Você está na página 1de 80

Research Notes

for
Don Troiani’s
“Boston Massacre”

Compiled from Contemporary Sources


by Gregory S. Theberge
Town House Square
Boston Massacre
March 5, 1770
(Numbers corresponding to Map)

A Foot of Snow is on the Ground


A Sentry Box is in Front of the Custom House
This Sentry Box is in a watery “Gutter” Close to the Front Steps
A Sign is present on one of the buildings
The evening is “Very Light” - A “bright moon-light evening”)

“I saw three men lay dead on the snow; the snow being at that time near a foot
deep.” (Testimony of Robert Patterson)

“I then went up stairs into the lower west chamber, next to royal-exchange lane,
and saw several guns fired in king-street, which killed three persons which I
saw lay on the snow in the street, supposing the snow to be near a foot
deep” (Testimony of Hammond Green)

“Near the little run of water by the Sentry box” (Testimony of Jane Whitehouse)

“The Sentry box was in the Gutter and the Centinel fell in with the
Soldiers.” (Testimony of James Woodall)

“Q. From where was that stick thrown?


A. From Royal-exchange-lane, and it flew over their head almost as high as the
sign.”
(Testimony of Benjamin Burdick)

“Q. Was it a Moon-light night?


A. I do not remember seeing the Moon, but it was very light.”
(Testimony of Archibald Wilson, Merchant)

“that on the evening of the fifth instant, (being a bright moon-light evening)
immediately after the massacre in Kingstreet,..” (Deposition of Spencer Walker,
Taylor)
H.M. 29th Regiment of Foot
Boston Massacre
March 5, 1770

Captain Thomas Preston


Private Hugh White - Major Pierce Butler's Battalion Company
Posted at the Custom House
Corporal William Wemms - Capt. Ponsonby Molesworth's Battalion Company
Private John Carroll - Capt. John Corrance's Grenadier Company
Private James Hartigan - Capt. John Corrance's Grenadier Company
Private Matthew Kilroy - Capt. John Corrance's Grenadier Company
Private William McAuly - Capt. John Corrance's Grenadier Company
Private Edward / Hugh Montgomery - Capt. John Corrance's Grenadier Company
Private William Warren - Capt. John Corrance's Grenadier Company

“GRENADIERS”

“Henry Bass of lawful age testifies and says, that going from his house in Winter-
street, on Monday evening the fifth of March, to see a friend in the neighbourhood
of the Rev. Dr. Cooper's meeting-house; that the bell was ringing for nine o'clock
when he came out of his house, and that he proceeded down the main-street, and
going near Draper's alley, lead-ing to Murray's barracks, thro' which he purposed to
pass, heard some boys huzzaing, and imagines that there were six or seven of them
and not more; and presently after he saw two or three persons in said alley with
weapons, but cannot positively say what they were. - Soon after several more came
into the alley and made a sally out, and those that came out were soldiers, and
thinks were all grenadiers, as they were stout men, and were armed with a large
naked cutlasses; they made at every body coming in their way, cutting and
slashing;”
(A Short NARRATIVE of the horrid Massacre in Boston...)
Position of the Soldiers & The Crowd Upon Them

Semi - Circle Line


In front of the Sentry Box and at the corner of the Custom House
Next to Royal Exchange Lane
Bayonets Fixed and leveled to the Mob “breast high”
Mob upon the soldiers, some hitting their muzzles with clubs
Snow, Ice the Size of a Fist, Sticks, and possibly Oyster Shells
Thrown at the Soldiers

“When I had got there I saw Capt. Preston at the head of 7 or 8 Soldiers at the
Custom house drawn up, their Guns breast high and Bayonets fixed.” (Deposition
of Richard Palmes)

“At the time of the firing there was between 50 and 80 People at some distance not
crowding upon the Soldiers and thin before them” (Deposition of Richard Palmes)

“The Mob still increased, and were more outrageous, striking their Clubs or Blud-
geons one against another, and calling out, 'come ' on, you Rascals, you bloody
Backs you Lobster 'Scoundrels ; fire if you dare, ' G-d damn you, fire ' and be
damn'd; we know you dare not; 'and much more such Language was used. At this
Time I was between the Soldiers and the Mob, parleying with and endeavouring all
in my Power to persuade them to re-tire peaceably; but to no Purpose. They
advanced to the Points of the Bayonets, struck some of them, and even the Muzzles
of the Pieces, and seemed to be endeavouring to close with the Soldiers.” ("Case of
Capt. Thomas Preston of the 29th Regiment.")

