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Determine si cada una de las siguientes ecuaciones es exacta, en caso

de serlo halle la solución


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1.- (2𝑥 − 1)𝑑𝑥 + (3𝑦 + 7)𝑑𝑦 = 0.
𝑀𝑑𝑥 + 𝑁𝑑𝑦 = 0 Forma de una ecuacion diferencial exacta.

𝑑𝑀
=0
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑁
=0
𝑑𝑥
∫ (2𝑥 − 1)𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥2 − 𝑥 + ℎ(𝑦)

3𝑦2
∫ (3𝑦 + 7)𝑑𝑦 = + 7𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥)
2
Soluciòn:
2
3𝑦 2
𝑥 −𝑥+ + 7𝑦 = 𝑐1
2
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2.- (2𝑥 + 𝑦)𝑑𝑥 + (−𝑥 − 6𝑦)𝑑𝑦 = 0


𝑑𝑀
=1
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑁
= −1
𝑑𝑥
No es una ecuación diferencial exacta.

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3. (5𝑥 + 4𝑦)𝑑𝑥 + (4𝑥 − 8𝑦 3 )𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑑𝑀
=4
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑁
= −4
𝑑𝑥
5𝑥2
∫ (4𝑦 + 5𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = 4𝑥𝑦 + + ℎ(𝑦)
2
4
∫ (4𝑥 − 8𝑦2 )𝑑𝑦 = 4𝑥𝑦 − 2𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥)

Solución:
5𝑥 2
4𝑥𝑦 + − 2𝑦 4 = 𝑐1
2

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4.- (𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑦 − 𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + (𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑦 − 𝑦)𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑑𝑀
= 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑦 − 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑁
= −𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑦
𝑑𝑥
𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑦 − 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑦 − 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥

∫ (𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑦 − 𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑦 + 𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑥 + ℎ(𝑦)

𝑦2
∫ (𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑦 − 𝑦)𝑑𝑦 = 𝑦𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑦 − + 𝑔(𝑥)
2
Solución:
𝑦2
𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑦 + 𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 − = 𝑐1
2

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5.- (2𝑥𝑦 2 − 3)𝑑𝑥 + (2𝑥 2 𝑦 + 4)𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑑𝑀
= 4𝑥𝑦
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑁
= 4𝑥𝑦
𝑑𝑥
4𝑥𝑦 = 4𝑥𝑦

∫ (2𝑥𝑦2 − 3)𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥2 𝑦2 − 3𝑥 + ℎ(𝑦)

∫ (2𝑥𝑦2 + 4)𝑑𝑦 = 𝑥2 𝑦2 − 4𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥)

Solución:
𝑥 2 𝑦 2 − 3𝑥 − 4𝑦 = 𝑐1

Determine si cada una de las siguientes ecuaciones es exacta, en


caso de serlo, halle la solución.
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1 𝑑𝑦 𝑦
1.- (2𝑦 − + 𝑐𝑜𝑠3𝑥) + − 4𝑥 3 + 3𝑦 𝑠𝑒𝑛3𝑥 = 0
𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑥2
1 𝑑𝑦 𝑦
(2𝑦 −
+ 𝑐𝑜𝑠3𝑥) = (− 2 − 4𝑥 3 + 3𝑦 𝑠𝑒𝑛3𝑥)
𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑥
1 𝑦 3
(2𝑦 − 𝑥 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠3𝑥)dy+𝑥 2 − 4𝑥 + 3𝑦 𝑠𝑒𝑛3𝑥 dx
1 𝑦
(2𝑦 − + 𝑐𝑜𝑠3𝑥)𝑑𝑦 + 2 − 4𝑥 3 + 3𝑦 𝑠𝑒𝑛3𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 0
𝑥 𝑥
𝑑𝑀 1
= 2 + 3𝑠𝑒𝑛 3𝑥
𝑑𝑦 𝑥
𝑑𝑁 1
= − 2 − 3𝑠𝑒𝑛3𝑥
𝑑𝑥 𝑥
No es una ecuación diferencial exacta.

