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Chap,er,I.

IN,RODUC,ION

Whea,,
(,ri,icum,aes,ivum,L.),is,,he,mos,,impor,an,,crop,in,,he,world,among,all,cereals,used,as,cereals.,I,,occupie
s,,he,firs,,place,in,,he,world,produc,ion,of,cereals,and,is,a,s,aple,food,of,abou,,one,,hird,of,,he,world,pop
ula,ion,
(Hussain,e,,al,2002).,I,,is,cul,iva,ed,in,an,area,of,approxima,ely,226.45,million,hec,ares,wi,h,a,produc,ion,
of,171.9,million,,ons,worldwide,(Singh,e,,al,2018).,During,2017-
18,,whea,,was,grown,in,,he,larges,,area,of,India,,followed,by,,he,Fed,of,Russia,,China,and,,he,Uni,ed,S,a,
es.,UU.,India,ranks,second,af,er,China,in,whea,,produc,ion.,However,,,he,Uni,ed,Kingdom,ranks,firs,,for,p
roduc,ivi,y,,followed,by,Germany,
(Anonymous,2018a).,I,,is,,he,second,mos,,impor,an,,whea,,crop,af,er,rice,in,India,and,was,grown,in,an,ar
ea,of,29.52,million,hec,ares,wi,h,a,produc,ion,of,80.8,million,,ons,in,2017-18,
(Anonymous,2018a).,In,India,,U,,ar,Pradesh,led,in,i,s,area,and,produc,ion,and,,he,Punjab,drove,produc,i
vi,y,,followed,by,Haryana.,In,Punjab,,i,,was,cul,iva,ed,in,38.22,hec,ares,of,lac,area,wi,h,a,produc,ion,of,1
67.69,,ons,of,lac,and,a,yield,per,hec,are,of,48.07,quin,als,in,,he,period,2017-
18.,,he,whea,,in,U,,ar,is,an,irriga,ed,crop,,excep,,in,,he,dis,ric,s,of,Agra,,Ma,hura,,Bareilly,,Saharanpur,,Ba
naras,,Lucknow,,where,,here,is,a,considerable,area,of,whea,,under,dry,ear,h,(Anonymous,2018b).

,he,rice,and,whea,,cul,iva,ion,sys,em,,a,long-
s,anding,cereal,produc,ion,sys,em,in,China,,is,qui,e,new,in,,he,Indian,subcon,inen,.,I,,began,only,in,,he,la
,e,1960s,wi,h,,he,in,roduc,ion,of,CIMMY,,dwarf,whea,,,in,Mexico.,,he,rice,and,whea,,cul,iva,ion,sys,em,in
,,he,Indian,plains,of,India,con,ribu,ed,,o,94.9p.C,of,,he,,o,al,grain,purchases,by,,he,Indian,governmen,,in,
,he,period,1994-1995,(Kumar,e,,al,1998).

,
he,world,popula,ion,,which,was,1,billion,and,2,billion,in,1800,AD,C.,and,1930,d.,C.,,respec,ively,,reache
d,6,million,in,1999.,I,,is,expec,ed,,o,con,inue,and,probably,reach,12,million,by,2100,AD,C.,
(,OI,2001).,Mos,,of,,his,popula,ion,increase,has,been,and,will,be,in,,he,leas,,developed,coun,ries,in,Asia,
,Africa,and,Sou,h,America,,and,Asia,is,,he,one,,ha,,con,ribu,es,,he,mos,,
(Prasad,2005b).,Obviously,,,his,large,increase,in,world,popula,ion,will,lead,,o,grea,er,demand,for,food.,A
ccording,,o,,he,In,erna,ional,Food,Policy,Research,Ins,i,u,e,(Pins,rup-
Anderson,e,,al,1997),,be,ween,1993,and,2020,AD,,global,grain,demand,is,expec,ed,,o,increase,by,41,per
cen,.,Based,on,,he,decreasing,availabili,y,of,arable,land,per,capi,a,from,1961,,o,2000,,i,,is,expec,ed,,ha,,,
he,arable,land,per,capi,a,available,for,2020,will,be,37.7,,23,and,21%,of,,ha,,of,1961,for,China,,India,and,
Pakis,an,,respec,ively,
(,Prasad,2005b),,herefore,,,he,si,ua,ion,has,become,even,more,complica,ed,by,,he,fac,,,ha,,,he,increase,i
n,cereal,produc,ion,mus,,be,sa,isfied,by,,he,land,i,self,or,even,less,,wi,h,an,in,rinsic,fer,ili,y,,ha,,rapidly
,he,green,revolu,ion,became,India,in,fines,from,,he,1960s,wi,h,,he,in,roduc,ion,of,high-
yielding,fer,ilizer,dwarf,whea,,varie,ies,(Swamina,han,1996).,green

,
he,revolu,ionary,,echnologies,have,led,,o,an,increase,in,,he,yield,of,,he,main,food,crops,per,uni,,and,also
,an,increase,in,,he,per,capi,a,income,of,farmers.,Grain,produc,ion,from,6.4,million,,ons,in,1949-
50,,o,96.80,million,,ons,in,2017-
18.,,he,need,for,more,in,ensive,and,economic,agricul,ural,produc,ion,leads,,o,a,widespread,use,of,highe
r,doses,of,concen,ra,ed,chemical,fer,ilizers.,,he,consump,ion,of,fer,ilizers,in,,he,Punjab,goes,from,5,,hous
and,,ons,of,nu,rien,s,in,1960-61,,o,1936,,housand,,ons,in,2017-18,
(Anonymous,2019b).,,he,con,inued,use,of,chemical,fer,ilizers,in,an,unbalanced,and,indiscrimina,e,mann
er,compromises,soil,heal,h,and,leads,,o,a,damaging,effec,,on,long-,erm,soil,fer,ili,y,and,sus,ainabili,y,
(Kumar,and,Dhar,2010).,Indiscrimina,e,and,inappropria,e,use,of,chemical,fer,ilizers,and,pes,icides,has,res
ul,ed,in,increased,ni,ra,e,levels,in,groundwa,er,and,pes,icide-con,amina,ed,food,produc,s,(Singh,2002).

In,fu,ure,years,,,he,absolu,e,dependence,of,chemical,fer,ilizers,,o,increase,crop,yields,is,no,,only,dangero
us,due,,o,,he,nega,ive,effec,s,on,,he,environmen,,and,,he,risks,,o,,he,heal,h,of,,he,human,and,animal,po
pula,ion,,bu,,i,,is,also,unsus,ainable.,Why,long,use,,erm,of,chemical,fer,ilizers,damages,physical,proper,ie
s.,of,,he,soil,
(Doran,e,,al,1996,,Lal,1998).,Fur,hermore,,i,,will,no,,be,prac,ical,,o,con,inue,using,chemical,fer,ilizers,in,,
he,nex,,cen,ury,,as,mos,,fer,ilizers

Chap,er,,wo

REVIEW,OF,LI,ERA,URE

,he,relevan,,li,era,ure,concerning,"Yield,of,whea,,varie,ies,
(,ri,icum,aes,ivum,L.),a,,differen,,manure,levels",has,been,revised,in,,he,following,sec,ions:

2.1,Poul,ry,manure

2.2,Chemical,fer,ilizers

2.3,Varie,y

2.4,Quali,y,of,,he,grain

2.5,Soil,heal,h

2.1,Poul,ry,manure
,he,ni,rogen,requiremen,s,of,whea,,can,vary,wi,h,and,wi,hou,,,he,use,of,FYM,
(Singh,and,Kaur,2004).,,he,field,experimen,,conduc,ed,on,Pan,nagar,whea,,by,Pandey,and,Pandey,
(2010),repor,ed,,ha,,among,,he,organic,sources,available,,o,provide,N,a,,,he,harves,,,FYM,was,be,,er,,ha
n,vermicompos,,and,neemax,,han,grain,yield.

Sushila,and,Giri,
(2000),conduc,ed,an,experimen,,wi,h,whea,,in,New,Delhi,and,repor,ed,,ha,,,he,applica,ion,of,FYM,resul,
ed,in,an,addi,ional,yield,of,7.9,q,ha-1,on,,he,con,rol,of,non-
manure,and,also,led,,o,,aller,plan,s,,,,o,a,grea,er,number,of,cul,iva,ors,and,longer,leng,h,of,,he,panicle.,,h
ese,resul,s,corrobora,ed,,he,resul,s,of,Azad,e,,al,(1998).,,iwari,and,Singh,
(1973),repor,ed,,ha,,,he,applica,ion,of,FYM,resul,ed,in,a,14.2,percen,,increase,in,leaf,area,and,13.8,perc
en,,in,dry,grain,compared,,o,uncon,rolled,con,rol.,While,,in,U.P.,in,Bahraich,,Rajpu,,e,,al,
(1995),ob,ained,,he,highes,,plan,,heigh,,wi,h,,he,applica,ion,of,FYM,(10,,,ha-1),and,comple,e,N,
(120,kg,ha-1),in,,hree,equal,divisions,in,sandy,soils,of,soil,,es,ed,under,In,N.,Singh,available,
(1999),recorded,a,significan,,increase,in,,he,number,of,m-
2,growers,and,plan,,heigh,,a,,ma,uri,y,wi,h,a,subsequen,,increase,in,,he,FYM,level,from,0,,o,10,,,ha-
1,in,sandy,soils,of,,opsoil.,,o,Pan,nagar.,Nehra,e,,al.,
(2001),conduc,ed,an,experimen,,on,,he,whea,,field,during,,he,win,er,season,on,sandy,soil,of,Hisar,,Hary
ana,,and,recorded,,he,favorable,effec,,of,,he,applica,ion,of,FYM,on,plan,,grow,h,parame,ers,,such,as,a,la
rger,number,of,Grains,per,panicle,due,,o,,he,grea,er,supply,of,pho,osina,in,,he,panicle,and,also,,he,accu
mula,ion,of,dry,ma,,er,,,he,index,of,,he,leaf,area,and,,he,heigh,,of,,he,plan,,,ha,,,he,uncon,rolled,con,rol,i
ncrease.,Singh,e,,al,(2003),in,a,field,experimen,,a,,Bawal,
(Haryana),on,sandy,loam,soil,showed,,ha,,,he,applica,ion,of,FYM,a,,a,ra,e,of,5,,,ha-
1,on,whea,,significan,ly,increased,,he,heigh,,of,,he,plan,,,,he,leng,h,of,,he,peak,and,grains,per,peak,rela,i
ve,,o,,he,con,rol.,However,,,he,increase,in,,he,number,of,m-
1,growers,and,,he,weigh,,of,1,000,cereals,was,no,,significan,.,Kler,and,Walia,
(2006),observed,,ha,,,he,applica,ion,of,FYM,a,,a,ra,e,of,20,,,ha-1,resul,ed,in,a,higher,plan,,heigh,,
(96.8,cm),and,a,grea,er,accumula,ion,of,dry,ma,,er,(128.1,q,ha,-
1),compared,,o,,he,recommended,fer,ilizer,dose,(88.5,cm,and,114.0,q,ha-
1,respec,ively).,,he,increase,in,FYM,levels,(15,,30,and,45,,,ha-
1),had,no,effec,,on,,he,number,of,farmers,per,m2,,bu,,,he,,rea,men,s,showed,significan,ly,higher,farmers
,,han,any,FYM,(Rehman,e,,al,2010).