“The Snow was thrown at the other Men and not at Montgomery. The Captain
stood between the People and the Soldiers, I did not see him behind them at
all.” (Deposition of Ebenezer Hinckley)

“I went into a number round the Custom house. Some of them flinging Snow balls
and Oyster Shells at the Centinel. Some were for killing him. Some for taking the
Sentry Box and burning it. Some for throwing over board. Standing in the middle
of the Street saw the Soldiers by the Sentry box...” (Deposition of Daniel
Cornwall)

“Q. Did you see the pieces of ice thrown?


A. Yes.
Q. What sort of pieces, were they small or were they big enough to hurt a man?
A. Yes, hard and large enough to hurt any man; as big as ones fist.” (Testimony of
James Bailey)

Dress of the Soldiers

“The Person who gave order for <firing> priming and load was dress'd in Red, and
Sash, no Arms. I was within 5 feet of him. The Soldiers all had Caps. I knew
Capt. Preston by Sight very well.”
(Testimony of Peter Cunningham)

The Semi Circle Line: Left to Right

Corporal William Wemms - Battalion Company (Map No. 9)


Private Hugh White - Battalion Company (Map No. 8)
Private William Warren - Grenadier Company “The Tall Man” (Map No. 7)
Private William McCauley - Grenadier Company (Map No. 6) - Hit by Burdick
Private Mathew Kilroy - Grenadier Company (Map No. 5) - Shoots Samuel Gray
Private John Carroll - Grenadier Company (Map No. 4)
Private James Hartigan - Grenadier Company (Map No. 3)
Private Hugh Montgomery - Grenadier Company (Map No. 2)
Captain Thomas Preston (Map No. 1)

Age: 48 years old at the time of the Massacre (1722 - 1798)


Location: Standing in front of his men, to the right of the line towards Royal
Exchange Lane. In front of Private Montgomery who was behind him to his right
and Private Harrigan who was behind him to his left
Dress: Mixed Reports - Most depositions claim he wore a regimental coat,
possibly with no “trimmings” but more likely laced than not. Conflicting reports of
him wearing a surtout or not. More in favor of not. Has a Silver trimmed cocked
hat, a yellow “jacket” (waistcoat) implying his coat was not buttoned over, a sash,
a Silver Epaulet, and a Gorget. Wore a Wig. Per the Pelham engraving, he is
wearing common shoes but this is speculative.
Arms: Has his sword drawn, presumably in his right hand
Action: Staggering, “dodging” a blow from Richard Palmes. Has been hit in the
right arm by the stick of Richard Palmes so violently that he claimed “which for
some-time deprived my of the Use of it ; which Blow, had it been placed on my
Head, most probably would have destroyed me”

“The Captain had a Sword in his hand. Was dressd in his Regimentals. Had no
Surtout on. I saw nothing thrown nor any blows given at all. The first man on the
right who fired after attempting to push the People slipped down and drop'd his
Gun out of his hand. The Person who stepd in between the 4th and 5th Men I look
upon it gave the orders to fire. His back was to me. I shall always think it was him.
The Officer had a Wig on.” (Deposition of Nathaniel Fosdick)

“The Captain had a Surtout on. I knew him well. The Surtout was not red. I think
cloth colour.” (Deposition of Diman Morton)

“I did not hear the Centinel call for help but saw the Guard come and a man who I
took to be the Captain. He had a thing or Plate upon his breast—a Sash on—a
Sword in his hand—and Regimentals.” (Deposition of John Frost)

“I knew the Captain by sight and name. He stood to the left of the whole rather
behind with his back towards the long Wharfe. He had his Regimentals, a hat on,
his breast plate and Sash round his body and Sword in his hand.” (Deposition of
Benjamin Lee)
“I was present at the firing. I heard one of the Guns rattle. I turned about and lookd
and heard the officer who stood on the right in a line with the Soldiers give the
word fire twice. I lookd the Officer in the face when he gave the word and saw his
mouth. He had on a red Coat, yellow Jacket and Silver laced hat, no trimming on
his Coat. The Prisoner is the Officer I mean. (Deposition of Daniel Calef)

