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ILJOSALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY.

PATENTS REPRESENTING LOS ALAMOS


RESEARCH

umlI~u 3TaI~~ ~zi~~nt [191 [II] Patent Number: 4,649,528


Benjamin [45] Date of Patent: Mar. 10, 1987

[54] OPTICAL PIN APPARATUS FOR “Fabrication of Glass Microbalkxms . . . “


MEASURING THE ARRIVAL TIME AND VCRL-51609, 7/74.
VELOCITY OF SHOCK WAVES AND
PARTICLES Prinza~ Examiner—Thomas H. Tarcza
Assistant Examiner-Ian J. Lobo
[75] Inventoc Robert F. Benjamin, 315 Rover Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Samuel M. Freund
Blvd., Los Alarnos, N. Mex. 87544
[57] ABsTRAcr
[73] Assignee: Robert F. Benjamin, Los Alamos, N.
Mex. An apparatus for the detection of the arrival and for the
determination of the velocity of disturbances such as
[21] Appl. No.: 542$58
shock-wave fronts and/or projectiles. Optical pins
[22] Filed: Oct. 18, 1983 using fluid-fflled microballoons as the light source and
an optical fiber as a link to a photodetector have been
[511 Int. CL4 ............................................. H(J4R 23/00
[52j U.S. a . ..................................... 367/14~ 367/191 used to inv=tigate shock-waves and projectiles. A mi-
[58] Field of search ................ 367/149, 191; 376/103, croballoon fdled with a noble gas is affiied to one end of
376/105, 106, 143, 152 a fiber-optic cable, and the other end of the cable is
attached to a high-speed streak camera. As the shock-
[56] References Cited front or projectile compresses the rnicroballoon, the gas
PUBLICATIONS inside is heated and compressed producing a bright
flash of light. The flash of light is transmitted via the
“Nanosecond Hydrodynamic Diagnostics . . . “ Proc.
12th International Congress on High Speed Photo., optic cable to the streak camera where it is recorded.
SPIE vol. 97, Aug. 1-7, 1976. One image-converter streak camera is capable of re-
“New Measuring Use for Microballoons,” Los Alamos cording information from more than 100 rnicroballoon-
News Bulletin, pp. 1 and 3, 8/83. cable combinations simultaneously.
“Plasma Physics and Controlled . . . “ Reprint, Int.
Atomic Energy Agency, Vienn~ 1975. 22 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures

DISTURBANCE LIGHT
~
OUTPUT

1
U.S. patent Mu. 10,1987 Sheet, 1 of 2 4,649,528

DISTURBANCE 1 LIGHT
OUTPUT

5
1

Fig. 1

p (8 7
DISTURBANCE 1

\2 \4

Fig. 2
U. S. Patent Mar.10,1987 4,649,528

Figm3
4.649.528
1 2
about 1 atm. However, the sensing end of the optical
OPTICAL PIN APPARATUS FOR MEASURING fibers taught by the authors is both sophisticated aitd
THE ARRIVAL TIME AND VELOCITY OF SHOCK complicated, making their pin apparatus expensive and
WAVES AND PARTICLES difflcuh to place into service. Moreover, the gas till
5 pressure, which controls the sensitivity of the pin, can-
This invention is the result of a contract with the not be varied. Indeed, the authors cannot measure the
Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG- pressure of fill gas after the gas is loaded. Further, the
36). thickness of the membrane which serves as a light shield
cannot be substantially reduced in thickness. The use of
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 10 a transparent microballoon as a pressure vessel to pro-
The present invention relates generally to the mea- vide a flash gap which is detected by a photodetector
surement of the arrival time and velocity of shock via an optical fiber is not contemplated by this article.
waves and projectiles, and more particularly to the use
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
of optical pins which include fluid-filled microballoons
as a light source and an optical fiber as a link to a light 15 Accordingly an object of the instant invention is to
detector. provide an apparatus for measuring the arrival time and
An important diagnostic in hydrodynamic testing is the velocity of a shock-wave front or projectile.
Another object of the subject invention is to provide .
the “pin,” which detects the arrival of a shock-wave
front or a high-velocity surface (i.e., a projectile) at a an apparatus for determining the arrival time and veloc-
particular location. Used in an array, pins can be used to 20 ity of a shock-wave front or projectile in the presence of
describe the time dependence of a hydrodynamic event significant electromagnetic noise.
in three spatial dimensions and in time. In the past, Additiona2 objects, advantages and novel features of
electrical pins have been widely used. An electrical pin the invention will be set forth in part in the description
is the insulated tip of an electrically charged cable. which follows, and in part will become apparent to
When a pressure pulse impinges upon the pin, the pin is 25 those skilled in the art upon examination of the follow-
caused to become electrically conducting, thereby caus- ing or may be learned by practice of the invention. The
ing a short in the cable which results in an electrical objects and advantagea of the invention maybe realized
impulse to be transmitted from the pin to an electrical and attained by means of the instrumentalities and com-
detector. This pulse records the time at which the pres- binations particularly pointed out in the appended
sure pulse reaches the location of the pin. A major dis- 30 claims.
advantage to electrical pins is their inherent sensitivity To achieve the foregoing and other objects, and in
to electromagnetic noise, rendering measurements unre- accordance with the purposes of the present invention,
liable in harsh electrical environments. Moreover, the as embodied and broadly described herein, the appara-
instrumentation required to record the electrical im- tus of this invention may comprise at least one fluid-
pulse is quite expensive. 35 fdled microba2100n which is responsive to impinging
Optical pins have been used in the past. Typica21y, shock-wave fronts or projectihss producing and emit-
bare optical fibers which produce an optica2 pulse in ting bright flashes of light therefrom, and means for
response to an impact by a shock front or projectile quantitatively detecting the emitted light flash. Optical
were employed. The optical pulse produced may be due fiber means are provided for transmitting the emitted
to the luminosity of the shock front or due to pressure- 40 light from the fluid-tilled microballoons to the light
induced luminosity. The latter effect often produces an detection means the fluid-filled microballoons being
optical pulse that is too dim for applications requiring attached thereto.
subnanosecond time resolution and for applications An opaque shield covers the microbailoon/optical
where the only available streak camera is a rotating fiber assembly to protect the opticaJ pin from any un-
mirror design with inadequate sensitivity. Further, the 45 wanted low-pressure pukes and stray light which pre-
duration of the optical pulse from the luminous fiber is cede the impinging shock-wave front or projectile, the
too long for optimal recording by some instruments. shield being easily ruptured by the incident shock wave.
Flash gaps represent an alternative method to pin Alternatively, an optically opaque coating can be ap-
detection of shock-wave fronts producing an optical plied to the exposed surface of the tnicroballoon not in
signal. Typically, a flash gap consists of a thin, gas-filled 50 contact with light transmitting means. In a preferred
volume enclosed by a plastic envelope. The target gas is embodiment of the present invention, the fluid-filled
generally air, argon, or xenon. The rapid compression microballoons are tilled with any of the noble gases, air
of the gas under the interaction with the impinging or mixtures thereof. Preferably also, shutter means are
shock-wave front causes the gas to lurninesce brightly. provided for preventing the emitted bright flash of light
