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CENTRE FOR THE

BUILT PROFESSIONAL STUDIES


ENVIRONMENT AND BUILDING SERVICES

STUDENT NAME : ……………………………………………………………………………….

PROGRAMME NAME : BTEC NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN CONSTRUCTION

UNIT 13 : ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE IN CONSTRUCTION

ASSIGNMENT AUTHOR : KEITH NEILL - ASSESSOR : KEITH NEILL - I .VERFIER : SURINDER VIRDI

I.VERIFIED :
YES/NO .
ISSUE DATE – TUESDAY 6 OCTOBER 2009
TH

This assignment is complied in three parts:

PART A : Human Comfort.

PART B : Distribution of Electricity.

PART C : Fluids.

Assignment Learning Grading Criteria Time controlled HAND IN DATE Resubmission


Number outcomes Targeted: Criteria Date

PART A 1&2 P1, P2, P3, P4. M1, NONE 8/12/2009 5/1/2010
M2.

PART B 3 P5, M3, D1. NONE 12/1/2009 18/1/2010

PART C 4 P7 P6, M4, D2. NONE 26/1/2010 2/2/2010

ASSIGNMENT RULES AND CONDITIONS

1 Read the Assignment brief and tasks carefully and make sure that you understand the work you should hand in
and what is required of you. If you are uncertain you must discuss with your tutor.
2. You MUST hand in the feedback sheet with the each completed work.
3. Work MUST be handed in on or before the hand in date.
4. All information sources must be referenced.
5 This assignments MUST be handed in to the relevant tutor
6 Assignments handed in after the hand in date will receive a maximum of a “Pass “grade.
7. Your attention is brought to the plagiarism statement within this assignment.
ASSESSMENT FEEDBACK SHEET FOR PART A

Programme Title: …National Diploma in Construction

Unit: Environmental Science Student Name: ………………… Date Received……………

Grading Date Assessors


Criteria /Task no Achieved/Not Criteria and Comments Signature
achieved
P1 –Task 1 Identify and describe four physical and four personal
factors that influence human comfort in the internal
environment.

P2 –Task 2 Describe four methods used to measure factors that affect


human comfort.

P3 - Task 3 Identify and describe the basic scientific principles that


underpin human comfort and identify acceptable comfort
parameters.

P4 – Task 4 Perform four separate calculations associated with the


provision of a comfortable internal environment and the
prevention of condensation.

M1 - Task 5 Compare the advantages and disadvantages of three


integrated thermal comfort temperatures in general use.

M2 - Task 6 Assess the effect of varying standard design options on the


provision of heating, ventilation, acoustics and lighting and
the prevention of condensation.
General Comments/Action Plan

Learners Comments:

Date: Signature:

Learner declaration

I declare that all the work submitted for this assignment is my own work or, in the case of group work, the work
of myself and the other members of the group in which I worked, and that no part of it has been copied from any
source.

I understand that if any part of the work submitted for this assignment is found to be plagiarised, none of the work
submitted will be allowed to count towards the assessment of the assignment.

Signed: ………………………….. Date: …………………..

Learning Outcomes

1). Know the factors that influence human comfort in terms of heating, ventilation,
acoustics and lighting and how these factors are quantified and measured.

2). Understand the scientific principles of heating, ventilation, acoustics and lighting
and how they are integrated to provide a comfortable internal environment and
prevent condensation.

Resources
1). Library facilities.
2). Course notes.
Unit 13: Environmental Science in Construction
Part A : Human Comfort.
Introduction.

Brief: The Central Community College in Birmingham has proposed to construct a


conference room as an extension to the main college building. Drawing No 1 shows
the sectional plan of this extension.
Although the main use of this new building will be for conferences, it may be used
for seminars and lectures.
The choice of materials, components and construction techniques will ensure that
the new construction conserves energy and creates a comfortable environment in the
conference room. The construction is as follows:
Roof – pre-cast reinforced concrete slab
Ground Floor – in-situ reinforced concrete
Walls - Cavity construction using bricks and lightweight concrete blocks.

The choice of doors and windows has still to be made. It gives you the opportunity to
consider a range of materials and the requirements of the building before you
finalize their selection. Other relevant information is given in the questions.