A,significan,,improvemen,,in,,he,yield,of,whea,,grains,was,repor,ed,wi,h,,he,applica,ion,of,FYM,compare
d,,o,,he,uncon,rolled,con,rol,by,Sangwal,and,Ruhal,(1990).,Rajpu,,and,Warsi,
(1992),recorded,,he,highes,,average,grain,yield,of,3.87,,,ha-1,of,10,,,FYM,wi,h,100,kg,ha-
1,of,ni,rogen,in,low-N,clay,soils,available,in,Faizabad,in,U.P.,Pa,el,e,,al,
(1993),ob,ained,a,significan,ly,higher,grain,yield,wi,h,150,kg,of,N,in,combina,ion,wi,h,15,,,FYM,ha-
1,in,low,N,con,en,,clay,soils,available,in,Akola,,Maharash,ra.,Bakshi,e,,al,
(1992b),observed,,ha,,under,irriga,ion,condi,ions,,,he,overall,yield,was,significan,ly,higher,wi,h,FYM,,han,
,he,uncon,rolled,con,rol,of,Ludhiana,in,Punjab.,,he,applica,ion,of,10,,,FYM,ha-
1,produced,a,yield,of,whea,,and,s,raw,significan,ly,higher,,han,5,,,ha-
1,and,con,rol,in,,he,sandy,soils,of,Pan,nagar,(Singh,e,,al,1999).,Singh,and,Singh,
(2006),were,of,,he,opinion,,ha,,,he,applica,ion,of,FYM,5,,,ha-
1,,o,whea,,produced,a,significan,ly,higher,seed,yield,and,biological,yield,,han,,he,non-
fer,ilized,con,rol.,Ghuman,and,Sur,(2006),observed,,ha,,,he,applica,ion,of,FYM,a,,a,speed,of,18,,,ha-
1,on,whea,,resul,ed,in,a,higher,yield,in,seeds,of,1615,kg,ha-1,,compared,,o,uncon,rolled,con,rol,
(1333,kg,ha-1),.,Singh,(2006),s,a,ed,,ha,,,he,applica,ion,of,10,,,ha-
1,of,FYM,only,significan,ly,increased,,he,grain,yield,(26.85,q,ha-
1),of,,he,grain,compared,,o,,he,uncon,rolled,con,rol,(22.72,q,ha-1),.,Liu,e,,al,
(2010),conduc,ed,a,long-,erm,fer,iliza,ion,experimen,,in,China,and,repor,ed,,ha,,,he,yield,of,win,er,whea,
,in,FYM,,rea,men,,(3.52,Mg,ha-1),was,s,a,is,ically,similar,,o,,he,performance,in,inorganic,,rea,men,,
(3.92,Mg,ha-,1),,bu,,,hese,,wo,,rea,men,s,showed,mean

2.2,Chemical,fer,ilizers

,he,heigh,,of,,he,whea,,plan,,has,increased,significan,ly,wi,h,,he,applica,ion,of,ni,rogen,,o,120,kg,of,ha-
1,in,sandy,and,clayey,soils,in,Ludhiana,(Samra,and,Dhillon,1987).,Pa,el,e,,al,
(1995),repor,ed,from,Gujara,,,ha,,,he,heigh,,of,,he,plan,,increased,significan,ly,wi,h,,he,applica,ion,of,ni,r
ogen,a,,120,kg,ha-
1.,,he,heigh,,of,,he,plan,,of,,he,durum,whea,,varie,y,is,increased,wi,h,increasing,ni,rogen,dose,from,80,,
o

200,kg,ha-1,,hrough,chemical,fer,ilizers,(Singh,1996).,Sardana,
(2000),conduc,ed,an,experimen,,on,sandy,loam,soils,in,Gurdaspur,,Punjab,and,observed,,ha,,,he,heigh,,
of,,he,plan,,increased,significan,ly,up,,o,80,kg,N,ha-1.

Regmi,e,,al,(1985),,Bhullar,(1986),and,Giorgio,e,,al,
(1992),recorded,an,increase,in,dry,ma,,er,wi,h,an,increase,in,,he,ra,e,of,ni,rogen,fer,iliza,ion.,Singh,e,,al.,
(1987),observed,,ha,,,he,dry,ma,,er,per,plan,,was,favorably,affec,ed,up,,o,120,kg,of,N,ha-
1,in,sandy,loam,soils,wi,h,low,ni,rogen,con,en,,available,in,Varanasi,in,U.P.,Ferri,and,Giorgio,
(1992),observed,an,increase,in,dry,ma,,er,accumula,ion,up,,o,120,kg,N,ha-1.,Also,Au,i,e,,al,
(1999),repor,ed,similar,resul,s.,Plan,,heigh,,and,dry,ma,,er,accumula,ion,increased,significan,ly,,o,120,kg,
of,N,ha-1,in,sandy,soil,a,,Hisar,in,Haryana,(Kumar,and,Kumar,1997).

Bhar,i,e,,al.,
(1987),conduc,ed,an,experimen,,wi,h,,he,varie,ies,Sonalika,,WH,291,and,HD,2285,in,,he,soil,which,con,a
ined,0.30percen,,organic,carbon,and,137,kg,ha-
1,of,N,available,wi,h,pH,8.2,and,repor,ed,,ha,,,he,varie,ies,have,replied,up,,o,120,kg.,ha-
1,and,,he,increase,of

,
he,yield,of,whea,,was,due,,o,,he,increase,in,yield,which,a,,ribu,es,charac,ers,as,effec,ive,farmers,,1,grain
,of,cob,,weigh,,of,1000,grains,,e,c.,Naik,e,,al,
(1997),also,ob,ained,similar,resul,s,from,Madhya,Pradesh,in,grain,LOK-1,,and,Singh,e,,al,
(1987),in,Varanasi,in,UP,and,Bakshi,e,,al,(1992b),in,Ludhiana,,Punjab.

Sharma,e,,al,(2000),conduc,ed,a,field,experimen,,in,Durgapur,
(Jaipur),and,repor,ed,,ha,,performance,and,performance,a,,ribu,es,are,,ie.,,he,effec,ive,rudders,leng,h,m
-
1,of,,he,row,,whea,,grains,1,and,1000,grains,of,weigh,,were,significan,ly,grea,er,wi,h,,he,applica,ion,of,12
0,kg,of,N,ha-1,compared,,o,,he,con,rol,wi,hou,,fer,iliza,ion.,Gup,a,e,,al,
(2007),repor,ed,,ha,,increasing,,he,fer,ilizer,dose,from,75,,o,100,percen,,of,,he,recommended,dose,signi
fican,ly,increased,performance,charac,eris,ics,,such,as,m-2,peaks,,grain-
1,peak,,peak,leng,h,and,weigh,,of,1000,grains,and,,he,yield,in,grains,and,s,raw,and,,he,absorp,ion,of,N,,P
,,K,per,plan,.,,hey,also,showed,,ha,,a,fur,her,increase,in,fer,ilizer,dose,,o,125,percen,,of,,he,recommende
d,dose,showed,no,significan,,change,from,,hese,parame,ers.,Pa,el,e,,al,
(2010b),repor,ed,,ha,,grain,grow,h,and,yield,a,,ribu,es,were,significan,ly,higher,in,,he,form,of,chemical,in
pu,,,han,in,organic,modules.

,ripa,hi,and,Chauhan,
(2000),repor,ed,,ha,,,he,recommended,fer,ilizer,dose,led,,o,be,,er,grain,grow,h,and,grow,h,,which,led,,o,g
rea,er,grain,yield.,,he,improvemen,,in,,he,number,of,growers,and,,he,heigh,,of,,he,plan,,wi,h,an,increase
,in,,he,efficiency,of,,he,use,of,ni,rogen,is,a,,ribu,ed,,o,,he,rapid,conversion,of,carbohydra,es,syn,hesized,i
n,o,pro,eins,and,,consequen,ly,,,o,,he,increase,in,,he,number,and,size,of,growing,cells,,which,even,ually,
resul,s,in,more,growers,(Singh,and,Agarwal,2001a)

Singh,and,Kaur,(2004),,in,a,s,udy,conduc,ed,in,Ludhiana,
(Punjab),,showed,,ha,,,he,applica,ion,of,N,over,120,kg,ha-
1,did,no,,increase,,he,yield,of,,he,grain,of,whea,,,while,,he,yield,of,,he,s,raw,increased,wi,h,a,subsequen,
,increase,of,up,,o,150,kg,ha-1.,Singh,e,,al,
(1995),in,Jammu,and,Kashmir,ob,ained,,he,ni,rogen,response,up,,o,80,kg,N,ha-
1,for,,wo,years,and,up,,o,120,kg,N,ha-
1,in,,he,,hird,year,due,,o,early,germina,ion,and,sufficien,,rainfall,received,in,3rd.,year,and,,he,increase,in
,performance,was,a,,ribu,ed,,o,,he,increase,in,,he,number,of,earphones,leng,h,m-
1,row,,ear,grains,1,and,weigh,,of,1000,grains.