After the shock-wave traverses the gas and impinges 55 from reaching the optical fiber after a selected time
upon the plastic envelope, the optical pulse is termi- period, thereby permitting the velocity of the shock-
nated. As a result the shock-wave produces a short wave front or projectile to be determined when more
pulse of light. Pulse duration is controlled by the thick- than one microba2100n is attached to the optical fiber. In
ness of the gas-tilled volume; that is, the path through a preferred embodiment of the subject invention, the
which the shock-wave front must traverse. 60 shutter means includes a section of transparent or trans-
In “Nanosecond Hydrodynamic Diagnostics Using lucent plastic rod located in between the microbailoon
Fiber Optic Probes and a Streaking Camera,” by L. L. and the optical fiber, whereby the plastic becomes
Shaw, R. R. Donaldson, J. R. Murchie, and T. J. opaque and non-transmitting after interacting with the
Ramos, Proceedings of the 12th International Congress incident shock-wave front or projectile. Preferably also,
on High Speed Photography (Photonics), Aug. 1-7, 65 the microballoons are attached to the optical fibers with
1976, Toronto Canada, SPIE VO1. 97, pages 256-262, an adhesive having a refractive index in between the
the authors describe an ortical Din which includes a refractive index of the microballoon and that of the
small closed space filled with xen&t gas at a pressure of optical fiber, thereby more efficiently transmitting the
4.649.528
3 4
emitted flash of light from the microballoon into the Turning now to FIG. 1, a pressure disturbance or
optical fiber. projectile, impinges upon an opaque shield 5. The shield
The present invention mayrdso comprise, in accor- prevents weak shocks from detonation waves, for exam-
dance with its objects and purposes, a plurality of seri- ple, from darnaging the assembly before the principal
ally disposed, spaced apart fluid-fdled microballoons, 5 impulse or projectile arrives, as well as preventing stray
each of which are responsive to an impinging shock- light from reaching the optical fiber. An opaque coating
wave front or projectile, producing therefrom a bright on the entire exposed surface of the microballoon not in
flash of light, at least one transparent or translucent contact with the optical fiber may be used as a stray
plastic optical fiber for receiving and transmitting the light shield for some applications. Upon breaking
emitted bright flash of light, the optical fiber becoming 10 through the opaque shield, the pressure disturbance or
opaque and non-transmitting upon interacting with the projectile can access the fluid-filled rrticroballoon 1
incident shock-wave front or projectile in a region in which is fastened by means of an adhesive 3 to a trans-
the vicinity of its interaction with the shock-wave front parent or translucent plastic (for example, polymethyl/-
or projectile, thereby permitting the velocity of the methacrylate) rod 2. The adhesive must also be trans-
impinging shock-wave front or projectile to be deter- 15 parent or translucent. It is chosen to have a refractive
mined, the velocity being inversely proportional to the index between that of the microballoon and that of the
spacing between the microballoon flashes, an opaque plastic rod in order to efficiently transmit the light from
shieId which covers and protects the fluid-fdled micro- the microballoon into the optical fiber 4. The plastic rod
balloons from any unwanted low-pressure pulses and acts as a shutter. When this material is shocked, it be-
stray light which precede the impinging shock-wave 20 comes opaque and nontransmitting, thereby blocking
front or projectile, the shield being easily ruptured by the light emitted by the microballoon or any other light
the impinging shock-wave front or projectile, thereby source from reaching the optical fiber. Plastic optical
exposing the fluid-filled microballams to the interac- fibers can be used which quench the light in a similar
tion with the shock-wave or projectile, and means for fashio~ in this event, the plastic rods may be omitted.
receiving and detecting the emitted bright flash of light 25 For some applications, the light shattering capability is
transmitted through the optica3 fiber. unnecessary and can be omitted, the microballoons then
Benefits and advantages achieved by the subject in- being directly attached to the optical fiber.
vention include the improvement in the quality of pin The fluid-fdled microballoon is the light source. Mi-
recordings while substantially decreasing the cost, and croballoons are tiny, hollow, gas-tight vessels which
the feasibility of experiments where pin diagnostics are 30 can be stably fflled with a variety of gases and liquids.
desirable but the use of electrical pins is unsatisfactory When the fluid contained therein is shock-heated it
due to adverse electromagnetic noise environments. emits a bright puke of light. Typically, a gas employed
The foregoing descriptions of the preferred embodi- is one of the noble gases, or air, or a combination
ments of the invention have been presented for purposes thereof. Liquids should also work quite well. The gas
of illustration and description. They are not intended to 35 pressure is controlled during the falling process, and
be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise pressures up to 10 atmospheres of argon have been
form disclosed, and obviously many modifications and achieved in glass microba3100ns. The microbaUoons can
variations are possible in light of the above teaching. be made of clear or translucent glass or plastic. The
