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Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 2685–2695 www.materialstoday.com/proceedings

ICAMA 2016

High Frequency Dielectric Properties of Insulation Systems with


New Natural Vegetable Seed Oils
A.N.Nagashreea*, V.Champaa, B.V.Sumangalab, G.R.Nagabhushanac
a
EEE dept., BMSCE,Bangalore, 560019, India
b
EEE,Dr.Ambedkar Institute of Technology,Bangalore,560056, India
c
HV.Engineering, IISc,Bangalore,560012, India

Abstract

A transformer comprises of combinations of solid and liquid dielectrics forming an insulation system. Some of the solid
insulation used along with insulating oil in power transformers are press boards, treated wood, paper and in high frequency
transformers. Nomex, Teflon and Kapton etc. The liquid dielectric enables heat dissipation also. While mineral oil is in wide use
for several decades as a liquid dielectric coolant, silicone fluid is used for high voltage/high frequency applications. In spite of
many advantages of mineral oil and silicone fluid, they are non-renewable, non-biocompatible and non-biodegradable. Of late,
natural esters have been investigated for their suitability as effective alternative liquid dielectric coolant. In the present work, two
natural vegetable seed oils, codenamed IO18 & IO19, have been investigated and their dielectric properties studied, for use in an
insulation system. The investigations have been divided into different stages. Various dielectric parameters like Breakdown
Voltage (BDV), Dissipation Factor (DF) and Relative Permittivity (εr) have been studied initially under ‘as received’ (oil)
conditions. Based on the results obtained (for ‘as received’ oils), in the next stage, suitable food grade antioxidants are added in
different concentrations and the optimum arrived at with most suitable concentrations of antioxidant for the two oils. BDVs have
been determined as a function of temperature (room temperature to 90⁰C) under power frequency voltages. DF and εr have been
studied as a function of both temperature and frequency (500Hz-500 kHz). After treatments, selected samples have been
subjected to accelerated thermal ageing with and without the presence of Nomex & Teflon. The dielectric properties of the oils
are again studied after they are subjected to ageing. The results have been very encouraging.

© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Selection and Peer-review under responsibility of International Conference on Advanced Materials and Applications (ICAMA
2016).

Keywords: Accelerated thermal Ageing; Breakdown Voltage; Dissipation Factor; High frequency; Liquid dielectrics Nomex;

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +919845614913; fax: +9126614357.


E-mail address: nagashreean@yahoo.co.in

2214-7853© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Selection and Peer-review under responsibility of International Conference on Advanced Materials and Applications (ICAMA 2016).
2686 A.N.Nagashree et al. / Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 2685–2695