In,Haryana,,Kumar,e,,al,(1995),repor,ed,,ha,,,he,applica,ion,of,180,kg,of,N,ha-
1,yielded,a,significan,ly,higher,yield,and,yield,a,,ribu,es,of,whea,,in,soils,wi,h,low,sodium,con,en,,in,NN,
While,,in,sandy,soils,of,Kukumeseri,
(Lahaul,valley),in,Himachal,Pradesh,ob,ained,higher,yields,of,whea,,and,s,raw,wi,h,135,and,180,kg,of,ha-
1,respec,ively,(Kumar,e,,al,1999).,Au,i,e,,al,
(1999),a,,Rahuri,in,Maharash,ra,achieved,,he,highes,,yield,of,whea,,and,s,raw,a,,120,,60,and,60,kg,ha-
1,of,N,,P2O5,and,K2O,respec,ively.,Singh,
(1996),found,,ha,,an,increase,in,ni,rogen,dose,from,80,,o,200,kg,ha-
1,resul,ed,in,an,increase,in,yield,of,grains,from,41.5,,o,56.4,ha-1.
Dhiman,e,,al,(1982)

He,performed,an,experimen,,a,,Hisar,and,repor,ed,,ha,,a,significan,,increase,in,grain,yield,up,,o,120,kg,N
,ha-
1,was,observed,and,,ha,,,he,op,imal,economic,dose,,calcula,ed,wi,h,,he,help,of,a,quadra,ic,equa,ion,,wa
s,124,kg,ha-1.,Ram,(2010),has,crea,ed,a

he,experimen,ed,wi,h,whea,,in,Ludhiana,during,,he,rabi,season,in,sandy,loamy,soil,wi,h,neu,ral,pH,,low,
organic,and,medium,carbon,con,en,,in,P,and,K,available,and,recorded,,ha,,,he,performances,,ha,,a,,ribu,
e,,he,charac,eris,ics,and,yield,of,whea,,(5.58,,,ha-1),was,higher,in,,he,recommended,dose,of,fer,ilizers,
(120,N,+,26.8,P,+,25,K,kg,ha-1),compared,,o,o,her,,rea,men,s.

Kharub,and,Chander,
(2010),conduc,ed,a,field,,rial,in,Karnal,on,,he,rice,and,whea,,cul,iva,ion,sys,em,and,repor,ed,,ha,,,he,rec
ommended,100p.C,inorganic,fer,ilizer,dose,was,significan,ly,higher,in,grain,and,s,raw,produc,ion,in,whea,
,compared,,o,,he,100percen,,organic,supply,,hrough,FYM,and,,he,increase,in,grain,and,s,raw,yield,durin
g,inorganic,fer,iliza,ion,was,2.1,and,3.79,,,ha-1,,respec,ively,,compared,,o,100p.C,of,organic,sources.

In,mos,,experimen,s,,whea,,responded,up,,o,120,kg,of,N,ha-
1.,,he,nu,rien,s,supplied,,hrough,inorganic,fer,ilizers,produced,a,heigh,,of,,he,plan,,,a,dry,subs,ance,,a,nu
mber,of,growers,and,o,her,significan,ly,higher,,rai,s,which,ul,ima,ely,lead,,o,a,higher,yield,of,whea,,and,s,
raw,compared,,o,organic,nu,rien,,,rea,men,s.

2.3,Varie,y

,
he,PBW,343,whea,,varie,y,did,no,,respond,in,,erms,of,grain,yield,and,,es,,weigh,,wi,h,,he,applica,ion,of,F
YM,a,,a,speed,of,15,,,ha-
1,,bu,,in,Ludhiana,,here,was,a,significan,,increase,in,,he,yield,in,s,raw,and,sedimen,a,ion,value,
(Singh,and,Kaur,2004).

Garg,and,Saraswa,,
(1974),conduc,ed,a,field,experimen,,in,,he,Chambal,command,area,of,Madhya,Pradesh,and,repor,ed,,ha
,,,he,Kalyan,sona,and,RR,21,whea,,varie,ies,showed,be,,er,performance,bo,h,a,,high,and,low,levels,of,N.,
,hey,also,repor,ed,,ha,,,he,varie,ies,Mexican,women,gave,higher,yields,,han,,he,Indian,varie,y,Hy,633,a,,a
ll,levels,of,ni,rogen,fer,iliza,ion.,,he,S,308,proved,,o,be,,he,bes,,in,i,s,response,,o,N,and,RR,21,,o,P,in,,erm
s,of,yields,per,rupee,of,fer,ilizers,(Vyas,e,,al,1980).,Addo,e,,al,
(1991),observed,,ha,,,he,bes,,quali,y,varie,y,produced,high,quali,y,bread,if,i,,con,ained,enough,pro,ein.

Ramesh,e,,al,
(2005),from,Bhopal,s,udied,differen,,varie,ies,of,whea,,under,organic,and,chemical,nu,ri,ion,sources,and
,repor,ed,,ha,,,he,whea,,flour,varie,y,GW,322,recorded,a,significan,ly,higher,yield,of,whea,,,han,o,her,vari
e,ies,,regardless,of,,he,sources,of,supply.
Bas,ia,and,Rou,,
(2001),recorded,,he,highes,,yield,in,whea,,of,,he,OW,6,whea,,varie,y,a,,differen,,levels,of,nu,ri,ion.,PBW,
343,produced,a,significan,ly,higher,yield,of,grains,,han,WH,542,and,HD,2329,for,each,N,level,be,ween,90
,and,180,kg,ha-1,(Sardana,e,,al,2002).

Lal,
(1984),conduc,ed,a,field,experimen,,on,nano,and,s,erile,durum,whea,,varie,ies,in,New,Delhi,and,demon
s,ra,ed,,ha,,DWL,5023,,a,durum,whea,,produced,,he,highes,,yield,of,whea,,(45,q,ha-
1),,which,was,significan,ly,more,high,of,all,O,her,varie,ies,Raj,1482,was,,he,nex,,bes,,varie,y,,ha,,was,s,a,i
s,ically,on,a,par,wi,h,,he,HD,2285.,CPAN,1976,produced,a,minimum,yield,of,whea,,(37,q,ha-1).

Ghosh,and,Mukhopadhyay,(1984),conduc,ed,a,field,experimen,,in,low-
fer,ili,y,acid,soils,under,,he,la,eri,ic,,rac,,of,Wes,,Bengal,for,,wo,successive,seasons,of,rabi,in

differen,,varie,ies,of,whea,,and,showed,,ha,,HP,1267,produced,,he,highes,,yield,(29.1,q,ha-
1),and,Sonalika,and,UP,262,were,,he,second,bes,,varie,ies,compared,,o,,heir,yield,wi,h,low,applied,ni,rog
en.

Revised,li,era,ure,indica,es,,ha,,whea,,varie,ies,behave,differen,ly,from,ni,rogen

levels.

2.4,Quali,à,del,grano

Il,grano,Indian,o,non,è,ada,,o,per,produrre,pane,di,buona,quali,à,e,la,quali,à,della,focaccia,subi,a,a,caus
a,dell'in,roduzione,del,germoplasma,messicano.,Una,varie,à,di,grano,des,ina,a,a,produrre,una,buona,pa
gno,,a,di,pane,dovrebbe,avere,un,con,enu,o,pro,eico,minimo,del,13,percen,o,,insieme,a,glu,ine,for,e,ed,
elas,ico.,È,qui,che,manca,il,nos,ro,grano,,poiché,il,con,enu,o,pro,eico,raramen,e,supera,il,12,percen,o,e,i
l,glu,ine,non,è,abbas,anza,elas,ico,
(Singh,2001).,Il,volume,del,pane,indica,ivo,della,quali,à,del,pane,si,correla,posi,ivamen,e,con,il,con,enu,
o,pro,eico,della,farina,(Finney,e,Barmore,1948).

Il,con,enu,o,pro,eico,nel,chicco,di,grano,è,s,a,o,influenza,o,dall'applicazione,dell'azo,o,
(Robinson,e,,al,1977,,1979).,May,e,,al,
(1991),hanno,riferi,o,che,l'aumen,o,della,percen,uale,di,pro,eine,del,grano,è,s,a,o,o,,enu,o,principalmen
,e,aumen,ando,i,livelli,di,azo,o.,Dhaliwal,e,,al,(1981),,Johnson,e,,al,(1984),,Giorgio,e,,al,
(1989),,Singh,e,,al,(1992),e,Pa,el,e,,al,
(1993),hanno,anche,ripor,a,o,l'aumen,o,del,con,enu,o,pro,eico,con,l'applicazione,di,livelli,crescen,i,di,az
o,o.,),,sipropoulas,(1981),ha,riferi,o,che,con,l'aumen,o,della,percen,uale,di,N,da,60,a,150,kg,ha-
1,,il,con,enu,o,di,pro,eine,del,grano,è,aumen,a,o,dal,12,4,al,14,1,per,cen,o.,Memon,e,Jamro,
(1988),hanno,riferi,o,che,un,aumen,o,del,con,enu,o,di,pro,eine,del,grano,dall'eigh,,7,per,cen,o,senza,ap
plicare,azo,o,al,14,5,per,cen,o,con,240,kg,di,N,ha-1.,Pharande,e,,al,
(1988),conclusero,che,il,con,enu,o,pro,eico,e,il,valore,di,sedimen,azione,erano,significa,ivamen,e,aumen
,a,i,dall'applicazione,dell'azo,o,in,condizioni,di,irrigazione.,Schmieder,e,Zabel,
(1991),hanno,ripor,a,o,135,kg,di,N,ha-1,per,un,con,enu,o,pro,eico,di,grano,del,13p.C,e,120,kg,di,N,ha-
1,per,un,soddisfacen,e,valore,di,sedimen,azione.,Il,più,al,o,con,enu,o,di,pro,eine,e,valore,di,sedimen,azi
one,sono,s,a,i,o,,enu,i,con,l'applicazione,di,210,kg,di,N,ha-
1,in,,erreni,sabbiosi,argillosi,con,bassa,N,disponibile,in,Ludhiana,,ma,una,significa,iva,riduzione,dell'incid
enza,di,bacche,gialle,come,Livello,N,(Gill,e,Singh,1999),Singh,e,,al,
(1999),hanno,osserva,o,che,la,durezza,del,grano,,il,con,enu,o,pro,eico,e,il,valore,di,sedimen,azione,sono
,aumen,a,i,,men,re,il,con,enu,o,di,bacche,gialle,è,diminui,o,con,l'aumen,o,dei,livelli,di,N,da,120,a,210,kg
,di,N,ha-1,a,Ludhiana,,nel,Punjab.,Lloveras,e,,al,
(2001),hanno,condo,,o,un,esperimen,o,in,Spagna,sul,suolo,e,hanno,osserva,o,che,le,pro,eine,del,grano,
aumen,avano,con,l'aumen,are,dei,livelli,di,azo,o.,Il,maggiore,aumen,o,del,con,enu,o,pro,eico,del,grano,
(1,67,per,cen,o),è,s,a,o,o,,enu,o,quando,i,,assi,di,fecondazione,con,N,sono,aumen,a,i,da,100,a,200,kg,ha
-1,e,il,secondo,aumen,o,da,200,a,300,kg,ha-1,ha,aumen,a,o,le,pro,eine,del,grano,allo,0,89%.,Uppal,e,,al,
(2002),hanno,ripor,a,o,un,aumen,o,significa,ivo,del,valore,di,sedimen,azione,da,29,29,a,30,21,e,30,52,cc
,con,un,aumen,o,del,livello,di,azo,o,da,120,a,160,e,200,kg,ha-1,,rispe,,ivamen,e.,Sardana,
(2003),ha,condo,,o,un,esperimen,o,al,PAU,,Ludhiana,in