“Were in a line with an Officer before 'em, with a Sword in his hand, a laced hat
on, and a red Coat, and I remember Silver on his Shoulder. (Deposition of Andrew,
A Negro Servant)

“The Capt. stood between the Soldiers and the Gutter about two yards from the
Gutter.” (Deposition of Newton Prince a Negro a Member of the South Church)

“The Mob still increased, and were more outrageous, striking their Clubs or Blud-
geons one against another, and calling out, 'come ' on, you Rascals, you bloody
Backs you Lobster 'Scoundrels ; fire if you dare, ' G-d damn you, fire ' and be
damn'd; we know you dare not; 'and much more such Language was used. At this
Time I was between the Soldiers and the Mob, parleying with and endeavouring all
in my Power to persuade them to re-tire peaceably; but to no Purpose. They
advanced to the Points of the Bayonets, struck some of them, and even the Muzzles
of the Pieces, and seemed to be endeavouring to close with the Soldiers. On which
some well-behaved Persons asked me if the Guns were charged: I replied, yes.
They then asked me if I in-tended to order the Men to fire; I answered no, by no
Means; observing to them, that I was advanced be-fore the Muzzles of the Men's
Pieces, and must fall a Sacrifice if they fired; that the Soldiers were upon the Half-
cock and charged Bayonets, and my giving the Word fire, under those
Circumstances, would prove me no Officer. While I was thus speaking, one of the
Soldiers, having received a severe Blow with a Stick, stept a little on one Side, and
instantly fired, on which turning to and asking him why he fired without Orders, I
was struck with a Club on my Arm, which for some-time deprived my of the Use
of it ; which Blow, had it been placed on my Head, most probably would have
destroyed me. On this general Attack was made on the Men by a great Number of
heavy Clubs, and Snow-Balls being thrown at them, by which all our Lives were in
imminent Danger; some Persons at the same Time from behind calling out, 'Damn
your Bloods, ' why don't you fire ? Instantly three or four of the Soldiers fired, one
after another, and directly after three more in the same Confusion and
Hurry.” (Deposition of Captain Thomas Preston)
“(No.112.)

I Richard Palms, of Boston, of lawful age, testify and say, that between the hours
of nine and ten o'clock, last Monday evening, the 5th instant, I heard one of the
bells ring, which I thought was or fire; I went towards where I thought it was, and
was told that the soldiers were abusing the inhabitants; I asked where the soldiers
were, and was answered in King street, and that there was a rumpus at the custom-
house door; as soon as I got there I saw Capt. Preston at the head of six or eight
soldiers; the soldiers had their guns breast high, with their bayonets fixed. I went
immediately to Capt. Preston, and asked him if the soldiers guns were loaded; his
answer was, "They were loaded with powder and ball;" I then asked him if he
intended they should fire on the inhabitants, his answer to me was, "By no means."
I did not hear him tell the soldiers not to fire, nor did I hear him speak to them. I
saw a piece of ice fall among the soldiers; immediately upon this the soldier upon
his right hand fired his gun, that instant I heard the word "Fire," but by whom I
know not; the soldier at his left hand fired next, and the others one after another, as
fast as they could. I turned myself to my left, and saw one man dead, upon which I
struck at the soldier who first fired the gun, and hit his left arm or hand, which
made his gun fall; I then struck at Capt. Preston, and thought I hit his head, but he
says I hit his arm; on my making the stroke at him I fell on my right knee. I saw the
soldier that fired the first fire going to push his bayonet at me, upon which I threw
my stick at his head; he gave back, and gave me an opportunity to jump out of his
way, or must been run through the body. I directly passed through Exchange-lane,
and so up the next by Mr. Kent's office, and saw three people on the ground, and
saw Mr. Gridley, with several other persons, carrying Mr. Morton's ap- prentice up
to the prison house. I followed him, and saw he had a ball shot through his breast;
at my return, found the soldiers were gone to the main guard, &c.

