control chart. Do not confuse
control limits with specification limits. Control limits reflect the expected variation in the data and are based on the distribution of the data points.
Control limits Minitab™ calculates control limits using collected data. Specification limits are established based on customer or regulatory requirements.
Specification limits change only if the customer or regulatory body so requests.

Correlation is the degree or extent of the relationship between two variables. If the value of one variable increases when the value of the other
Correlation increases, they are said to be positively correlated. If the value of one variable decreases when the value of the other decreases, they are said to be
negatively correlated. The degree of linear association between two variables is quantified by the correlation coefficient

The correlation coefficient quantifies the degree of linear association between two variables. It is typically denoted by r and will have a value ranging
Correlation coefficient (r) between negative 1 and positive 1.
A critical element is an X that does not necessarily have different levels of a specific scale but can be configured according to a variety of
independent alternatives. For example, a critical element may be the routing path for an incoming call or an item request form in an order-taking
Critical element process. In these cases the critical element must be specified correctly before you can create a viable solution; however, numerous alternatives may
be considered as possible solutions.

CTQs (stands for Critical to Quality) are the key measurable characteristics of a product or process whose performance standards, or specification
CTQ limits, must be met in order to satisfy the customer. They align improvement or design efforts with critical issues that affect customer satisfaction.
CTQs are defined early in any Six Sigma project, based on Voice of the Customer (VOC) data.

Cycle time is the total time from the beginning to the end of your process, as defined by you and your customer. Cycle time includes process time,
Cycle time during which a unit is acted upon to bring it closer to an output, and delay time, during which a unit of work waits to be processed.

Dashboard A dashboard is a tool used for collecting and reporting information about vital customer requirements and your business's performance for key
customers. Dashboards provide a quick summary of process performance.
Data Data is factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation; often this term refers to quantitative information
Defect A defect is any nonconformity in a product or process; it is any event that does not meet the performance standards of a Y.

Defective The word defective describes an entire unit that fails to meet acceptance criteria, regardless of the number of defects within the unit. A unit may be
defective because of one or more defects.

Descriptive statistics Descriptive statistics is a method of statistical analysis of numeric data, discrete or continuous, that provides information about centering, spread,
and normality. Results of the analysis can be in tabular or graphic format.

A design risk assessment is the act of determining potential risk in a design process, either in a concept design or a detailed design. It provides a
Design Risk Assessment broader evaluation of your design beyond just CTQs, and will enable you to eliminate possible failures and reduce the impact of potential failures.
This ensures a rigorous, systematic examination in the reliability of the design and allows you to capture system-level risk

When you are deciding what factors and interactions you want to get information about, you also need to determine the smallest effect you will
Detectable Effect Size consider significant enough to improve your process. This minimum size is known as the detectable effect size, or DES. Large effects are easier to
detect than small effects. A design of experiment compares the total variability in the experiment to the variation caused by a factor. The smaller the
effect you are interested in, the more runs you will need to overcome the variability in your experimentation.
DF (degrees of freedom) Equal to: (#rows - 1)(#cols - 1)
Discrete data is information that can be categorized into a classification. Discrete data is based on counts. Only a finite number of values is possible,
Discrete Data and the values cannot be subdivided meaningfully. For example, the number of parts damaged in shipment produces discrete data because parts
are either damaged or not damaged.
Distribution refers to the behavior of a process described by plotting the number of times a variable displays a specific value or range of values
Distribution rather than by plotting the value itself.

DMADV DMADV is a data-driven quality strategy for designing products and processes, and it is an integral part of Six Sigma Quality Initiative. DMADV
consists of five interconnected phases: Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify.

DMAIC DMAIC refers to a data-driven quality strategy for improving processes, and is an integral part of the company's Six Sigma Quality Initiative. DMAIC
is an acronym for five interconnected phases: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control.
DOE A design of experiment is a structured, organized method for determining the relationship between factors (Xs) affecting a process and the output of
that process.

DPMO Defects per million opportunities (DPMO) is the number of defects observed during a standard production run divided by the number of opportunities
to make a defect during that run, multiplied by one million.

DPO Defects per opportunity (DPO) represents total defects divided by total opportunities. DPO is a preliminary calculation to help you calculate DPMO
(defects per million opportunities). Multiply DPO by one million to calculate DPMO.
DPU Defects per unit (DPU) represents the number of defects divided by the number of products.

Dunnett's(1-way ANOVA): Check to obtain a two-sided confidence interval for the difference between each treatment mean and a control mean. Specify a family error rate
between 0.5 and 0.001. Values greater than or equal to 1.0 are interpreted as percentages. The default error rate is 0.05.
Effect An effect is that which is produced by a cause; the impact a factor (X) has on a response variable (Y).
Entitlement As good as a process can get without capital investment

Error Error, also called residual error, refers to variation in observations made under identical test conditions, or the amount of variation that can not be
attributed to the variables included in the experiment.
Error (type I) Error that concludes that someone is guilty, when in fact, they really are not. (Ho true, but I rejected it--concluded Ha) ALPHA
Error (type II) Error that concludes that someone is not guilty, when in fact, they really are. (Ha true, but I concluded Ho). BETA
Factor A factor is an independent variable; an X.

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a disciplined approach used to identify possible failures of a product or service and then determine the
frequency and impact of the failure. See the tool Failure Mode and Effects Analysis.

Fisher's (1-way ANOVA): Check to obtain confidence intervals for all pairwise differences between level means using Fisher's LSD procedure. Specify an individual rate
between 0.5 and 0.001. Values greater than or equal to 1.0 are interpreted as percentages. The default error rate is 0.05.
Fits Predicted values of "Y" calculated using the regression equation for each value of "X"
Fitted value A fitted value is the Y output value that is predicted by a regression equation.

A fractional factorial design of experiment (DOE) includes selected combinations of factors and levels. It is a carefully prescribed and representative
subset of a full factorial design. A fractional factorial DOE is useful when the number of potential factors is relatively large because they reduce the
Fractional factorial DOE total number of runs required. By reducing the number of runs, a fractional factorial DOE will not be able to evaluate the impact of some of the
factors independently. In general, higher-order interactions are confounded with main effects or lower-order interactions. Because higher order
interactions are rare, usually you can assume that their effect is minimal and that the observed effect is caused by the main effect or lower-level
interaction.
Frequency plot A frequency plot is a graphical display of how often data values occur.

Full factorial DOE A full factorial design of experiment (DOE) measures the response of every possible combination of factors and factor levels. These responses are
analyzed to provide information about every main effect and every interaction effect. A full factorial DOE is practical when fewer than five factors are
being investigated. Testing all combinations of factor levels becomes too expensive and time-consuming with five or more factors.

F-value (ANOVA) Measurement of distance between individual distributions. As F goes up, P goes down (i.e., more confidence in there being a difference between
two means). To calculate: (Mean Square of X / Mean Square of Error)

Gage R&R Gage R&R, which stands for gage repeatability and reproducibility, is a statistical tool that measures the amount of variation in the measurement
system arising from the measurement device and the people taking the measurement. See Gage R&R tools.

Gannt Chart
A Gantt chart is a visual project planning device used for production scheduling. A Gantt chart graphically displays time needed to complete tasks.
Goodman-Kruskal Gamma Term used to describe % variation explained by X

GRPI GRPI stands for four critical and interrelated aspects of teamwork: goals, roles, processes, and interpersonal relationships, and it is a tool used to
assess them. See the tool GRPI.
A histogram is a basic graphing tool that displays the relative frequency or occurrence of continuous data values showing which values occur most
Histogram and least frequently. A histogram illustrates the shape, centering, and spread of data distribution and indicates whether there are any outliers. See
the tool Histogram.

Homegeneity of variance
Homogeneity of variance is a test used to determine if the variances of two or more samples are different. See the tool Homogeneity of Variance.

Hypothesis testing refers to the process of using statistical analysis to determine if the observed differences between two or more samples are due
to random chance (as stated in the null hypothesis) or to true differences in the samples (as stated in the alternate hypothesis). A null hypothesis
(H0) is a stated assumption that there is no difference in parameters (mean, variance, DPMO) for two or more populations. The alternate hypothesis
Hypothesis testing (Ha) is a statement that the observed difference or relationship between two populations is real and not the result of chance or an error in sampling.
Hypothesis testing is the process of using a variety of statistical tools to analyze data and, ultimately, to accept or reject the null hypothesis. From a
practical point of view, finding statistical evidence that the null hypothesis is false allows you to reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate
hypothesis.

I-MR Chart An I-MR chart, or individual and moving range chart, is a graphical tool that displays process variation over time. It signals when a process may be
going out of control and shows where to look for sources of special cause variation. See the tool I-MR Control.

In control In control refers to a process unaffected by special causes. A process that is in control is affected only by common causes. A process that is out of
control is affected by special causes in addition to the common causes affecting the mean and/or variance of a process.
Independent variable An independent variable is an input or process variable (X) that can be set directly to achieve a desired output

Intangible benefits Intangible benefits, also called soft benefits, are the gains attributable to your improvement project that are not reportable for formal accounting
purposes. These benefits are not included in the financial calculations because they are nonmonetary or are difficult to attribute directly to quality.
Examples of intangible benefits include cost avoidance, customer satisfaction and retention, and increased employee morale.

Interaction An interaction occurs when the response achieved by one factor depends on the level of the other factor. On interaction plot, when lines are not
parallel, there's an interaction.

Interrelationship digraph An interrelationship digraph is a visual display that maps out the cause and effect links among complex, multivariable problems or desired outcomes.

IQR Intraquartile range (from box plot) representing range between 25th and 75th quartile.
Kano Analysis Kano analysis is a quality measurement used to prioritize customer requirements.

Kruskal-Wallis performs a hypothesis test of the equality of population medians for a one-way design (two or more populations). This test is a
generalization of the procedure used by the Mann-Whitney test and, like Mood’s median test, offers a nonparametric alternative to the one-way
Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. The Kruskal-Wallis test looks for differences among the populations medians. The Kruskal-Wallis test is more powerful (the
confidence interval is narrower, on average) than Mood’s median test for analyzing data from many distributions, including data from the normal
distribution, but is less robust against outliers.
Kurtosis Kurtosis is a measure of how peaked or flat a curve's distribution is.
L1 Spreadsheet An L1 spreadsheet calculates defects per million opportunities (DPMO) and a process Z value for discrete data.
L2 Spreadsheet An L2 spreadsheet calculates the short-term and long-term Z values for continuous data sets.
A leptokurtic distribution is symmetrical in shape, similar to a normal distribution, but the center peak is much higher; that is, there is a higher
Leptokurtic Distribution frequency of values near the mean. In addition, a leptokurtic distribution has a higher frequency of data in the tail area.

Levels Levels are the different settings a factor can have. For example, if you are trying to determine how the response (speed of data transmittal) is
affected by the factor (connection type), you would need to set the factor at different levels (modem and LAN) then measure the change in response.
Linearity is the variation between a known standard, or "truth," across the low and high end of the gage. It is the difference between an individual's
Linearity measurements and that of a known standard or truth over the full range of expected values.
A lower specification limit is a value above which performance of a product or process is acceptable. This is also known as a lower spec limit or LSL.
LSL
Lurking variable A lurking variable is an unknown, uncontrolled variable that influences the output of an experiment.

Main Effect A main effect is a measurement of the average change in the output when a factor is changed from its low level to its high level. It is calculated as
the average output when a factor is at its high level minus the average output when the factor is at its low level.

Mallows Statistic (C-p) Statistic within Regression-->Best Fits which is used as a measure of bias (i.e., when predicted is different than truth). Should equal (#vars + 1)

Mann-Whitney Mann-Whitney performs a hypothesis test of the equality of two population medians and calculates the corresponding point estimate and
confidence interval. Use this test as a nonparametric alternative to the two-sample t-test.
The mean is the average data point value within a data set. To calculate the mean, add all of the individual data points then divide that figure by the
Mean total number of data points.

Measurement system analysis Measurement system analysis is a mathematical method of determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes to
overall process variability.
Median The median is the middle point of a data set; 50% of the values are below this point, and 50% are above this point.
Mode The most often occurring value in the data set

Mood’s median test can be used to test the equality of medians from two or more populations and, like the Kruskal-Wallis Test, provides an
nonparametric alternative to the one-way analysis of variance. Mood’s median test is sometimes called a median test or sign scores test. Mood’s
Median Test tests:
Moods Median H0: the population medians are all equal versus H1: the medians are not all equal
An assumption of Mood’s median test is that the data from each population are independent random samples and the population distributions have
the same shape. Mood’s median test is robust against outliers and errors in data and is particularly appropriate in the preliminary stages of analysis.
Mood’s Median test is more robust than is the Kruskal-Wallis test against outliers, but is less powerful for data from many distributions, including the
normal.
Multicolinearity is the degree of correlation between Xs. It is an important consideration when using multiple regression on data that has been
collected without the aid of a design of experiment (DOE). A high degree of multicolinearity may lead to regression coefficients that are too large or
are headed in the wrong direction from that you had expected based on your knowledge of the process. High correlations between Xs also may
Multicolinearity result in a large p-value for an X that changes when the intercorrelated X is dropped from the equation. The variance inflation factor provides a
measure of the degree of multicolinearity.

Multiple regression Multiple regression is a method of determining the relationship between a continuous process output (Y) and several factors (Xs).

Multi-vari chart A multi-vari chart is a tool that graphically displays patterns of variation. It is used to identify possible Xs or families of variation, such as variation
within a subgroup, between subgroups, or over time. See the tool Multi-Vari Chart.

Noise Process input that consistently causes variation in the output measurement that is random and expected and, therefore, not controlled is called
noise. Noise also is referred to as white noise, random variation, common cause variation, noncontrollable variation, and within-group variation.
Nominal It refers to the value that you estimate in a design process that approximate your real CTQ (Y) target value based on the design element capacity.
Nominals are usually referred to as point estimate and related to y-hat model.
Non-parametric Set of tools that avoids assuming a particular distribution.
Normal distribution is the spread of information (such as product performance or demographics) where the most frequently occurring value is in the
middle of the range and other probabilities tail off symmetrically in both directions. Normal distribution is graphically categorized by a bell-shaped
Normal Distribution curve, also known as a Gaussian distribution. For normally distributed data, the mean and median are very close and may be identical.

Normal probability Used to check whether observations follow a normal distribution. P > 0.05 = data is normal

Normality test A normality test is a statistical process used to determine if a sample or any group of data fits a standard normal distribution. A normality test can be
performed mathematically or graphically. See the tool Normality Test.

A null hypothesis (H0) is a stated assumption that there is no difference in parameters (mean, variance, DPMO) for two or more populations.
Null Hypothesis (Ho) According to the null hypothesis, any observed difference in samples is due to chance or sampling error. It is written mathematically as follows: H0:
m1 = m2 H0: s1 = s2. Defines what you expect to observe. (e.g., all means are same or independent). (P > 0.05)

Opportunity An opportunity is anything that you inspect, measure, or test on a unit that provides a chance of allowing a defect.
An outlier is a data point that is located far from the rest of the data. Given a mean and standard deviation, a statistical distribution expects data
points to fall within a specific range. Those that do not are called outliers and should be investigated to ensure that the data is correct. If the data is
Outlier correct, you have witnessed a rare event or your process has changed. In either case, you need to understand what caused the outliers to occur.

Percent of tolerance Percent of tolerance is calculated by taking the measurement error of interest, such as repeatability and/or reproducibility, dividing by the total
tolerance range, then multiplying the result by 100 to express the result as a percentage.
A platykurtic distribution is one in which most of the values share about the same frequency of occurrence. As a result, the curve is very flat, or
Platykurtic Distribution plateau-like. Uniform distributions are platykurtic.
Pooled standard deviation is the standard deviation remaining after removing the effect of special cause variation-such as geographic location or
Pooled Standard Deviation time of year. It is the average variation of your subgroups.
Measurement of the certainty of the scatter about a certain regression line. A 95% prediction band indicates that, in general, 95% of the points will
Prediction Band (or interval) be contained within the bands.

Probability Probability refers to the chance of something happening, or the fraction of occurrences over a large number of trials. Probability can range from 0
(no chance) to 1 (full certainty).
Probability of defect is the statistical chance that a product or process will not meet performance specifications or lie within the defined upper and
Probability of Defect lower specification limits. It is the ratio of expected defects to the total output and is expressed as p(d). Process capability can be determined from
the probability of defect.
Process capability refers to the ability of a process to produce a defect-free product or service. Various indicators are used-some address overall
Process Capability performance, some address potential performance.
Producers Risk Concluding something is good when it is actually bad (TYPE I Error)

The p-value represents the probability of concluding (incorrectly) that there is a difference in your samples when no true difference exists. It is a
statistic calculated by comparing the distribution of given sample data and an expected distribution (normal, F, t, etc.) and is dependent upon the
statistical test being performed. For example, if two samples are being compared in a t-test, a p-value of 0.05 means that there is only 5% chance of
p-value arriving at the calculated t value if the samples were not different (from the same population). In other words, a p-value of 0.05 means there is only
a 5% chance that you would be wrong in concluding the populations are different. P-value < 0.05 = safe to conclude there's a difference.
P-value = risk of wasting time investigating further.

Q1 25th percentile (from box plot)


Q3 75th percentile (from box plot)
Qualitative data Discrete data
Quality function deployment (QFD) is a structured methodology used to identify customers' requirements and translate them into key process
Quality Function Deployment deliverables. In Six Sigma, QFD helps you focus on ways to improve your process or product to meet customers' expectations. See the tool Quality
Function Deployment.
Quantitative data Continuous data

Radar Chart A radar chart is a graphical display of the differences between actual and ideal performance. It is useful for defining performance and identifying
strengths and weaknesses.
Running experiments in a random order, not the standard order in the test layout. Helps to eliminate effect of "lurking variables", uncontrolled factors
Randomization whihc might vary over the length of the experiment.
A rational subgroup is a subset of data defined by a specific factor such as a stratifying factor or a time period. Rational subgrouping identifies and
separates special cause variation (variation between subgroups caused by specific, identifiable factors) from common cause variation (unexplained,
Rational Subgroup random variation caused by factors that cannot be pinpointed or controlled). A rational subgroup should exhibit only common cause variation.

Regression analysis is a method of analysis that enables you to quantify the relationship between two or more variables (X) and (Y) by fitting a line
Regression analysis or plane through all the points such that they are evenly distributed about the line or plane. Visually, the best-fit line is represented on a scatter plot
by a line or plane. Mathematically, the line or plane is represented by a formula that is referred to as the regression equation. The regression
equation is used to model process performance (Y) based on a given value or values of the process variable (X).
Repeatability is the variation in measurements obtained when one person takes multiple measurements using the same techniques on the same
Repeatability parts or items.
Replicates Number of times you ran each corner. Ex. 2 replicates means you ran one corner twice.