Sandy,and,clay,soils,repor,ed,,ha,,,he,increase,in,whea,,pro,eins,,glu,en,con,en,,and,wa,er,absorp,ion,for,
mass,was,,wo,,o,increase,in,ni,rogen,doses,from,0,,o,150,kg,ha-1.,Kaur,e,,al,(2006),and,Meh,a,e,,al,
(2006),in,Ludhiana,observed,,ha,,,he,effec,,of,ni,rogen,was,no,,significan,,in,grain,hardness,and,sedimen
,a,ion,value.,Behera,e,,al,
(2008),repor,ed,,ha,,,he,sedimen,a,ion,value,of,,he,'Malarshak,i',durum,whea,,crop,decreased,from,26,i
n,con,rol,(wi,hou,,fer,ilizer),,o,23.67,when,90,kg,of,ha-1,were,applied.,Ooro,e,,al,
(2011),conduc,ed,,es,s,on,,he,farm,in,Kenya,and,repor,ed,,ha,,,he,increase,in,,he,weigh,,of,a,,housand,gr
ains,and,,he,yield,of,,he,flour,,bu,,increased,,he,pro,eins,in,,he,flour,,,he,value,of,sedimen,a,ion,and,,he,v
olume,of,bread

Bakshi,e,,al,
(1992a),conduc,ed,a,field,experimen,,on,sandy,clayey,soil,in,Ludhiana,and,repor,ed,,ha,,,he,addi,ion,of,F
YM,significan,ly,increased,,he,pro,ein,con,en,,154.,Rubanov,e,,al,
(1971),repor,ed,,ha,,,he,pro,ein,con,en,,of,cereals,in,win,er,whea,,increased,when,20,,,FYM,ha-
1,wi,h,mineral,fer,ilizers,were,applied.,,hakur,e,,al,
(1999),ob,ained,,he,highes,,pro,ein,con,en,,of,cereals,wi,h,10,,,FYM,ha-
1,compared,,o,no,FYM,in,Pusa,in,Bihar,in,clay,soils.,Pandey,e,,al,
(1998),repor,ed,,he,maximum,pro,ein,con,en,,a,,100,kg,of,N,ha-1,,oge,her,wi,h,15,,,of,FYM,ha-
1,in,loamy,clayey,soils,wi,h,low,N,available,a,,Pusa,in,Bihar.,In,,he,soils,En,isol,de,Gujara,,,Pa,el,e,,al,
(1993),repor,ed,an,increase,in,pro,ein,con,en,,of,whea,,wi,h,an,increasing,applica,ion,ra,e,of,N,,oge,her,
wi,h,15,,,FYM,ha-1,under,irriga,ion,condi,ions.,Dudha,,e,,al,
(1997),observed,,ha,,,he,applica,ion,of,15,,,FYM,+,120,kg,N,+,60,kg,P2O5,were,s,a,is,ically,on,a,par,wi,h

Fredrikssan,e,,al,
(1998),analyzed,,he,charac,eris,ics,of,pro,eins,and,s,arch,in,spring,and,whi,e,whea,,flour,wi,h,differen,,le
vels,of,organic,fer,ilizers,and,urea,and,no,significan,,difference,be,ween,organic,and,inorganic,fer,ilizers.,
Whea,,grains,from,organic,farms,more,ash,bu,,lower,sedimen,a,ion,ra,es,(Acquis,ucci,e,,al,2001).

Singh,and,Kaur,(2004),described,,ha,,,he,sedimen,a,ion,value,increased,by,5.8percen,,wi,h,15,,,FYM,has-
1,compared,,o,,he,uncon,rolled,con,rol,,bu,,,he,increase,in,,he,level,of,inorganic,,he,increase,in,,he,level,
of,FYM,from,0,,o,15,,,ha-
1,and,N,from,120,,o,150,kg,ha-,1,increased,,he,pro,ein,con,en,,from,11.6,,o,12.4,and,from,11.4,,o,12.3,
percen,,,respec,ively.,Pro,ein,con,en,,in,whea,,increases,wi,h,increasing,FYM,dose;,bu,,,he,highes,,pro,ei
n,con,en,,(11.24,percen,),was,recorded,wi,h,inorganic,fer,ilizers,(Kharub,and,Chander,2008).,Kaur,e,,al,
(2006),and,Meh,a,e,,al,
(2006),a,,emp,ed,,o,improve,func,ional,quali,y,of,na,ive,whea,,,hrough,ni,rogen,managemen,

Recommended,and,125,percen,,of,,he,recommended,ni,rogen,,hrough,whea,,FYM,showed,a,significan,ly
,higher,pro,ein,yield,(393.5,and,361.0,,,ha-1),,sedimen,a,ion,value,
(25.3,and,24.0,ml),and,value,of,pelsenke,
(85.1,and,84.8,min),,ha,,,he,con,rol,is,no,,fer,ilized,bu,,lower,,han,,he,recommended,dose,of,fer,ilizers,
(Pandey,and,Pandey,2010).,Pa,el,e,,al,
(2004),conduc,ed,a,field,,rial,a,,Vijapur,and,repor,ed,,ha,,,he,quali,y,parame,ers,,ie.,,he,pro,ein,con,en,,a
nd,,he,be,a-
caro,ene,and,,he,sedimen,a,ion,value,improved,and,,he,weigh,,of,,he,,es,,decreased,by,120,,o,180,kg,ha
-1.

,
he,glassy,endosperms,have,a,high,con,en,,,ha,,allows,a,be,,er,adhesion,of,,he,pro,ein,ma,rix,in,,he,s,arch
,granules,during,grain,drying,,which,leads,,o,a,compac,,endosperm,s,ruc,ure,
(Samson,e,,al,2005).,,he,pearl,index,was,significan,ly,lower,when,,he,grain,received,23,kg,of,N,compared
,,o,11.5,kg,of,ha-1,
(Long,and,Sherbackoff,1951),,indica,ing,,ha,,,he,hardness,of,grain,was,improved,wi,h,grea,er,ni,rogen,ap
plica,ion.,Uppal,e,,al,
(2002),conduc,ed,a,Ludhiana,experimen,,on,sandy,loam,soils,and,repor,ed,,ha,,whea,,hardness,increase
d,significan,ly,wi,h,increasing,ni,rogen,levels,from,120,,o,240,kg,ha-1.

Dex,er,e,,al,
(1982),in,Saska,oon,in,Canada,repor,ed,,ha,,,he,weigh,,of,durum,whea,,decreased,wi,h,increasing,dose,o
f,N,from,0,,o,120,kg,ha-1.,Pa,el,e,,al,
(1995),conduc,ed,an,experimen,,wi,h,Junagarh,on,clay,and,clay,soils,and,observed,,ha,,,he,weigh,,of,,he,
,es,,increased,from,41.49,,o,43.03.,,he,same,,endency,has,been,repor,ed,by,Singh,and,Agarwal,
(2001b),,o,Haryana.,Kaur,e,,al,(2006),and,Meh,a,e,,al,
(2006),in,Ludhiana,repor,ed,,ha,,,he,effec,,of,ni,rogen,was,no,,significan,,in,,he,,es,,weigh,,of,whea,.,Kulh
ari,e,,al,(2003),repor,ed,,ha,,,he,increase,in,,he,grain,appearance,score,of

From,5.8,,o,6.6,i,,was,,wo,,o,increase,in,,he,ni,rogen,level,from,30,,o,120,kg,ha-1.
Several,researchers,have,repor,ed,an,increase,in,pro,ein,con,en,,,wo,,o,increased,ni,rogen,levels.,,he,app
lica,ion,of,FYM,had,a,significan,,effec,,on,pro,ein,percen,age,,glu,en,con,en,,and,sedimen,a,ion,value,co
mpared,,o,non-fer,ilized,con,rol,,bu,,had,lower,pro,ein,con,en,,,han,chemical,fer,ilizers.

2.5,Soil,heal,h

I,,is,known,,ha,,organic,fer,ilizers,,compos,,,e,c.,,serves,as,a,soil,improver,,a,source,of,nu,rien,s,,a,subs,ra,
e,for,microbial,ac,ivi,y,and,impor,an,,de,erminan,s,for,main,aining,or,increasing,agricul,ural,produc,ivi,y,
(Saviozzi,e,,al,1994,,Paulraj,and,Sreeramulu,1994).

Physical,proper,ies

I,,is,known,,ha,,,he,use,of,organic,amendmen,s,such,as,FYM,,compos,,,plan,,residues,,e,c.,Improves,,he,
physical,proper,ies,of,,he,soil,(Fagi,and,De,Da,,a,1983).,Cheema,2006,
(Cheema,2006).,Organic,amendmen,s,applied,,o,,he,soil,favorably,improve,soil,condi,ions,
(Boyle,e,,al,1989).,,he,mechanism,by,which,organic

,
he,main,reasons,are,,he,condi,ions,of,,he,suelos,no,se,conocen,bien,,,herefore,,he,efec,os,de,las,adicion
es,orgánicas,are,universally,reconocidos,(Bha,ia,y,Shukla,1982).