Signed,

RICHARD PALMS.”
(Testimony of Richard Palmes - “An Account of the Late Unhappy Disturbance”

“Richard Palmes. Being at the Coffee House after 9 heard the Bells. Went up King
Street. Saw the Centinel walking quietly. Went up by the Town House. People told
me the Soldiers at Murrays barracks were abusing the People. I went there saw a
number of Officers at the Gate with Guns and People before them about 20 or 30. I
ask'd the Officer why they suffered the Men to be out after eight oClock. Do you
mean to teach me my duty. No but to remind of it. One of the Officers said the
Soldiers are gone into the Barracks, let the People go home. Mr. Lamb said home,
home. They went off. I came through the alley with Mr. Hickling. I saw Mr. Pool
Spear. I walked with him to the Pump. Somebody there said there was a Rumpus in
King Street. I went down. When I had got there I saw Capt. Preston at the head of
7 or 8 Soldiers at the Custom house drawn up, their Guns breast high and Bayonets
fixed. Found Theodore Bliss talking with the Captain. I heard him say why don't
you fire or words to that effect. The Captain answered I know not what and Bliss
said God damn you why don't you fire. I was close behind Bliss. They were both in
the front. Then I step'd immediately between them and put my left hand in a
familiar manner on the Captains right shoulder to speak to him. Mr. John Hickling
then looking over my shoulder I said to Preston are your Soldiers Guns loaded. He
answered with powder and ball. Sir I hope you dont intend the Soldiers shall fire
on the Inhabitants. He said by no means. The instant he spoke I saw something
resembling Snow or Ice strike the Grenadier on the Captains right hand being the
only one then at his right. He instantly stepd one foot back and fired the first
Gun. I had then my hand on the Captains shoulder. After the Gun went off I heard
the word fire. The Captain and I stood in front about half between the breech and
muzzle of the Guns. I dont know who gave the word fire. I was then looking on the
Soldier who fired. The word was given loud. The Captain might have given the
word and I not distinguish it. After the word fire in about 6 or 7 seconds the
Grenadier on the Captains left fired and then the others one after another. The
Captain stood still till the second Gun was fired. After that I turned and saw the
Grenadier who fired first attempting to prick me by the side of the Captain with his
Bayonet. I had a large Stick in my hand. I struck over hand and hit him in his left
arm. Knocked his hand from his Gun. The Bayonet struck the Snow and jarr'd the
breech out of his hand. I had not before struck at any body. Upon that I turnd,
thinking the other would do the same and struck at any body at first and hit
Preston. In striking him my foot slip'd and my blow fell short and hit him, as he
afterwards told me, on the arm. When I heard the word fire the Captains back was
to the Soldiers and face to me. Before I recovered the Soldier who fired the first
Gun was attempting again to push me through. I tossed my Stick in his face. He
fell back and I jump'd towards the lane. He push'd at me there and fell down. I
turn'd to catch his Gun. Another Soldier push'd at me and I ran off. Returnd soon
and saw the dead carrying off and the party was gone. The Gun which went off
first had scorched the nap of my Surtout at the elbow. I did not hear the Captain
speak after he answered me. Was there but about 3/4 of a minute in the whole.
There was time enough between the first and second Gun for the Captain to have
spoke to his Men. He stood leaning on the dagger in the scabbard. At the time of
the firing there was between 50 and 80 People at some distance not crowding upon
the Soldiers and thin before them.”
(Deposition or Richard Palmes - Rex Vs. Preston)
“A stout man forced his way through came up between me and the Grenadier. He
had a stick in his hand. I saw him strike at the Officer. Persons were talking with
him. I saw him dodge and try to fend off the blow with his arm. He then began to
strike on the Grenadiers Gun who stood about a yard and a half from the Officer on
the right. I saw the Grenadier attempt to stick him with his Bayonet.” (Testimony
of Andrew, a Negro Servant)

“J. Oliver. There has been a great deal done to prejudice the People against the
Prisoner a copper Plate Print, in which this Court has been insulted and call'd a
venal Court, if this Prisoner was not condemned. I my self was last Term insulted
for giving my opinion in a Point of Law. 15 of the Prisoner's Witnesses mention the
snow Balls, Ice, Clubbs, &c.”
(Judge Peter Oliver - Rex Vs. Wemms)

Corporal William Wemms (Map No. 9)

Company: Captain Ponsonby Molesworth's Battalion Company


Age: Unknown
Position in Line: at the Far Left of the Line
Dress: Likely had a Surtout on (Identity may be mistaken),
Battalion Company Cocked Hat Laced with White Tape
Action: Firelock leveled to crowd, possibly looking to his right to control the men
under his command

“Q. What was the situation of the Corporal?