Replication occurs when an experimental treatment is set up and conducted more than once. If you collect two data points at each treatment, you
have two replications. In general, plan on making between two and five replications for each treatment. Replicating an experiment allows you to
Replication estimate the residual or experimental error. This is the variation from sources other than the changes in factor levels. A replication is not two
measurements of the same data point but a measurement of two data points under the same treatment conditions. For example, to make a
replication, you would not have two persons time the response of a call from the northeast region during the night shift. Instead, you would time two
calls into the northeast region's help desk during the night shift.
Reproducibility is the variation in average measurements obtained when two or more people measure the same parts or items using the same
Reproducibility measuring technique.

Residual A residual is the difference between the actual Y output value and the Y output value predicted by the regression equation. The residuals in a
regression model can be analyzed to reveal inadequacies in the model. Also called "errors"

Resolution Resolution is a measure of the degree of confounding among effects. Roman numerals are used to denote resolution. The resolution of your design
defines the amount of information that can be provided by the design of experiment. As with a computer screen, the higher the resolution of your
design, the more detailed the information you will see. The lowest resolution you can have is resolution III.

A robust process is one that is operating at 6 sigma and is therefore resistant to defects. Robust processes exhibit very good short-term process
Robust Process capability (high short-term Z values) and a small Z shift value. In a robust process, the critical elements usually have been designed to prevent or
eliminate opportunities for defects; this effort ensures sustainability of the process. Continual monitoring of robust processes is not usually needed,
although you may wish to set up periodic audits as a safeguard.
Rolled Throughput Yield Rolled throughput yield is the probability that a single unit can pass through a series of process steps free of defects.
R-squared A mathematical term describing how much variation is being explained by the X. FORMULA: R-sq = SS(regression) / SS(total)
Answers question of how much of total variation is explained by X. Caution: R-sq increases as number of data points increases. Pg. 13
R-Squared analyze

R-squared (adj) Unlike R-squared, R-squared adjusted takes into account the number of X's and the number of data points. FORMULA: R-sq (adj) = 1 -
[(SS(regression)/DF(regression)) / (SS(total)/DF(total))]
R-Squared adjusted Takes into account the number of X's and the number of data points...also answers: how much of total variation is explained by X.
Sample A portion or subset of units taken from the population whose characteristics are actually measured

Sample Size Calc. The sample size calculator is a spreadsheet tool used to determine the number of data points, or sample size, needed to estimate the properties of
a population. See the tool Sample Size Calculator.
Sampling Sampling is the practice of gathering a subset of the total data available from a process or a population.

scatter plot A scatter plot, also called a scatter diagram or a scattergram, is a basic graphic tool that illustrates the relationship between two variables. The dots
on the scatter plot represent data points. See the tool Scatter Plot.

Scorecard A scorecard is an evaluation device, usually in the form of a questionnaire, that specifies the criteria your customers will use to rate your business's
performance in satisfying their requirements.

A screening design of experiment (DOE) is a specific type of a fractional factorial DOE. A screening design is a resolution III design, which minimizes
Screening DOE the number of runs required in an experiment. A screening DOE is practical when you can assume that all interactions are negligible compared to
main effects. Use a screening DOE when your experiment contains five or more factors. Once you have screened out the unimportant factors, you
may want to perform a fractional or full-fractional DOE.

Segmentation Segmentation is a process used to divide a large group into smaller, logical categories for analysis. Some commonly segmented entities are
customers, data sets, or markets.
S-hat Model It describes the relationship between output variance and input nominals
The Greek letter s (sigma) refers to the standard deviation of a population. Sigma, or standard deviation, is used as a scaling factor to convert upper
Sigma and lower specification limits to Z. Therefore, a process with three standard deviations between its mean and a spec limit would have a Z value of 3
and commonly would be referred to as a 3 sigma process.

Simple linear regression is a method that enables you to determine the relationship between a continuous process output (Y) and one factor (X).
Simple Linear Regression
The relationship is typically expressed in terms of a mathematical equation such as Y = b + mX

SIPOC SIPOC stands for suppliers, inputs, process, output, and customers. You obtain inputs from suppliers, add value through your process, and provide
an output that meets or exceeds your customer's requirements.
Most often, the median is used as a measure of central tendency when data sets are skewed. The metric that indicates the degree of asymmetry is
called, simply, skewness. Skewness often results in situations when a natural boundary is present. Normal distributions will have a skewness value
Skewness of approximately zero. Right-skewed distributions will have a positive skewness value; left-skewed distributions will have a negative skewness value.
Typically, the skewness value will range from negative 3 to positive 3. Two examples of skewed data sets are salaries within an organization and
monthly prices of homes for sale in a particular area.

Span A measure of variation for "S-shaped" fulfillment Y's


Unlike common cause variability, special cause variation is caused by known factors that result in a non-random distribution of output. Also referred
Special cause variability to as "exceptional" or "assignable" variation. Example: Few X's with big impact.
The spread of a process represents how far data points are distributed away from the mean, or center. Standard deviation is a measure of spread.
Spread

SS Process Report The Six Sigma process report is a Minitab™ tool that calculates process capability and provides visuals of process performance. See the tool Six
Sigma Process Report.
SS Product Report The Six Sigma product report is a Minitab™ tool that calculates the DPMO and short-term capability of your process. See the tool Six Sigma Product
Report.
Stability represents variation due to elapsed time. It is the difference between an individual's measurements taken of the same parts after an
Stability extended period of time using the same techniques.
Standard deviation is a measure of the spread of data in relation to the mean. It is the most common measure of the variability of a set of data. If the
standard deviation is based on a sampling, it is referred to as "s." If the entire data population is used, standard deviation is represented by the
Greek letter sigma (s). The standard deviation (together with the mean) is used to measure the degree to which the product or process falls within
specifications. The lower the standard deviation, the more likely the product or service falls within spec. When the standard deviation is calculated in
relation to the mean of all the data points, the result is an overall standard deviation. When the standard deviation is calculated in relation to the
Standard Deviation (s) means of subgroups, the result is a pooled standard deviation. Together with the mean, both overall and pooled standard deviations can help you
determine your degree of control over the product or process.

Design of experiment (DOE) treatments often are presented in a standard order. In a standard order, the first factor alternates between the low and
Standard Order high setting for each treatment. The second factor alternates between low and high settings every two treatments. The third factor alternates
between low and high settings every four treatments. Note that each time a factor is added, the design doubles in size to provide all combinations for
each level of the new factor.
Statistic Any number calculated from sample data, describes a sample characteristic
Statistical Process Control (SPC) Statistical process control is the application of statistical methods to analyze and control the variation of a process.
A stratifying factor, also referred to as stratification or a stratifier, is a factor that can be used to separate data into subgroups. This is done to
Stratification investigate whether that factor is a significant special cause factor.
Subgrouping Measurement of where you can get.
Tolerance Range Tolerance range is the difference between the upper specification limit and the lower specification limit.
Total Observed Variation Total observed variation is the combined variation from all sources, including the process and the measurement system.
The total probability of defect is equal to the sum of the probability of defect above the upper spec limit-p(d), upper-and the probability of defect
Total Prob of Defect below the lower spec limit-p(d), lower.

Transfer function A transfer function describes the relationship between lower level requirements and higher level requirements. If it describes the relationship
between the nominal values, then it is called a y-hat model. If it describes the relationship between the variations, then it is called an s-hat model.
Transformations Used to make non-normal data look more normal.
Trivial many The trivial many refers to the variables that are least likely responsible for variation in a process, product, or service.

T-test A t-test is a statistical tool used to determine whether a significant difference exists between the means of two distributions or the mean of one
distribution and a target value. See the t-test tools.
Check to obtain confidence intervals for all pairwise differences between level means using Tukey's method (also called Tukey's HSD or Tukey-
Tukey's (1-wayANOVA): Kramer method). Specify a family error rate between 0.5 and 0.001. Values greater than or equal to 1.0 are interpreted as percentages. The default
error rate is 0.05.
Unexplained Variation (S) Regression statistical output that shows the unexplained variation in the data. Se = sqrt((sum(yi-y_bar)^2)/(n-1))
Unit A unit is any item that is produced or processed.

USL An upper specification limit, also known as an upper spec limit, or USL, is a value below which performance of a product or process is acceptable.

Variation is the fluctuation in process output. It is quantified by standard deviation, a measure of the average spread of the data around the mean.
Variation Variation is sometimes called noise. Variance is squared standard deviation.
Common cause variation is fluctuation caused by unknown factors resulting in a steady but random distribution of output around the average of the
Variation (common cause) data. It is a measure of the process potential, or how well the process can perform when special cause variation is removed; therefore, it is a
measure of the process's technology. Also called, inherent variation
Special cause variation is a shift in output caused by a specific factor such as environmental conditions or process input parameters. It can be
Variation (special cause) accounted for directly and potentially removed and is a measure of process control, or how well the process is performing compared to its potential.
Also called non-random variation.
From box plot...displays minimum and maximum observations within 1.5 IQR (75th-25th percentile span) from either 25th or 75th percentile. Outlier
Whisker are those that fall outside of the 1.5 range.
Yield Yield is the percentage of a process that is free of defects.
A Z value is a data point's position between the mean and another location as measured by the number of standard deviations. Z is a universal
measurement because it can be applied to any unit of measure. Z is a measure of process capability and corresponds to the process sigma value
Z that is reported by the businesses. For example, a 3 sigma process means that three standard deviations lie between the mean and the nearest
specification limit. Three is the Z value.

Z bench Z bench is the Z value that corresponds to the total probability of a defect
Z long term (ZLT) is the Z bench calculated from the overall standard deviation and the average output of the current process. Used with continuous
Z lt data, ZLT represents the overall process capability and can be used to determine the probability of making out-of-spec parts within the current
process.
Z shift is the difference between ZST and ZLT. The larger the Z shift, the more you are able to improve the control of the special factors identified in the
Z shift subgroups.
ZST represents the process capability when special factors are removed and the process is properly centered. Z ST is the metric by which processes
Z st are compared.
184
Fórmulas - Curva Normal GO BACK
Minitab Guia voltar

Tool Use When Example Minitab Format Data Format Y Xs p < 0.05 indicates

Determine if the average of a group of data is Response data must be stacked in one column and the
Compare multiple fixtures to determine if one Stat ANOVA At least one group of data is different than
ANOVA different than the average of other (multiple)
or more performs differently Oneway
individual points must be tagged (numerically) in another Variable Attribute
groups of data column. at least one other group.
Response data must be stacked in one column and the
Compare median and variation between groups of Compare turbine blade weights using
Box & Whisker Plot data. Also identifies outliers. different scales.
Graph Boxplot individual points must be tagged (numerically) in another Variable Attribute N/A
column.

Cause & Effect Diagram/ Brainstorming possible sources of variation for a Stat Quality Tools Input ideas in proper column heading for main branches of
particular effect
Potential sources of variation in gage r&r
Cause and Effect fishbone. Type effect in pulldown window.
All All N/A
Fishbone
Input two columns; one column containing the number of
Determine if one set of defectives data is different Stat Tables
Chi-Square than other sets of defectives data.
Compare DPUs
Chi-square Test
non-defective, and the other containing the number of Discrete Discrete At least one group is statistically different.
defective.
Quick graphical comparison of two or more Graph Character Graphs
Dot Plot processes' variation or spread
Compare length of service of technicians
Dotplot
Input multiple columns of data of equal length Variable Attribute N/A
Response data must be stacked in one column and the
Determine if difference in categorical data Determine if height and weight are significant
Stat ANOVA individual points must be tagged (numerically) in another Attribute/ At least one group of data is different than
General Linear Models between groups is real when taking into account variables between two groups when looking
General Linear Model column. Other variables must be stacked in separate
Variable
Variable
other variable x's at pay at least one other group.
columns.
Graph Histogram or
View the distribution of data (spread, mean, mode,
Histogram outliers, etc.)
View the distribution of Y Stat Quality Tools Input one column of data Variable Attribute N/A
Process Capability
Determine if the variation in one group of data is Response data must be stacked in one column and the (Use Levene's Test) At least one group of
Stat ANOVA
Homogeneity of Variance different than the variation in other (multiple) Compare the variation between teams
Homogeneity of Variance
individual points must be tagged (numerically) in another Variable Attribute data is different than at least one other
groups of data column. group
Response data must be stacked in one column and the
Determine if the means of non-normal data are Compare the means of cycle time for Stat Nonparametrics
Kruskal-Wallis Test different different delivery methods Kruskal-Wallis
individual points must be tagged (numerically) in another Variable Attribute At least one mean is different
column.
Multi Vari Analysis (See Compare within piece, piece to piece or time Response data must be stacked in one column and the
Helps identify most important types or families of
also Run Chart / Time variation
to time making of airfoils leading edge Graph Interval Plot individual points must be tagged (numerically) in another Variable Attribute N/A
Series Plot) thickness column in time order.
Compare different hole drilling patterns to Response data must be stacked in one column and the
Compare median of a given confidence interval Graph Character Graphs
Notched Box Plot and variation between groups of data
see if the median and spread of the
Boxplot
individual points must be tagged (numerically) in another Variable Attribute N/A
diameters are the same column.
Manufacturer claims the average number of
cookies in a 1 lb. package is 250. You
Determine if average of a group of data is Stat Basic Statistics 1
One-sample t-test statistically equal to a specific target
sample 10 packages and find that the
Sample t
Input one column of data Variable N/A Not equal
average is 235. Use this test to disprove the
manufacturer's claim.
Determine which defect occurs the most Stat Quality Tools
Pareto Compare how frequently different causes occur
often for a particular engine program Pareto Chart
Input two columns of equal length Variable Attribute N/A
Create visual aide of each step in the process Map engine horizontal area with all rework Use rectangles for process steps and diamonds for
Process Mapping being evaluated loops and inspection points
N/A
decision points
N/A N/A N/A
Determine if a group of data incrementally Determine if a runout changes with Stat Regression
Regression changes with another group temperature Regression
Input two columns of equal length Variable Variable A correlation is detected
Stat Quality Tools
Run Chart/Time Series Input one column of data. Must also input a subgroup size
Look for trends, outliers, oscillations, etc. View runout values over time Run Chart or
(1 will show all points)
Variable N/A N/A
Plot Graph Time Series Plot
Graph Plot or
Look for correlations between groups of variable Determine if rotor blade length varies with
Scatter Plot data home position
Graph Marginal Plot or Input two or more groups of data of equal length Variable Variable N/A
Graph Matrix Plot (multiples)

Determine if the average of one group of data is Determine if the average radius produced by
Stat Basic Statistics
Two-sample t-test greater than (or less than) the average of another one grinder is different than the average
2 Sample t
Input two columns of equal length Variable Variable There is a difference in the means
group of data radius produced by another grinder
STATISTICS TOOLS GUIDELINE GO BACK
What does it do? Why use? When use? Data Type P < .05 Picture
Tool indicates

The 1-sample t-test is useful in identifying a significant difference between a sample The 1-sample t-test is used with continuous data any time you
mean and a specified value when the difference is not readily apparent from need to compare a sample mean to a specified value. This is
1-Sample t-Test Compares mean to target
graphical tools. Using the 1-sample t-test to compare data gathered before process useful when you need to make judgments about a process based Continuous X & Y Not equal 1
improvements and after is a way to prove that the mean has actually shifted. on a sample output from that process.

ANOVA tests to see if the difference between the means


of each level is significantly more than the variation Use 1-way ANOVA when you need to compare three or more At least one group
within each level. 1-way ANOVA is used when two or One-way ANOVA is useful for identifying a statistically significant difference between means (a single factor with three or more levels) and determine Continuous Y, of data is different
1-Way ANOVA more means (a single factor with three or more levels) means of three or more levels of a factor. how much of the total observed variation can be explained by the
0
Discrete Xs than at least one
must be compared with each other. factor.
other group.

The 2-sample t-test is useful for identifying a significant difference between means of When you have two samples of continuous data, and you need to There is a
A statistical test used to detect differences between
2-Sample t-Test means of two populations.
two levels (subgroups) of a factor. It is also extremely useful for identifying important know if they both come from the same population or if they Continuous X & Y difference in the 0
Xs for a project Y. represent two different populations means

ANOVA General Linear Model (GLM) is a statistical tool


You can use ANOVA GLM any time you need to identify a
used to test for differences in means. ANOVA tests to At least one group
statistically significant difference in the mean of the dependent
see if the difference between the means of each level is
variable due to two or more factors with multiple levels, alone and Continuous Y & all of data is different
ANOVA GLM significantly more than the variation within each level. Compare DPUs in combination. ANOVA GLM also can be used to quantify the
0
ANOVA GLM is used to test the effect of two or more X's than at least one
amount of variation in the response that can be attributed to a
factors with multiple levels, alone and in combination, on
specific factor in a designed experiment.
other group.
a dependent variable.

Benchmarking is an improvement tool whereby a


company: Measures its performance or process
Benchmarking can be done at any point in the Six Sigma process Best in the
against other companies' best in class practices,
Benchmarking Determines how those companies achieved their Compare length of service of technicians when you need to develop a new process or improve an existing all N/A world 1
one
performance levels, Uses the information to improve its
own performance.

Best Subsets is an efficient way to select a group of "best subsets" for further analysis
Typically used before or after a multiple-regression analysis.
Tells you the best X to use when you're comparing by selecting the smallest subset that fulfills certain statistical criteria. The subset
Best Subsets multiple X's in regression assessment. model may actually estimate the regression coefficients and predict future responses
Particularly useful in determining which X combination yields the Continuous X & Y N/A 0
best R-sq value.
with smaller variance than the full model using all predictors

The goodness-of-
fit tests, with p-
values ranging
from 0.312 to
0.724, indicate
that there is
Binary logistic regression is useful in two applications: analyzing the differences insufficient
among discrete Xs and modeling the relationship between a discrete binary Y and
discrete and/or continuous Xs. Binary logistic regression can be used to model the evidence for the
Binary logistic regression is useful in two important Defectives Y / model not fitting
Binary Logistic relationship between a discrete binary Y and discrete and/or continuous Xs. The
applications: analyzing the differences among discrete Generally speaking, logistic regression is used when the Ys are
predicted values will be probabilities p(d) of an event such as success or failure-not Continuous & the data 0
Regression Xs and modeling the relationship between a discrete
an event count. The predicted values will be bounded between zero and one
discrete and the Xs are continuous
binary Y and discrete and/or continuous Xs. Discrete X adequately. If the
(because they are probabilities).
p-value is less
than your
accepted a level,
the test would
indicate sufficient
evidence for a
conclusion of an
inadequate fit.