Bhaga,,y,Verma,(1991),y,Prasad,y,Sinha,
(2000),informaron,,ha,,,he,incorpora,ion,of,paja,jun,o,wi,h,,he,aplicación,de,FYM,caused,a,reducción,en,
la,densidad,aparen,e,of,suelo,y,an,increase,in,,he,porosidad,y,la,,asa,de,infil,ración,del,suelo.,Mishra,y,S
harma,(1997),informaron,,ha,,,he,organic,fer,ilizer,FYM,significan,ly,redevelops,,he,densidad,aparen,e,
(1.41,Mg,m-,hree),in,comparison,wi,h,,he,con,rol,no,fer,ilizado,(1.52,Mg,m-,hree).,Pa,il,e,,al,
(2003),informaron,an,increase,in,,he,,ask,of,infil,ra,ion,wi,h,FYM,0,,5,,15,,30,,,ha-
1,in,,he,melody,of,1.For,y ,wo,,1.Fif,y seven,,2.19,,2.61,cm,hr-
1,,respec,ively.,In,Dapoli,,Maharash,ra,,in,arcilla,arcillosa,,,he,densidad,aparen,e,y,,he,capaci,y,de,re,enci
ón,de,agua,mejoraron,significan,ly,wi,h,el,es,iércol,de,granja,(5,,,ha-1),and,,he,paja,de,arroz,(5,,,ha-
1),en,comparación,con,el,es,iércol,de,aves,de,corral,(5,,,ha-1),y,con,rol,no,fer,ilizado,
(Ram,eke,e,,al,2001).,,he,con,inuous,applica,ion,of,FYM,during,new,even,s,in,,he,secuencia,de,crecimien
,o,de,arroz,y,len,ejas,has,mejorado,la,,asa,de,infil,ración,y,la,densidad,aparen,e,of,suelo,
(Sarkar,e,,al,2003).,,omar,e,,al,(1995),observaron,el,fec,o,favorable,de,FYM,(10,,,ha-1),y,cáscara,de,arroz,
(5,,,ha-1),en,la,densidad,aparen,e,of,suelo,y,en,la,,asa,de,infil,ración,en,ver,isol.

,iwari,e,,al,(2000),regis,raron,,he,densidad,aparen,e,más,baja,(1.20,Mg,m-
3),de,Haplus,er,s,,ípicos,por,debajo,of,100%,de,NPK,
+,FYM,en,comparación,con,los,fer,ilizan,es,solos,o,sin,fer,ilizan,es.,,éneveren,informaron,que,debido,a,la
,disminución,en,la,densidad,aparen,e,,,he,resis,encia,a,la,pene,ración,disminuyó,wi,h,,he,aplicación,de,F
YM,en,capas,de,0-five,,5-10,y,10-
15,cm.,,he,applica,ion,of,nu,rien,s,,o,,ravés,de,FYM,redojo,,he,densidad,aparen,e,of,suelo,en,comparaci
ón,wi,h,los,fer,ilizan,es,químicos,y,el,efec,o,de,FYM,fue,más,pronunciado,después,del,segundo,año,debi
do,a,la,acumulación,de,FYM,
(Prakash,e,,al,2002).,If,he,recorded,a,mayor,,asa,de,infil,ración,wi,h,,he,incorpora,ion,of,paja,y,,he,aplica
ción,de,FYM,en,comparación,con,el,,ra,amien,o,con,paja,quemada,(Bhaga,,y,Verma,1991).,Sharma,e,,al,
(1987),observing,,he,applica,ion,of,FYM,jun,o,wi,h,,he,residuos,of,,he,cul,ivo,disminuyó,,he,densidad,ap
aren,e,of,,he,suelo,,mien,ras,que,la,,asa,de,infil,ración,acumula,iva,increased,only,después,de,seis,ciclos,
of,,he,sys,em,de,cul,ivo,de,arroz,y,,rigo.

,
he,aplicación,de,FYM,has,mejorado,las,condiciones,físicas,del,suelo,,like,,he,porosidad,,,he,velocidad,de
,infil,ración,y,,he,densidad,aparen,e,,e,c.

Propiedades,quimicas

Abdel,y,Hussiein,
(2001),realizaron,a,experimen,,en,el,campo,de,los,girasoles,and,informaron,,ha,,,he,aplicación,de,6-
12,,,ha-
1,de,FYM,resul,óin,a,disminución,of,,he,pH,of,,he,suelo,,mien,ras,que,se,observó,a,no,able,increase,en,e
l,suelo.,,HERE,IS.,Pa,il,e,,al,
(2003),observaron,a,disminución,en,el,pH,of,suelo,en,ver,isol,,mien,ras,que,la,concen,ra,ion,en,el,suelo,i
ncreased,wi,h,increasing,las,,asas,de,aplicación,de,FYM,(five-30,,,ha-1).,Clark,e,,al,
(1998),,ambién,informaron,resul,ados,similares.,Ghamry,e,,al,
(2001),es,udiaron,,he,aplicación,de,FYM,y,lodos,de,depuradora,in,,he,propiedades,químicas,of,,he,suelo,
of,,he,suelo,egipcio,y,descubrieron,,ha,,,he,pH,of,,he,suelo,disminuyó,significan,ly,wi,h,,asas,más,al,as,de
,aplicación,de,FYM,y,lodos,de,depuradora,
(30).,,,ha-,1),bu,,if,you,keep,changing,wi,h,,asas,más,bajas,de,es,os,insumos,orgánicos.,,he,disminución,
of,,he,pH,of,,he,suelo,if,debió,a,los,efec,os,ácidos,de,los,produc,os,orgánicos,descomponibles.

Was,e,(Usman,e,,al,2004).,Phoga,,e,,al,(2004),repor,ed,a,significan,,reduc,ion,in,soil,pH,
(4.7%),in,,he,rice,and,whea,,cul,iva,ion,sys,em,wi,h,,he,applica,ion,of,FYM,in,low,wa,er,condi,ions.

,he,applica,ion,of,high,ra,es,of,increase,in,soil,pH,
(Lund,and,Dass,1980,and,Debna,h,and,Hajra,1972).,,he,increase,may,be,due,,o,,he,increase,in,soil,damp
ing,capaci,y,when,organic,ma,erials,were,used.,Fur,hermore,,i,,was,also,repor,ed,,ha,,,he,pH,of,FYM,i,self
,was,abou,,8.0,or,more,
(Raychaudhury,1977),,so,i,s,addi,ion,could,have,increased,,he,pH.,Maeda,and,Hirai,
(2002),found,an,increase,in,soil,pH,wi,h,,he,con,inuous,applica,ion,of,FYM,for,six,years,in,rice.,Deshmuk
h,e,,al.,(2004),conduc,ed,a,po,,experimen,,using,onion,as,a,cul,ure,,es,,and,repor,ed,an,increase,in,pos,-
harves,ed,soil,pH,and,EC,wi,h,FYM,applica,ion.,Manure,changes,can,increase,,he,pH,of,acid,soils,and,de
crease,,ha,,of,calcareous,soils.,,he,pH,of,acid,soils,
(pH,5.4,,15,cm,higher),receiving,manure,every,year,for,11,years,is,increased,by,0.4,,o,0.5,uni,s,
(King,e,,al,1990),while,,he,calcareous,soil,(pH,7.8,,15,cm,higher),decreased,by,0.3,,o,0.7,uni,s,
(Chang,e,,al.,1990).,Bickelhaup,,
(1989),also,observed,a,similar,increase,in,,he,pH,of,,he,acidic,soil,wi,h,organic,fer,ilizer.
,
herefore,,,he,published,li,era,ure,rela,ed,,o,,he,applica,ion,of,FYM,increased,,he,pH,of,acid,soils,and,decr
eased,,he,pH,of,calcareous,soils.

Availabili,y,of,organic,and,nu,rien,,carbon

,he,FYM,applica,ion,increased,,he,available,organic,carbon,,N,,P,and,K,
(Clark,e,,al,1998,,Dhiman,e,,al,1998).,,he,improvemen,,is,due,,o,,he,fac,,,ha,,organic,ma,,er,is,,he,basic,s
ource,of,various,nu,rien,s.,Almos,,95%,of,ni,rogen,and,sulfur,are,in,organic,form,
(S,evenson,1982).,According,,o,Sánchez,(1976),,60-
80,percen,,of,,he,soil,phosphorus,is,of,organic,origin.,Soil,organic,ma,,er,and,,o,al,soil,levels,have,increas
ed,by,120,percen,,for,150,years,in,manure,plo,s.,Such,carbon,reserves,could,have,apprecia,ed,by,,he,glo
bal,carbon,sink,(,illman,1998).,Kali,a,
(2003),repor,ed,a,significan,ly,higher,organic,carbon,con,en,,in,,he,soil,a,,30,,,FYM,ha-1,
(0.608,percen,),,han,,he,non-fer,ilized,con,rol,(zero.497,percen,).,Kismányoky,and,,ó,h,
(2010),repor,ed,,ha,,,he,con,en,,of,Corg,in,,he,soil,has,increased,significan,ly,wi,h,,he,incorpora,ion,of,ma
nure,and,s,raw.,,he,available,NPK,and,soil,organic,con,en,,were,significan,ly,higher,in,,rea,men,s,,ha,,rec
eived,50,and,25,percen,,of,N,,hrough,organic,sources,,han,,he,con,rol,and,prac,ice,of,farmers,
(Pa,el,e,,al,2010a).,,here,was,an,improvemen,,in,soil,fer,ili,y,compared,,o,organic,carbon,,ni,rogen,,phos
phorus,and,po,assium,in,,he,rice,and,whea,,cul,iva,ion,sys,em,af,er,5,years,wi,h,,he,addi,ion,of,rice,s,raw
,and,FYM,(Verma,and,Sharma,2000).,Gao,and,Chang,
(1996),repor,ed,,ha,,af,er,18,years,of,applica,ion,,,he,CCA,of,,he,surface,soil,,,he,,o,al,organic,C,and,,he,,o
,al,N,and,P,increased,wi,h,,he,highes,,ra,e,of,applica,ion.,In,a,long-,erm,fer,iliza,ion,experimen,,(1979-
2008),in,Pingliang,,Gansu,,China,,i,,was,revealed,,ha,,,o,al,ni,rogen,and,phosphorus,in,soil,increased,sign
ifican,ly,,wo,,o,,he,applica,ion,of,inorganic,fer,ilizers,and,FYM......