Instructions
• Do not use red or green ink.
• Make sure that all work is your own.
• Include a bibliography to show the source of any information used.
• Keep a copy of your assignment before handing it in.

Task 1
a).(i) Identify and describe FOUR physical factors which influence
human comfort.
(ii) Specify the units in which these factors are measured.

b) (i) Identify and describe FOUR personal factors which influence


human comfort.
(ii) Specify the units in which these factors are measured.
P1

Task 2
Describe FOUR instruments used to measure factors that affect human comfort and how they are
used.

(This could include thermometers, hygrometers, anemometers, sound level meters or light
meters).
P2
Task 3

Write a report (which may be supported by images, tables, charts, and / or calculations) which
includes the following :-

(a) Describe how basic scientific theory can be used to explain how human comfort can be
achieved.

(b) Acceptable values for :-


(i) Air temperature.
(ii) Mean radiant temperature.
(iii) Relative humidity.
(iv) Air speed.
(v) Rates of air change for a variety of rooms.
(vi) Sound reduction indices.
(vii) Reverberation times.
(viii)Illumination levels.
(iv) Daylight factors. P3

Task 4

(a) A rectangular portacabin used during construction has dimensions


4m x 8m x 3m high.

Internal temperature; 18°C


Ground temperature; 5°C
External Air Temp; 2°C

(i) Calculate the U - value of the window if it is double glazed given


the following data :-

Element Thickness (m) k-value (W / mK) R (m2K / W)


Rsi 0.123
Glass 0.004 1.022
Air space 0.11
Glass 0.004 1.022
Rso 0.055

(ii) Calculate the fabric heat loss for the portacabin given the following information :-

Element U-value ( W/m2K )


Floor 0.40
Window (4.0 m2) 3.3
Door (1.5 m2) 3.3
Wall 0.6
Roof 0.45
(iii) Calculate the rate of ventilation heat loss from the portacabin if there
are two air changes per hour. (CV = 1300 J / m3 K )

(iv) Calculate the total rate of heat loss from the portacabin.

(v) What would happen to the U-value of the wall if more insulation is
provided?

(b) A cross section for an external wall of the conference room is


as follows :-
Layer Thickness Thermal Vapour
(mm) Resistance Resistivity
(m2 0c/W) (MNs/gm)
Rsi 0.12 Negligible
Plasterboard 12 50
Aerated Concrete Block 100 70
Rockwool 100 Negligible
Exposed Brick 103 80
Rso 0.06 Negligible

Inside RH 60% Internal Temperature 21oC


Outside RH 100% External Temperature 0oC

(i) Draw up suitable tables and plot the temperature profile across
the structure.
(ii) Draw up suitable tables and plot a dew point profile on the same
graph.
(iii) Discuss the risk of interstitial condensation.

(c) (i) Two vehicles, started at the same time, produce noise levels of
70 dB and 85 dB. Calculate the overall noise level.

(ii) A wall of the conference room has dimensions 15.28m x 4.5m and contains 4 windows
each of area 2.25m2. If the Sound Reduction Index for the brickwork is 60 dB and 20 dB for the
window. Calculate the overall SRI for the wall.

(iii) The conference room has a floor of dimensions 20.08m x 15.28m and a height of 4.5m.
The walls contain 14 windows each of area 2.25m2 and doors of total area 6m2. Calculate the
reverberation time at 500 Hz.

Absorption coefficients at 500 Hz are :-


Walls and door 0.02
Ceiling 0.04
Window 0.08
Plain Floor 0.06

Specify a desirable value for the reverberation time for the conference room.
(d) Use a daylight protractor to determine the corrected sky component of daylight at location D.
(see appendix 1)

(e) A square room in the main building has sides of length 10m. It is to be fitted with lights which
have a lighting design of 2500 lumens per lamp. An average illumination of 300 lux is required,
The U.F. is 0.8 and the M.F. is 0.6. Use the ‘Lumen Design’ method to calculate the number of
lamps required and draw a diagram to show how they are distributed.

(f) Describe how the following laws relating to light being emitted from a point source affect the
illumination on the surface of a desk :-

(i) Inverse law.

(ii) Cosine law.

P4

Task 5

(a) State the equations used to determine :-

(i) Mean radiant temperature tr.