1. Introduction

One of the most critical equipments in electric power transmission and distribution systems is the transformer and
it plays an important role in providing a reliable and efficient electricity supply. The majority of high voltage
transformers are filled with liquids that work as an electrical insulation as well as a heat transfer medium [1]. Most
commonly used liquid dielectric coolants are mineral oil and silicone fluid. The thermal, physical and dielectric
properties of mineral oil are relatively good [2, 3]. However the performance of mineral oil starts to be limited due
to environmental consideration. Conventional transformer oils are usually non-biodegradable [1]. When a serious
spill takes place it can contaminate soil and water which may disturb living organisms and plantation. Mineral oil
being a non-renewable petroleum product may run out in the future [1].
Transformers used for air-borne and defence applications use silicone fluids as a liquid dielectric coolant.
Silicone fluids permit operation at higher temperatures (upto about 150˚C) than that of mineral oil (usually upto
about 120⁰C)[4,5]. Therefore silicone fluids are also suitable for special applications such as in distribution
transformers and traction transformers [4, 5]. However, disposal of silicone fluid becomes a problem as they are
only biocompatible but not completely bio-degradable [4,6].They are very sensitive to corona and hence degrade
faster [4, 7]. Under high temperatures (>150ºC), disadvantages of silicone fluid is Formaldehyde (a skin and
respiratory sensitizer, eye and throat irritant and believed to be a potential cancer hazard) may be formed which may
be dangerous [8]. Therefore their use is sometimes restricted to environmentally sensitive areas [4, 6].
Both mineral oil (for power frequency) and silicone fluid (for high frequency), are sought to be replaced by
alternate liquid dielectric coolant due to the above mentioned disadvantages. Inside the transformer, a stable,
chemically inert fluid having good thermal and dielectric properties is desired. Externally, the fluid should become
environmentally friendly by being non-toxic and readily biodegradable [4, 9]. Therefore it is increasingly important
that dielectric fluids provide a better balance of functional performance inside the transformer versus environmental
impact in the event of release. Today, clean energy is emerging as a new trend in electric power systems [4,9,10].
Therefore, green oils have been preferred as liquid insulator, in power transformers, especially since year 2000.The
eco-friendly oils have three most important features namely, slow down the impact of the aging process, provide a
safe work performance and are biodegradable as close to 100%. Green oils are basically named as the natural esters
(natural vegetable seed oils) and the environmental properties of these natural esters are excellent [4, 10].
Many studies have been undertaken into the normal and ageing behavior of conventional transformer oils which
are currently used in power frequency and high voltage/high frequency transformers. However, suitable replacement
oil for high voltage /high frequency transformers has yet to be ascertained [4,11].
With increase in environmental concerns, the search for a better environmental friendly liquid is the demand of
the day. Natural esters are considered to be one of the probable replacements for mineral oil and silicone fluid. The
drawback of natural esters as dielectric fluids is their poor oxidation relative to mineral oil and silicone fluid.
Recently there has been renewed interest in use of ester based dielectric fluids to overcome the disadvantages of
mineral oil and silicone fluid used earlier [12].This paper focuses on two natural vegetable seed oil codenamed IO18
& IO19 to be used as a liquid dielectric coolant. The dielectric behavior is investigated for both oils (individually)
for temperature ranging from room temperature (25⁰C) to 90⁰C and frequency ranging from 500Hz to 500 kHz.
However, it is to be noted that the studies on breakdown voltage were carried out in power frequency only [4, 5].
The study is carried out in different phases. In the first phase, “as received” (untreated-Refined, Bleached and
Deodorized-RBD) oil (codenamed IO18 & IO19) is considered for experimental studies. As the results obtained
were not suitable for use as a liquid dielectric coolant, oil was subjected to various treatments such as neutralization,
filtration, and addition of anti-oxidants to improve its characteristics [4, 13].
In next phase, a suitable anti-oxidant and its concentration was investigated. The new oil sample with suitable
antioxidant was subjected for accelerated thermal ageing and high frequency studies. The oil quality also depends on
solid materials present in the transformer that may also contribute to change the dielectric parameters of the oil.
Therefore, it was necessary to study the behavior of oil under varying conditions. Therefore, this new oil sample
(IO18 & IO19) was subjected to thermal treatment to study the oil behavior with Teflon and Nomex individually
(studies on dielectric properties of each oil to find degradation /deterioration due to presence of Teflon and Nomex
individually). The results were compared with silicon fluid [4, 14].
A.N.Nagashree et al. / Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 2685–2695 2687

In view of this, the change in behavior of the oil (with and without solid materials) was investigated by studying
its dielectric properties namely Breakdown Voltage (BDV), Dissipation Factor (DF) and Relative Permittivity. As
natural esters are from plant origin and are more prone to oxidation, oxidation stability of the oil is also studied as an
added parameter. In each stage, the study was focused on dielectric behavior of oil [4,5,14].

2. Liquid dielectrics - Electrical properties

A good liquid dielectric (for a healthy insulation system) must have high Breakdown Voltage (BDV) and low
Dissipation Factor (DF) and good oxidation stability (in terms of Oxidation Induction Time (OIT- in hours)
[4,14,15]. Oil must have compatibility (oil must not interact with solid materials which may adversely affect the
dielectric properties) with components of electrical apparatus and high resistance to ageing when used in an
insulation system [4, 16, 17]. Since temperature and frequency are two possible parameters that influence oil
performance, these are considered as the two most important factors for studies in this work. Based on the results
obtained, the oil performance is viewed critically for its suitability in an insulation system.