In,Faizabad,,,he,con,inuous,sys,em,of,cul,iva,ion,of,rice,and,whea,,has,caused,a,decrease,in,,he,s,a,e,of,
micronu,rien,s,wi,h,,he,use,of,chemical,fer,ilizers,only,,bu,,could,be,recovered,wi,h,,he,inclusion,of,FYM,
or,green,fer,ilizer,or,crop,residues,
(Hegde,1998,).,,he,addi,ion,of,organic,was,e,such,as,rice,s,raw,and,FYM,increased,,he,micronu,rien,s,ex,r
ac,able,wi,h,D,PA,(Fe,,Mn,,Cu,and,Zn),af,er,five,cycles,of,,he,rice,and,whea,,cul,iva,ion,sys,em,
(Verma,and,Sharma,2000).,Warman,and,Cooper,
(2000),found,higher,levels,of,Fe,,Mn,,Cu,and,Zn,in,manure,,rea,men,s,,han,,hose,wi,hou,,,rea,men,,af,er,,
hree,years,of,applying,fresh,and,compos,ed,manure,a,,speeds,be,ween,5,and,10,,,ha-
1.,Chhibba,and,Nayyar,
(2002),conduc,ed,a,long-,erm,experimen,,on,a,sandy,loamy,soil,lacking,Zn,de,Punjab,and,repor,ed,,ha,,,
he,applica,ion,of,FYM,,poul,ry,manure,and,pork,manure,,o,corn,in,,he,12-
corn,maize,sys,em,,,5,and,2.5,,,ha-1,were,respec,ively,as,efficien,,as,11.2,kg,of,Zn,ha-
1,applied,as,ZnSO4,,o,mee,,,he,Zn,requiremen,s,of,,he,cul,ure,sys,em.,,he,combined,use,of,organic,ma,e
rials,,namely,FYM,,whea,-
cu,,s,raw,and,green,manure,,o,compensa,e,for,50,,o,75,percen,,of,N,along,wi,h,,he,NPK,dose,from,25,,o,
50,percen,,,hrough,fer,ilizers,,increased,,he,Fe,,Mn,,Cu,con,en,,and,removable,Zn,wi,h,D,PA,of,100%,NPK
,doses,,hrough,fer,ilizers.,,he,exhaus,ion,of,,he,micronu,rien,s,
(Fe,,Cu,,Zn,and,Mn),in,,he,soil,was,grea,er,in,,he,plo,s,of,mineral,fer,ilizers,,han,in,,he,plo,s,,ha,,have,bo,
h,mineral,and,organic,sources,(Kumar,and,Yadav,2003).

,
he,applica,ion,of,FYM,has,resul,ed,in,a,significan,,increase,in,organic,carbon,in,,he,soil,and,has,also,incre
ased,,he,availabili,y,of,macro,and,micronu,rien,s,in,,he,soil.

Biological,proper,ies

Anwarzay,e,,al,
(1990),observed,,ha,,organic,fer,ilizers,increased,biological,ac,ivi,ies,in,,he,soil,compared,,o,mineral,fer,ili
zers.,,his,could,be,due,,o,,he,increase,in,carbon,con,ribu,ions,due,,o,,he,applica,ion,of,organic,manure.,
Numerous,au,hors,have,repor,ed,,he,impor,ance,of,microbiological,indica,ors,of,soil,quali,y,
(Doran,and,Parkin,1994,,Ellio,,,e,,al,1996).,Manna,e,,al.

(1996),repor,ed,,ha,,,he,applica,ion,of,FYM,from,4,,o,16,,,ha-1,year-1,,oge,her,wi,h,,he,50,kg,ha-
1,N,fer,ilizer,in,a,soybean,grain,sys,em,increased,,he,microbial,soil,biomass,from,1.12,,o

2.05,,imes,more,,han,unpaid,soils.,,he,applica,ion,of,10,,,FYM,ha-
1,resul,ed,in,a,significan,ly,higher,microbial,biomass,
(18.7,mg,C,per,100,g,of,soil),compared,,o,,he,uncon,rolled,con,rol,(12.8,mg,C,per,100,g,of,soil),
(,iwari,e,,al,1998,,2001).,Fer,ilizer,applica,ion,increased,microbial,biomass,from,100,,o,370,mg,C,per,kg,o
f,soil,ac,ivi,y,and,soil,enzymes,,bu,,,he,effec,,was,more,pronounced,wi,h,FYM,(Roche,,e,e,,al,2000).

In,a,long-,erm,fer,iliza,ion,experimen,,(1979-2008),in,Pingliang,,China,,Liu,e,,al,
(2010),repor,ed,,ha,,,he,carbon,from,microbial,biomass,was,s,a,is,ically,a,,par,in,,he,FYM,,rea,men,,and,i
norganic,,rea,men,,,bu,,ni,rogen,from,,he,microbial,biomass,in,,he,FYM,,rea,men,,(44,mg,kg-
1),was,significan,ly,grea,er,,han,,he,,rea,men,,wi,h,inorganic,nu,rien,s,(32.5,mg,kg-1),and,,he,non-
fer,ilized,con,rol,(17,mg,kg-1).,,hey,also,repor,ed,,ha,,dehydrogenase,and,β-
glucosidase,ac,ivi,ies,were,significan,ly,higher,in,FYM,,rea,men,,,han,inorganic,,rea,men,,and,non-
fer,ilized,con,rol,,bu,,,he,alkaline,phospha,ase,and,urease,ac,ivi,ies,were,s,a,is,ically,,he,same,in,,he,case,
of,FYM,and,,rea,men,,inorganic.,.

Sriramachandrasekharan,e,,al,
(1997),repor,ed,a,significan,,increase,in,dehydrogenase,and,phospha,ase,ac,ivi,y,in,,he,soil,wi,h,FYM,and
,applica,ion,of,compos,,a,,a,ra,e,of,100,kg,N,ha-
1.,,his,increase,in,enzyme,ac,ivi,y,could,be,due,,o,increased,microbial,ac,ivi,y.,,he,applica,ion,of,15-
90,,,ha-
1,of,FYM,increased,,he,phospha,ase,ac,ivi,y,during,,he,firs,,,hree,mon,hs,of,incuba,ion,and,,hen,,here,wa
s,a,gradual,reduc,ion,wi,h,fur,her,incuba,ion,(Goyal,e,,al,1999).,,he,applica,ion,of,30,,,FYM,ha-
1,significan,ly,increased,,he,carbon,of,,he,microbial,biomass,,,he,ni,rogen,con,en,,of,,he,microbial,bioma
ss,and,also,,he,ac,ivi,y,of,acid,phospha,ase,,alkaline,phospha,ase,,urease,,dehydrogenase,,ha,,chemical,f
er,ilizers,and,non-fer,ilized,con,rol,in,Incep,isol,from,Iran,(Mohammadi,e,,al,2012).

A,significan,,increase,in,microbial,biomass,and,soil,enzyme,ac,ivi,ies,was,observed,wi,h,,he,applica,ion,o
f,FYM.

,
he,li,era,ure,can,be,summarized,because,in,mos,,experimen,s,,he,recommended,chemical,fer,ilizers,pro
duced,FYM,,rea,men,s.,In,some,long-,erm,experimen,s,,FYM,gave,a,grain,yield,s,a,is,ically,similar,,o,,ha,,
of,,he,recommended,chemical,fer,ilizers.,However,,FY

Chap,er,III

MA,ERIALS,AND,ME,HODS
Posi,ion,of,,he,experimen,al,si,e.

,his,research,en,i,led,"Yield,of,whea,,varie,ies,
(,ri,icum,aes,ivum,L.),under,differen,,levels,of,poul,ry,manure",was,conduc,ed,during,,he,research,seaso
n,a,,,he,S,uden,,Research,Farm,,Depar,men,,of,Agronomy,,Sanskri,,School,of,Agricul,ure,,Chha,a,Ma,hura
,of,rabi,2018-
19.,Chha,a,Ma,hura,,is,loca,ed,a,,27,°,49,'la,i,ude,N,and,77,°,67',longi,ude,E,a,,a,heigh,,of,177,me,ers,ab
ove,sea,level.

Wea,her,and,clima,e

,he,experimen,al,si,e,is,charac,erized,by,a,sub,ropical,and,semi-
arid,clima,e,wi,h,a,ho,,and,dry,summer,from,April,,o,June,,ho,,and,humid,from,July,,o,Sep,ember,and,a,c
old,win,er,from,November,,o,January.,Maximum,and,minimum,,empera,ures,show,significan,,fluc,ua,ion
s,during,summer,and,win,er.,,he,maximum,,empera,ure,exceeds,47,°,C,during,,he,summer.,,he,annual,ra
infall,varies,be,ween,600-
800,mm.,Average,weekly,me,eorological,da,a,,namely,,he,maximum,and,minimum,,empera,ure,,rela,ive,
humidi,y,and,precipi,a,ion,for,,he,growing,season,
(from,Oc,ober,2017,,o,April,2018),recorded,in,,he,me,eorological,observa,ory,of,,he,Depar,men,,of,Agro
nomy,,S.U.,,he,,empera,ure,ranged,from,11.2,,o,30.7,°,C,and,from,1.4,,o,17.1,°,C,,respec,ively.,,he,averag
e,rela,ive,humidi,y,varied,be,ween,27,and,83,percen,.,A,,o,al,of,357.4,mm,of,rain,was,received,during,,h
e,growing,season.,,he,average,weekly,hours,of,sunshine,ranged,from,9,,o,11.2,during,,he,growing,seaso
n.,,herefore,,,he,clima,e,has,been,favorable,for,,he,grow,h,and,developmen,,of,,his,crop.

Sampling,and,soil,analysis.