A box plot is a basic graphing tool that displays the


centering, spread, and distribution of a continuous data
set. In simplified terms, it is made up of a box and a box plot can help you visualize the centering, spread, and distribution of your data You can use a box plot throughout an improvement project,
whiskers (and occasional outliers) that correspond to quickly. It is especially useful to view more than one box plot simultaneously to although it is most useful in the Analyze phase. In the Measure
each fourth, or quartile, of the data set. The box compare the performance of several processes such as the price quote cycle phase you can use a box plot to begin to understand the nature
Box Plot represents the second and third quartiles of data. The between offices or the accuracy of component placement across several production of a problem. In the Analyze phase a box plot can help you Continuous X & Y N/A 1
line that bisects the box is the median of the entire data lines. A box plot can help identify candidates for the causes behind your list of identify potential Xs that should be investigated further. It also
set-50% of the data points fall below this line and 50% potential Xs. It also is useful in tracking process improvement by comparing can help eliminate potential Xs. In the Improve phase you can
fall above it. The first and fourth quartiles are successive plots generated over time use a box plot to validate potential improvements
represented by "whiskers," or lines that extend from both
ends of the box.
If your data is not normally distributed, you may encounter
used to find the mathematical function needed to
problems in Calculating Z values with continuous data. You could
translate a continuous but nonnormal distribution into a
Many tools require that data be normally distributed to produce accurate results. If the calculate an inaccurate representation of your process capability.
Box-Cox normal distribution. After you have entered your data,
data set is not normal, this may reduce significantly the confidence in the results In constructing control charts.... Your process may appear more Continuous X & Y N/A 1
Transformation Minitab tells you what mathematical function can be
obtained. or less in control than it really is. In Hypothesis testing... As your
applied to each of your data points to bring your data
data becomes less normal, the results of your tests may not be
closer to a normal distribution.
valid.

Brainstorming can be used any time you and your team need to
creatively generate numerous ideas on any topic. You will use
Brainstorming is a tool that allows for open and creative
Brainstorming is helpful because it allows your team to generate many ideas on a brainstorming many times throughout your project whenever you
Brainstorming thinking. It encourages all team members to participate
topic creatively and efficiently without criticism or judgment. feel it is appropriate. You also may incorporate brainstorming into all N/A 0
and to build on each other's creativity
other tools, such as QFD, tree diagrams, process mapping, or
FMEA.

a graphical tool that allows you to view the actual


number of defects in each subgroup. Unlike continuous Control phase to verify that your process remains in control after
data control charts, discrete data control charts can The c chart is a tool that will help you determine if your process is in control by the sources of special cause variation have been removed. The c
monitor many product quality characteristics determining whether special causes are present. The presence of special cause chart is used for processes that generate discrete data. The c
Continuous X,
c Chart simultaneously. For example, you could use a c chart to variation indicates that factors are influencing the output of your process. Eliminating chart monitors the number of defects per sample taken from a N/A 0
monitor many types of defects in a call center process the influence of these factors will improve the performance of your process and bring process. You should record between 5 and 10 readings, and the Attribute Y
(like hang ups, incorrect information given, your process into control sample size must be constant. The c chart can be used in both
disconnections) on a single chart when the subgroup low- and high- volume environments
size is constant.

CAP A group exercise used to establish scope and facilitate Encourages group participation. Increases individual involvement and understanding
discussion. Effort focuses on delineating project of team efforts. Prevents errant team efforts in later project stages (waste). Helps to Define all N/A 0
Includes/Excludes boundaries. orient new team members.
CAP Stakeholder Confirms management or stakeholder acceptance and Helps to eliminate low priority projects. Insure management support and
Defone all N/A 0
Analysis prioritization of Project and team efforts. compatibility with business goals.

Capability analysis is a MinitabTM tool that visually


compares actual process performance to the
performance standards. The capability analysis output
Capability analysis is used with continuous data whenever you
includes an illustration of the data and several
When describing a process, it is important to identify sources of variation as well as need to compare actual process performance to the performance
performance statistics. The plot is a histogram with the
process segments that do not meet performance standards. Capability analysis is a standards. You can use this tool in the Measure phase to
performance standards for the process expressed as
useful tool because it illustrates the centering and spread of your data in relation to describe process performance in statistical terms. In the Improve
Capability Analysis upper and lower specification limits (USL and LSL). A
the performance standards and provides a statistical summary of process phase, you can use capability analysis when you optimize and Continuous X & Y N/A 1
normal distribution curve is calculated from the process
performance. Capability analysis will help you describe the problem and evaluate the confirm your proposed solution. In the Control phase, capability
mean and standard deviation; this curve is overlaid on
proposed solution in statistical terms. analysis will help you compare the actual improvement of your
the histogram. Beneath this graphic is a table listing
process to the performance standards.
several key process parameters such as mean,
standard deviation, capability indexes, and parts per
million (ppm) above and below the specification limits.

A cause and effect diagram is a visual tool that logically


A cause and effect diagram allows your team to explore, identify, and display all of the
organizes possible causes for a specific problem or
possible causes related to a specific problem. The diagram can increase in detail as
effect by graphically displaying them in increasing detail. You can use the cause and effect diagram whenever you need to
necessary to identify the true root cause of the problem. Proper use of the tool helps
Cause and Effect It is sometimes called a fishbone diagram because of its break an effect down into its root causes. It is especially useful in
the team organize thinking so that all the possible causes of the problem, not just all N/A 0
Diagram fishbone shape. This shape allows the team to see how
those from one person's viewpoint, are captured. Therefore, the cause and effect
the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of the DMAIC
each cause relates to the effect. It then allows you to process
diagram reflects the perspective of the team as a whole and helps foster consensus
determine a classification related to the impact and ease
in the results because each team member can view all the inputs
of addressing each cause

The chi square-test of independence is a test of


association (nonindependence) between discrete
variables. It is also referred to as the test of association.
It is based on a mathematical comparison of the number When you have discrete Y and X data (nominal data in a table-of-
The chi square-test of independence is useful for identifying a significant difference
of observed counts against the expected number of total-counts format, shown in fig. 1) and need to know if the Y At least one group
Chi Square--Test of between count data for two or more levels of a discrete variable Many statistical discrete (category or
counts to determine if there is a difference in output output counts differ for two or more subgroup categories (Xs),
counts based on the input category. Example: The
problem statements and performance improvement goals are written in terms of
use the chi square test. If you have raw data (untotaled), you is statistically 0
Independence reducing DPMO/DPU. The chi square-test of independence applied to before and count)
number of units failing inspection on the first shift is need to form the contingency table. Use Stat > Tables > Cross different.
after data is a way to prove that the DPMO/DPU have actually been reduced.
greater than the number of units failing inspection on the Tabulation and check the Chisquare analysis box.
second shift. Example: There are fewer defects on the
revised application form than there were on the previous
application form
Control charts are time-ordered graphical displays of
data that plot process variation over time. Control charts
are the major tools used to monitor processes to ensure
they remain stable. Control charts are characterized by
A centerline, which represents the process average, or
the middle point about which plotted measures are
expected to vary randomly. Upper and lower control
In the Measure phase, use control charts to understand the
limits, which define the area three standard deviations
performance of your process as it exists before process
on either side of the centerline. Control limits reflect the
improvements. In the Analyze phase, control charts serve as a
expected range of variation for that process. Control
Control charts serve as a tool for the ongoing control of a process and provide a troubleshooting guide that can help you identify sources of
charts determine whether a process is in control or out
common language for discussing process performance. They help you understand variation (Xs). In the Control phase, use control charts to : 1.
of control. A process is said to be in control when only
variation and use that knowledge to control and improve your process. In addition, Make sure the vital few Xs remain in control to sustain the
Control Charts common causes of variation are present. This is
control charts function as a monitoring system that alerts you to the need to respond solution - 2. Show process performance after full-scale all N/A 0
represented on the control chart by data points
to special cause variation so you can put in place an immediate remedy to contain implementation of your solution. You can compare the control
fluctuating randomly within the control limits. Data
any damage. chart created in the Control phase with that from the Measure
points outside the control limits and those displaying
phase to show process improvement -3. Verify that the process
nonrandom patterns indicate special cause variation.
remains in control after the sources of special cause variation
When special cause variation is present, the process is
have been removed
said to be out of control. Control charts identify when
special cause is acting on the process but do not identify
what the special cause is. There are two categories of
control charts, characterized by type of data you are
working with: continuous data control charts and
discrete data control charts.

Failing to establish a data collection plan can be an expensive mistake in a project.


Without a plan, data collection may be haphazard, resulting in insufficient, Any time data is needed, you should draft a data collection plan
Data Collection Plan unnecessary, or inaccurate information. This is often called "bad" data. A data before beginning to collect it. all N/A 0
collection plan provides a basic strategy for collecting accurate data efficiently

The design analysis spreadsheet is an MS-Excel™


Partial derivative analysis is widely used in product design,
workbook that has been designed to perform partial
manufacturing, process improvement, and commercial services
derivative analysis and root sum of squares analysis.
The design analysis spreadsheet can help you improve, revise, and optimize your during the concept design, capability assessment, and creation of
The design analysis spreadsheet provides a quick way
design. It can also:Improve a product or process by identifying the Xs which have the the detailed design.When the Xs are known to be highly non-
to predict the mean and standard deviation of an output
most impact on the response.Identify the factors whose variability has the highest normal (and especially if the Xs have skewed distributions),
measure (Y), given the means and standard deviations
Design Analysis influence on the response and target their improvement by adjusting Monte Carlo analysis may be a better choice than partial
of the inputs (Xs). This will help you develop a statistical
model of your product or process, which in turn will help
tolerances.Identify the factors that have low influence and can be allowed to vary derivative analysis.Unlike root sum of squares (RSS) analysis, Continuous X & Y N/A 0
Spreadsheet over a wider range.Be used with the Solver** optimization routine for complex partial derivative analysis can be used with nonlinear transfer
you improve that product or process. The partial
functions (Y equations) with many constraints. ** Note that you must unprotect the functions.Use partial derivative analysis when you want to predict
derivative of Y with respect to X is called the sensitivity
worksheet before using Solver.Be used with process simulation to visualize the the mean and standard deviation of a system response (Y), given
of Y with respect to X or the sensitivity coefficient of X.
response given a set of constrained the means and standard deviations of the inputs (Xs), when the
For this reason, partial derivative analysis is sometimes
transfer function Y=f(X1, X2, ., Xn) is known. However, the inputs
called sensitivity analysis.
(Xs) must be independent of one another (i.e., not correlated).

Design of experiment (DOE) is a tool that allows you to


obtain information about how factors (Xs), alone and in
combination, affect a process and its output (Y).
Traditional experiments generate data by changing one DOE uses an efficient, cost-effective, and methodical approach to collecting and In general, use DOE when you want toIdentify and quantify the
Design of Experiment factor at a time, usually by trial and error. This approach analyzing data related to a process output and the factors that affect it. By testing impact of the vital few Xs on your process outputDescribe the Continuous Y & all
often requires a great many runs and cannot capture the more than one factor at a time, DOE is able to identify all factors and combinations of relationship between Xs and a Y with a mathematical N/A 0
(DOE) X's
effect of combined factors on the output. By allowing you factors that affect the process Y modelDetermine the best configuration
to test more than one factor at a time-as well as different
settings for each factor-DOE is able to identify all factors
and combinations of factors that affect the process Y.

Design scorecards are a means for gathering data,


predicting final quality, analyzing drivers of poor quality,
and modifying design elements before a product is built.
This makes proactive corrective action possible, rather
than initiating reactive quality efforts during pre-
production. Design scorecards are an MS-Excel™
workbook that has been designed to automatically
calculate Z values for a product based on user-provided
inputs of for all the sub-processes and parts that make Design scorecards can be used anytime that a product or
up the product. Design scorecards have six basic process is being designed or modified and it is necessary to
Design Scorecards components: 1 Top-level scorecard-used to report the predict defect levels before implementing a process. They can be all N/A 0
rolled-up ZST prediction 2. Performance worksheet- used in either the DMADV or DMAIC processes.
used to estimate defects caused by lack of design
margin 3. Process worksheet-used to estimate defects
in process as a result of the design configuration
4.Parts worksheet-used to estimate defects due to
incoming materialsSoftware worksheet-used to estimate
defects in software 5. Software worksheet-used to
estimate defects in software 6. Reliability worksheet-
used to estimate defects due to reliability
Use the DDA method after the project data collection plan is
The DDA method is an important tool because it provides a method to independently
formulated or modified and before the project data collection plan
The Discrete Data Analysis (DDA) method is a tool used assess the most common types of measurement variation-repeatability,
is finalized and data is collected. Choose the DDA method when
Discrete Data Analysis to assess the variation in a measurement system due to reproducibility, and/or accuracy. Completing the DDA method will help you to discrete (category or
you have discrete data and you want to determine if the N/A 0
Method reproducibility, repeatability, and/or accuracy. This tool determine whether the variation from repeatability, reproducibility, and/or accuracy in
measurement variation due to repeatability, reproducibility, and/or count)
applies to discrete data only. your measurement system is an acceptably small portion of the total observed
accuracy is an acceptably small portion of the total observed
variation.
variation

Discrete event simulation is used in the Analyze phase of a


Discrete event simulation is conducted for processes DMAIC project to understand the behavior of important process
that are dictated by events at distinct points in time; each variables. In the Improve phase of a DMAIC project, discrete
Discrete Event occurrence of an event impacts the current state of the ProcessModelTM is a process modeling and analysis tool that accelerates the process event simulation is used to predict the performance of an existing
improvement effort. It combines a simple flowcharting function with a simulation Continuous Y,
Simulation (Process process. Examples of discrete events are arrivals of process under different conditions and to test new process ideas N/A 0
phone calls at a call center. Timing in a discrete event process to produce a quick and easy tool for documenting, analyzing, and improving or alternatives in an isolated environment. Use ProcessModelTM Discrete Xs
ModelTM)
model increases incrementally based on the arrival and business processes. when you reach step 4, Implement, of the 10-step simulation
departure of the inputs or resources process.

Quick graphical comparison of two or more processes' Continuous Y,


Dot Plot variation or spread
Quick graphical comparison of two or more processes' variation or spread Comparing two or more processes' variation or spread N/A
Discrete Xs

Failure Mode and A means / method to Identify ways a process can fail,
estimate th risks of those failures, evaluate a control Complex or new processes. Customers are involved. all N/A 0
Effects Analysis plan, prioritize actions related to the process

Gage R&R-ANOVA method is a tool used to assess the Measure -Use Gage R&R-ANOVA method after the project data
variation in a measurement system due to reproducibility Gage R&R-ANOVA method is an important tool because it provides a method to collection plan is formulated or modified and before the project
Gage R & R--ANOVA and/or repeatability. An advantage of this tool is that it independently assess the most common types of measurement variation - data collection plan is finalized and data is collected. Choose the
can separate the individual effects of repeatability and repeatability and reproducibility. This tool will help you to determine whether the ANOVA method when you have continuous data and you want to Continuous X & Y 0
Method reproducibility and then break down reproducibility into variation from repeatability and/or reproducibility in your measurement system is an determine if the measurement variation due to repeatability
the components "operator" and "operator by part." This acceptably small portion of the total observed variation. and/or reproducibility is an acceptably small portion of the total
tool applies to continuous data only. observed variation.

Use Gage R&R-Short Method after the project data collection


Gage R&R-Short Method is a tool used to assess the plan is formulated or modified and before the project data
variation in a measurement system due to the combined collection plan is finalized and data is collected. Choose the
Gage R&R-Short Method is an important tool because it provides a quick method of
effect of reproducibility and repeatability. An advantage Gage R&R-Short Method when you have continuous data and
Gage R & R--Short assessing the most common types of measurement variation using only five parts
of this tool is that it requires only two operators and five you believe the total measurement variation due to repeatability
and two operators. Completing the Gage R&R-Short Method will help you determine Continuous X & Y 0
Method samples to complete the analysis. A disadvantage of this
whether the combined variation from repeatability and reproducibility in your
and reproducibility is an acceptably small portion of the total
tool is that the individual effects of repeatability and observed variation, but you need to confirm this belief. For
measurement system is an acceptably small portion of the total observed variation.
reproducibility cannot be separated. This tool applies to example, you may want to verify that no changes occurred since
continuous data only a previous Gage R&R study. Gage R&R-Short Method can also
be used in cases where sample size is limited.

GRPI is an excellent team-building tool and, as such, should be


initiated at one of the first team meetings. In the DMAIC process,
GRPI is an excellent tool for organizing newly formed teams. It is valuable in helping
this generally happens in the Define phase, where you create
GRPI a group of individuals work as an effective team-one of the key ingredients to success
your charter and form your team. Continue to update your GRPI all N/A 0
in a DMAIC project
checklist throughout the DMAIC process as your project unfolds
and as your team develops

A histogram is a basic graphing tool that displays the


relative frequency or occurrence of data values-or which Histograms can be used throughout an improvement project. In
data values occur most and least frequently. A histogram the Measure phase, you can use histograms to begin to
it is important to identify and control all sources of variation. Histograms allow you to
illustrates the shape, centering, and spread of data understand the statistical nature of the problem. In the Analyze
visualize large quantities of data that would otherwise be difficult to interpret. They
distribution and indicates whether there are any outliers. phase, histograms can help you identify potential Xs that should Continuous Y & all
give you a way to quickly assess the distribution of your data and the variation that
Histogram The frequency of occurrence is displayed on the y-axis,
exists in your process. The shape of a histogram offers clues that can lead you to
be investigated further. They can also help eliminate potential Xs. N/A 1
where the height of each bar indicates the number of In the Improve phase, you can use histograms to characterize X's
possible Xs. For example, when a histogram has two distinct peaks, or is bimodal,
occurrences for that interval (or class) of data, such as 1 and confirm your solution. In the Control phase, histograms give
you would look for a cause for the difference in peaks.
to 3 days, 4 to 6 days, and so on. Classes of data are you a visual reference to help track and maintain your
displayed on the x-axis. The grouping of data into improvements.
classes is the distinguishing feature of a histogram

There are two main reasons for using the homogeneity of


variance test:1. A basic assumption of many statistical tests is (Use Levene's
that the variances of the different samples are equal. Some
Homogeneity of variance is a test used to determine if Test) At least one
statistical procedures, such as 2-sample t-test, gain additional
the variances of two or more samples are different, or While large differences in variance between a small number of samples are
Homogeneity of not homogeneous. The homogeneity of variance test is detectable with graphical tools, the homogeneity of variance test is a quick way to
test power if the variances of the two samples can be considered Continuous Y, group of data is 1
Variance a comparison of the variances (sigma, or standard reliably detect small differences in variance between large numbers of samples.
equal.2. Many statistical problem statements and performance Discrete Xs different than at
improvement goals are written in terms of "reducing the
deviations) of two or more distributions.
variance." Homogeneity of variance tests can be performed on
least one other
before and after data, as a way to prove that the variance has group
been reduced.