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2.- (𝑥 2 − 𝑦 2 )𝑑𝑥 + (𝑥 2 2𝑥𝑦)𝑑𝑦 = 0


𝑑𝑀
= −2
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑁
= 2𝑥 − 2𝑦
𝑑𝑥
No es una ecuación diferencial exacta.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

𝑦
3.- (1 + 𝐿𝑛 𝑥 + )𝑑𝑥 = (1 − 𝑙𝑛𝑥) 𝑑𝑦
𝑥
𝑦
(1 + 𝑙𝑛𝑥 + )𝑑𝑥 + (𝑙𝑛𝑥 − 1)𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑥

𝑑𝑀 1
=
𝑑𝑦 𝑥
𝑑𝑁 1
=
𝑑𝑥 𝑥

𝑦
∫ (1 + 𝑙𝑛𝑥 + )𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥 𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑦𝑙𝑛𝑥 + ℎ(𝑦)
𝑥

∫ (−1 + 𝑙𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑦 = 𝑦 𝑙𝑛𝑥 − 𝑦 𝑔(𝑥)

Solución:
𝑦 𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑥𝑙𝑛 𝑥 − 𝑦 = 𝑐1
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4.- (𝑥 − 𝑦 3 + 𝑦 2 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = (3𝑥𝑦 2 + 2𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑥) 𝑑𝑦
(𝑥 − 𝑦 3 + 𝑦 2 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 − (3𝑥𝑦 2 + 2𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑥) 𝑑𝑦 = 0
(𝑥 − 𝑦 3 + 𝑦 2 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + (−3𝑥𝑦 2 − 2𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑥) 𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑑𝑀
= −3𝑦 2 + 2𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑁
= −3𝑦 2 + 2𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥
𝑑𝑥

−3𝑦 2 + 2𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥=−3𝑦 2 + 2𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥

𝑥2
∫ (𝑥 − 𝑦3 + 𝑦2 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = + 𝑥𝑦2 − 𝑦2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + ℎ(𝑦)
2

∫ (−3𝑥𝑦2 − 2𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑥) 𝑑𝑦 = −𝑥𝑦2 − 𝑦2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑥)

Solución:
2
𝑥2
−𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + = 𝑐1
2

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5.- (𝑥 3 + 𝑦 3 )𝑑𝑥 + 3𝑥𝑦 2 𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑑𝑀
= 3𝑦 2
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑁
= 3𝑦 2
𝑑𝑥
3𝑦 2=3𝑦 2

𝑥4
∫ (𝑥3 + 𝑦3 )𝑑𝑥 = + 𝑥𝑦2 + ℎ(𝑦)
4

∫ 3𝑥𝑦2 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑥𝑦2 + 𝑔(𝑥)


Solución:
𝑥4
𝑥𝑦 2 + = 𝑐1
4
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Opcionales para practicar:

𝑑𝑀
= 𝑙𝑛 𝑦 + 1 + 𝑥𝑒 −𝑥𝑦
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑁
= 𝑙𝑛 𝑦
𝑑𝑥
No es una ecuación diferencial exacta.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

𝑑𝑀
= 3𝑥 2 + 𝑒 𝑦
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑁
= 3𝑥 2 + 𝑒 𝑦
𝑑𝑥

3𝑥 2 + 𝑒 𝑦 =3𝑥 2 + 𝑒 𝑦

∫ (3𝑥2 𝑦 + 𝑒𝑦 )𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥2 𝑦 + 𝑥𝑒𝑦 ℎ(𝑦)

2
∫ (𝑥3 + 𝑥𝑒𝑦 − 2𝑦)𝑑𝑦 = 𝑦𝑥 + 𝑥𝑒𝑦 − 𝑦2 + 𝑔(𝑥)

Solución: 𝑥 2 𝑦 + 𝑥𝑒 𝑦 − 𝑦 2 = 𝑐1

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𝑥𝑑𝑦 = (2𝑥𝑒 𝑥 − 𝑦 + 6𝑥 2 )𝑑𝑥


𝑥𝑑𝑦 + (−2𝑥𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑦 − 6𝑥 2 )𝑑𝑥 = 0

𝑑𝑀
=1
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑁
=1
𝑑𝑥

∫ (−2𝑥𝑒𝑥 + 𝑦 − 6𝑥2 )𝑑𝑥

−2 ∫ (𝑥𝑒 𝑥 )𝑑𝑥=
𝑢=𝑥 𝑑𝑢 = 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑣 = 𝑒 𝑑𝑥 𝑣 = 𝑒 𝑥
𝑥

−2 ∫ 𝑒 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 − 2𝑒 𝑥 𝑥 = 2𝑒 𝑥 − 2𝑒 𝑥 𝑥