3. Experimental approach

Two indigenous oils codenamed as IO18 & IO19 (Natural vegetable seed oil) are considered for use as a liquid
dielectric coolant. The dielectric properties of both oils are reported in this paper. The study is categorized into
various phases.
• In first phase, experimental studies on each of the “as received” (RBD, untreated) oil were carried out. Since
the results obtained were not satisfactory for use as liquid dielectric in “as received” condition, each of the
oil was subjected to next stage of treatments [4].
• In the next phase, oil was subjected to treatments such as neutralization, filtration, and addition of anti-
oxidants to improve its characteristics [4, 14].
• In most of the practical cases oil ages due to its continuous usage (either in power frequency or high
frequency applications). Therefore, once suitable anti-oxidant concentration was investigated for each of the
oil IO18 & IO19, they were subjected to accelerated thermal ageing and high frequency studies [4,14].
• In the final phase each oil along with only Teflon and only Nomex was subjected to thermal treatment to
study the oil behavior (oil degradation /deterioration due to presence of only Teflon and only Nomex) [4,14].
The study was focused on dielectric behavior of oil in each phase. As there are no set standards for dielectric
properties of natural vegetable seed oil, results were compared with that of silicone fluid.

4. Experimental set-up to measure dielectric properties

i) Breakdown voltage was measured using W.S Test Systems set-up (measured as per Standard IS 6792/ IEC 60156)
at power frequency. It has a standard oil cell consisting of 2.5mm gap in a standard oil cell [4,5].
ii) Dissipation factor and relative permittivity was measured for frequency range of 500Hz to 500 kHz . Impedance
analyzer- model WK-4300 of Wayne Kerr Electronics was used for this purpose [4, 5].
iii) The oxidation stability of the samples was determined using Rancimat 743. The measuring standards were as per
Active Oxygen Method, AOCS Cd 12B-92 and ISO 6886[4, 5].

5. Sample selection

Some of the commercially available natural vegetable seed oils namely sunflower oil, mustard oil, IO18 & IO19
was selected for initial stage and dielectric properties of these oils were investigated.
• It was observed from initial studies that dielectric properties of the selected sample IO18 & IO19 was better
compared to other samples of natural vegetable seed oils.
• IO18 & IO19 were finalized for further studies. The results of ‘as received’ commercially available sample
were compared with that of silicone fluid. Since the results were not satisfactory, each oil was subjected
individually to various treatments such as neutralization, filtration and addition of anti-oxidant [4,5].
2688 A.N.Nagashree et al. / Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 2685–2695

• To improve the dielectric performance of the IO18 & IO19 oil, food grade additives were added to each oil.
Synthetic antioxidants like Butylated Hydroxy Anisole (BHA), Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) , Tert
Butyl Hydroxy Quinone(TBHQ) and Propyl Gallate (PG) are commonly used food grade additives [4,5,13].
Oil samples were prepared with the above mentioned antioxidants for 0.2%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% (by
weight) of antioxidant concentration (BHT, TBHQ and PG) as preliminary investigation [4, 5].
• Tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) was found to be most suitable antioxidant (when investigated individually)
for both the oils. Oil sample IO18 with TBHQ in a percentage concentration of 3% by weight and for sample
IO19, TBHQ in a percentage concentration of 1% by weight was found to be most suitable [4,14].

To investigate the oil behavior when used (individually) in an insulation system, particularly in transformer, solid
insulating materials were used along with the oil Two materials namely Teflon and Nomex [4,14](used as insulating
material in high voltage/high frequency transformer) were considered. The samples selected after initial
investigations are listed in Table 1. The samples listed in sl.no 2,3,4,6,7 and 8 in Table 1 were subjected to thermal
treatment (accelerated thermal ageing) for 100 hours at 150˚C[4,14].The results were compared with silicone
fluid[4,14].