(ii) Inside environmental temperature tei.
(iii) Dry resultant temperature tres.

(b) Explain how the variables in each equation influence the accuracy
and usefulness of each index.

(c) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the three integrated thermal comfort
temperatures specified in Task 5(a).

M1
Task 6

(a) This question relates to the portacabin.

(i) Describe factors which affect solar heat gain.


(ii) Explain how solar heat gain affects the provision of heating.

(b) This question relates to the portacabin and your answer to TASK 4 (a) iii.
An extractor fan is encorporated into the portacabin such that the ventilation rate is increased to 3
air changes per hour.

(i) Calculate the new rate of ventilation heat loss.


(ii) Describe the advantages and disadvantages of installing the extractor
fan.

(c) This question relates to the conference room and your answer to
TASK 4(c)iii.

(i) Calculate the new reverberation time if the number of 2.25 m2


windows in the conference room is reduced to 8.
(ii) What effect would the new reverberation time have on clarity of
speech?
(iii) What would be the effect on the reverberation time if soft furniture is
put into the room?

(d) This question relates to the square room in the main building described
in TASK 4(e).

(i) What would be the effect on the lighting design if different light
sources of 3200 lumens per lamp was used?
(ii) What would be the effect on your design if the walls of the room
was painted a darker colour?

(e) Describe different ways in which condensation can be reduced.

M2
Appendix 1

Side elevation

D Working Plane

Plan view

D
20080

1.0m wide door x 2.0 high.

Windows 1.5 x 1.5 double glazed.

15280
Conference room

4290

3000
Toilet Toilet

To main building
ASSESSMENT FEEDBACK SHEET FOR PART B

Programme Title: …National Diploma in Construction

Unit: Environmental Science Student Name: ………………… Date Received……………

Grading Date Assessors


Criteria /Task no Achieved/Not Criteria and Comments Signature
achieved
P5 –Task 1 Describe the safe and effective generation, transmission
and distribution of electricity in terms of underpinning
principles.

M3 –Task 2 Explain why electricity is transformed for distribution and


why this necessitates the use of alternating current.

D1 - Task 3 Justify the use of single-phase and three-phase distribution


systems in both theoretical and practical terms.

General Comments/Action Plan


Learners Comments:

Date: Signature:

Learner declaration

I declare that all the work submitted for this assignment is my own work or, in the case of group work, the work
of myself and the other members of the group in which I worked, and that no part of it has been copied from any
source.

I understand that if any part of the work submitted for this assignment is found to be plagiarised, none of the work
submitted will be allowed to count towards the assessment of the assignment.

Signed: ………………………….. Date: …………………..

Learning Outcomes

3). Understand the principles and practices used to generate, transmit and distribute
electrical power in a safe and effective manner.

Resources
1). Library facilities.
2). Course notes.

Unit 13: Environmental Science in Construction


Part B : Distribution of electricity.
Introduction. This assignment investigates the way in which electricity is
produced and supplied to consumers.

Instructions
• Do not use red or green ink.
• Make sure that all work is your own.
• Include a bibliography to show the source of any information used.
• Keep a copy of your assignment before handing it in.

Task 1

1a). (i) Use a labeled diagram to illustrate Flemming’s ‘right hand rule’.

(ii) Describe the operation of an a.c. generator.

(iii) Sketch a graph showing a typical single phase a.c. output.


( label the axes)

(iv) Explain why the current output constantly changes

(b) Explain how electricity is transmitted from the power stations across
the country to its customers.

(c) Describe the number of phases of supply likely to be distributed to:-

(i) Domestic premises.

(ii) A factory. P5

Task 2

2a). (i) Sketch a labelled diagram of a transformer.

(ii) Describe how a transformer works.

(iii) Why is it important to have an alternating magnetic field in the core.

(iv) What is the difference between a step up and a step down


transformer ?

(b) (i) Why is electricity transformed for distribution ?

(ii) Why is distribution a.c. and not d.c. ?


2c) A transformer has 50 primary turns and 800 secondary turns. If the input
is 12V a.c. :-

(i) Sketch a labeled diagram illustrating the main details.

(ii) Calculate the output voltage.