The embodiments were chosen and described in order optical pulse is transmitted via the optica3 fiber to a
to best explain the principles of the invention and its 40 photodetector such as a streak camera. Shock-heating is
practical application to thereby enable others skilled in produced by compression of the microballoon by the
the art to best utilize the invention in various embodi- shock-wave or particle which is transmitted to the fluid
ments and with various modifications as are suited to therein. Generally, microbahons have diameters of
the particular use contemplated. It is intended that the 0.04 mm to 1.0 mm. These sizes are compatible with the
scope of the invention be defined by the claims ap- 45 dimensions of optical fibers. The configuration shown
pended hereto. in FIG. 1,when duplicated in a plurality of similar pins “
placed in precise locations and at precise angles within
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS experiments in a similar manner to that which electrical
The accompanying drawings, which are incorpo- pins are currently positioned, is suitable for obtaining a
rated in and form a part of the specification, illustrate 50 detailed profile of the incident shock-wave or high
the embodiments of the present invention and, together velocity surface. A large number of optical fibers can be
with the description, serve to explain the principles of used with a single streak camera. Such protiles can
the invention. In the drawings: therefore now be obtained with a minimum of costly
FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of the basic opti- equipment. At only several times the cost of a single
cal pin design for detecting the arrival of a shock-wave 55 oscilloscope, one streak camera can record information
or particle. equiwdent to that recorded by more than 100 oscillo-
FIG. 2 is a schematic representation of a multi- scopes if electrical pins were utilized. Photodiodes,
microballoon optical pin for measuring the velocity of photomtdtipliers, framing cameras, and scan converters
an incident shock-wave or particle. may also be used to detect the light pulse or pulses,
FIG. 3 is a schematic representation of an alternative 60 FIGS. 2 and 3, show pin assemblies useful for measur-
multi-microballoon optical pin similar in function to the ing the velocity of an impinging shock-wave or projec-
one shown in FIG. 2. tile in addition to its time of arrival. In FIG. 2, several
fluid-filled microballoons 1, 6, and 7 are placed within a
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE single opticrd fiber 4 for the purpose of sequentially
INVENTION 65 measuring the arrival of such a shock-wave front. Plas-
Reference will now be made in detail to the present tic rods 2 and 8 are inserted between the microbahons
preferred embodiment of the invention, an example of to block the continued transmission of light from the
which is illustrated in the accompanying drawings. emitting microballoons. In this manner, the light pulse
4.649.528
5 6
emitted by each of the microballoons can be distin- atmosphere of gas to be reproducibly sealed, whereas
guished. argon-filled glass microballoons have been filled to 10
FIG. 3 shows another preferred embodiment of a atmospheres, and higher pressures are possible. The
multi-microballoon pin design for detecting both the importance of tilling the vessel to higher pressures is
arrival and the velocity of a shock-wave front or pro- 5 that the brightness of the flash increases with increasing
jectile. Here the microballoons are attached to the side pressure up to some optimum pressure. The tilling of
of the optical fiber. For some applications, the micro- microballoons and their attachment to fragile structures
balloons in FIG. 3 can be displaced from the principal is a routine procedure due to developments in the fabri-
transmitting optical fiber by interposing optical fibers. cation of laser-fusion targets, whereaa the method de-
That is, a plurality of assemblies of the embodiment 10 scribed in the Shaw et al. reference requires consider-
described in FIG. 1 are connected to a single collecting able development. Moreover, separating the functions
optical fiber which transmits the optical signals derived of filling a vessel and then attaching that vessel to the
therefrom to the detector means. In a similar manner to fiber avoids the potential difficulties of having contact
the single microballoon pin described in FIG. 1, a plu- between the gas and the optical fiber; that is, difficulties .
rality of the multi-microballoon pin assemblies shown in 15 of permeabilityy or leakage into the fiber. The time reso-
FIGS. 2 and 3 can be placed in precise locations to lution of the system described by Shaw et al. is 1-2 .
sample the nature of the profile of the incident shock- nanoseconds, whereas the microballoon system is likely ,
wave or projectile. to have subnanoseco~d resolution due to the conver-
As an example of the reduction to practice of the gence effects of the spherical balloon and the small
subject invention, signals produced by 14 gas-tilled 20 overall dimensions. Finally, the assemblies described in
tnicroballoon optical pins during a test tiring of a coax- the present invention can be used in the same manner as
ial, magnetic flux-compression generator have been electrical pins are currently positioned, whereas more
simultaneously recorded on a single streak camera. This conventional flash-gaps are much more bulky.
data has been reduced to determine the hydrodynamic Potential industrial applications include oil, gas and
interaction between the stator and armature of the gen- 25 mineral recovery, demolition where explosives are