Table 1 Sample selection


Sl.no Samples
1 IO18 with 3% TBHQ fresh
2 IO18 with 3%-TBHQ(oil only): thermally treated
3 IO18 with 3% TBHQ + Teflon : thermally treated
4 IO18 with 3% TBHQ + Nomex : thermally treated
5 IO19 with 1% TBHQ fresh
6 IO19 with 1%-TBHQ(oil only): thermally treated
7 IO19 with 1% TBHQ + Teflon : thermally treated
8 IO19 with 1% TBHQ + Nomex : thermally treated

6. Results and discussions

6.1. Breakdown Voltage (BDV)

The breakdown voltage was measured for the selected samples as shown in Fig 1a and 1b. It was measured at
power frequency and as a function of temperature. As observed from the Fig 1a, BDV of IO18+3% TBHQ fresh
sample of treated IO18 was 61kV at 60⁰C and above 45kV for all other temperature ranges. The sample was
subjected to thermal ageing and BDV was measured again. It was observed that BDV of aged sample was in the
range of 40kV to 57kV for the range of temperature considered. The sample - IO18 +3% TBHQ + Teflon and IO18
+3% TBHQ + Nomex were also thermally aged and BDV measured. The BDV was in the range of 44kV to 54kV
for oil sample with Teflon and 42kV to 58kV for the thermally aged sample of IO18 +3% TBHQ + Nomex[4,5].
BDV of oil sample with Teflon was about 18% lower than BDV of fresh IO18 +3% TBHQ sample at 60⁰C and
about 2% lower at 90⁰C. BDV of oil sample IO18+3% TBHQ + Nomex was about 5% lower than BDV of fresh
IO18 +3% TBHQ sample at 60⁰C and about 10% lower at 90⁰C. However BDV of both samples (with Teflon &
Nomex) was better than BDV of silicone fluid. This indicated that the treated IO18 sample with Nomex or Teflon
had negligible detrimental effect on BDV of the oil IO18 [4,5].
A.N.Nagashree et al. / Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 2685–2695 2689

Breakdown Voltage vs Temperature Breakdown Voltage vs Temperature


Silicone fluid & IO18 samples Silicone fluid & IO19 samples
65 80

Sil fld 70
60 Sil fld

Breakdown Voltage (kV)


IO18 (as received) 60
Breakdown Voltage (kV)

55 IO19(as received)

IO18+3% TBHQ 50
IO19+1%TBHQ
50
40
IO18+3% TBHQ- (Aged)
IO19+1%- (Aged)
45 30
IO18+3% TBHQ + Teflon -
(Aged)
IO19+1% TBHQ + Teflon-
(Aged)
40 20
IO18+3% TBHQ + Nomex- IO19+1% TBHQ +
(aged)
Nomex- (Aged)
10
35
25 C 40 C 60 C 80 C 90 C
0
25ᵒC 40ᵒC 60ᵒC 80ᵒC 90ᵒC
Temperature (ᵒC)
Temperature (ᵒC)

Fig.1.(a) Breakdown Voltage vs Temperature-IO18 Fig.1.(b) Breakdown Voltage vs Temperature-IO19

BDV of oil sample - IO19 +1% TBHQ + Teflon and IO19 +1% TBHQ + Nomex (Fig 1b) was also measured.
The BDV was in the range of 45kV to 59kV (except at room temperature) for thermally aged IO19+1%TBHQ
+Teflon. Oil sample with Nomex, had a BDV from 46kV to 56kV. BDV of the thermally aged sample of IO19 +1%
TBHQ + Teflon was about 30% lower than the BDV of fresh IO19 +1% TBHQ sample at 60⁰C and about 18%
lower at 90⁰C. However BDV of the same sample is better than BDV of silicone fluid and aged sample of IO19 +
1%TBHQ. BDV of the thermally aged sample of IO19 +1% TBHQ + Nomex was about 27% lower than the BDV
of fresh IO19 +1% TBHQ sample at 60⁰C and about 18% lower at 90⁰C. BDV of the sample (IO19 +1% TBHQ +
Nomex) was better than BDV of silicone fluid. This indicated that there was negligible detrimental effect on BDV
of the treated IO19 sample with Teflon and Nomex [4,5].