The Measure phase to separate common causes of variation


The I-MR chart is a tool to help you determine if your The presence of special cause variation indicates that factors are influencing the from special causesThe Analyze and Improve phases to ensure
I-MR Chart process is in control by seeing if special causes are output of your process. Eliminating the influence of these factors will improve the process stability before completing a hypothesis testThe Control Continuous X & Y N/A 1
present. performance of your process and bring your process into control phase to verify that the process remains in control after the
sources of special cause variation have been removed
Kano analysis is a customer research method for
classifying customer needs into four categories; it relies
on a questionnaire filled out by or with the customer. It
helps you understand the relationship between the
fulfillment or nonfulfillment of a need and the satisfaction
Use Kano analysis after a list of potential needs that have to be
or dissatisfaction experienced by the customer. The four
satisfied is generated (through, for example, interviews, focus
categories are 1. delighters, 2. Must Be elements, 3. Kano analysis provides a systematic, data-based method for gaining deeper
Kano Analysis One - dimensionals, & 4. Indeifferent elements. There understanding of customer needs by classifying them
groups, or observations). Kano analysis is useful when you all N/A 0
need to collect data on customer needs and prioritize them to
are two additional categories into which customer
focus your efforts.
responses to the Kano survey can fall: they are reverse
elements and questionable result. --The categories in
Kano analysis represent a point in time, and needs are
constantly evolving. Often what is a delighter today can
become simply a must-be over time.

non-parametric
At least one mean
Kruskal-Wallis Test Compare two or more means with unknown distributions (measurement or 0
is different
count)

Tool used for high-level look at relationships between Continuous Y & all
Matrix plots can save time by allowing you to drill-down into data and determine
Matrix Plot several parameters. Matrix plots are often a first step at
which parameters best relate to your Y.
You should use matrix plots early in your analyze phase. N/A
determining which X's contribute most to your Y. X's

You should use mistake proofing in the Measure phase when you
are developing your data collection plan, in the Improve phase
when you are developing your proposed solution, and in the
Mistake-proofing devices prevent defects by preventing Mistake proofing is an important tool because it allows you to take a proactive Control phase when developing the control plan.Mistake proofing
Mistake Proofing errors or by predicting when errors could occur. approach to eliminating errors at their source before they become defects. is appropriate when there are :1. Process steps where human all N/A 0
intervention is required2. Repetitive tasks where physical
manipulation of objects is required3. Steps where errors are
known to occur4. Opportunities for predictable errors to occur

Monte Carlo analysis is a decision-making and problem-


solving tool used to evaluate a large number of possible
scenarios of a process. Each scenario represents one
possible set of values for each of the variables of the
process and the calculation of those variables using the
transfer function to produce an outcome Y. By repeating Performing a Monte Carlo analysis is one way to understand the variation that
this method many times, you can develop a distribution naturally exists in your process. One of the ways to reduce defects is to decrease the Continuous Y & all
Monte Carlo Analysis for the overall process performance. Monte Carlo can be output variation. Monte Carlo focuses on understanding what variations exist in the N/A 0
X's
used in such broad areas as finance, commercial input Xs in order to reduce the variation in output Y.
quality, engineering design, manufacturing, and process
design and improvement. Monte Carlo can be used with
any type of distribution; its value comes from the
increased knowledge we gain in terms of variation of the
output

Multigenerational product/process planning (MGPP) is a


procedure that helps you create, upgrade, leverage, and Most products or processes, once introduced, tend to remain unchanged for many You should follow an MGPP in conjunction with your business's
Multi-Generational maintain a product or process in a way that can reduce years. Yet, competitors, technology, and the marketplace-as personified by the ever overall marketing strategy. The market process applied to MGPP
Product/Process production costs and increase market share. A key more demanding consumer-change constantly. Therefore, it makes good business usually takes place over three or more generations. These all N/A 0
Planning element of MGPP is its ability to help you follow up sense to incorporate into product/process design a method for anticipating and taking generations cover the first three to five years of product/process
product/process introduction with improved, derivative advantage of these changes. development and introduction.
versions of the original product.

Multiple regression will help you to understand the relationship between the process
output (Y) and several factors (Xs) that may affect the Y. Understanding this You can use multiple regression during the Analyze phase to help
relationship allows you to1. Identify important Xs2. Identify the amount of variation identify important Xs and during the Improve phase to define the
method that enables you to determine the relationship explained by the model3. Reduce the number of Xs prior to design of experiment optimized solution. Multiple regression can be used with both A correlation is
Multiple Regression between a continuous process output (Y) and several (DOE )4. Predict Y based on combinations of X values5. Identify possible nonlinear continuous and discrete Xs. If you have only discrete Xs, use Continuous X & Y 0
factors (Xs). relationships such as a quadratic (X12) or an interaction (X1X2)The output of a ANOVA-GLM. Typically you would use multiple regression on detected
multiple regression analysis may demonstrate the need for designed experiments existing data. If you need to collect new data, it may be more
that establish a cause and effect relationship or identify ways to further improve the efficient to use a DOE.
process.

A multi-vari chart is a tool that graphically displays


A multi-vari chart enables you to see the effect multiple variables have on a Y. It also
patterns of variation. It is used to identify possible Xs or Continuous Y & all
Multi-Vari Chart families of variation, such as variation within a subgroup,
helps you see variation within subgroups, between subgroups, and over time. By N/A 0
looking at the patterns of variation, you can identify or eliminate possible Xs X's
between subgroups, or over time

Data does not


Normal Probability Plot Allows you to determine the normality of your data. To determine the normality of data. To see if multiple X's exist in your data. cont (measurement) follow a normal 1
distribution

There are two occasions when you should use a normality test:
1. When you are first trying to characterize raw data, normality
A normality test is a statistical process used to determine
Many statistical tests (tests of means and tests of variances) assume that the data testing is used in conjunction with graphical tools such as
if a sample, or any group of data, fits a standard normal
Normality Test distribution. A normality test can be done mathematically
being tested is normally distributed. A normality test is used to determine if that histograms and box plots. cont (measurement) not normal 0
assumption is valid. 2. When you are analyzing your data, and you need to calculate
or graphically.
basic statistics such as Z values or employ statistical tests that
assume normality, such as t-test and ANOVA.
You will use an np chart in the Control phase to verify that the
The np chart is a tool that will help you determine if your process is in control by process remains in control after the sources of special cause
a graphical tool that allows you to view the actual seeing if special causes are present. The presence of special cause variation variation have been removed. The np chart is used for processes Defectives Y /
np Chart number of defectives and detect the presence of special indicates that factors are influencing the output of your process. Eliminating the that generate discrete data. The np chart is used to graph the Continuous & N/A 1
causes. influence of these factors will improve the performance of your process and bring actual number of defectives in a sample. The sample size for the Discrete X
your process into control. np chart is constant, with between 5 and 10 defectives per
sample on the average.

Out-of-the-box thinking is an approach to creativity


Out-of-the-Box Many businesses are successful for a brief time due to a single innovation, while
based on overcoming the subconscious patterns of
continued success is dependent upon continued innovation
Root cause analysis and new product / process development all N/A 0
Thinking thinking that we all develop.

a graphical tool that allows you to view the proportion of The p chart is a tool that will help you determine if your process is in control by You will use a p chart in the Control phase to verify that the
defectives and detect the presence of special causes. determining whether special causes are present. The presence of special cause process remains in control after the sources of special cause Defectives Y /
p Chart The p chart is used to understand the ratio of variation indicates that factors are influencing the output of your process. Eliminating variation have been removed. The p chart is used for processes Continuous & N/A 1
nonconforming units to the total number of units in a the influence of these factors will improve the performance of your process and bring that generate discrete data. The sample size for the p chart can Discrete X
sample. your process into control vary but usually consists of 100 or more

A Pareto chart is a graphing tool that prioritizes a list of


variables or factors based on impact or frequency of . It is easy to interpret, which makes it a convenient communication tool for use by In the Define phase to stratify Voice of the Customer data...In the
occurrence. This chart is based on the Pareto principle, individuals not familiar with the project. The Pareto chart will not detect small Measure phase to stratify data collected on the project Y…..In the
Pareto Chart which states that typically 80% of the defects in a differences between categories; more advanced statistical tools are required in such Analyze phase to assess the relative impact or frequency of all N/A 0
process or product are caused by only 20% of the cases. different factors, or Xs
possible causes

In the Define phase, you create a high-level process map to get


an overview of the steps, events, and operations that make up
the process. This will help you understand the process and verify
the scope you defined in your charter. It is particularly important
Process mapping is a tool that provides structure for
As you examine your process in greater detail, your map will evolve from the process that your high-level map reflects the process as it actually is,
defining a process in a simplified, visual manner by
Process Mapping displaying the steps, events, and operations (in
you "think" exists to what "actually" exists. Your process map will evolve again to since it serves as the basis for more detailed maps.In the all N/A 0
reflect what "should" exist-the process after improvements are made. Measure and Analyze phases, you create a detailed process map
chronological order) that make up a process
to help you identify problems in the process. Your improvement
project will focus on addressing these problems.In the Improve
phase, you can use process mapping to develop solutions by
creating maps of how the process "should be."

the tool used to facilitate a disciplined, team-based


process for concept selection and generation. Several The Pugh matrix is the recommended method for selecting the
concepts are evaluated according to their strengths and provides an objective process for reviewing, assessing, and enhancing design most promising concepts in the Analyze phase of the DMADV
weaknesses against a reference concept called the concepts the team has generated with reference to the project's CTQs. Because it process. It is used when the team already has developed several
Pugh Matrix datum. The datum is the best current concept at each employs agreed-upon criteria for assessing each concept, it becomes difficult for one alternative concepts that potentially can meet the CTQs all N/A 0
iteration of the matrix. The Pugh matrix encourages team member to promote his or her own concept for irrational reasons. developed during the Measure phase and must choose the one
comparison of several different concepts against a base or two concepts that will best meet the performance requirements
concept, creating stronger concepts and eliminating for further development in the Design phase
weaker ones until an optimal concept finally is reached

a methodology that provides a flowdown process for


QFD drives a cross-functional discussion to define what is important. It provides a
CTQs from the highest to the lowest level. The flowdown
vehicle for asking how products/services will be measured and what are the critical
process begins with the results of the customer needs QFD produces the greatest results in situations where1.
Quality Function variables to control processes.The QFD process highlights trade-offs between
mapping (VOC) as input. From that point we cascade Customer requirements have not been clearly defined 2. There
conflicting properties and forces the team to consider each trade off in light of the all N/A 0
Deployment through a series of four Houses of Quality to arrive at
customer's requirements for the product/service.Also, it points out areas for
must be trade-offs between the elements of the business 3.
the internal controllable factors. QFD is a prioritization There are significant investments in resources required
improvement by giving special attention to the most important customer wants and
tool used to show the relative importance of factors
systematically flowing them down through the QFD process.
rather than as a transfer function.

A correlation is
Reqression see Multiple Regression Continuous X & Y 0
detected

In DMAIC, risk assessment is used in the Improve phase before


Any time you make a change in a process, there is potential for unforeseen failure or
The risk-management process is a methodology used to you make changes in the process (before running a DOE,
unintended consequences. Performing a risk assessment allows you to identify
identify risks,analyze risks,plan, communicate, and piloting, or testing solutions) and in the Control phase to develop
Risk Assessment implement abatement actions, andtrack resolution of
potential risks associated with planned process changes and develop abatement
the control plan. In DMADV, risk assessment is used in all all N/A 0
actions to minimize the probability of their occurrence. The risk-assessment process
abatement actions. phases of design, especially in the Analyze and Verify phases
also determines the ownership and completion date for each abatement action.
where you analyze and verify your concept design.

RSS analysis is a quick method for estimating the variation in system output given the Use RSS when you need to quantify the variation in the output
variation in system component inputs, provided the system behavior can be modeled given the variation in inputs. However, the following conditions
Root sum of squares (RSS) is a statistical tolerance
using a linear transfer function with unit (± 1) coefficients. RSS can quickly tell you the must be met in order to perform RSS analysis: 1. The inputs (Xs)
analysis method used to estimate the variation of a
Root Sum of Squares system output Y from variations in each of the system's probability that the output (Y) will be outside its upper or lower specification limits. are independent. 2. The transfer function is linear with Continuous X & Y N/A 0
Based on this information, you can decide whether some or all of your inputs need to coefficients of +1 and/or - 1. 3. In addition, you will need to know
inputs Xs.
be modified to meet the specifications on system output, and/or if the specifications (or have estimates of) the means and standard deviations of
on system output need to be changed. each X.

used in many phases of the DMAIC process. Consider using a


A run chart is a graphical tool that allows you to view the
run chart to 1. Look for possible time-related Xs in the Measure
variation of your process over time. The patterns in the The patterns in the run chart allow you to see if special causes are influencing your
Run Chart run chart can help identify the presence of special cause process. This will help you to identify Xs affecting your process run chart.
phase 2. Ensure process stability before completing a hypothesis cont (measurement) N/A 1
test 3. Look at variation within a subgroup; compare subgroup to
variation.
subgroup variation

The sample size calculator simplifies the use of the The calculation helps link allowable risk with cost. If your sample size is statistically
Sample Size sample size formula and provides you with a statistical sound, you can have more confidence in your data and greater assurance that
basis for determining the required sample size for given all N/A 1
Calculator resources spent on data collection efforts and/or planned improvements will not be
levels of a and b risks wasted
a basic graphic tool that illustrates the relationship
between two variables.The variables may be a process
Scatter plots are used with continuous and discrete data and are
output (Y) and a factor affecting it (X), two factors
Scatter Plot affecting a Y (two Xs), or two related process outputs
Useful in determining whether trends exist between two or more sets of data. especially useful in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of all N/A 0
DMAIC projects.
(two Ys).

indicate that there


Simple linear regression is a method that enables you to is sufficient
determine the relationship between a continuous
Simple linear regression will help you to understand the relationship between the evidence that the
process output (Y) and one factor (X). The relationship is You can use simple linear regression during the Analyze phase to
Simple Linear process output (Y) and any factor that may affect it (X). Understanding this coefficients are
typically expressed in terms of a mathematical equation,
relationship will allow you to predict the Y, given a value of X. This is especially useful
help identify important Xs and during the Improve phase to define Continuous X & Y 0
Regression such as Y = b + mX, where Y is the process output, b is the settings needed to achieve the desired output. not zero for likely
when the Y variable of interest is difficult or expensive to measure
a constant, m is a coefficient, and X is the process input Type I error rates
or factor (a levels)... SEE
MINITAB

Simulation is a powerful analysis tool used to


experiment with a detailed process model to determine
how the process output Y will respond to changes in its
structure, inputs, or surroundings Xs. Simulation model
is a computer model that describes relationships and
interactions among inputs and process activities. It is Simulation is used in the Analyze phase of a DMAIC project to
used to evaluate process output under a range of understand the behavior of important process variables. In the
Simulation can help you: 1. Identify interactions and specific problems in an existing
different conditions. Different process situations need Improve phase of a DMAIC project, simulation is used to predict
Simulation different types of simulation models. Discrete event
or proposed process 2. Develop a realistic model for a process 3. Predict the
the performance of an existing process under different conditions all N/A 0
behavior of the process under different conditions 4. Optimize process performance
simulation is conducted for processes that are dictated and to test new process ideas or alternatives in an isolated
by events at distinct points in time; each occurrence of environment
an event impacts the current state of the process.
ProcessModel software tool for running discrete event
models.Continuous simulation is used for processes
whose variables or parameters do not experience
distinct start and end points.

Regression tool that filters out unwanted X's based on


Stepwise Regression specified criteria. Continuous X & Y N/A 0

A tree diagram is helpful when you want to 1. Relate a CTQ to


A tree diagram is a tool that is used to break any subprocess elements (Project CTQs) 2. Determine the project Y
Useful in organizing information into logical categories. See "When use?" section for
Tree Diagram concept (such as a goal, idea, objective, issue, or CTQ)
more detail
(Project Y) 3. Select the appropriate Xs (Prioritized List of All Xs) all N/A 0
into subcomponents, or lower levels of detail. 4. Determine task-level detail for a solution to be implemented
(Optimized Solution)

You will use a u chart in the Control phase to verify that the
The u chart is a tool that will help you determine if your process is in control by process remains in control after the sources of special cause
A u chart, shown in figure 1, is a graphical tool that determining whether special causes are present. The presence of special cause variation have been removed. The u chart is used for processes
u Chart allows you to view the number of defects per unit variation indicates that factors are influencing the output of your process. Eliminating that generate discrete data. The u chart monitors the number of N/A 1
sampled and detect the presence of special causes the influence of these factors will improve the performance of your process and bring defects per unit taken from a process. You should record
your process into control between 20 and 30 readings, and the sample size may be
variable.

You can use VOC tools at the start of a project to determine what
Each VOC tool provides the team with an organized method for gathering information
The following tools are commonly used to collect VOC key issues are important to the customers, understand why they
from customers. Without the use of structured tools, the data collected may be
data: Dashboard ,Focus group, Interview, Scorecard, are important, and subsequently gather detailed information
Voice of the Customer and Survey.. Tools used to develop specific CTQs and incomplete or biased. Key groups may be inadvertently omitted from the process,
about each issue. VOC tools can also be used whenever you all N/A 0
information may not be gathered to the required level of detail, or the VOC data
associated priorities. need additional customer input such as ideas and suggestions
collection effort may be biased because of your viewpoint.
for improvement or feedback on new solutions

You should use worst case analysis : To analyze safety-critical


Worst case analysis tells you the minimum and maximum limits within which your
A worst case analysis is a nonstatistical tolerance Ys, and when no process data is available and only the
total product or process will vary. You can then compare these limits with the required
analysis tool used to identify whether combinations of tolerances on Xs are known. Worst case analysis should be
Worst Case Analysis inputs (Xs) at their upper and lower specification limits specification limits to see if they are acceptable. By testing these limits in advance,
used sparingly because it does not take into account the all N/A 0
you can modify any incorrect tolerance settings before actually beginning production
always produce an acceptable output measure (Y). probabilistic nature (that is, the likelihood of variance from the
of the product or process.
specified values) of the inputs.