(d) A transformer has 200 primary turns and 25 secondary turns. If the
output is 50 V a.c. :-

(i) Sketch a labeled diagram illustrating the main details.

(ii) Calculate the input voltage. M3

Task 3

3(a). Explain why a three phase supply reduces the number of cables
required.

b(i) Draw a circuit diagram showing how a four wire supply is used
to deliver both 240V and 415V to buildings

(ii) Detail situations where 240V and 415V may be used.

(iii) Justify the supplies used for your answers to question 3b(ii)
D1
ASSESSMENT FEEDBACK SHEET FOR PART C

Programme Title: …National Diploma in Construction

Unit: Environmental Science Student Name: ………………… Date Received……………

Grading Date Assessors


Criteria /Task no Achieved/Not Criteria and Comments Signature
achieved
P6 –Task 1 Differentiate between the properties of fluids at rest and in
motion and select appropriate formulae to solve problems
relating to fluids.

M4 –Task 2 Use appropriate formulae to solve two problems in fluid


mechanics and one in flow measurement.

D2 - Task 3 Compare two different flow measurement devices in terms


of accuracy and ease of use.

General Comments/Action Plan


Learners Comments:

Date: Signature:

Learner declaration

I declare that all the work submitted for this assignment is my own work or, in the case of group work, the work
of myself and the other members of the group in which I worked, and that no part of it has been copied from any
source.

I understand that if any part of the work submitted for this assignment is found to be plagiarised, none of the work
submitted will be allowed to count towards the assessment of the assignment.

Signed: ………………………….. Date: …………………..

Learning Outcomes

4). Understand the properties of fluids and be able to select and use formulae to
perform calculations relating to fluids at rest and in motion.

Resources
1). Library facilities.
2). Course notes.

Unit 13: Environmental Science in Construction


Part C : Fluids
Introduction. This assignment investigates the fluids at rest and fluids in motion.

Instructions
• Do not use red or green ink.
• Make sure that all work is your own.
• Show ALL working out.
• Include a bibliography to show the source of any information used.
• Keep a copy of ALL work handed in.

Task 1
(a) Describe the properties of fluids :-
(i) at rest.
(ii) in motion.
(b) A dam wall is 40m wide and holds back a depth of 6m of water.
(i) Calculate the force exerted by the water on the dam wall.
(ii) Determine the position which the resultant force acts.
(c) A pipe of cross sectional area 0.06 m2 has water flowing
through it at 0.4 m/s.
(i) Calculate the flow rate.
(ii) Calculate the speed of the water if the cross section tapers to an area of 0.03 m2.
P6
Task 2
(a) A circular drain of 200mm diameter is laid with an incline
of 1 in 40. If the drain runs half bore and Chezy’s coefficient is 50 m½/s
calculate :-
(i) the velocity of flow in the drain.
(ii) The discharge rate.
(b) Use Darcy’s formula to predict the pressure head lost in a pipe of 80mm diameter flowing
full bore with water at 0.09 m/s over a distance of 120m. Assume Darcy’s constant is 0.008.

(c) A venturi meter has a throat of 80mm diameter and is set in a horizontal water main of
150mm diameter. The measured pressure heads are 12.9m in the main and 9.8m in the throat.
Calculate the flow rate in the pipe given that the discharge coefficient for the meter is 0.98 and
the acceleration due to gravity is 9.81 m/s2. M4

Task 3
Compare the advantages and disadvantages of two different flow measurement devices (eg the
venturi meter and weir gauge) in terms of accuracy and ease of use.

D2
REFERRAL -Receipt

This receipt must be signed by the tutor and retained by the student as evidence.

Name of student ……………………. Date of submission………………………

Tutor’s Signature……………………………. Date……………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

PART C -Receipt

This receipt must be signed by the tutor and retained by the student as evidence.

Name of student ……………………. Date of submission………………………

Tutor’s Signature……………………………. Date……………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

PART B-Receipt

This receipt must be signed by the tutor and retained by the student as evidence.

Name of student ……………………. Date of submission………………………

Tutor’s Signature……………………………. Date……………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………………………

PART A -Receipt

This receipt must be signed by the tutor and retained by the student as evidence.

Name of student ……………………. Date of submission………………………

Tutor’s Signature……………………………. Date……………………….

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