6.2. Dissipation Factor (DF) and Relative Permittivity

Under the influence of temperatures and frequencies, liquid dielectrics may behave differently. Therefore, effect
of frequency and temperature on dissipation factor (DF) and relative permittivity were measured (using impedance
analyzer - Wayne Kerr model 4300).The frequency range selected was 500Hz-500 kHz at temperatures ranging
from room temperature to 90˚C in steps of 10⁰C. The suitability of oil in high frequency applications was checked.
Since vegetable oils have polar nature (and very complex) conductance and polarization are the two factors that
increase or decrease DF with change in frequencies. Temperature dependence of DF is also quite complex and at
fixed frequency, DF may increase or decrease depending on the resistivity and complexity of the material [9].
Therefore due to the complexity of the oil (natural esters), it is difficult to explain its dielectric behavior under
varying frequency and temperature [9]. The effects of frequency on silicon fluid, on samples of IO18 & on samples
of IO19 are discussed in detail in the following sections [4, 5].

6.2.1. Dissipation factor (DF) of Silicone fluid at high frequencies

DF for silicone fluid is shown in Fig 2 a, b. For silicon fluid: with change in frequency, DF was about 10-2 at
500Hz. DF was minimum at 25 kHz to about 80 kHz and was in the range of 10-3 to 10-4 in all temperature ranges.
With change in temperature, DF was maximum at 50ºC as seen [4, 5].
2690 A.N.Nagashree et al. / Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 2685–2695

Dissipation factor vs Frequency


Dissipation factor vs Temperature
Constant Temperature- Silicone fluid
constant frequency-Silicone fluid
1 1
0.5 2.5 5 10 25 50 100 250 400 500 25 degC 40 degC 50 degC 60 degC 70 degC 80 degC 90 degC

sil fld (25degC) 0.5kHz


Dissipation Factor

0.1 0.1
2.5kHz
sil fld(40degC)
5kHz

Dissipation Factor
sil fld (50degC) 10kHz
0.01 0.01
25kHz
sil fld(60degC)
50kHz
0.001 Sil fld(70 degC) 0.001
100kHz

Sil fld(80degC) 250kHz

0.0001 0.0001 400kHz


Sil fld(90 degC)
500kHz

0.00001 0.00001

Temperature (ºC)
Frequency(kHz)

Fig.2.(a) DF vs Frequency - Silicone fluid Fig. 2.(b) DF vs Temperature -Silicone fluid

6.2.2. Dissipation Factor (DF) of IO18 samples at high frequencies

Fig 3a,b,c,d shows the variation of DF with respect to frequency respectively for all IO18 + 3% TBHQ samples
listed in table-1. DF was in the range of 10-3 to 10-4 from 500Hz to about 250 kHz for all the samples. DF (≥0.01)
was maximum at 90⁰C for treated fresh IO18 sample [4,5,14].

Dissipation factor vs Frequency


Dissipation Factor vs Frequency
IO18 + 3 % TBHQ (IO18 + 3% TBHQ) - aged
1 1
0.5 2.5 5 10 25 50 100 250 400 500
0.5 2.5 5 10 25 50 100 250 400 500
DF at 25deg

0.1 0.1 25 degC


DF at 40deg
40 degC
Dissipation Factor
Dissipation Factor

0.01 DF at 50deg
0.01 50 degC

DF at 60deg 60 degC
0.001
0.001
DF at 70 deg 70 degC

DF at 80deg
80 degC
0.0001
0.0001
90 degC
DF at 90deg

0.00001
0.00001
Frequency(kHz)
Frequency (kHz)

Fig.3.(a) DF vs Frequency IO18+3% TBHQ Fig.3.(b) DF vs Frequency (IO18 + 3% TBHQ) aged

As seen from Fig 3b,c,d it may be noticed that even after ageing, though DF has changed marginally on a
higher side in the band of 0.0001 to 0.01,it is still in the range of 10-3 to 10-4 from 10 kHz to about 100 kHz for aged
oil samples (with and without solid materials) indicating that the oil is suitable in an insulation system as it does not
adversely affect the dielectric properties[4,5,14].
A.N.Nagashree et al. / Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 2685–2695 2691