A. He was the corner man at the left of the party.”
(Testimony of Ebenezer Bridgham, Merchant)
“Q. Did they come down in a threatening posture?
A. Very threatening, at least their countenances looked so, they said make way,
damn you make way, and they pricked some of the people.
Q. Did you see the Corporal?
A. I saw a person with the party, whom I took to be the Corporal.
Q. Had he a surtout on? 
R. A. Yes, he had.”
(Testimony of Benjamin Lee, Apprentice - or Henry Knox - both the same for
some reason)
“I did not see any thing thrown at the Centinel. I stood at the foot of the Town
house when the Guns were fired. I heard the People cry damn your bloods fire on.
To the best of my recollection the Corporal had a Surtout on. I had none.”
(Testimony of Henry Knox - Rex Vs. Wemms)

“Archbald. I know Matthew Killroy was of the party. I see him go down with 'em.
He has since told me he fired only Powder. The party was led down by a Non
Commission Officer, who I took to be a Corporal with his arms advanced as
usual.”
(Deposition of Archbald - Rex Vs. Preston)

Private Hugh White (Map No. 8)

Company: Major Pierce Butler’s Battalion Company


Age: 30 years old at the time of the Boston Massacre
Position in Line: Falls into the Line to the right of Corporal Wemms, 2nd to the
Left, to his right Private William Warren
Dress: Battalion Company Coat & Cocked Hat laced with White Tape
Action: Pushed back Jane Whitehouse and bids her to go away or she should be
killed. Likely has his bayonet at chest level. Varying accounts have him
shooting at a little boy or Robert Patterson.

“James Woodall was Sworn on the Bible. I came into King Street, saw a great
number of People there and a party of Soldiers and an Officer at the Main guard
and followed them to the Custom house. The Sentry box was in the Gutter and the
Centinel fell in with the Soldiers. They were drawn up. I saw one Soldier knock'd
down.”
(Testimony of James Woodall - Rex Vs. Preston)

“Jane Whitehouse. I live nigh the Centinel. Heard a noise. Went out. Ask'd the
Centinel whats the matter. He didn't know. Some people came and said there's the
Centinel, the bloody back Rascall, let's go kill him. They kept gathering throwing
Snow balls, Oyster Shells and chunks of Wood at the Centinel. Beat him from out
of his Box to the steps. A space after saw a party coming from the Main Guard, an
Officer which proved to be Capt. Preston with them. He desired his Men to halt
and the Centinel to recover his Arm, fall into his Rank and march up to the Main
Guard. The Centinel fell in and the men wanted to move forward to the Guard
house but could not for the Riot. The people called out fire, damn you why dont
you fire, you cant kill us. I steppd to the Party. Heard a Gentleman ask the Capt. if
he was going to order his men to fire. He said no Sir by no means, by no means. A
Man—the Centinel—then pushed me back. I step'd back to the corner. He bid me
go away for I should be killed.”
(Deposition of Jane Whitehouse / Jane Crothers - Rex Vs. Preston)

“Q. Where did you stand?


A. I was walking right before them. They had their guns rested on their hips; when
I passed the last man on the left, the first gun was fired from the right; as I
judged, the time might be twenty seconds before the first gun was fired from the
time they formed, in a short space there was another, and then very soon
another, and then there was a short space of time again, before the last guns
were fired. A little boy run along and cryed, fire! fire! fire! as people generally
do when there is fire, a soldier pointed his gun to him and fired, but did not hit
him, he was the last but one on the left.” (testimony of Joseph Hiller)

“Immediately they loaded again. The people then gave three cheers, and cry'd out,
let's go in upon them, and prevent their firing again: upon which they put on their
hats and advanced towards them. My hand being raised to put on my hat, still
advancing towards the soldiers, the centinel up with his gun and fired, the balls
going through my lower right arm, my hand immediately falling; and finding
myself wounded, made the best of my way home with help. And further I say not.”
(Deposition of Robert Patterson)

Private William Warren (Map No. 7)

Company: Captain John Corrance’s Grenadier Company


Age: Unknown
Position in Line: Third to Left - “the TALL man”
Dress: Grenadier Company Coat with Cloth Cap
Action:

“Q. Do you know any of the prisoners at the bar?