Xbar-R charts can be used in many phases of the DMAIC


process when you have continuous data broken into subgroups.
Consider using an Xbar-R chart· in the Measure phase to
The Xbar-R chart is a tool to help you decide if your The presence of special cause variation indicates that factors are influencing the
separate common causes of variation from special causes,· in
Xbar-R Chart process is in control by determining whether special output of your process. Eliminating the influence of these factors will improve the
the Analyze and Improve phases to ensure process stability Continuous X & Y N/A 1
causes are present. performance of your process and bring your process into control
before completing a hypothesis test, or· in the Control phase to
verify that the process remains in control after the sources of
special cause variation have been removed.

An Xbar-S chart, or mean and standard deviation chart,


is a graphical tool that allows you to view the variation in An Xbar-S chart can be used in many phases of the DMAIC
your process over time. An Xbar-S chart lets you process when you have continuous data. Consider using an
perform statistical tests that signal when a process may The Xbar-S chart is a tool to help you determine if your process is in control by Xbar-S chart……in the Measure phase to separate common
be going out of control. A process that is out of control seeing if special causes are present. The presence of special cause variation causes of variation from special causes, in the Analyze and
Xbar-S Chart has been affected by special causes as well as common indicates that factors are influencing the output of your process. Eliminating the Improve phases to ensure process stability before completing a Continuous X & Y N/A 1
causes. The chart can also show you where to look for influence of these factors will improve the performance of your process and bring it hypothesis test, or in the Control phase to verify that the
sources of special cause variation. The X portion of the into control process remains in control after the sources of special cause
chart contains the mean of the subgroups distributed variation have been removed. NOTE - Use Xbar-R if the sample
over time. The S portion of the chart represents the size is small.
standard deviation of data points in a subgroup
GRÁFICO DE CONTROLE DE VARIÁVEIS - CEP
ENGAGEMENT 10,0 CARACT. Análise Processo DATA: 11/2/2014

TORRE: 10.2 ATIVIDADE: Caminhada Sala de Aula INSTR.: Cronometro

ESPECIFICAÇÕES LSE: 10.200 LIE: 10.000 RESPONSÁVEL Andrade OBS

SPC - STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL

LEITURAS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

1ª LEITURA 13.30 8.70 10.10 7.90 10.40 9.40 8.90 12.60 13.30 8.70 10.10 7.90 10.40 9.40 8.90 12.60 13.30 8.70 10.10 7.90 10.40 9.40 8.90 12.60 13.30

2ª LEITURA 7.30 7.60 11.50 7.10 10.80 9.80 8.30 12.80 7.30 7.60 11.50 7.10 10.80 9.80 8.30 12.80 7.30 7.60 11.50 7.10 10.80 9.80 8.30 12.80 7.30

3ª LEITURA 9.80 8.90 13.60 7.70 8.60 8.70 8.40 12.60 9.80 8.90 13.60 7.70 8.60 8.70 8.40 12.60 9.80 8.90 13.60 7.70 8.60 8.70 8.40 12.60 9.80

4ª LEITURA 8.60 8.30 11.10 10.10 8.90 10.10 8.10 10.30 8.60 8.30 11.10 10.10 8.90 10.10 8.10 10.30 8.60 8.30 11.10 10.10 8.90 10.10 8.10 10.30 8.60

5ª LEITURA 8.10 8.50 9.30 12.70 9.20 12.80 10.60 10.60 8.10 8.50 9.30 12.70 9.20 12.80 10.60 10.60 8.10 8.50 9.30 12.70 9.20 12.80 10.60 10.60 8.10

MÉDIA 9.42 8.40 11.12 9.10 9.58 10.16 8.86 11.78 9.42 8.40 11.12 9.10 9.58 10.16 8.86 11.78 9.42 8.40 11.12 9.10 9.58 10.16 8.86 11.78 9.42

AMPLITUDE 6.00 1.30 4.30 5.60 2.20 4.10 2.50 2.50 6.00 1.30 4.30 5.60 2.20 4.10 2.50 2.50 6.00 1.30 4.30 5.60 2.20 4.10 2.50 2.50 6.00

S 1.574 ICP 2.118 Cp 0.021 LSC X 11.914 Máx. 13.600 Range 6.50

X 9.787 Z SUP 0.262 Cpk -0.045 LIC X 7.694 Média 9.787

R 3.660 Z INF -0.135 LSC R 7.737 Mín. 7.100

GRÁFICO DAS MÉDIAS


14.00

12.00

10.00

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

GRÁFICO DAS AMPLITUDES


9.00

8.00

7.00

6.00

5.00

4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

80
HISTOGRAMA 50.0%

45.0%
70

40.0%
60

35.0%

50
30.0%

40 25.0%

20.0%
30

15.0%
20

10.0%

10
5.0%

0 0.0%
10 - 10,02 10.02 - 10.04 10.04 - 10.06 10.06 - 10.08 10.08 - 10.1 10.1 - 10.12 10.12 - 10.14 10.14 - 10.16 10.16 - 10.18 10.18 - 10.2
Matriz XY Matrix - Causa e Ef

Process:
Demo Date: 11/27/2019

1 2
Delete

Description
Variables (Ys)

material
foreign
broken
Output
Weight 10 6
Input Variables (Xs)
1 pressure 10 a 20 9
2 temperature 100 a 120 9
3 time 3
4 clean room practices 3
5 clean room cleanliness 9
6 washer 9
7 material properties 3
8 robot handling 9 1
9 human handling 9 3
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
- Causa e Efeito combinado Voltar

Ranking Scale:
27/2019 1- none, 3- marginal, 9- highest

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
unbonded
thickness
smears

area

8 7 9
Ranking
3 1 120
9 1 162
9 1 102
9 90
3 78
9 126
3 1 9 130
3 120
3 3 159
1087
Subroutine
Generation
Rework
VA
NVA

Mapa de Proces

INPUTS
Input Number Type Of Input Factors LSL

Time to
1 Controllable 3 hrs
inspect
2 Noise Meeting 2 hrs
3 Controllable Availability 8hrs /day
DEX BRASIL - CAPGEMINI
Processo - In - Out

MAP
USL Measurement Method Output
NVA

Receiving
6 hrs Man Hours Inspection
Installation
3 hrs Meeting hours Time
9hrs /day Man Hours

VA

NVA
Rework
Voltar

OUTPUT STATISTICS

CT Total Units Defeitos Opportunities DPMO Sigma level

2000 113 19 2974 4.3


5 Hours

2000 5 765 3 6.0

#DIV/0! #DIV/0!

#DIV/0! #DIV/0!

#DIV/0! #DIV/0!
#DIV/0! #DIV/0!

#DIV/0! #DIV/0!
Objetivo: Permite o mapeamento completo de atividades e
determinação de estatísticas de comparação -nível sigma e D
identifica as entradas e saidas de cada operação e os resultad
esperados para cada atividade.

Aplicação:
Ideal para mensurar a performance individual de cada operaç
estabelecer prioridades de melhorias.
Permite a comparação entre empresas -Benchmarking

Fase: Analisar do DMAIC

Objective: Allows the entire process mapping and some com


statistics - sigma level and DPMO.
Identify the entrances and exits of each operation and the e
results.

Use:
Mainly to measure the individual performance for the operati
established improves priorities.
Identify the entrances and exits of each operation and the e
results.

Use:
Mainly to measure the individual performance for the operati
established improves priorities.
Allows benchmark between companies.

Phase: Analyse
atividades e
ível sigma e DPMO.
o e os resultados

de cada operação e

marking

and some comparisons

on and the expected

for the operations and


on and the expected

for the operations and


Indicador - KPI - referente a :
Problema:

Meta:

Area : Gerência Comercial - Empresa X - Ano de 2012


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
25

20

15

10
89

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Jan Fev Mar Abr Mai Jun Jul Ago Set Out Nov
Meta 2015 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Real 2015 23 11 11 1 9 22 2 2 2 2 2
Desvio 188% 38% 38% -88% 13% 175% -75% -75% -75% -75% -75%
1 REAL<META
or - KPI - referente a :

1
Þ Menor Melhor

Ý0 Maior Melhor 0
12
120

100

80

60

96
89
40

20

0
7 8 9 10 11 12

1
Dez Acumulado
8 96
2 89
-75% -7%
d

d
a
s
i

Gráfico do Farol
Engagement e Área - Torre Característica: Especificaç

Amostra e Frequencia: Sistema de medição: Operador: Ano:

X = Desvio Padrão = Data geração :


GRÁFICO DO FAROL - VARIÁVEL
DIA
MÊS
HORA
Nr. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
1 12.00 10.00 8.00
2 11.00 9.00 7.00
Medidas

3
4
5

14.0

13.0

12.0 O

11.0 O

10.0 O

9.0 O

8.0 O

7.0 O

6.0

5.0
4.0

3.0

2.0

DIGITAÇÃO REVISÃO CÁLCULO

x Ação: xx Ação:
xx ou x continuar a atividade ou melhorar a atividade
Voltar
Especificação:

Ano:

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
OUTROS

Ação :
x investigar a causa e melhorar
Intervalo de Confiança - De

Entre com o Desvio Padrão (sigma ) , tamanho da amostra e valor alpha


Obs. Assume distribuição normal

Sigma 2.00
Variance 4.00
alpha 0.05
Nota: alpha = 1 - % Confiança ( Confidence Level )

n Variancia Inferior
12 2.01

Desvio Padrão
Desvio Inferior
1.42

n Variancia Inferior
10 1.89
20 2.31
30 2.54
40 2.68
50 2.79
60 2.87
70 2.94
80 3.00
90 3.04
100 3.08
Jairo Brandão
o de Confiança - Desvio Padrão

ma ) , tamanho da amostra e valor alpha.

( Desvio padrão )

nfidence Level )

Variancia Superior
11.53 Objetivo: Calcula i
amostrais,permitind
o Padrão foram extraidos.
Desvio superior
3.40 Aplicação: Análise
normal - análise pa
Variancia Superior
13.33
8.53
Fase: Medir ou Ana
7.23
6.59 Desvio padrão ( sigm
6.21 Variância : Desvio p
5.95
5.76
5.61
5.49
5.40

Objective: Calculate
allowing to estimate
extracted.

Use: Analysis of a se
parametric analysis.

Phase: Measure and

Standard deviation (
Variance: Standard d
Use: Analysis of a se
parametric analysis.

Phase: Measure and

Standard deviation (
Variance: Standard d
Voltar

Objetivo: Calcula intervalos de confiança para variâncias e desvio padrão


amostrais,permitindo estimar a faixa de variação na população de onde os dad
foram extraidos.

Aplicação: Análise de um grupo de dados extraidos de uma população supost


normal - análise paramétrica.

Fase: Medir ou Analisar do DMAIC

Desvio padrão ( sigma ) : Grau de dispersão dos valores em torno da média


Variância : Desvio padrão ao quadrado

Objective: Calculates confidence intervals for variances and sample standard de


allowing to estimate the range of variation in the population from which the da
extracted.

Use: Analysis of a set of data extracted from a population supposedly normal -


parametric analysis.

Phase: Measure and Analyze

Standard deviation (sigma): Degree of dispersion of values around the mean


Variance: Standard deviation squared
Use: Analysis of a set of data extracted from a population supposedly normal -
parametric analysis.

Phase: Measure and Analyze

Standard deviation (sigma): Degree of dispersion of values around the mean


Variance: Standard deviation squared
e desvio padrão
ação de onde os dados

a população supostamente

m torno da média

sample standard deviation,


n from which the data were

upposedly normal -

around the mean


upposedly normal -

around the mean


Intervalo de Confiança - Média

Com desvio padrão conhecido Com desvio padrão descon

Média 55.00 Média


sknown 0.1 Desv Pad
alpha 0.05 alpha
tinv
Note: alpha = 1 - % Confidence Note: alpha = 1 - % Confiden

n Média Inf. Média Sup. n


10 54.969 55.062 16

n Média Inf. Média Sup. n


10 54.969 55.062 10
20 54.978 55.044 20
30 54.982 55.036 30
40 54.985 55.031 40
50 54.986 55.028 50
60 54.987 55.025 60
70 54.988 55.023 70
80 54.989 55.022 80
90 54.990 55.021 90
100 54.990 55.020 100
nça - Média Voltar

Com desvio padrão desconhecido

49.86
1.66
0.05
2.13
Note: alpha = 1 - % Confidence Objetivo: Calcula intervalos de confi
estimar a faixa de variação na popula
Média Inf. Média Sup.
48.975 50.745
Aplicação: Análise de um grupo de d
Média Inf. Média Sup. normal - análise paramétrica.
48.673 51.047
49.083 50.637 Fase: Medir ou Analisar do DMAIC
49.240 50.480
49.329 50.391
49.388 50.332
49.431 50.289
49.464 50.256
49.491 50.229
49.512 50.208
49.531 50.189

Objective: Calculates confidence inter


estimation of the range of variation in
extracted.

Use: Analysis of a set of data extracte


parametric analysis.

Phase: Measure and Analyze


Voltar

cula intervalos de confiança para dados médios amostrais,permitindo


de variação na população de onde os dados foram extraidos.

álise de um grupo de dados extraidos de uma população supostamente


se paramétrica.

u Analisar do DMAIC

ulates confidence intervals for average sample data, allowing


he range of variation in the population from which the data were

of a set of data extracted from a population supposedly normal -


alysis.

e and Analyze
rmitindo
.

ostamente

g
were

al -
Sigma Level - Cycle time -

Tabela 1 - Horas
ATIVIDADE
sss
fff

Tabela 2 - Decimais
ATIVIDADE

ssss

1.00

0.50

0.00
ssss

-0.50
0.00
ssss

-0.50

-1.00

-1.50
- Tempo de Ciclo Voltar

NIVEL SIGMA - TEMPO D


(H16-INT(H16))*24
AMOSTRA TEMPOS
6 12:30:00 AM 12:10:00 AM 12:05:00 AM 12:05:00 AM
14 12:15:00 AM 12:03:00 AM 12:03:00 AM 12:03:00 AM
5 12:59:00 AM 12:12:00 AM 12:10:00 AM 12:10:00 AM
12 12:15:00 AM 12:09:00 AM 12:13:00 AM 12:18:00 AM
5 12:05:00 AM 12:09:00 AM 12:18:00 AM 12:10:00 AM
23 12:16:00 AM 12:12:00 AM 12:12:00 AM 12:12:00 AM
12 12:03:00 AM 12:03:00 AM 12:02:00 AM 12:03:00 AM

(minutes hided) Conversão mandatória para aplicaçã

VOLUME TEMPOS

6 0.5000 0.1667 0.0833 0.0833


14 0.2500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500
5 0.9833 0.2000 0.1667 0.1667
12 0.2500 0.1500 0.2167 0.3000
5 0.0833 0.1500 0.3000 0.1667
23 0.2667 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000
12 0.0500 0.0500 0.0333 0.0500
(hide column)
Voltar

MPO DE CICLO
MEDIA Tempo Padrão
12:11:10 AM 12:05:00 AM
12:08:21 AM 12:03:00 AM
12:20:12 AM 12:10:00 AM
12:17:15 AM 12:20:00 AM
12:10:24 AM 12:05:00 AM
12:20:21 AM 12:05:00 AM
12:08:10 AM 12:03:07 AM

Nivel sigma -
MEDIA Tempo Padrão Desvio padrão CPK long term
0.1861 0.0833 0.1583 -0.2 -0.65
0.1393 0.0500 0.0851 -0.3 -1.05
0.3367 0.1667 0.3618 -0.2 -0.47
0.2875 0.3333 0.0660 0.2 0.69
0.1733 0.0833 0.0787 -0.4 -1.14
0.3391 0.0833 0.4180 -0.2 -0.61
0.1361 0.0519 0.1817 -0.2 -0.46
Objetivo:
Transforma os tempos obtidos e
permitindo priorizar as melhoria
correções.

Aplicação: Nas atividades de cro

Necessário uso de dados decima

DPMO ( meta 3,4) Yield


Objective:
984199.55 1.58005 Transforms the times
994594.36
975574.59
0.54056
2.44254
compared to a standa
789606.50
995897.48
21.03935
0.41025
and compare differen
982657.61 1.73424 corrections.
975216.29 2.47837

Application: In chrono

Required use of decim

ssss
ssss
os tempos obtidos em um processo em níveis sigma, quando comparado a um pa
priorizar as melhorias e comparar processos distintos. Gera gráficos que auxilia

Nas atividades de cronoanálise, fase Analisar do DMAIC

uso de dados decimais, transformação já incluida.

ve:
ms the times obtained in a processin sigma levels, w
ed to a standard established, allowing prioritize impr
mpare different processes. Generates graphs that hel
ons.
tion: In chrono-analysis activities, Analyze phase of D

d use of decimal data, transformation already includ


mparado a um padrão estabelecido,
áficos que auxiliam a priorização das

ma levels, when
oritize improvements
phs that help prioritize

e phase of DMAIC

eady included.
FMEA - Análise de Efeito e Modo de Falha Voltar

FMEA de Processo - Contingências 2012

Engagement Torre Processo

Preparado por Owner obs Data des. / Versão

Time Cliente

Observações Data início Data Versão Data Chave Objetivo: Similar a um plano de contingência, é utilizado quando alteramos um processo e queremos prevenir
possiveis falhas e seus efeitos.
Resultado das ações
S O D
S O D FMEA - Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
Funcões do e c Controles e R
Modo potencial de Efeito Potencial da Causa potencial da Controle Atual e c e R
processo e v o atuais t P Ações recomendadas Responsável/ Data prevista
requisitos
falha falha
e
falha / mecanismo Prevenção
r Detecção e N Ações Tomadas v o t P Cada falha , causa e controle devem ser analisadas quanto a Severidade, Ocorrência e chance de ser detectado,
r r c e r e N criando um critério de importância na tomada de ação corretiva.
r r c
0 5 5 5 125
Aplicação: Fase Analisar do DMAIC

0 0
Definition:
A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is an inductive failure analysis used in product development, systems
engineering, reliability engineering and operations management for analysis of failure modes within a system for
classification by the severity and likelihood of the failures. A successful FMEA activity helps a team to identify potential
failure modes based on past experience with similar products or processes or based on common failure mechanism
logic, enabling the team to design those failures out of the system with the minimum of effort and resource
expenditure, thereby reducing development time and costs. It serves as a form of design review to erase weakness out
of the design or process. It is widely used in development and manufacturing industries in various phases of the
product life cycle. Effects analysis refers to studying the consequences of those failures on different system levels.
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V2 11/09/12 DEX Brazil

Page 206 of 312


1. Sintoma: Queda na média de horas trabalhadas semanalmente por empregado do terceiro turno Data de Abertura:
2. Descrição do Problema: Trânsito na I-234
3. Deduções sobre Fatos e outras Informações
2a. Questões "É/Não É" É Não É Ocorrência
3a. Diferenças 3b. Mudanças Data
Objeto Falta de vagas no Excesso de vagas Implementação de 7-Jul 4. Passos para Verificar a Cau
estacionamento no estacionamento uma nova linha que 4a. Combine a descrição do
aumentou o número Problema com as mudanças
de funcionários para determinar a(s) Causa(s)
Potenciai(s).