∫ (−2𝑥𝑒𝑥 + 𝑦 − 6𝑥2 )𝑑𝑥 = 2𝑒𝑥 − 2𝑒𝑥 𝑥 − 2𝑥2

∫ 𝑥𝑑𝑦 = 𝑥𝑦
Solución:
2𝑒 𝑥 − 2𝑒 𝑥 𝑥 − 2𝑥 2 + 𝑥𝑦 = 𝑐1

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3 3
(1 −+ 𝑥)𝑑𝑦 = ( − 1 − 𝑦)𝑑𝑥
𝑦 𝑥
3 3
(1 − + 𝑥)𝑑𝑦 + (− + 1 + 𝑦)𝑑𝑥 = 0
𝑦 𝑥

𝑑𝑀
=1
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑁
=1
𝑑𝑥
1=1
3
∫ (− + 1 + 𝑦)𝑑𝑥 = −3𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑥 + 𝑥𝑦 + ℎ(𝑦)
𝑥
3
∫ (1 − + 𝑥)𝑑𝑦 = 𝑦 − 3𝑙𝑛𝑦 + 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑔(𝑥)
𝑦
Solución:
−3𝑙𝑛𝑦 + 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑥 + 𝑦 = 𝑐1

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1
𝑥 2𝑦 3 − )𝑑𝑥 = −𝑥 3 𝑦 2 𝑑𝑦
1 + 9𝑥 2
1
(𝑥 2 𝑦 2 − )𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥 3 𝑦 2 𝑑𝑦 = 0
2
1 + 9𝑥

𝑑𝑀
= 3𝑥 3 𝑦 2
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑁
= 3𝑥 3 𝑦 2
𝑑𝑥

1 𝑥 2 𝑦3
∫ (𝑥2 𝑦3 − )𝑑𝑥 = 𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑇𝑎𝑛𝑔(3𝑥)
1 + 9𝑥2 3
𝑥 2 𝑦3
∫ 𝑥3 𝑦2 𝑑𝑦 =
3
Solución: −𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑇𝑎𝑛𝑔(3𝑥) = 𝑐1
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Resuelva las siguientes ecuaciones diferenciales

2
𝑟 − 2𝑟 + 1 = 0
−2 ± √22 − 4
𝑟=
2
𝑟1 = 1 𝑟2 = 1

𝑦ℎ(𝑥) = 𝑒 1𝑥 (𝐶1𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝐶2𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥)

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥
𝑤=[ ] = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥 + 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 𝑥 = 1
𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
0 𝑦2 2
𝑒𝑥
𝑤1 = [ ] = 𝑦 /𝑤𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥
𝑓(𝑥) 𝑦′2 1 + 𝑥2
𝑦1 0 𝑒𝑥
𝑤2 = [ 1 ] = 𝑦 1 /𝑤𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
𝑦′ 𝑓(𝑥) 1 + 𝑥2

𝑒𝑥 𝑒𝑥
𝑢1 = ∫ − 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑢′1 = ∫ 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥𝑑𝑥
1 + 𝑥2 1 + 𝑥2
𝑒𝑥 𝑒𝑥
𝑦𝑝(𝑥) = ∫ − 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑒 𝑥 − ∫ 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥𝑑𝑥 𝑒𝑥
1 + 𝑥2 1 + 𝑥2

2
𝑟 − 2𝑟 + 1 = 0
−2 ± √22 − 4
𝑟=
2
𝑟1 = 1 𝑟2 = 1

𝑦ℎ(𝑥) = 𝑒 1𝑥 (𝐶1𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝐶2𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥)

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥
𝑤=[ ] = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥 + 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 𝑥 = 1
𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
0 𝑦2
𝑤1 = [ ] = 𝑦 2 /𝑤𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥(𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑥) = 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 𝑥
𝑓(𝑥) 𝑦′2
𝑦1 0
𝑤2 = [ 1 ] = 𝑦 1 /𝑤𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥
𝑦′ 𝑓(𝑥)

𝑢1 = ∫ − 𝑠𝑒𝑛 2 𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑥 𝑢′1 = ∫ 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥𝑑𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑑𝑥

𝑦𝑝(𝑥) = ∫ − 𝑠𝑒𝑛 2 𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + ∫ 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥𝑑𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 𝑑𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥

2
𝑟 − 2𝑟 + 1 = 0
−2 ± √22 − 4
𝑟=
2
𝑟1 = 1 𝑟2 = 1

𝑦ℎ(𝑥) = 𝑒 1𝑥 (𝐶1𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝐶2𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥)


𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥
𝑤=[ ] = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥 + 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 𝑥 = 1
𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
0 𝑦2
𝑤1 = [ ] = 𝑦 2 /𝑤𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 (𝑒 −𝑡 𝑙𝑛𝑡)
𝑓(𝑥) 𝑦′2
𝑦1 0
𝑤2 = [ 1 ] = 𝑦 1 /𝑤𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 (𝑒 −𝑡 𝑙𝑛𝑡)
𝑦′ 𝑓(𝑥)

𝑢1 = ∫ 𝑒 −𝑡 𝑙𝑛𝑡 𝑢′1 = ∫ 𝑒 −𝑡 𝑙𝑛𝑡

𝑦𝑝(𝑥) = ∫ 𝑒 −𝑡 𝑙𝑛 𝑡 𝑑𝑥 𝑒 𝑥 + ∫ 𝑒 −𝑡 𝑙𝑛 𝑡 𝑑𝑥 𝑒 𝑥
2
2𝑟 + 2𝑟 + 1 = 0
−2 ± √22 − 8
𝑟=
2
𝑟1 = 0 𝑟2 = 2
𝑥
𝑦ℎ(𝑥) = 𝑒 (𝐶1𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝐶2𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥)
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥
𝑤=[ ] = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥 + 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 𝑥 = 1
𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
0 𝑦2
𝑤1 = [ ] = 𝑦 2 /𝑤𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 4√𝑥
𝑓(𝑥) 𝑦′2
𝑦1 0
𝑤2 = [ 1 ] = 𝑦 1 /𝑤𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 4√𝑥
𝑦′ 𝑓(𝑥)

𝑢1 = ∫ − 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 4√𝑥𝑑𝑥 𝑢′1 = ∫ 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥𝑑𝑥 4√𝑥

𝑦𝑝(𝑥) = ∫ − 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 𝑑𝑥 4√𝑥𝑑𝑥 + ∫ 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 4√𝑥 𝑑𝑥

2
3𝑟
− 6𝑟 + 6 = 0
−6 ± √36 − 72
𝑟=
6
𝑟1 = 2 𝑟2 = 0
𝑥
𝑦ℎ(𝑥) = 𝑒 (𝐶1𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝐶2𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥)
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥
𝑤=[ ] = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥 + 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 𝑥 = 1
𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
0 𝑦2
𝑤1 = [ ] = 𝑦 2 /𝑤𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥(𝑒 𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑥)
𝑓(𝑥) 𝑦′2
𝑦1 0
𝑤2 = [ 1 ] = 𝑦 1 /𝑤𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 (𝑒 𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑥)
𝑦′ 𝑓(𝑥)

𝑢1 = ∫ − 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 (𝑒 𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑥)𝑑𝑥 𝑢′1 = ∫ 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 (𝑒 𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑥)𝑑𝑥

𝑦𝑝(𝑥) = ∫ − 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 (𝑒 𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑥)𝑑𝑥 𝑒 𝑥 − ∫ 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 (𝑒 𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑥)𝑑𝑥 𝑒 𝑥

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2
4𝑟 − 4𝑟 + 1 = 0
−4 ± √16 − 16
𝑟=
2
𝑟1 = 2 𝑟2 = −2
1𝑥
𝑦ℎ(𝑥) = 𝑒 (𝐶1𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 + 𝐶2𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥)

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥
𝑤=[ ] = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥 + 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 𝑥 = 1
𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
0 𝑦2
𝑤1 = [ ] = 𝑦 2 /𝑤𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥(𝑒 𝑥/2 √1 − 𝑥 2 )
𝑓(𝑥) 𝑦′2
𝑦1 0
𝑤2 = [ 1 ] = 𝑦 1 /𝑤𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 (𝑒 𝑥/2 √1 − 𝑥 2 )
𝑦′ 𝑓(𝑥)

𝑢1 = ∫ − 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 (𝑒 𝑥/2 √1 − 𝑥 2 )𝑑𝑥 𝑢′1 = ∫ 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 (𝑒 𝑥/2 √1 − 𝑥 2 )𝑑𝑥

𝑦𝑝(𝑥) = ∫ − 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑑𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 (𝑒 𝑥/2 √1 − 𝑥 2 ) 𝑑𝑥 − 1 ∫

− 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑑𝑥 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 (𝑒 𝑥/2 √1 − 𝑥 2 ) 𝑑𝑥 1