A. I particularly saw that tall man, (pointing to Warren, one of the prisoners.)”
(Testimony of Ebenezer Bridgham, Merchant)
“Q. What part of the circle did the tall man stand in?
A. He stood next but one to the Corporal. The tall man whoever he was, was the
man I saw
discharge his piece.”
(Testimony of Ebenezer Bridgeham, Merchant)

Private William McCauley (Map No. 6)

Company: Captain John Corrance’s Grenadier Company


Age: Unknown
Position in Line: Fourth from the Left
Dress: Grenadier Company Coat with Cloth Cap
Action: Gets attacked by Benjamin Burdick with his Broadsword.
Strikes at the Clerk, Jonathan William Austin with his bayonet before the
firing.

“Austin. I saw one Maccaulley a Grenadier Prime and load. Turnd about. Heard the
firing. Saw Maccaulley loading again. Before I turnd 3 Guns were fired and the
Molatto was killed. I heard no Orders to Prime and load nor the word given, fire.
Mccaulley before any firing struck at me with his Bayonet.” (Deposition of
Jonathan William Austin - Rex Vs. Wemms)

“Q. How near was you to McCauley at that time?


A. I was about four feet off: McCauley said “Damn you, stand off,” and pushed his
bayonet at me: I did so: Immediately I heard the report of a gun.” (Testimony of
Jonathan Williams Austin)

“At first I had a Stick, and my Wife, told me to take this the Broadsword. I struck
at the soldier who pushed at me, and had I struck 2 or 3 Inches further, I should
have left a March that I could have sworn to. This was before the firing. I struck
the Cock of the Gun. The Man I struck was the 4th. Man from the Corner, about
the Middle. I saw but one Thing thrown that was a short stick, about 2 or 3 foot
long. I heard a rattling. I took it they knocked their Guns together. They were
continually pushing at People, and it was pretty slippery.” (Testimony of Benjamin
Burdick)
Private Matthew Kilroy (Map No. 5)

Company: Captain John Corrance’s Grenadier Company


Age: 22 years old at the time of the Massacre
Position in Line: Fifth from the Left, 4th from the Right
Dress: Grenadier Company Coat with Cloth Cap
Action: Shooting at Samuel Gray who was 4 to 5 yards away.

“Next morning after the 5th of March, in King-street, before the soldiers were
apprehended, I saw Killroy, I have known him by sight almost ever since he hath
been here, I saw his bayonet bloody, the blood was dryed on five or six inches from
the point.

Q. How near were you to the bayonet?


A. About the same distance I am from the Judges, viz, six feet.

Q. Was it shouldered?
A. I forget the posture.

Q. Are you sure it was blood.


A. It appeared to be covered from the point five or six inches, it appeared to me to
be blood, and I thought then, it was blood dryed on.” (Testimony of Joseph
Croswell, Taylor)

“at the distance of about four or five yards, pointed his piece directly for the said
Gray’s head and fired. Mr. Gray, after struggling, turned himself right round upon
his heel and fell dead” (Deposition of Edward Gambett Langford)

“Gray stood still by me. Kilroys Gun went off and S. Gray fell, and I heard no Gun
by his at that time. Gray spoke to nobody but me, that I heard. He had no Weapen,
was naked. Threw no snow Ball, or any Thing. Grays Hands were in his Bosom. I
was looking Kilroy right in the Face. I heard the Ratling of Guns, but saw nothing
flung. I took it Kilroys Gun kill'd Gray. Did not see that Kilroy aimed at Gray any
more than me. He designed to kill both of us I suppose”
(Testimony of Edward Gambett Langford - Rex Vs. Wemms)
“Q. Where did Killroy stand?
A. He stood on the right of the party.

Q. Was he the right hand man?


A. I cannot tell: I believe there were two or three on his right, but I do not know.”

(Testimony of Edward Gambett Langford - Rex Vs. Wemms)

Private John Carroll (Map No. 4)

Company: Captain John Corrance’s Grenadier Company


Age: Unknown
Position in Line: Sixth from the Left (Third from the Right)
Action:

“Carrol stood the 3 d. from the right.”