Defeito Empregados Empregados Hora de Chegada Hora mais tardia de


O que

atrasados adiantados chegada

Uma nova linha de produção


instalada na planta aumentou
o número de funcionários e a
movimentação de caminhões,
o que gerou falta de vagas no
estacionamento.
Vista no Objeto Estacionamento Na rua 4c. Elimine todas, exceto uma ca
fazendo a "linha" ir e vir.

Vista Geograficamente Estacionamento Estacionamento Através do cálculo


Onde

Interno Externo demonstra-se que, com o


aumento de funcionários
novos e o maior fluxo de
caminhões, ocorre falta de
vagas.

Visto pela primeira vez 7 de julho Antes de 7 de julho Havia 30% a menos Uma nova linha de 7-Jul
de funcionários na produção foi
Quando mais visto Desde então Último ano planta antes de 7 de implantada em 7 de 5. Ações Corretivas Tomando D
julho julho 5a. Avalie a ação corr
Quando

tempo, custo e satisfação do clie


Quando visto em processo À tarde Manhã ou noite À tarde há pico de Com a instalação da 7-Jul
(vida do ciclo) movimentação de nova linha houve um
caminhões afetando o fluxo de material
estacionamento. maior às 4:00hs.
Terceiro turno (4:00 Primeiro turno Muitos caminhões 7-Jul 5b. Verifique as ações corretivas
da tarde) (12:00) Segundo param no de falhas (não crie outro defeito)
Quantos objetos têm o defeito? turno (8:00) estacionamento
Quanto

Um por dia Mais do que um por ocupando muitas


dia vagas enquanto nos
Quantos defeitos por objeto?
outros horários não
Aumentando Diminuindo
há pico
Qual a tendência?
Iniciou, em 7 de julho, falta de vagas no 3c. Revisão - Descrição do Problema #2 6. Implementação da Ação Cor
estacionamento ás 4:00 da tarde, o que
2b. Descrição do Problema está resultando no atraso para o trabalho
dos empregados do terceciro turno.
Escape
4. Passos para Verificar a Causa Raiz
4b. Pergunte "Por Que?"
para as causas potenciais
em 4a.

A planta falhou por não ter


um sistema ou
procedimento que pudesse
detectar este tipo de
problema.

4c. Elimine todas, exceto uma causa raiz pela verificação


fazendo a "linha" ir e vir.

Entrevistas com os
empregados verificam a
Causa Raiz de Escape.

5. Ações Corretivas Tomando Decisão


5a. Avalie a ação corretiva em relação ao
tempo, custo e satisfação do cliente.

5b. Verifique as ações corretivas selecionadas pelo teste


de falhas (não crie outro defeito).
6. Implementação da Ação Corretiva
Diagrama Espinha de Peixe - Fishbone

MAO DE OBRA MAQUINA MATERIA PRIMA

Problema - EFEITO INDESEJADO

CAUSAS PROVÁVEIS

MEDIÇÃO METODO MEIO AMBIENTE

OBSERVAÇÃO

OPERADOR , ABASTECE, ETIQUETA, BUSCA MATERIAL, DIGITA NO SISTEMA , DA BAIXA, CONFERE ESTOQUE, CONSULTAR SALDO NO ALMOX

Outras causas levantadas no Brainstorming:


Análise de dados br

✘ ✘

Mostre dados
Colorir dados entre: >>> 650 a 1600
### duplicados ###
Amount Names
$ 256.33 Bill
$ 358.68 Fred
$ 461.03 Jack
$ 563.38 Bill
$ 665.73 Harry
$ 768.08 Mary
$ 870.43 June
$ 972.78 Ned
$ 1,075.13 Mary
$ 1,177.48 Greg
$ 1,279.83 Joe
$ 1,382.18 John
$ 1,484.53 Sam
$ 1,586.88 Paul
$ 1,689.23 Harry
$ 1,791.58 June
$ 1,893.93 Dave
$ 1,996.28 Harry
$ 2,098.63
$ 2,200.98
$ 2,303.33
$ 2,405.68
$ 2,508.03
$ 2,610.38
$ 2,712.73
$ 2,815.08
DEX BRASIL - CAPGEMINI
álise de dados bruto Voltar

Objetivo: Permite iden


há dados repetidos ou
✘ ✘
Mostre somente a primeira
ocorrência da duplicidade 1 Aplicação: Ideal para au
Names cadastrais e base de da
Bill Uso na fase Analisar do
Fred
Jack
Bill
Harry
Mary
June
Ned
Mary
Greg
Joe
Objective: Allows to ve
Kyle
Sam Use: Increase the reliab
Paul activities.
Harry
Kyle
Use in Analyse phase.
Dave
Kyle
Harry
Bill
fred
greg
NED
vo: Permite identificar rapidamente em uma tabela de dados, se
dos repetidos ou dentro de uma faixa estabelecida.

ção: Ideal para aumentar a confiabilidade de análises de dados


rais e base de dados, bem como em atividades de conciliação.
a fase Analisar do DMAIC

tive: Allows to verify if we have repetitive data or in specification.

ncrease the reliability of data analyses and the conciliation


ties.
Analyse phase.
Aréa: x
Matriz de Polivalencia e Competencia

Chamados

Controles
Telefonia
BON FRI
Gap to be

BON
MAT

NDB
CON

ADT

CDP
DVC

FRN
RPA
ATV
SER

FCP
FRE

FFR

FAT
J1B
Activity

FRI
achieved

COMPLEXITY
Employee 2 5 5 4 5 2 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 4 4 1 5 4 Total Actual Goal
João 5 5 5 1 5 5 5 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 306 17 17
Maria 4 4 4 1 4 4 4 1 4 3 3 1 3 1 3 4 4 1 1 1 1 175 0 6
José 5 5 5 1 5 5 5 1 3 3 3 1 3 1 5 4 4 1 1 1 1 201 5 6
Benedita 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 110 0 6
Inacio 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 148 6 6
Carlos 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 90 0 6
Luiz 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 5 5 1 1 139 3 6
Rute 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 72 0 5
Moises 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 69 0 5
Noé 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 66 0 5
Mateus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 84 0 5
Esdras 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 162 0 4
Maria 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 66 0 4
Rute 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 99 0 4
Total 84 175 135 64 135 54 108 34 32 99 105 87 102 87 52 25 96 88 28 90 68
Actual 5 5 4 2 0 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
Goal 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 5
PLANO DE AÇÃO
FÁBRICA: GESTOR: LIDER:

DEPTO: ELABORADO EM: DATA:

Realizada Em andamento Atrasada Cancelada Falta data Não iniciada


MEDIDA TOMADA PROCEDIMENTO RAZÃO LOCAL RESPONSÁVEL PRAZO PROGRESSO % FAROL Obs
Inicio Fim STATUS SITUAÇÃO COMENTARIOS
WHAT ( O quê ?) HOW ( Como ?) WHY ( Por quê) WHERE ( Onde ?) WHO ( Quem ?)

1 Atrasada

2 Atrasada

3 Realizada

7
Área Responsável
AGOSTO SETEMBRO OUTUBRO NOVEMBRO DEZEMBRO

Weeks 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Green Belt
D
EXTRUSAO

xxxxx
M

STATUS
DEFINE MEASURE ANALYSE IMPROVE CONTROL

Project Charter
• Voice of the Customer
• SIPOC Map
• Pareto Analysis ( 80 x 20 )
Validate High-Level Value Stream Map and Scope
Validate Voice of the Customer and Voice of the Business
Validate Financial Benefits
Select and Launch Team
Develop Project Schedule
Measurables baseline

In red - Available in Cap Tools

Y - Focus
Is this project important, i.e. has the project been chosen because it is in alignment with <Business Unit> goals and the
strategic direction of the ‘business’?
What is the problem statement –detailing (what) is the problem, (when) was the problem first seen, (where) was is it seen,
and what is the (magnitude or extent) of the problem. Is the problem measured in terms of Quality, Cycle Time or Cost
Efficiency, not expected financial benefits? Ensure there is no mention or assumptions about causes and solutions.
Does a goal statement exist that defines the results expected tobe achieved by the process, with reasonable and
measurable targets? Is the goal developed for the “what”in the problem statement, thus measured in terms of Quality,
Cycle Time or Cost Efficiency?
Does a financial business case exist, explaining the potential impact (i.e. measured in euros) of the project on the
business units, suppliers, external and business customers, etc.?
Is the project scope reasonable? Have constraints and key assumptions been identified? Have IT implications been
addressed and coordinated with IT managers? Have Information security concerns ?
Who is on the team? Are they the right resources and has their required time commitment to the project been confirmed
by Sponsor and Team?
What is the high level work plan? What are the key milestones (i.e. dates of tollgate reviews for DMAIC projects)?
Who are the customers (business units, suppliers, external and business customers) for this process? What are their
requirements? Are they measurable? How were the requirements determined?
Who are the key stakeholders? How will they be involved in the project? How will progress be communicated to them?
Do they agree to the project?
What kinds of barriers/obstacles will need assistance to be removed? Has the development of a risk mitigation plan to
deal with the identified risks been developed?
Has approved this project charter and registered it in IPortal

DMAIC – ROAD MAP

DEFINE MEASURE ANALYSE IMPROVE CONTROL

High/Low level process Maps


• Value Stream Map or Flow chart
• Data Collection Plan
• Constraint Identification
• Collect Baseline Data - Validation Y results
Determine Process Performance rate
Measurables baseline

Y – Focus ( sometimes X )
Has a more detailed Value Stream Map been completed to better understand the process and problem, and where in the
process the root causes might reside?
Has the team conducted a value-added and cycle time analysis, identifying areas where time and resources are devoted to
tasks not critical to the customer?
Has the team identified the specific input (x), process (x), and output (y) measures needing to be collected for both
effectiveness and efficiency categories (i.e. Quality, Speed and Cost Efficiency measures)?
Has the team developed clear, unambiguous operational definitions for each measurement and tested them with others to
ensure clarity and consistent interpretation?
Has a clear, reasonable choice been made between gathering new data or taking advantage of existing data?
Sample size & sampling frequency established to ensure valid representation of the process we’re measuring?
Has the team developed & tested the data collection form for usability and that it can provide consistent, complete data?
Has baseline performance and process capability been established? How large is the gap between current performance
and the customer (or project) requirements?
Has the team been able to identify any ‘Quick Wins’?
Has the team begun to fill in the financial benefits worksheets ?
Have any opportunities to do Kaizen projects been identified to accelerate momentum and results?
Have ‘learnings’ to-date required modification of the Project Charter? If so, have these changes been approved by the
Project Sponsor and the Key Stakeholders?
New risks to project success have been identified, added to the Risk Mitigation Plan, & mitigation strategy put in place?

DMAIC – ROAD MAP

DEFINE MEASURE ANALYSE IMPROVE CONTROL GO BACK

Identify Potential Root Causes


• Reduce List of Potential Root Causes
• Confirm Root Cause to Output Relationship
• Estimate Impact of Root Causes on Key Outputs
• Prioritize Root Causes - Cause and Effect
• Process Constraint ID and Takt Time Analysis

X - Focus

Has the team examined the process and identified potential bottlenecks, disconnects and redundancies that could contribute to the problem
statement?
Has the team analyzed data about the process and its performance to help stratify the problem, understand reasons for variation in the
process, and generate hypothesis as to the rootcauses of the current process performance?
Has an evaluation been done to determine whether the problem canbe solved without a fundamental ‘white paper’recreation of the process?
Has the decision been confirmed withthe Project Sponsor?
Has the team investigated and validated the root cause hypotheses generated earlier, to gain confidence that the “vital few”root causes have
been uncovered?
Does the team understand why the problem (the Quality, Cycle Time or Cost Efficiency issue identified in the Problem Statement) is being
seen?
Has the team been able to identify any additional ‘Quick Wins’?
Have ‘learning's to-date required modification of the Project Charter? If so, have these changes been approved by the Project Sponsor and
the Key Stakeholders?
Has the team examined the process and identified potential bottlenecks, disconnects and redundancies that could contribute to the problem
statement?
Has the team analyzed data about the process and its performance to help stratify the problem, understand reasons for variation in the
process, and generate hypothesis as to the rootcauses of the current process performance?
Has an evaluation been done to determine whether the problem canbe solved without a fundamental ‘white paper’recreation of the process?
Has the decision been confirmed withthe Project Sponsor?
Has the team investigated and validated the root cause hypotheses generated earlier, to gain confidence that the “vital few”root causes have
been uncovered?
Does the team understand why the problem (the Quality, Cycle Time or Cost Efficiency issue identified in the Problem Statement) is being
seen?
Has the team been able to identify any additional ‘Quick Wins’?
Have ‘learning's to-date required modification of the Project Charter? If so, have these changes been approved by the Project Sponsor and
the Key Stakeholders?
Have any new risks to project success been identified, added to the Risk Mitigation Plan, and a mitigation strategy put in place?

DMAIC – ROAD MAP

DEFINE MEASURE ANALYSE IMPROVE CONTROL

X - Focus
Develop Potential Solutions - Brainstorming or Brainwritting ( GUITE )
• Evaluate, Select, and Optimize Best Solutions
• Develop ‘Future state Value Stream Map(s)
• Develop and Implement Pilot Solution
• Confirm Attainment of Project Goals
• Develop Full Scale Implementation Plan• - Schedulle

What techniques were used to generate ideas for potential solutions?


What narrowing and screening techniques were used to further develop and qualify potential solutions?
What evaluation criteria were used to select a recommended solution?
Do the proposed solutions address all of the identified root causes, or at least the most critical?
Were the solutions verified with the Project Sponsor and Stakeholders? Has an approval been received to implement?
Was a pilot run to test the solution? What was learned? What modifications were made?
Has the team seen evidence that the root causes of the initial problems have been addressed during the pilot? What are the expected benefits?
Has the team considered potential problems and unintended consequences (FMEA) of the solution and developed preventive and contingency
actions to address them?
Has the proposed solution been documented, including process participants, job descriptions and if applicable, their estimated time commitment
to support the process?
Has the team developed an implementation plan? What is the status?
Have changes been communicated to all the appropriate people?
Has the team been able to identify any additional ‘Quick Wins’?
Have ‘learning's’to-date required modification of the Project Charter? If so, have these changes been approved by the Project Sponsor and the Key
Stakeholders?
Have any new risks to project success been identified and added to the Risk Mitigation Plan?

DEFINE MEASURE ANALYSE IMPROVE CONTROL

Implement Mistake Proofing ( Business Poka Yoke )


GO BACK
• Develop procedures, Training Plan & Process Controls ( Polivalence Matrix )
• Implement Solution and Ongoing Process Measurements
• Identify Project Replication Opportunities
• Transition Project to Process Owner
Visual Process Control Tools
Team Feedback Session

Has the team prepared all the essential documentation for the improved process, including revised/new Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s), a
training plan and a process control system?
Has the necessary training for process owners/operators been performed
Have the right measures been selected, and documented as part ofthe Process Control System, to monitor performance of the process and the continued
effectiveness of the solution? Has the metrics briefing plan/schedule been documented? Who owns the measures? Has the Process Owner’s job
description been updated to reflect the new responsibilities? What happens if minimum performance is not achieved?
Has the solution been effectively implemented? Has the team compiled results data confirming that the solution has achieved the goalsdefined in the
Project Charter?
Have the Financial Benefit Worksheets been documented? Has the financial controller reviewed?
Has the process been transitioned to the Process Owner, to take over responsibility for managing continuing operations? Do they concur with the control
plan?
Has a final Storyboard documenting the project work been developed?
Has the team forwarded other issues / opportunities, which were not able to be addressed, to senior management?
Have “lessons learned”been captured?
Have replication opportunities been identified and communicated?
Has the team congratuleted and motivated for new chalenges.
Has the GB concluded this project in IPortal.
Has the Controller validated the benefits
Has the sponsor apprived this project

Release 5.2 - Inylbra 091213


Jairo Brandão 28 Fev 2013 GO BACK
Melhoria Contínua
10 MIN

PLT = 10 PLT = PLT =


VA= VA= VA=
PCE= 0 PCE= PCE=

RETRABALHO NAO OK

PLT =
VA=
PCE=
NÃO AGREGA ELIMINAR =

NÃO AGREGA OTIMIZAR =

AGREGA = 1 = 4 %

Processo B

PLT = 50 PLT = 50 PLT =


VA= 5 VA= 5 VA=
PCE= 10 PCE= 10 PCE=
MAPA DE PR

Processo A
Exemplo apenas...