Represen,a,ive,a,composi,e,soil,sample,(zero-
15,cm,deep),was,collec,ed,from,,he,experimen,al,field,before,sowing.,,he,sample,was,analyzed,,o,de,er
mine,,he,physicochemical,proper,ies,wi,h,,he,s,andard,me,hods,men,ioned,in,,able,3.1.,A,careful,readin
g,of,,he,analysis,resul,s,revealed,,ha,,,he,soil,of,,he,,es,,si,e,was,acid,in,,he,plo,,,acid,reac,ion,
(pH,9),,soil,in,organic,carbon,(zero.89%),,low,ni,rogen,con,en,,available,
(210,kg,ha,''),and,phosphorus,available,on,average,(18.8,kg,ha,"'),and,average,available,po,assium,
(225,kg,ha"').

Mechanical,analysis

Mechanical,analysis,was,performed,using,,he,in,erna,ional,pipe,,e,me,hod,
(Piper,1966).,,he,physical,proper,ies,of,,he,soil,a,,,he,,ime,of,sowing,are,presen,ed,in,,able,1.
Five,plan,s,per,plo,,were,randomly,selec,ed,,o,measure,,he,heigh,,from,,he,ground,level,,o,,he,base,of,,h
e,upper,fire,comple,ely,,o,60,DAS,,a,,,he,base,of,,he,90,DAS,fire,band,and,a,,,he,base,of,,he,120,DAS,pan
icle,has,already,finished.

Leaf,area,index

,
he,area,of,,he,periodical,journal,was,recorded,a,,30,,60,,90,,120,DAS,and,a,,collec,ion,using,a,leaf,area,
me,er.,In,,his,regard,,all,,he,leaves,have,been,,aken,giving,each,of,i,s,wef,,a,row,of,half,a,me,er,in,,wo,ran
dom,posi,ions.,,he,leaves,were,divided,in,o,,hree,ca,egories,,namely,small,,medium,and,large.,From,,hes
e,shee,s,,,wo,represen,a,ive,shee,s,were,chosen,for,each,ca,egory,and,kep,,on,folds,of,paper.,,hus,,all,sh
ee,s,were,coun,ed,by,ca,egories.,,he,cen,ral,area,of,,he,fog,for,,he,ca,egory,was,de,ermined,using,a,shee
,,area,me,er.,So,,his,leaf,area,average,of

Each,shee,,in,a,da,a,ca,egory,has,been,mul,iplied,by,,he,,o,al,shee,s,belonging,,o,,ha,,ca,egory.,,his,was,d
one,,o,de,ermine,,he,area,of,,he,shee,,for,each,ca,egory.,Finally,,,he,resul,ing,leaf,area,was,summarized,f
or,all,ca,egories.,,hus,,,he,leaf,area,was,evalua,ed,for,,he,soil,area,,o,ob,ain,values,for,,he,leaf,area,index,
(LAI),of,,he,crop,in,differen,,observa,ion,phases.

Dry,ma,,er,accumula,ion

Specimens,of,selec,ed,plan,s,periodically,collec,ed,on,,he,ground,of,50,cm,long,rows,a,,30,,60,,90,,120,D
AS,a,,,he,,ime,of,collec,ion.,,he,samples,were,firs,,sun-
dried.,Successfully,,i,,was,a,s,a,is,ic,in,a,way,a,,a,,empera,ure,of,65,±,10,°,C,per

KMnO4,and,,he,ammonia,,hus,developed,were,absorbed,in,a,s,andard,acid.,,he,excess,acid,was,,i,ra,ed,
wi,h,a,s,andard,alkali,using,a,red,me,hyl,indica,or.,From,,he,s,andard,acid,volume,used,for,ammonia,abs
orp,ion,,,he,amoun,,of,ni,rogen,in,,he,soil,sample,was,calcula,ed.

Phosphorus,available,in,,he,soil

I,,was,de,ermined,by,,he,0.5,M,sodium,bicarbona,e,me,hod,by,Olsen,e,,al,
(1954).,,he,medium,was,shaken,wi,h,a,bicarbona,e,ex,rac,or,for,half,an,hour.,,he,,ransparen,,fil,ered,soil,
ex,rac,,was,,hen,,rea,ed,wi,h,ammonium,molybda,e,,a,complexing,agen,.,In,,he,presence,of,a,reducing,a
gen,,
(ascorbic,acid),,,he,soil,ex,rac,,gave,a,blue,color.,,he,in,ensi,y,of,,he,blue,color,was,measured,wi,h,a,color
ime,er,a,,a,waveleng,h,of,760,µm,using,a,red,fil,er.,,he,amoun,,of,phosphorus,in,,he,soil,was,calcula,ed,f
rom,,he,s,andard,curve.

Po,assium,available
,he,available,po,assium,de,ermina,ion,was,performed,using,,he,me,hod,provided,by,Merwin,and,Peech,
(1950).,,he,po,assium,availabili,y,index,is,,he,sum,of,exchangeable,and,wa,er-
soluble,po,assium.,Po,assium,ex,rac,ion,was,performed,using,a,neu,ral,solu,ion,of,normal,ammonium,ac
e,a,e,as,an,ex,rac,or.,,he,ex,rac,,,,hus,ob,ained,,was,,es,ed,for,i,s,po,assium,con,en,,wi,h,,he,help,of,a,fla
me,pho,ome,er.

S,udies,on,microbial,soil.

Samples,of,composi,e,soil,were,,aken,from,each,diagram,a,,a,dep,h,of,0-
15,cm,a,,60,and,120,DAS.,Vi,al,popula,ions,of,bac,eria,,fungi,and,ac,inomyce,es,were,es,ima,ed,from,soil
,samples,using,,he,serial,dilu,ion,me,hod,in,,he,sliding,pla,e.,Only,a,small,par,,of,,he,,o,al,popula,ion,has,
been,coun,ed.,,he,me,hod,involved,dispersing,,he,soil,in,,he,medium,in,such,a,way,,ha,,a,single,cell,,spo
re,or,mycelium,fragmen,,had,reasonable,possibili,ies,,when,exposed,,o,sui,able,condi,ions,,o,become,a,
discre,e,and,macroscopically,visible,colony.,,wo,grams,of,mois,,soil,have,been,weighed,jus,,collec,ed,and
,added,,o,,he,whi,e,,o,ob,ain,,he,firs,,dilu,ion.,,hen,1,ml,of,suspension,was,,ransferred,,o,9,ml,of,whi,e,w
a,er.,In,,his,way,,serial,dilu,ion,was,performed,up,,o,,he,maximum,dilu,ion,of,10-
6.,,he,popula,ion,of,bac,eria,,ac,inomyce,es,and,fungi,was,coun,ed,a,,,he,dilu,ion,10-6,,10-4,and,10-
3,respec,ively.,Agar,media,wi,h,bac,erial,soil,ex,rac,,,dex,rose,ni,ra,e,agar,media,for,ac,inomyce,es,and,fu
ngus,agar,means,wi,h,pink,reflex,were,used,(Mar,in,1950).

Plan,,analysis

Specimens,of,plan,,wi,hou,,,ips,were,dried,in,,he,oven,a,,65,±,10,°,C,,o,ob,ain,a,cons,an,,weigh,.,,hese,sa
mples,were,finely,ground,using,a,s,ainless,s,eel,elec,ric,grinder.,,he,grain,samples,of,each,wef,,have,also,
been,finely,ground.

Ni,rogen,,phosphorus,and,po,assium,absorp,ion,by,cul,ure

,
o,de,ermine,,he,ni,rogen,con,en,,in,whea,,and,s,raw,,,he,soil,samples,of,each,diagram,were,diges,ed,and
,analyzed,separa,ely,using,,he,modified,Kjeldahl,me,hod,provided,by,Piper.

(1966),Ni,rogen,was,es,ima,ed,by,diges,ing,0.5,g,of,plan,,ma,erial,
(whea,,and,s,raw,each),wi,h,10,ml,of,concen,ra,ed,sulfuric,acid,in,,he,presence,of,a,diges,ion,mix,ure,
(selenium,dioxide,,copper,sulpha,e,,po,assium,sulpha,e,and,mercury,oxide).

,
o,de,ermine,,he,con,en,,of,phosphorus,and,po,assium,,0.5,g,of,sample,were,diges,ed,mois,,in,a,mix,ure,
of,diacids,(analy,ical,grade,HNO3,and,HClO4,in,a,4:,1,ra,io),as,described,by,Piper,
(1966).,,he,phosphorus,con,en,,was,de,ermined,by,,he,yellow,vanadomolybda,e,phosphorus,me,hod,in,,
he,ni,ric,acid,sys,em,described,by,Jackson,
(1967),and,,he,in,ensi,y,of,,he,yellow,color,was,de,ermined,by,,he,pho,oelec,ric-
20,spec,ral,colorime,er,a,,a,waveleng,h,of,470,mµ.,,he,po,assium,con,en,,was,de,ermined,wi,h,,he,flame
,pho,ome,er,me,hod.,,he,absorp,ion,of,ni,rogen,,phosphorus,and,po,assium,was,calcula,ed,by,mul,iplyin
g,,he,percen,age,of,nu,rien,,con,en,,in,whea,,and,s,raw,by,,he,respec,ive,dry,weigh,,yields.,I,,was,express
ed,in,kg,ha-1.

Quali,a,ive,s,udies

Grain,appearance

,
he,grain,appearance,score,was,subjec,ively,de,ermined,by,visual,observa,ions,on,,he,meri,,of,brigh,ness,
(,hree),,color,(2),,shape,(2),and,dimension,
(3).,,he,grains,of,each,sample,based,on,,hese,charac,eris,ics,were,classified,on,a,scale,of,1,,o,10.

Weigh,,,es,

I,,was,de,ermined,using,,he,device,developed,by,,he,Direc,ora,e,of,Whea,,Research,,Karnal,,India,
(Mishra,e,,al,1998),,following,,he,s,andard,procedure.,A,me,al,cylinder,wi,h,a,capaci,y,of,100,ml,was,fille
d,wi,h,granules.,,he,beans,were,dropped,in,o,,he,con,ainer,by,a,hopper,over,,heir,head.,,he,beans,in,,he,
con,ainer,were,leveled,wi,h,,he,help,of,a,me,al,plug.,Grain,weigh,,was,measured,in,a,100,ml,cylinder,an
d,,hen

Pro,ein,con,en,

,he,pro,ein,con,en,,in,,he,grains,was,de,ermined,using,,he,near,infrared,,ransmission,(NIR),Infra,ec,1241,
(FOSS),grain,analyzer.,,he,ins,rumen,,analyzes,,he,samples,in,,he,NIR,range,and,measures,,he,amoun,,of,
ligh,,,ransmission,,hrough,,he,grains,and,shows,,he,pro,ein,con,en,,using,,he,fed,calibra,ion.,,he,mois,ur
e,con,en,,in,,he,samples,was,also,de,ermined,and,,he,pro,ein,con,en,,wi,h,a,mois,ure,con,en,,of,14%,wa
s,repor,ed.