Dissipation factor vs Frequency


(IO18 + 3% TBHQ + Teflon) aged Dissipation factor vs Frequency
1 (IO18 3% TBHQ + Nomex) aged
0.5 2.5 5 10 25 50 100 250 400 500
1
0.5 2.5 5 10 25 50 100 250 400 500
25 degC
25 degC
0.1
0.1
40 degC 40 degC
Dissipation Factor

50 degC

Dissipation Factor
0.01 0.01 50 degC
60 degC
60 degC
70 degC 0.001
0.001
70 degC
80 degC

0.0001 80 degC
90 degC
0.0001
90 degC
0.00001
0.00001

Frequency(kHz) Frequency(kHz)

Fig.3. (c) DF vs Frequency (IO18 + 3% TBHQ+ Teflon) aged Fig.3.(d) DF vs Frequency (IO18 + 3% TBHQ+ Nomex) aged

6.2.3. Dissipation Factor (DF) of IO19 samples at high frequencies

Fig 4a,b,c,d shows the variation of DF with respect to frequency for all the IO19+1% TBHQ samples listed in
Table-1. DF was in the range of 10-3 to 10-4 from 500Hz to about 250 kHz. DF (≥0.01) was maximum at 50ºC for
treated fresh and aged IO19 samples (Fig 4a) from 400 kHz and above as seen [4,14].

Dissipation factor vs Frequency


IO19 +1% TBHQ
Dissipation Factor vs frequency
1
0.5 2.5 5 10 25 50 100 250 400 500
IO19+1%-TBHQ (Aged)

DF(25degC)
0.5 2.5 5 10 25 50 100 250 400 500
0.1
0.01
DF(40degC) 25 degC
Dissipation Factor
Dissipation Factor

DF(50degC) 40 degC
0.01
50 degC
DF(60degC) 0.001
60 degC
0.001 DF(70degC)
70 degC

DF(80degC)
80 degC
0.0001
0.0001
DF(90degC) 90 degC

0.00001
0.00001

Frequency (kHz)
Frequency(kHz)

Fig.4.(a) DF vs Frequency IO19 +1% TBHQ Fig. 4.(b) DF vs Frequency (IO19 + 1% TBHQ) aged

The effect of frequency on DF for sample treated aged IO19 sample is shown in Fig 4b.DF is minimum (10-3 to10-5)
from 5 kHz to 250 kHz as seen from Fig 4b. There is a slight increase in DF at 500Hz particularly at 70ºC. At all
other temperatures DF is in the range of ≤0.001to 0.00001[9].

DF for sample IO19+1%TBHQ with solid materials (Teflon and Nomex) is shown in Fig 4c, d. With variation of
frequency or temperature, DF for all the IO19 samples was within 0.001 in almost all ranges indicating its suitability
in an insulation system consisting of insulating materials such as Teflon or Nomex[4,14].
2692 A.N.Nagashree et al. / Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 2685–2695

Dissipation factor vs Frequency


Dissipation factor vs Frequency
IO19+1%TBHQ+Nomex - Aged
IO19 +1% TBHQ + Teflon- Aged
1
0.5 2.5 5 10 25 50 100 250 400 500 1
0.5 2.5 5 10 25 50 100 250 400 500
25 degC
0.1
0.1 25 degC
40 degC

40 degC

Dissipation Factor
Dissipation Factor

50 degC
0.01
0.01 50 degC
60 degC
60 degC
0.001
70 degC
0.001 70 degC
80 degC
0.0001 80 degC
90 degC 0.0001
90 degC

0.00001

0.00001
Frequency(kHz)
Frequency(kHz)

Fig.4.(c) DF vs Frequency (IO19 +1% TBHQ + Teflon) aged Fig.4.(d) DF vs Frequency (IO19 +1% TBHQ + Nomex) aged

The oil sample when tested indicated almost same DF as that of IO19+1% TBHQ fresh sample. In the frequency
range of 25Hz to 250 kHz DF was in the range of 10-3 to 10-4 with the values of DF much better than silicone fluid
for all samples thus indicating an effective replacement for silicone fluid [4, 14].