CONFERENCIA -
CHECKING

PLT = PLT = 50 PLT =


VA= VA= 5 VA=
PCE= PCE= 10 PCE=

OK
NAO OK
IF - SE -
CONDICIONAL
MINAR = 19 = 65 %

MIZAR = 9 = 31 %

4 HORAS

PLT = PLT = PLT =


VA= VA= VA=
PCE= PCE= PCE=
DE PROCESSO - SIMPL

so A

PLT = PLT = 50
VA= VA= 5
PCE= PCE= 10

PLT =
VA=
PCE=
PLT =
VA=
PCE=

PLT =
VA=
PCE=

QUERY PARA
CONFERCIAS

PLT = 50 PLT =
VA= 5 VA=
PCE= 10 PCE=

PLT = PLT =
VA= VA=
PCE= PCE=
MPLES VOLTAR

2:20 HS

PLT =
VA=
PCE=

PLT =
VA=
PCE=
PLT =
VA=
PCE= PCP

PLT =
VA=
PCE=

PLT =
VA=
PCE=

PLT = PLT = PLT =


VA= VA= VA=
PCE= PCE= PCE=

VOLTAR
VOLTAR
Definition:

Process mapping

The main purpos


A clear and deta
can be made to t
Business process
organization's ob
it helps all proce

It describes how
how work is don
some of the caus

By mapping proc
Process inputs (
non value added
By mapping proc
Process inputs (
non value added
PCP costs, waiting tim

vvv
ENTRY
CLASSIFICATION

TAX
TESTE
tion:

s mapping is the most important and

ain purpose behind business process m


and detailed business process map o
made to the current process.
ss process mapping takes a specific ob
zation's objectives to make sure that a
s all process members understand the

ribes how activities are performed an


ork is done . It can be used as an aid i
of the causes may be.. It leverages oth

pping processes we can identify many


s inputs ( X's), 2 - Supplier requiremen
lue added processses tasks and steps.
pping processes we can identify many
s inputs ( X's), 2 - Supplier requiremen
lue added processses tasks and steps.
waiting time, etc )
PLT = PLT = PLT =
VA= VA= VA=
PCE= PCE= PCE=
tant and powerful tool you will use to

process mapping also called flowcharti


s map or illustration allows outside fir

pecific objective and helps to measure


re that all processes are aligned with
tand their part in the process and how

rmed and how work effort flows, it is


s an aid in training new people. It wi
ages other analytical tools by providin

fy many important characteristics and


uirements 3- Process Outputs ( Y's
nd steps. 6 - Data collection points, li
fy many important characteristics and
uirements 3- Process Outputs ( Y's
nd steps. 6 - Data collection points, li
PLT =
VA=
PCE=
PLT =
VA=
PCE=
will use to improve the effectiveness a

owcharting is to assist organizations i


utside firms to come in and look at wh

measure and compare that objective a


ed with the company's values and cap
and how their process fits into the big

ws, it is a visual way of standing abov


e. It will help you understand where
providing a source of data and inputs

istics and develop information forothe


uts ( Y's ) 4 - Actual customer needs
points, like: Cycle time, defects, effic
istics and develop information forothe
uts ( Y's ) 4 - Actual customer needs
points, like: Cycle time, defects, effic
PLT =
VA=
PCE=

PLT = PLT =
VA= VA=
PCE= PCE=
veness and efficiency of a process.

zations in becoming more efficient.


ok at whether or not improvements

bjective alongside the entire


and capabilities
o the bigger picture.

ng above te process and watching


d where problems occur and what
nd inputs into these tools.

n forother analytical tools: 1 -


needs 5 - All value-added and
ts, efficiency., overtimee rework,
n forother analytical tools: 1 -
needs 5 - All value-added and
ts, efficiency., overtimee rework,
PLT = PLT =
VA= VA=
PCE= PCE=
ocess.

fficient.
ements

ching
what

-
nd
work,
-
nd
work,
MATRIZ CDE PRIORIZAÇÃO DE PROJETOS DE REDUÇÃO DE CUSTOS
sort
G U I T E S
Gráfico de Pizza

EXEQUIBILIDADE

SATISFAÇÃO DO
INVESTIMENTO

CLIENTE FINAL
GRAVIDADE

TENDÊNCIA
URGÊNCIA

Total
Excesso de horas extras Refugo na Extrusora Refugo na Rulli - Resina Plastica
27
33

Problema ou solução
Excesso de horas extras 5 5 5 8 5 5 33
34
Refugo na Extrusora 5 9 5 5 5 5 34
Refugo na Rulli - Resina Plastica 5 4 5 3 5 5 27
0
0
0
0
0

Obs. Em Gravidade, considerar impacto no custo , segurança, e meio ambiente

Gráfico de Pareto

40 33 34
30 27
20
10
Refugo na Rul l i - Res i na Pl a stica
Exces s o de hora s extra s

Refugo na Extrus ora

0
0 0 0 0 0

Créditos: Silvana Paim e Jairo - DEX Brazil 08 2012


Gráfico de Pareto Voltar

PARETO

1600.00

1400.00
1400.00

1200.00

1000.00
876.00

800.00 766.00
650.00
600.00
600.00

400.00
234.00
200.00 150.00 130.00
45.00 45.00
0.00
DPMO Nível Sigma Calc

DPMO = Defeito por Milhão de Opo

CÁLCULO DE DPMO
Número de oportunidades:

Número de unidades avaliadas:

Número total de defeitos:

DPMO:

Nível Sigma:
0.0000034
4.4998545

Obs. É importante fixar a padronizar as oportunidades de defeitos para eventual comparação

Converter DPMO ou PPM em nível sigma longo ou curto

ENTRE COM O DPMO

3.4

Converter FTT em DPMO e nivel sigma

ENTRE COM O "LONG TERM YIELD"

99.99966

Converter % em nível sigma longo ou curto

ENTRE COM O %

0.00034
el Sigma Calc Voltar

Milhão de Oportunidades

ULO DE DPMO
1

1000000

3.4

3.4

6.00
defeitos para eventual comparação.

nível sigma longo ou curto LONG TERM

Unilateral

YIELD Prob SIGMA SIGMA


99.99966 0.9999966 4.50 6.00

Objetivo = 99.99966% Objetivo = 4.5 sigma Objetivo 6 sigma

DPMO Prob SIGMA SIGMA


3.3999999999 0.9999966 4.50 6.00

Objetivo 3.4 DPMO Objetivo = 4.5 sigma Objetivo 6 sigma

longo ou curto

YIELD Prob SIGMA SIGMA


99.99966 0.9999966 4.50 6.00

Objetivo = 99.99966% Objetivo = 4.5 sigma Objetivo 6 sigma


Voltar
Objetivo: Permite a mensuração do nível sigma de um
comunidade 6 sigma.

Este indicador considera a taxa de falhas ( erros ) ocor


todas as oportunidades em um mesmo documento ou

APLICAÇÃO: Quando expressar em porcentagem não é

Permite comparação entre qualidade de itens distintos

Fornece tambem O DPMO - Defeitos por Milhão de Op


linguagem para mensurar defeitos, considerando toda
LONG TERM SHORT TERM

ppk cpk

1.50 2.00

Objetivo= 2

ppk cpk

1.50 2.00

Objetivo= 2

ppk cpk

1.50 2.00

Objetivo= 2
Permite a mensuração do nível sigma de um processo. Um padrão de comparação
ade 6 sigma.

ador considera a taxa de falhas ( erros ) ocorridas a cada um milhão de oportunida


oportunidades em um mesmo documento ou serviço.

ÃO: Quando expressar em porcentagem não é mais interessante dado o valor baixo

omparação entre qualidade de itens distintos - benchmarking mundial

ambem O DPMO - Defeitos por Milhão de Oportunidades, permite uma padronizaç


m para mensurar defeitos, considerando todas as oportunidades possiveis.
Capabilidade de Processos Seis Sigma
Defeitos por unidade (dpu)=
Percentual de defeitos (%) =
Defeitos por milhão (dpm) =
Nível Sigma =
Capabilidade do Processo (Cpk)=
esso. Um padrão de comparação muito adotado pela Objective: Allows the
6 sigma community.

a cada um milhão de oportunidades, considerando


ço. This indicator conside
opportunities in the s
interessante dado o valor baixo.
APPLICATION: When
chmarking mundial
Allows compare the q
idades, permite uma padronização universal de
portunidades possiveis. Also provides the DP
measuring defects, co

The sigma level, lets


table for chrono-anal

Example: An invoice
The DPMO considers

In the tables below, s


the level or sigma or
cessos Seis Sigma
0.0000034
0.00034%
3.4
6.00
2.00
jective: Allows the measurement of the sigma level of a process. A comparison stan
igma community.

is indicator considers the failure rate (errors) occurring every million opportunities,
portunities in the same document or service.

PLICATION: When expressed in percentage is not more interesting given the low va

ows compare the quality of different items - global benchmarking

so provides the DPMO - Defects per Million Opportunities, allows an universal lang
easuring defects, considering all possible opportunities.

e sigma level, lets compare different processes, eg time to issue an invoice, in Chile,
ble for chrono-analysis sigma level) - Mistakes made on invoices.

ample: An invoice can be up to 19 errors because contains 19 fields.


e DPMO considers all possible errors of the 19 fields, and not just a defective invoic

the tables below, starting from volume, defects and opportunities , we can obtain t
e level or sigma or Yield and its equivalence in CPK
ess. A comparison standard widely adopted by the

million opportunities, considering all the

sting given the low value.

rking

lows an universal language standardization for

ue an invoice, in Chile, Brazil or Guatemala (see


es.

fields.
just a defective invoice.

nities , we can obtain the DPMO, and then obtain


Dados nas células verdes
opção 1 ( não recomendado ) opção 2 ( não recomendado )
hora minutos (minutos totais) horas decimais horas e minutos (minutos totais) horas decimais
Objetivo
10 10 0.17 0:10 10 0.17 correta d
30 30 0.50 0:30 30 0.50 Converte
1 0 60 1.00 1:00 60 1.00
1 30 90 1.50 1:30 90 1.50 Aplicaçã
1 45 105 1.75 1:45 105 1.75
2 0 120 2.00 0:00 0 0.00 Exemplo
2 15 135 2.25 2:15 135 2.25
23 59 1439 23.98 23:59 1439 23.98
59 minu
0 0.00 0 0.00
0 0.00 0 0.00
0 0.00 0 0.00
Obs. Par
0 0.00 0 0.00
números
0 0.00 0 0.00
0 0.00 0 0.00
0 0.00 0 0.00
Digite somente nas células verdes

Obs. Os dados das colunas em verde não devem ser usados em gráficos ou cálculos de média ou desvio padrão
MÉDIA 55.25
DESVIO PADRÃO 5.49
Qtde de dados 20
Máximo 44.00
Mínimo 66.00
ESPEC SUPERIOR 88.00
Target
ESPEC INFERIOR 33.00
Assimetria 0.36
Curtose 0.21
Pp 1.67
Ppk 1.35
4.0560540078
% Out specification (one side) 0.00250

Obs. Considerar a normalidadre da distribuição - teste de aderência


SIPOC

SIPOC
REQUERIMENTOS FORNECEDORES ENTRADA PROCESSO SAIDA CLIENTES
GESTÃO DE ORDEM DE
FABRICAÇÃO
TI xxx

COPIS
Matriz de Impacto e Esforço

LISTA DE OPORTUNIDADES

(1) Itens: (2) Itens:

ALTO

IMPACTO

( BENEFÍCIOS )

(3) Itens: (4) Itens:

BAIXO

BAIXO
ESFORÇO

Matriz de esforço x impact


LISTA DE OPORTUNIDADES

(1) Itens: (2) Itens:

ALTO

IMPACTO

( BENEFÍCIOS )
(3) Itens: (4) Itens:

BAIXO

BAIXO
ESFORÇO

DEX BRASIL - CAPGEMINI


e Esforço Voltar

Objetivo: Esta Matriz,permite após a definição d


definir quais são as ações que geram um menor
(2) Itens: impacto nos resultados, ajudando na priorização

O ideal é implementar primeiiro as ações do quad


de acordo com a necessidade do projeto.

Aplicação: Fase Analiisar ou Melhorar do DMAIC


Ferramenta relacionada opcional: Matriz GUITE e
(4) Itens:

Objective: is a structured planning method used t


Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved
business venture. It involves specifying the objec
ALTO
or project and identifying the internal and extern
and unfavorable to achieve that objective.
Allow achievable goals or objectives to be set for

Use: Analyse or Improve phase


Optional tool related: Guite Matrix and Brainstor

o x impacto
(2) Itens:
(4) Itens:

ALTO
e após a definição de uma lista de ações
e geram um menor esforço para um maior
ndo na priorização da aplicação das soluções..

ro as ações do quadrante 1, e seguir adiante


do projeto.

Melhorar do DMAIC
nal: Matriz GUITE e Brainstoming

ning method used to evaluate the Strengths,


nd Threats involved in a project or in a
pecifying the objective of the business venture
internal and external factors that are favorable
at objective.
ectives to be set for the organization.

se
Matrix and Brainstorming
TIM WOOD - Perdas - Administração - Transacional Voltar

TIPOS DE DESPERDICIOS EM LEAN OFFICE


]

ÁREA - TORRE : ______________ PROJETO NR E NOME: DATA : _____________ Obs:


PESO TIPO DE DESPERDÍCIO EXEMPLOS

T TRANSPORTE Anexos de emails, aprovações múltiplas de um documento, envio de documentos para arquivo.
I INVENTARIO Relatórios, material de escritório, catálogos, caixa de emails, caixa de serviços ( work-flow), lista de pendências, etc
M MOVIMENTO Caminhada até a impressora, copiadora, outra operação, excesso de campos no formulário.

W ESPERA Sistema lento ou fora do ar, ramal ocupado, demora no atendimento de telefone, demora a responder emails, demora na aprovação de um documento, espera de uma operação anterior.
O EXCESSO PRODUCAO Imprimir documentos antes do necessário, aquisição antecipada de material ou informação, etc
O EXCESSO PROCESSAMENTRelatórios não necessários ou em excesso, cópias de documentos eletrônicos, reentrada de dados, redundâncias de informação, etc

D DEFEITOS Erros em faturas,pedidos, notas fiscais, cotações, emails, informação equivocada, etc.
Contrato do Projeto - Project Charter VOLTAR

CONTRATO DE ABERTURA DE PROJETO


Título do Projeto: Nr xx
Data abertura : Data prevista de conclusão:
Líder do Projeto: Padrinho :
Fábrica: Tipo de projeto:
Área Afetada: Benefícios Tipo:

Participantes :
Nome: Área Ramal:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
APOIO:

Descrição do Problema: ( Sintomas, razão do projeto )

Indicadores do Projeto & Metas: ( ex: Scrap, refugo, Lead Time, ppm, etc.)

Oportunidades :

Escopo do Projeto ( Abrangência, áreas e fábricas envolvidas, restrições, suporte requerido)

Benefícios aos Clientes e Acionistas:

Resultados financeiros estimados ao ano:

Priorização: Sim Não


1 O projeto está alinhado com as metas estratégicas da empresa ?
x
2 Este projeto busca solução para problemas que impactam os clientes?

3 A data de conclusão é aceita por todos envolvidos e afetados ?

4 O lider / padrinho tem domínio de todas etapas do processo?

5 Já existe uma solução conhecida e aprovada para este problema ?

6 Você necessita encontrar a causa do problema ?

7 Este projeto conflita com algum outro ?

8 Este projeto gera investimento ? ( estimativa : )

9 Os resultados deste projeto podem ser aplicados em outros processos -


abrangência
10 Este projeto gera redução de custos ? ( Estimativa anual: )

APROVAÇÕES PARA ABERTURA APROVAÇÕES PARA FECHAMENTO


______________________________________ ______________________________________
GERÊNCIA DA ÁREA AFETADA: GERÊNCIA DA ÁREA AFETADA:
Nome: Nome:
Ass: _______________________ Ass: _______________________
GERÊNCIA DE MELHORIA CONTÍNUA : GERÊNCIA DE MELHORIA CONTÍNUA :
Nome: Nome:
Ass: _______________________ Ass: _______________________
GERÊNCIA DE PRODUTO
Nome:
Ass: _______________________
GERÊNCIA DA QUALIDADE, MEIO AMBIENTE E SEGURANÇA
Nome:
Ass: _______________________
GERÊNCIA DA ÁREA FINANCEIRA
Nome:
Ass: _______________________

F-02 - GMC Revisão 3

Refugo
Produtividade
Satisfação Cliente
Redução de Custos
Segurança
Meio Ambiente
Normas
Administrativo
Qualidade de vida
5S
Outras
Qualidade
Processo
Produto
Todas

Lean
Kaizen
Mini Kaizen
6 Sigma
Outros
Qualidade
Lean e 6 sigma

Diadema
Jacarei
São J. Pinhais
Gravatai
Escobar
Todas

Produção
Engenharia
Qualidade
Manutenção
Ferramentaria
Almoxarifado
Compras
PCM
PCP
Expedição
Vendas
Finanças
Administração
TI
Fiscal
Controladoria
Meio Ambiente
Segurança
Recursos Humano
Outros
Matriz de Correlação Voltar
CAUSAS Relacionamento - Correlação
Sintoma Cliente Interno Atenção Sistema

CNPJ Errado MUITO FORTE

Duplicidade

Taxa errada FORTE

Endereço errado

Atraso FRACO
Sigma level - Coleta de dados -

DATA SEMANA ATIVIDADE TIPO PESSOA


11-Sep SEG Extrair informação do SAP NAV ELIMINAR Kelly
1 19-Sep TER
27-Sep QUA

11-Sep SEG digitar AV Kelly


19-Sep TER
2 27-Sep QUA

11-Sep SEG imprimir AV Kelly


19-Sep TER
3 27-Sep QUA

VOLUME

25 4 4 5 4
25 4 5 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
25 4 4 5 4
Coleta de dados - Tomada de Tempo

VOLUME DIÁRIO DADOS ( min) MEDIA MEDIA DIARIA


12 21 24 22 22.3 268.0
22 22 32 26 26.7 586.7
24 22 11 21 18.0 432.0
22.3

20 32 33 45 36.7 733.3
25 36 32 37 35.0 875.0
21 33 27 33 31.0 651.0
34.2

14 12 11 11 11.3 158.7
14 21 11 11 14.3 200.7
12 12 14 16 14.0 168.0
13.2

NIVEL SIGMA - TEMPO DE CICLO

DADOS AQUI
6 5 5 6 7 5
8 5 5 6 9 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
6 5 5 6 7 5
Voltar

tempo padrão Desvio padrão cpk Nivel sigma - long term )


38.8 5.5 1.0 2.994
38.8
38.8

35 3.5 0.1 0.221


35
35

36.47 3.9 2.0 6.009


36.47
36.47

A - TEMPO DE CICLO

MEDIA MEDIA DIARIA


6 7 5.3 133.3
6 7 5.8 143.8
6 7 5.3 133.3
6 7 5.3 133.3
6 7 5.3 133.3
6 7 5.3 133.3
6 7 5.3 133.3
6 7 5.3 133.3
6 7 5.3 133.3
6 7 5.3 133.3
6 7 5.3 133.3
6 7 5.3 133.3
6 7 5.3 133.3
DPMO ( meta 3,4)
67595.73 93.24043 Objetivo: Sugere um plano amost
respectivos cálculos estatísticos, D
cpk.