erator. This streak record is the first test of rnicrobal- used, explosive-driven devices, such as shaped charges,
loon optical pins in a harsh electromagnetic environ- projectiles and other armaments. Moreover, the subject
ment. apparatus will be useful for diagnosing high speed ma-
The present invention, then, is an optical pin, or an chinery such as turbines and flywheels.
array thereof, which includes one or more fluid-filled 30 The foregoing description of the preferred embodi-
microballoons, an opaque shield, a shutter, and an opti- ments of the invention has been presented for purposes
cal link to a photodetector. Advantages of the optical of illustration and description. It is not intended to be
pin array of the subject invention over an electrica3 pin exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise form
array include: disclosed, and obviously many modifications and varia-
1. Optical pins are far less susceptible to electromag- 35 tions are possible in light of the above teaching. The
netic noise and to ionizing radiation; embodiments are chosen and described in order to best
2. Optical signals can be recorded at far lower cost explain the principles of the invention and its practica3
than electrical signals because optical recording using a application to thereby enable others skilled in the art to
streak camera is considerably less costly per channel best utilize the invention in various embodiments and
than electrical recording where one oscilloscope or 40 with various modifications as are suited to the particular
transient digitizer is required for one or several chan- use contemplated. It is intended that the scope of the
nels; invention be defined by the claims appended hereto.
3. Optical signals can be detected with better time What is claimed is:
resolution than electrical signals; that is, commercially 1.An optical pin which comprises in combination:
available, image converter streak cameras attain a time 45 a. at least one fluid-tilled microballoon, said fluid-
resolution of a few picosecond compared with several tilled microballoon being responsive to an imping-
hundred picosecond time resolution for state of the art ing shock-wave front and producing and emitting a
oscilloscopes; bright flash of light therefrom;
4. The complete diagnostic system based on optical b. opaque shield means for protecting said at least one
pins can be nondestructively tested immediately before 50 fluid-tilled microballoon from any low-pressure
its use on an event; that is, one can simply remove the pulses and stray light which precede the impinging
opaque shields, produce a light flash from a xenon flash shock-wave front, said shield being easily ruptured
lamp, for example, near the tips, and verify that the by the impinging shock-wave front, thereby expos-
photodetector records the information. Electrical pin ing said at least one fluid-filled micrcballoon to the
systems, however, cannot be similarly nondestructively 55 impinging shock-wave front;
tested; and c. means for quantitatively detecting said emitted
5. An electrical pin requires a power supply to charge flash of light; and
a cable, while optical pins are passive; that is, they re- d. optical fiber means for transmitting the flash of
quire no power supply to the pins. light to said quantitatively detecting means.
The placement of a shock-sensitive light emitting gas 60 2. The optical pin as described in claim 1,wherein
at the tip of an optical fiber has the advantage that the said fluid-tilled microballoon is fdled with a gas selected
emitted light intensity is much greater than the light from the group consisting of the noble gases and mix-
emitted from the shocked fiber itself. Among the advan- tures thereof.
tages of containing the gas in microballoons, as taught 3. The optical pin as described in claim 2, wherein
by the present invention, are the control of gas pressure, 65 shutter means are provided for preventing the emitted
the ease of fabrication, and the improvement in time flash of light from said at least one fluid-tilled microbal-
resolution. The containment procedure described by Ioon from reaching said optical fiber after a selected
Shaw et al., supra, only permits approximately one time period, thereby permitting the velocity of the
4,649,528
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shock-wave front to be determined when a plurality of 11.The apparatus as described in claim 10, wherein
said at least one fluid-filled microballoons are aftlxed to said at least one fluid-filled microballoon is attached to
said opticaf fiber and the recording of more than one said opticaf fiber with an adhesive having a refractive
event on a single recording channel to be made. index in between the refractive index of said at least one
4. The optical pin as described in claim 3, wherein 5 fluid-filled microballoon and the refractive index of said
said shutter means includes a section of light transmit- opticaf fiber, thereby more efficiently transmitting the
ting plastic rod disposed between said fluid-tilled micro- emitted flash of light from said at least one fluid-tilled
bafloon and said optical fiber, whereby said plastic rod microballoon into said opticaf fiber.
becomes opaque and non-transmitting after interacting 12. The apparatus as described in claim 8, wherein
with the impinging shock-wave front. 10 said opticaf fiber is fabricated from light transmitting
5. The optical pin as described in claim 4, wherein plastic, said plastic fiber becoming opaque and non-