6.2.4. A comparison of dissipation factor of IO18 samples as a function of frequency and temperature at 60˚C
and 90˚C

Dissipation factor at 60˚C is shown in Fig 5a. DF of treated fresh and aged IO18 samples were significantly
lower than silicone fluid in frequency range of 10 kHz to about 500 kHz (10-4 to 10-3) and this is a good aspect. At
90˚C, (Fig 5b) dissipation factors of all the samples of IO18+3% TBHQ were consistently quite low between 50
kHz right upto 500 kHz [9].

Dissipation factor vs Frequency Dissipation factor vs Frequency


Silicone fluid & IO18 samples (at 60ᵒC) Silicone fluid & IO18 samples (at 90ᵒC)
1 1
0.5 2.5 5 10 25 50 100 250 400 500 0.5 2.5 5 10 25 50 100 250 400 500

Sil fld
0.1 0.1
Sil fld
Dissipation Factor

IO18+3%TBHQ
Dissipation Factor

0.01 IO1+-3% TBHQ


0.01
IO18+3% TBHQ( aged)
IO18+3% TBHQ
(aged)
0.001
0.001
IO18+3% TBHQ + Teflon( IO18+3% TBHQ+
aged) Teflon (aged)

0.0001 IO18+3% TBHQ + IO18+3% TBHQ +


0.0001 Nomex(aged)
Nomex(aged)

0.00001
0.00001
Frequency(kHz) Frequency(kHz)

Fig.5.(a) DF vs Frequency (at 60˚C) Fig.5.(b) DF vs Frequency (at 90˚C)

However DF was also measured at 25ºC for all the samples of IO18+3% TBHQ and was about 25-30% higher
than silicone fluid. DF. It was in the range of 10-3 to 10-4 at 25 kHz to about 100 kHz [4, 14].

Inherent nature of natural vegetable seed oils may cause a higher dissipation factor than silicone fluids at certain
lower frequencies [9].DF was 10-15% lower for IO18 +3% TBHQ aged sample with either Teflon or Nomex for a
frequency range of 10 kHz to 500 kHz when compared with IO18+3%TBHQ aged sample. This depicts that oil
deterioration would be negligible when it is used in an insulation system subjected to different temperature and
frequency [4, 14].
A.N.Nagashree et al. / Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 2685–2695 2693

6.2.5. A comparison of dissipation factor of IO19 samples as a function of frequency and temperature at 60˚C
and 90˚C

DF for selected samples of IO19 with 1% TBHQ is shown in Fig 6 a, b at 60ᵒC & 90ᵒC respectively. As there are
no specific standards available for high frequency studies, the results are compared with that of silicone fluid. At
60˚C, Dissipation factor (Fig 6a) of all IO19 + 1% TBHQ samples were significantly lower (by about 25-30%) than
silicone fluid from 5 kHz to about 100 kHz (10-5 to 10-4). At 90˚C, (Fig 6b) dissipation factors of all the samples of
IO19 with 1% TBHQ were consistently quite low between 5 kHz right upto 500 kHz [9].

Dissipation factor vs Frequency Dissipation factor vs Frequency


Silicone fluid & IO19 Samples(at 60ᵒC) Silicone fluid & IO19 Samples(at 90ᵒC)
1
1 0.5 2.5 5 10 25 50 100 250 400 500
0.5 2.5 5 10 25 50 100 250 400 500

Silicone fluid
0.1 0.1
Silicone fluid
Dissipation Factor

IO19+1% TBHQ
IO19+1% TBHQ

Dissipation Factor
0.01 0.01

IO19+1% TBHQ - aged (IO19+1% TBHQ) aged

0.001
0.001
(IO19+1% TBHQ + Teflon)- IO19+1% TBHQ +Teflon
aged (aged)
0.0001
(IO19+1%TBHQ+ Nomex)-
0.0001 IO19+1% TBHQ +
aged
Nomex (aged)

0.00001

0.00001

Frequency(kHz)
Frequency(kHz)

Fig.6.(a) DF vs Frequency (at 60ºC) Fig.6.(b) DF vs Frequency (at 90˚C)