Aplicação : Tomada de tempos na


899573.65 10.04264
Fase - Analisar do DMAIC

3.25 99.99967 Exemplo de um tempo 6 sigma

Objective: Suggests a sampling pla


statistical calculations as DPMO, si

Use: time sampling of activities


Phase: Analyse

tempo padrão Desvio padrão cpk Nivel sigma - long term )

11.5 1.1 2.0 6.000


11.5 1.5 1.2 3.722
11.5 1.1 1.9 5.747
11.5 1.1 1.9 5.747
11.5 1.1 1.9 5.747
11.5 1.1 1.9 5.747
11.5 1.1 1.9 5.747
11.5 1.1 1.9 5.747
11.5 1.1 1.9 5.747
11.5 1.1 1.9 5.747
11.5 1.1 1.9 5.747
11.5 1.1 1.9 5.747
11.5 1.1 1.9 5.747
Sugere um plano amostral para coleta de tempos - cronoánalise e seus
cálculos estatísticos, DPMO, Nível Sigma , média,e desvio -padrão e

Tomada de tempos nas atividades


sar do DMAIC

Suggests a sampling plan to data collection - chrono-analysis and some


alculations as DPMO, sigma level, average, standard deviation and cpk.

ampling of activities
lyse

DPMO ( meta 3,4) Yield


168.0
3.40 99.99966
200.7
13134.95 98.68651
imprimir 158.7
10.85 99.99892
651.0
10.85 99.99892

10.85 99.99892 875.

10.85 99.99892 digitar 733.3

10.85 99.99892 432.0

586.7

Extrair informação do SAP 268.0


875.

digitar 733.3

432.0
10.85 99.99892
586.7
10.85 99.99892
Extrair informação do SAP 268.0
10.85 99.99892
0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
10.85 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
99.99892 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10
0

10.85 99.99892

10.85 99.99892
alise e seus
padrão e

s and some
on and cpk.

651.0

875.0

733.3

.0

586.7
875.0

733.3

.0

586.7

0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0
60 70 80 90 1 00
Estudo de Linearidade
Part nº Nome do Equipamento nº de peças 5
Característica Nº do Equipamento nº de medições 12
Especificação Tipo do Equipamento Erro Amostral 5.0%

Peças 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Valor de Referência 2 4 6 8 10
1 2.7 5.1 5.8 7.6 9.1
2 2.5 3.9 5.7 7.7 9.3
3 2.4 4.2 5.9 7.8 9.5
4 2.5 5 5.9 7.7 9.3
5 2.7 3.8 6 7.8 9.4
6 2.3 3.9 6.1 7.8 9.5
7 2.5 3.9 6 7.8 9.5
M
e 8 2.5 3.9 6.1 7.7 9.5
d 9 2.4 3.9 6.4 7.8 9.6
i 10 2.4 4 6.3 7.5 9.2
ç 11 2.6 4.1 6 7.6 9.3
õ 12 2.4 3.8 6.1 7.7 9.4
e 13
s 14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Média 2.491667 4.125 6.025 7.708333 9.383333
a= -0.1317 Teste de Hipóteses
 y  -3.2
b= 0.7367 H0: a = 0 H0: b = 0
s= 0.2395 |t| = 12.0425594115 |t| = 10.1575188601
 x  360

  x  x
2 tcrítico 2.0017174841 tcrítico 2.0017174841
 480.0000 Análise Análise
 xy 
i
-82.4
A tendência não é igual ao longo da A tendência não é igual a
R2 71.43% faixa de medição zero
x  2
2640

y 2
 11.82
Valor de Referência 2 4 6 8 10
0.8
Deslocamento 0.11 0.08 0.06 0.08 0.11
0.6 b + ax0 0.473333 0.21 -0.05333 -0.31667 -0.58
0.4 b + ax0 + deslocamento 0.580551 0.285814 0.008569 -0.24085 -0.47278
b + ax0
0.2 b + ax0 - deslocamento 0.366116 0.134186 -0.11524 -0.39248 -0.68722
b + ax0 + deslocamento
0 b + ax0 - deslocamento
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
-0.2 Média das Tendências

-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
Estudo de Tendência
Part nº Nome do Equipamento Valor de Referência 6.000
Característica Nº do Equipamento nº de medições 15
Especificação Tipo do Equipamento Erro Amostral 5%

Medição Valor Medição Valor Média = 6.0067


1 5.8 26 Tendência = 0.0067
2 5.7 27 Amplitude = 0.8000
3 5.9 28
4 5.9 29
sr  0.2120
5 6 30
6 6.1 31
sb  0.0547
7 6 32
  
8 6.1 33 tendência ± s b   t a  

9 6.4 34    ,1 2 
10 6.3 35
11 6 36 -0.1107460 0.1240793
12 6.1 37 0.1240792992 -0.1107459659
13 6.2 38
14 5.6 39
15 6 40
16 41 O sistema é adequado quanto a tendência
17 42 s processo =
18 43 %VE (VP) =
19 44 Tolerância = 3
20 45 %VE (TOL) = 42.40%
21 46
22 47
23 48
24 49
25 50
Estudo de Estabilidade e Tendência Análise de Tendência
Part nº Nome do Equipamento Valor de Referência 80 Tendência = -0.5166666667
Característica Nº do Equipamento nº de medições 5 s r= 2.5292790771
Especificação 117,80 +/- 0,15 Tipo do Equipamento nº de amostras 12 s b= 0.3265285248
Responsável Tolerância 100 Erro amostral 5%
  
Amostra tendência ± sb  t a  
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25   ,1 2 
Data 13/01 13/01 14/01 15/01 16/01 17/01 18/01 19/01 20/01 21/01 22/01 23/01
0.1415380926 -1.174871426
Hora 10h 10h 10h 10h 10h 10h 10h 10h 10h 10h 10h 10h
1 79 81 82 83 78 82 80 80 83 79 81 82 O sistema de medição é adequado
2 80 76 78 75 80 80 81 83 80 77 76 83 quanto à tendência
Medidas

3 81 83 82 81 76 80 81 81 82 78 83 80 s processo = 10
4 82 75 74 78 81 78 76 81 78 81 75 82 %VE (VP) = 25%
5 78 74 75 80 78 79 82 77 81 76 80 81 %VE (TOL) = 15%
Média 80 77.8 78.2 79.4 78.6 79.8 80 80.4 80.8 78.2 79 81.6
Amplitude 4 9 8 8 5 4 6 6 5 5 8 3

D4 2.211 Análise de Estabilidade


84 0.58
A2 Carta Xbarra
83 79.48
Xbarrabarra Limite Superior 82.92 Limite Inferior 76.05
Rbarra 82 5.917 Limite Superior 13.08 LCS = 82.915
82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92 82.92
81
79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48 79.48
80 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 76.05 X_bar 79.48333
79
78 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08 13.08
77 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 5.917 LCI = 76.05167

76
75
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 R =21 22 23 24 25

Carta R
14
12 LCS = 13.08175
10
8 R_bar 5.916667
6
4
2
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Estudo de Atributos - Análise de Risco
Part No. & Nome Nome do Equipamento
Características Equipamento No.
Tolerância 0.3 Tipo do Equipamento
Data Responsável

Valor de Operador A Operador B Operador C


Peça Referência 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Código
1 1.399721 R R R R R R R R R C
2 1.391929 R R R R R R R R R C
3 1.384306 R R R R R R R R R C
4 1.38024 R R R R R R R R R C
5 1.377717 R R R R R R R R R C
6 1.377435 R R R R R R R R R C
7 1.374305 R A A R A A R A A B
8 1.373279 R A A R A A R A A B
9 1.364803 R A A R A A R A A B
10 1.363736 R A A R A A R A A B
11 1.363301 R A A R A A R A A B
12 1.362051 R A A R A A R A A B
13 1.361803 R A A R A A R A A B
14 1.354626 R A A R A A R A A B
15 1.35271 A A A A A A A A A A
16 1.349169 A A A A A A A A A A
17 1.347761 A A A A A A A A A A
18 1.346997 A A A A A A A A A A
19 1.346463 A A A A A A A A A A
20 1.344918 A A A A A A A A A A
21 1.343715 A A A A A A A A A A
22 1.342795 A A A A A A A A A A
23 1.342519 A A A A A A A A A A
24 1.339343 A A A A A A A A A A
25 1.337233 A A A A A A A A A A
26 1.335394 A A A A A A A A A A
27 1.334957 A A A A A A A A A A
28 1.334863 A A A A A A A A A A
29 1.334088 A A A A A A A A A A
30 1.332465 A A A A A A A A A A
31 1.328961 A A A A A A A A A A
32 1.325937 A A A A A A A A A A
33 1.325456 A A A A A A A A A A
34 1.325075 A A A A A A A A A A
35 1.324253 A A A A A A A A A A
36 1.322778 A A A A A A A A A A
37 1.322535 A A A A A A A A A A
38 1.318157 A A A A A A A A A A
39 1.317934 A A A A A A A A A A
40 1.313888 R A A R A A R A A B
41 1.310303 R A A R A A R A A B
42 1.308273 R A A R A A R A A B
43 1.303012 R A A R A A R A A B
44 1.30154 R A A R A A R A A B
45 1.299797 R A A R A A R A A B
46 1.297798 R A A R A A R A A B
47 1.291878 R R R R R R R R R C
48 1.285125 R R R R R R R R R C
49 1.274969 R R R R R R R R R C
50 1.272825 R R R R R R R R R C

Superior Inferior Resultado s processo = 0.01


d1 = 1.377435 1.35271 0.024725 %GRR (VP) = 42.32%
d2 = 1.317934 1.291878 0.026056 %GRR (TOL) = 8.46%

VP: Sistema de medição necessita melhoria

Sistema de medição adequado quanta a TOL


Estudo de Repetitividade e Reprodutibilidade - Variação Total / Tolerância
Part No. & Nome Nome do Equipamento Peças (n) 10
Características Equipamento No. Operadores 3
Especificações Tipo do Equipamento Repetições (r) 3
Data Responsável Tolerância 8
Peça
Repetição 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 0.29 -0.56 1.34 0.47 -0.8 0.02 0.59 -0.31 2.26 -1.36
2 0.41 -0.68 1.17 0.5 -0.92 -0.11 0.75 -0.2 1.99 -1.25
A

3 0.64 -0.58 1.27 0.64 -0.84 -0.21 0.66 -0.17 2.01 -1.31
Operador

1 0.08 -0.47 1.19 0.01 -0.56 -0.2 0.47 -0.63 1.8 -1.68
2 0.25 -1.22 0.94 1.03 -1.2 0.22 0.55 0.08 2.12 -1.62
B

3 0.07 -0.68 1.34 0.2 -1.28 0.06 0.83 -0.34 2.19 -1.5
1 0.04 -1.38 0.88 0.14 -1.46 -0.29 0.02 -0.46 1.77 -1.49
2 -0.11 -1.13 1.09 0.2 -1.07 -0.67 0.01 -0.56 1.45 -1.77
C

3 -0.15 -0.96 0.67 0.11 -1.45 -0.49 0.21 -0.49 1.87 -2.16

Fonte de variação SQ gl QM F P-value A interação operador peça é


Não
Operador 3.167262 2 1.583631 79.40605 0.000000 significativa?
Peça 88.36193 9 9.817993 492.2914 0.000000 QM agrup 0.039973 3.1673
Interações 0.358982 18 0.019943 0.433721 0.974000 88.3619
Equipamento 2.758933 60 0.045982 0.359
Total 94.64711 89 ndc 4.9 2.7589
94.6471
Estimativa da % da Variação
Variação Desvio Padrão Total % da Tolerância Contribuição %
VE 0.1999331797 18.4% 15.0% 3.4%
VO 0.2268375215 20.9% 17.0% 4.4%
INT 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
R&R 0.3023715223 27.9% 22.7% 7.8%
VP 1.042327494 96.0% 78.2% 92.2%
VT 1.0852995632 100.0% 81.4%

VT Sistema de medição deve ser analisado


TOL Sistema de medição deve ser analisado
ndc Sistema com baixa distinção de categorias
Estudo de Repetitividade e Reprodutibilidade - Variação Total / Tolerância
Part No. & Nome Nome do Equipamento Peças (n) 10
Características Equipamento No. Operadores 3
Especificações Tipo do Equipamento Repetições (r) 3
Data Responsável Tolerância 10
Peça
Repetição 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Médias
1 0.29 -0.56 1.34 0.47 -0.8 0.02 0.59 -0.31 2.26 -1.36 0.194
2 0.41 -0.68 1.17 0.5 -0.92 -0.11 0.75 -0.2 1.99 -1.25 0.166
3 0.64 -0.58 1.27 0.64 -0.84 -0.21 0.66 -0.17 2.01 -1.31 0.211
A

Média 0.44667 -0.606667 1.26 0.53667 -0.8533 -0.1 0.66667 -0.2267 2.08667 -1.3067 Xa = 0.1903333333
Amplitude 0.35 0.12 0.17 0.17 0.12 0.23 0.16 0.14 0.27 0.11 Ra = 0.184
1 0.08 -0.47 1.19 0.01 -0.56 -0.2 0.47 -0.63 1.8 -1.68 0.001
Operador

2 0.25 -1.22 0.94 1.03 -1.2 0.22 0.55 0.08 2.12 -1.62 0.115
3 0.07 -0.68 1.34 0.2 -1.28 0.06 0.83 -0.34 2.19 -1.5 0.089
B

Média 0.13333 -0.79 1.15667 0.41333 -1.0133 0.02667 0.61667 -0.2967 2.03667 -1.6 Xb = 0.0683333333
Amplitude 0.18 0.75 0.4 1.02 0.72 0.42 0.36 0.71 0.39 0.18 Rb = 0.513
1 0.04 -1.38 0.88 0.14 -1.46 -0.29 0.02 -0.46 1.77 -1.49 -0.223
2 -0.11 -1.13 1.09 0.2 -1.07 -0.67 0.01 -0.56 1.45 -1.77 -0.256
3 -0.15 -0.96 0.67 0.11 -1.45 -0.49 0.21 -0.49 1.87 -2.16 -0.284
C

Média -0.0733 -1.156667 0.88 0.15 -1.3267 -0.4833 0.08 -0.5033 1.69667 -1.8067 Xc = -0.254333333
Amplitude 0.19 0.42 0.42 0.09 0.39 0.38 0.2 0.1 0.42 0.67 Rc = 0.328
X = 0.0014444444
Média da peça 0.16889 -0.851111 1.09889 0.36667 -1.0644 -0.1856 0.45444 -0.3422 1.94 -1.5711 Rp = 3.5111111111
Repetições D 4 R =(Ra+Rb+Rc)/ #Op = 0.34167 Operadores K2
2 3.27 XDIFF = max(X) - min(X) = 0.44467 2 0.7071
3 2.58 UCLR = R x D4 = 0.8815 3 0.5231
Repetitividade Repetições K 1 Variação
VE = R x K1 = 0.20186 2 0.8862 DN
Reprodutibilidade 3 0.5908 VT TOL
VO2 = (XDIFFxK2)2 - (VE2/(nr)) Peças K3
%VE
VO = 0.22967 2 0.7071 =100 [VE/DN] 17.61% 12.11%
Repetitividade & Reprodutibilidade 3 0.5231 %VO
R&R2 = VE2 + VO2 4 0.4467 =100 [VO/DN] 20.04% 13.78%
R&R = 0.30577 5 0.403 %R&R
Variação do Processo (VP) 6 0.3742 =100 [R&R/DN] 26.68% 18.35%
VP = Rp x K3 = 1.1046 7 0.3534 %VP
Variação Total (VT) 8 0.3375 = 100[VPDN] 96.38% 66.28%
VT2 = R&R2 + VP2 9 0.3249
VT = 1.14613 10 0.3146 ndc = 1,41[VP/R&R] = 5.1
Resultado do Teste:
VT Sistema de medição deve ser analisado
TOL Sistema de medição deve ser analisado
NDC Sistema de medição adequado
Diagrama de re

EXCESSO DE ERROS DE DIGITAÇÃO EM


NOTAS FISCAIS

FALTA DE HABILIDADE EM DATILOGRAFIA


Diagrama de relações - 5 Wh

5 POR QUEs - 5 Why

MUITO BARULHO
NO AMBIENTE
GITAÇÃO EM
FALTA DE CONCENTRAÇÃO

USO DE SMART PHONES FADIGA

USO DE RÁDIO NO CELULAR HORAS EXTRAS -


OVERTIME

EXCESSO DE ERROS
DE DIGITAÇÃO EM
NOTAS FISCAIS
s - 5 Why ( 5 Porques )

MUITO BARULHO CONVERSAS


NO AMBIENTE PARALELAS
LEGENDA DE CORES

MUITO INFLUENTE

POUCO INFLUENTE
IMPRESSORAS
DIGA

TELEFONES

EXTRAS -
RTIME

O DE ERROS
ITAÇÃO EM
AS FISCAIS
Voltar

Objetivo: Permite a visualização fácil de relações de causas e efe


de um tema ou problema.

Aplicação : Quando as relações entre as causas de um problema sã


complexas e é necessário evidenciar que cada evento não é o resu
de uma única causa, mas sim de múltiplas causas interelacionadas
Análise baseada nas regras do 5 Why ( Por ques)

Fase Analisar do DMAIC

Objective: Shows the relationship between causes and effects of a


subject or problem.

Use: When we have complex relationship between the causes of a


problem and when we need to show that the event is not the
consequence of a single cause, but multiples ones.

This analises is based on 5 Why metodology.


Analyse phase.
elações de causas e efeitos

sas de um problema são


da evento não é o resultado
ausas interelacionadas
ques)

causes and effects of a

etween the causes of a


he event is not the
s ones.

.
Takt Time - calc

Exemplo: Objetivo:
Permite o cálculo do
Encontra o tempo id
Tempo disponível para trabalhar= 480 minutos ao dia
especificado.
Intervalos programados = 20 minutos
Tempo disponível -líquido 460 minutos ao dia Aplicação : Balance
Demanda do Cliente = 115 Produtos ao dia obra e overtime.
Quando comparado
necessidade ou não
Takt Time = 4 minutos cada produto

Fase Analisar e Con

Conclusão:

A cada 4 minutos devo produzir um produto para atender ao volume programado e carga horária disponivel
Voltar

Objetivo:
Permite o cálculo do Takt Time - Rítmo do processo para atender a demanda do Cliente.
Encontra o tempo ideal que deve ser gasto em cada transação para atender ao volume
especificado.

Aplicação : Balanceamento de linhas e atividades, definição de quantidade ideal de mão de


obra e overtime.
Quando comparado ao tempo padrão ajuda a dimensionar mão de obra na operação,
necessidade ou não de horas extras. Fase Melhorar do DMAIC

Fase Analisar e Controlar do DMAIC

horária disponivel

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