said at least one fluid-tilled microballoon is attached to transmitting after interacting with the impinging shock-
said optical fiber with an adhesive having a refractive wave front in the vicinity of the region of interaction,
index in between the refractive index of said microbaf - thereby permitting the velocity of the shock-wave front
Ioon and the refractive index of said fluid-filled opticaf 15 to be determined when more than one of said at least
fiber, thereby more etllciently transmitting one fluid-fdled microballoons are affiied to said opticaf
fiber and the recording of more than one event on a
the emitted flash of light from said at least one fluid-
single recording cnannel to be made.
tilled microbafloon into said optical fiber.
13. An opticaf pin for determining the time of arrival
6. The optical pin as described in claim 2, wherein Z.
and the velocity of an impinging shock-wave front, said
said opticaf fiber is fabricated from light transmitting
opticaf pin comprising in combination:
plastic, said plastic fiber becoming opaque and non-
a. a plurality of serially disposed, spaced-apart fluid-
transmitting after interacting with the impinging shock-
filled microbafloons, each of said fluid-filled micro-
wave front in the vicinity of the region of interaction,
balloons being responsive to the impinging shock-
thereby acting as a shutter for the emitted flash of light, 25
wave front and producing and emitting a bright
whereby the velocity of said shock-wave front can be
flash of iight therefrom, there being a fnt fluid-
determined when more than one of said at least one
tilled microballoon and a last fhuid-fdled microbaf-
fluid-filled microballoon is affixed to said outical fiber
Ioon in said plurality thereof;
and more than one event can be recorded in a single b. at least one light transmitting plastic rod section
recording channel. 30 interposed in opticaf contact between said fluid-
7. An apparatus for detecting the arrivaf of a shock- fdled microballoons, said first fluid-fdled tnicrobal-
wave front which comprises in combination: Ioon and said last fluid-fdled rnicrobafloon each
a. at least one fluid-fdled microballoon, said at least being in optical contact with only one of said plas-
one fluid-filled rtticroballoon being responsive to tic rod sections, said rod sections becoming opaque
the impinging shock-wave front and producing and 35 and non-transmitting after interacting with the
emitting a bright flash of light therefrom; impinging shock-wave front, thereby permitting
b. opaque shield means for protecting said at least one the velocity of the impinging shock-wave front to
fluid-filled microballoon from any low-pressure be determined, the velocity being inversely propor-
pulses and stray light which precede the impinging tional to the length of said plastic rod section;
shock-wave front, said shield being easily ruptured 40 c. at least one optical fiber for receiving and transtrtit-
by the impinging shock-wave front, thereby expos- ting said emitted flash of light, one end of said
ing said at least one fluid-filled microbafloon to the optical fiber being in opticaf contact with said last
impinging shock-wave front; fluid-tilled microbafloon;
c. means for quantitatively detecting the emitted flash d. opaque shielding means which covers and protects
of light; and 45 said fluid-filled microballoons from any low-pres-
d. optical fiber means for transmitting the emitted sure pulses and stray light which precede the im-
flash of light from said at least one fluid-filled mi- pinging shock-wave front, said shield being easily
crobailoon to said flash of light detection means. ruptured by the impinging shock-wave front
8. The apparatus as described in claim 7, wherein said thereby exposing said fluid-ftied microbailoons to
at least one fluid-tilled microballoon is filled with a gas 50 the impinging shock-wave front: and
selected from the group consisting of the noble gases e. means for receiving and detecting said emitted
and mixtures thereof. flash of light transmitted through said opticaf fiber.
9. The apparatus as described in claim 8, wherein 14. An optical pin for determining the time of arrival
shutter means are provided for preventing the emitted and velocity of an impinging shock-wave front, said
flash of light from said at least one fluid-tilled microbal- 55 optical pin comprising:
loon from reaching said optical fiber after a selected a. a plurality of serially disposed, spaced apart fluid-
time period, thereby permitting the velocity of the tilled microballoons, each of said fluid-filled micro-
shock-wave front to be determined when a plurality of balloons being responsive to the impinging shock-
said at least one fluid-filled microballoons are aftlxed to wave front and producing and emitting a bright
each of said optical fibers and the recording of more t-i) flash of light therefrom;
than one event on a single recording channel to be b. at least one light transmitting plastic optical fiber
made. for receiving and transmitting said emitted flash of
10. The apparatus as described in claim 9, wherein light, at least one of said fluid-fdled microballoons
said shutter means includes a section of light transmit- being attached to the side thereof, said optical fiber
ting plastic rod disposed between said at least one fluid- 65 becoming opaque and non-transmitting upon inter-
filled microballoon and said optical fiber, whereby said acting with the impinging shock-wave front in a
plastic rod becomes opaque and non-transmitting after region in the vicinity of the region of interaction,
interacting with the impinging shock-wave front. thereby permitting the velocity of the impinging
--”4