DF of the oil (IO19+1%TBHQ+Nomex & Teflon– thermally aged sample) when measured was found around
20%-25% higher than that of IO19+1%TBHQ aged oil in frequency range of 25kHz to 500kHz. This depicts that
though oil with Teflon or Nomex deteriorated its effect would be negligible when it is used in an insulation system
subjected to different temperature and frequency [4, 14]. At 25ºC, it was observed that, DF of all the samples of
IO19+1% TBHQ was comparable with DF of silicone fluid. DF was in the range of 10-5 to 10-4 at 25 kHz to about
100 kHz.

The reduction in DF with increase in frequency upto about 250 kHz for both oils IO18 & IO19 depicts the
suitability of oil for high frequency applications. From the measured data, it may be analysed that there is not much
degradation of oil with change in frequency and effect on the insulation system is very less [16, 17]. DF also
depends on some of the inherent properties of the vegetable seed oil namely polar or non- polar nature of the liquid,
fatty acid composition, free fatty acid composition, bound moisture, viscosity etc.[9]. Therefore it is very difficult to
explain the dependence of dissipation factor with variation in temperature or frequency as it is very complex [9].

6.2.6. Relative permittivity of Silicone fluid, IO18 samples & IO19 samples

Relative permittivity was measured for temperature range (25ºC to 90ºC) and frequency range (500Hz to 500
kHz). Relative permittivity for silicon fluid was in the range of 2.5 to 2.8 [4, 5, 14]. Almost all samples of IO18 &
IO19 oil had relative permittivity ranging from 2.7 to 3.1 showing a drooping plot with increase in frequency
[9].This indicated lesser mis-match of the indigenous oils with paper when used in an insulation system.

Oxidation stability was also measured for all samples of oil listed in Table-1. Since as an inherent property,
natural esters are more prone to oxidation, samples of both IO18+3% TBHQ & IO19 with 1% TBHQ had lower
oxidation stability (less than 75 hours) when compared with silicone fluid[4,14]. Thus there is scope for further
improvement and studies in this direction [18, 19].
2694 A.N.Nagashree et al. / Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 2685–2695

7. Conclusion

Both the natural vegetable seed oil (‘as received’) samples were subjected to treatment and ageing process. It was
observed that, both these oils were found to be suitable for use as liquid dielectric coolants when compared with that
of silicone fluid.
• Breakdown voltages of all the samples of IO18+3%TBHQ & IO19 with 1%- TBHQ are comparable to or
better than silicone fluid in the entire range of temperature (25˚C to 90˚C) measured at power frequency
[4,14].
• All the oil samples listed in Table-1 have lower dissipation factor particularly in frequency range of 5 kHz to
500 kHz when compared with silicone fluid. Again this is a strong point supporting use of indigenous oils as
an alternate liquid dielectric. The relative permittivities of all the selected samples TBHQ were consistent for
entire range of temperature and were in the typical range of 2.7 to 3.2 [4, 5, 14].

However, it was observed that, there is scope for further improvement in oxidation stability of both IO18 & IO19
oils [4].On the whole it may be summarised that breakdown voltage of all samples of table-1 is above 47kV and
reasonably higher than silicone fluid, in almost all temperature ranges (at power frequency). Dissipation factor of all
samples listed in Table 1 was lower than silicone fluid, particularly from 5 kHz to about 250 kHz. Use of both
IO18+3%TBHQ & IO19 + 1% TBHQ as liquid dielectric (under fresh, aged and aged with materials) seem to be
very encouraging. Therefore there is a strong possibility for use of these natural vegetable seed oil as an alternate
liquid dielectric in an. insulation system [4,14].

Acknowledgement
Authors are grateful to the management BMS Educational Trust, Principal, BMS College of Engineering and
vice-principal BMS college of Engineering for their valuable support. Authors are thankful to TEQIP-BMSCE, for
the extended support. Authors thank the Management and Principal, Research Centre, Department of Electrical &
Electronics Engineering, Dr.Ambedkar Institute of Technology for according permission to utilize the R & D
facilities.

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