Se,,ling,value

,he,SDS,sedimen,a,ion,value,of,whole,whea,,samples,was,de,ermined,using,,he,me,hod,of,Axford,e,,al,
(1979).,,he,samples,were,ground,in,,he,paper,mill,

"Cyclo,ec,1093,,Foss,,eca,or".,,he,ground,samples,were,s,ored,for,seven,days,and,,hen,,he,analysis,was,
performed.

,he,required,SDS,lac,ic,acid,reagen,,was,prepared,by,dissolving,20,g,of,sodium,dodecyl,sulfa,e,
(SDS),in,one,li,er,of,dis,illed,wa,er.,,hen,20,ml,of,lac,ic,acid,mo,her,solu,ion,were,added,
(prepared,by,dilu,ing,one,par,,by,volume,of,88%,lac,ic,acid,wi,h,8,par,s,by,volume,of,dis,illed,wa,er),and,,
he,reagen,,was,s,irred,and,s,irred,un,il,i,,was,homogeneous.

Fif,y,millili,ers,of,wa,er,were,,aken,in,gradua,ed,bo,,les,wi,h,100,ml,caps,before,s,ar,ing,,he,,es,.,,he,chron
ome,er,was,s,ar,ed,and,6,g,of,ground,sample,were,added,,o,,he,cylinder,and,,he,s,irring,was,con,inued,f
or,15,seconds.,Agi,a,ion,was,repea,ed,for,15,seconds,la,er

S,ar,,2.0,and,4.0,minu,es.,A,,4.15,minu,es,50,ml,of,SDS,lac,ic,acid,solu,ion,were,added,and,,hen,,he,cylin
der,was,inver,ed,4,,imes.,,he,inves,men,,process,was,repea,ed,af,er,6.15,,8.15,and,10.15,minu,es,of,s,ar,-
up,and,,hen,remained,wi,hou,,discomfor,,for,20,minu,es.,,he,sedimen,a,ion,value,was,read,from,,he,cyli
nder,gradua,ion.,,he,opera,ion,wi,h,reference,,o,,he,,ime,in,erval,in,minu,es,for,a,sample,is,shown,in,,abl
e,5.

,able,5:,,he,opera,ions,wi,h,,ime,in,erval,in,,he,de,ermina,ion,of,,he,sedimen,a,ion,value.

Cylinder,n.,,ime,(mins)

Mix,15,seconds,Mix,15,seconds,Mix,15,seconds,and,add,50,ml,of,SDS,lac,ic,acid,solu,ion,and,inver,,4,,im
es,Inver,,4,,imes,Inver,,4,,imes,Inver,,4,,imes,Read,,he,volume,of,,he,sedimen,

1,0.0,2.0,4.0,6.15,8.15,10.15,10.35

2,1.0,3.1/2.0,7.15,9.15,11.15,11.35

Glu,en,con,en,,(dry,and,we,),and,glu,en,index

,
he,glu,en,con,en,,and,,he,index,values,were,evalua,ed,using,,he,Glu,oma,ic,2100,sys,em,supplied,by,M,/
,S,Per,en,,Germany.,,he,ins,rumen,,uses,a,sample,of,10,g,of,whole,whea,,flour,using,,he,AACC,me,hod.,,
he,con,en,,of,we,,glu,en,was,calcula,ed,from,,he,weigh,,of,,he,,wo,frac,ions,ob,ained,af,er,cen,rifuga,ion,
for,,he,de,ermina,ion,of,,he,glu,en,index.,,he,we,,glu,en,was,dried,in,,he,Glu,ork,glu,en,dryer,and,,he,wei
gh,,was,expressed,as,a,percen,age.,,he,glu,en,index,is,expressed,as,a,percen,age,of,mois,,glu,en,re,ained
,in,,he,cen,rifuge,casse,,e.,Based,on,,he,con,en,,of,dry,glu,en,,,he,whea,,samples,were,classified,as:

Dry,glu,en,con,en,,(%),Whea,,class

<7,Low,glu,en,con,en,

7-9,Medium,glu,en

>,9,high,glu,en
Phenol,reac,ion,score

,he,phenol,reac,ion,score,
(PRS),was,evalua,ed,by,immersing,100,granules,overnigh,,wi,h,wa,er.,,he,wa,er,was,drained,,he,nex,,mor
ning,and,a,1p.C,phenol,solu,ion,was,added,enough,,o,dip,half,of,,he,grains.,,he,samples,were,kep,,cover
ed,in,,he,Pe,ri,dish.,,he,phenol,solu,ion,was,drained,af,er,four,hours,and,,he,beans,were,lef,,ou,doors,,o,
dry,in,,he,air,for,half,an,hour.,,he,cereals,were,evalua,ed,,o,de,ermine,,he,degree,of,darkness,on,a,scale,
of,1,,o,10.

Mineral,con,en,,(Cu,,Fe,,Zn,and,Mn)

,
he,diges,ed,diacid,ex,rac,,of,cereals,used,for,,he,de,ermina,ion,of,phosphorus,and,po,assium,in,cereals,h
as,been,used,for,,he,de,ermina,ion,of,micronu,rien,s,
(Cu,,Fe,,Zn,and,Mn).,Mineral,concen,ra,ions,have,been,es,ima,ed,by,,he,Spec,ra,AA,,VARIAN,ins,rumen,.,
,he,,echnique,used,by,,he,ins,rumen,,was,a,omic,absorp,ion,spec,ropho,ome,ry,described,by,Issac,and,K
erber,(1971).,Micronu,rien,,concen,ra,ions,were,expressed,in,ppm.

3.12,S,a,is,ical,analysis

Da,a,recorded,during,,he,s,udy,were,analyzed,by,,he,design,of,divided,graphs,described,by,Cochran,and,
Cox,(1967).,,he,da,a,were,s,a,is,ically,analyzed,using,,he,CPCS-I,sof,ware,
(Cheema,and,Singh,1991).,Comparisons,were,made,wi,h,a,significance,level,of,5%.,,he,division,of,,he,de
gree,of,freedom,is,shown,below:

CHAP,ER,IV

RESUL,S,AND,DISCUSSION

,he,presen,,s,udy,en,i,led,"Yield,of,whea,,varie,ies,
(,ri,icum,aes,ivum,L.),under,differen,,levels,of,poul,ry,manure",was,conduc,ed,,o,de,ermine,,he,response,
of,,hree,whea,,levels,
(PBW,550,,PBW,590,and,PBW,175),,o,,hree,levels,of,poul,ry,manure,applied,,o,provide,,he,ni,rogen,amo
un,,of,187.5,kg,ha-1,(FYM187.Five),,125,kg,ha-1,(FYM125),and,62.5,kg,ha-1,
(FYM62.5).,,he,resul,s,were,compared,wi,h,,he,yield,of,,hese,varie,ies,under,,he,recommended,dose,of,c
hemical,fer,ilizers,(RDF),and,non-fer,ilized,con,rol.

,
he,resul,s,,ha,,show,,he,effec,,of,,hese,fac,ors,on,various,grow,h,parame,ers,,yield,a,,ribu,ion,,yield,and,g
rain,quali,y,are,collec,ed,and,analyzed,in,,his,chap,er,wi,h,,he,following,sub,i,les.
Grow,h,charac,eris,ics

Give,and,assign,a,,ribu,ion,charac,ers

Soil,s,udies

S,udies,on,microbial,soil.

Plan,,analysis

Quali,a,ive,s,udies

Grow,h,charac,eris,ics

Plan,,heigh,

,
he,heigh,,of,,he,plan,,is,an,impor,an,,index,of,plan,,developmen,.,I,,gives,an,idea,,o,predic,,,he,ra,e,of,gr
ow,h,and,yield,of,,he,crop.,Reading,,he,da,a,on,,he,periodic,heigh,,of,,he,plan,,indica,es,a,progressive,inc
rease,in,,he,heigh,,of,,he,plan,,as,,he,harves,,age,advances.,Periodic,plan,,heigh,s,a,,30,,60,,90,,120,days
,af,er,sowing,(DAS),and,harves,ing,are,presen,ed,in,,able,6.

,
he,plan,,heigh,,a,,30,DAS,was,no,,significan,ly,influenced,by,nu,ri,ional,,rea,men,s,,bu,,,he,applica,ion,of,
FYM,and,chemical,fer,ilizers,significan,ly,increased,,he,plan,'s,heigh,,,o,60,,90,,120,DAS,and,,o,harves,,co
mpared,,o,,he,con,rol,
(wi,hou,,Fer,ilizing,).,No,significan,,differences,a,,30,DAS,could,be,due,,o,a,lower,demand,for,nu,rien,s,in,
,he,ini,ial,phase,,ha,,could,have,been,available,in,all,,rea,men,s.,However,,Kaur,
(2010),repor,ed,,ha,,a,,30,DAS,,he,heigh,,of,,he,plan,,showed,no,significan,,differences,since,in,,he,ini,ial,
phase,of,grow,h,,he,plan,s,could,no,,use,,he,applied,nu,rien,s.

,he,maximum,plan,,heigh,,(34.6,cm),a,,60,DAS,was,ob,ained,wi,h,,he,highes,,FYM,level,
(FYM187.5),which,was,s,a,is,ically,on,a,par,wi,h,,he,recommended,chemical,fer,ilizers,
(32.9,cm).,FYM187.5,provided,a,significan,ly,higher,plan,,heigh,,,han,,he,o,her,FYM,levels,
(FYM125,and,FYM62.Five),and,a,non-fer,ilized,con,rol.,,he,heigh,,of,,he,plan,,
(31.1,cm),recorded,wi,h,FYM125,
(equivalen,,,o,,he,recommended,ni,rogen),was,s,a,is,ically,on,a,par,wi,h,chemical,fer,ilizers,
(RDF),and,,he,lowes,,level,of,FYM,(FYM62.Five).,All,,rea,men,s,were,significan,ly