4.649.528
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9 10
shock-wave front to be determined, the velocity index in between the refractive index of said at least one
being inversely proportional to the spacing be- fluid-tilled microballoon and the refractive index of said
tween said fluid-tilled microballoons; opticaf fiber, thereby more eftlciently transmitting said
c. opaque shielding means which covers and protects emitted flash of light from said at least one fluid-fflled
said fluid-filled microballoons from any low-pres- 5 microballoon into said optical tiber.
sure pulses and stray light which precede the im- 20. The optical pin as described in claim 16, wherein
pinging shock-wave front, said shield being easily said optical fiber is fabricated from light transmitting
ruptured by the impinging shock-wave front plastic, said plastic fiber becoming opaque and non-
thereby exposing said fluid-filled microballoons to transmitting after interacting with the impinging parti-
the impinging shock-wave front; and 10 cle in the vicinity of the region of interaction, thereby
d. means for receiving and detecting said emitted acting as a shutter for the emitted flash of light,
flash of light transmitted through said optical fiber. whereby the velocity of said particle can be determined
15. An optical pin which comprises in combination: when more than one of said at least one fluid-filled
a. at least one fluid-fdled microballoon, said at least microballoons are affixed to said optical fiber and more
one fluid-filled microballoon being responsive to an 15 than one event can be recorded on a single recording
impinging particle and producing and emitting a channel.
bright flash of light therefrom; 21. An apparatus for detecting the arrival of a shock-
b. means for quantitatively detecting the emitted flash wave front which comprises in combination:
of ligh~ a. at least one fluid-filled microballoon, said at least
c. optical fiber means for transmitting the emitted 20 one fluid-tilled microballoon being responsive to an
flash of light from said at least one fluid-fdled mi- impinging shock-wave front and producing and
croballoon to said flash of light detection means; emitting a bright flash of light therefrom, and
and b. means for quantitatively detecting the emitted flash
d. opaque shielding means for protecting said at least of light;
one fluid-fdfed microballoon from any low-pres- 25 c. optical fiber means for transmitting the emitted
sure pulses and stray light which precedes the irn- flash of light from said at least one fluid-fdled mi-
pinging particle, said opaque shielding means being croballoon to said flash of light detection means;
easily ruptured by the impinging particle, thereby and
exposing said at least one fluid-filled microballoon d. an opaque coating covering the entire exposed
to the impinging particle. 30 surface of said at least one fluid-filled microballoon
16. The optical pin as described in claim 15, wherein for protecting said at least one fluid-filled microbai-
said at least one fluid-filled microbrdloon is tilled with a loon from stray light preceding the impinging par-
gas selected from the group consisting of the noble ticles, said opaque coating being easily ruptured by
gases and mixtures thereof. the impinging shock-wave front.
17. The opticaf pin as described in claim 16, wherein 35 22. An optical pin which comprises in combination:
shutter means are provided for preventing the emitted a. at least one fluid-filled microballoon, said at least
flash of light from said at least one fluid-fdled microbal- one fluid-filled microballoon being responsive to an
Ioon from reaching said optical fiber after a selected impinging particle and producing and emitting a
time period, thereby permitting the velocity of the irn- bright flash of light therefrom; and
pinging particle to be determined when a plurality of 40 b. means for quantitatively detecting the emitted flash
said at least one fluid-tilled microballoons are affixed to of light;
said optical fiber and the recording of more than one c. optical fiber means for transmitting the emitted
event on a single recording channel to be made. flash of light from said at least one fluid-fdled mi-
18. The opticaf pin as described in claim 17, wherein croballoon to said flash of light detection means;
said shutter means includes a section of light transmit- 45 and
ting plastic rod disposed between said at least one fluid- d. an opaque coating covering the entire exposed
filled microballoon and said optical fiber, whereby said surface of said at least one fluid-filled microballoon
plastic rod becomes opaque and non-transmitting after for protecting said at least one fluid-fflled microbrd-
interacting with the impinging particle. loon from stray light preceding the impinging par-
19. The optical pin as described in claim 18, wherein 50 ticles, said opaque coating being easily ruptured by
said at least one fluid-filled microballoon is attached to the impinging particle.
said optical fiber with an adhesive having a refractive ● ****

55

.
60

65