(Testimony of James Bailey - Rex Vs. Wemms)

Private James Hartigan (Map No. 3)

Company: Captain John Corrance’s Grenadier Company


Age: Unknown
Position in Line: Seventh from the Left (Second from the Right)
Action: May have fired second

Private Edward / Hugh Montgomery (No. 2)

Company: Captain John Corrance’s Grenadier Company


Age: 35 Years Old at the time of the Massacre, Bald on the Top of his head
Position in Line: Eighth from the Left (Last man on the Right near Royal
Exchange Lane)
Action: Snow Balls, Ice and Sticks are Flying. Conflicting accounts of being hit by
snow & ice or a 3 Foot Long Wooden White Birch Stick or Club from the
right but likely from both. Causes him to step back, recover his firelock,
and fire into the crowd, striking Crispus Attucks in the chest.

“Caleb Swan, of lawful age, testifies and says, that last Monday night, the 5th of
March 1770, being at Mr. Sample's door, at the north part of the town near the
north battery, at the time of the bells ringing for fire, be heard a woman's voice,
whom he knew to be the supposed wife of one Montgomery, a grenadier of the
twenty-ninth regiment, standing at her door, and heard her say it was not fire; the
town was too haughty and too proud; that many of the arses would be laid low
before the morning: Upon which Susanna Cathcart said to her, I hope your husband
will be killed. On which the woman replied, My husband is able and will stand his
ground. 

CALEB SWAN.”
(A Short NARRATIVE of the horrid Massacre in Boston...)

“ Richard Palmes. I know Montgomery, and saw him there. Heard Bells ring, after
9. In Kings Street saw the sentry, at the Custom House. Went to Murrays Barracks,
and saw 7 or 8 soldiers with their Guns &c. Spoke to the officers &c. Saw
Hickling, and Spear. I said I'd go and try to make Peace. Found C[aptain] P[reston]
and 7 or 8 Soldiers. Went up to C. P. and saw Bliss, who said why dont you fire
God d—n you fire. I askd him &c.

I saw a Piece of Ice or Snow strike Montgomerys Gun. It struck the Grenadier, and
made a Noise. He fell back whether he stepped back or sallied back I cant tell, and
fired his Gun. Then I heard the Word fire. In 6 or 8 seconds, the soldier next to
Captn. Prestin, fired. 7 or 8 Guns I believe were fired in the whole. Montgomery
pushed at me. I struck, &c. Another was coming at me with his Bayonett and I ran.
I am sure Montgomery was not knocked down before he fired. He did not fall. Did
not see any Blow given or any Thing sent but the Blow I gave myself and the Piece
of Ice which hit Montgomery. Montgomery could not have been knockd down and
I not have seen it before the firing, for he stood close to Captn. Preston. I struck
Montgomery and knockd him down just as the last Gun was fired.”
(Testimony of Richard Palmes Rex Vs. Wemms)

“I said to Preston are your Soldiers Guns loaded. He answered with powder and
ball. Sir I hope you dont intend the Soldiers shall fire on the Inhabitants. He said
by no means. The instant he spoke I saw something resembling Snow or Ice strike
the Grenadier on the Captains right hand being the only one then at his right.”
(Testimony of Richard Palmes - Rex Vs. Preston)
“Jed. Bass. I came up r[oyal] Exchange Lane, and saw Montgomery. Saw him push
his Bayonet at a Man, I drew back about 5 foot and saw his Gun go off. He was the
right Hand Man. Saw a stick [knocked?] to knock up his Gun, by whom I cant say.
It knocked the Gun up 5 or 6 Inches. I think I saw him fall down after he fired, but
am sure he did not before. I was placed so that I must have seen it. His Gun fell out
of his Hand. What occasiond it dont know. The People were round him 7 or 8 foot
off. I was 5 or 6 foot within the Lane. 6 Guns fired I think. I could not see all the
Soldiers where I stood. I could see but 2 soldiers. I came thro r[oyal] exchange
Lane. Saw a Number there. They were talking there of going Home. I heard 2
Cheers before the firing. The People in D[ock] Square were dressed some in
Sailors Habits, some in Surtouts &c. Some had sticks. They said there was no fire,
but that the soldiers had been out.”
(Testimony of Richard Palmes - Rex Vs. Wemms)

“I was first on the left Wing but crowded to the right at Excha[nge] lane. The
Soldiers were pushing to keep the people off. They came as close as they could.
The people kept huzzaing. Damn 'em. Daring 'em to fire. Threw Snow balls. I think
they hit 'em. As soon as the Snow balls were thrown and a club a Soldier fired. I
heard the Club strike upon the Gun and the corner man next the lane said fire and
immediately fired. This was the first Gun. As soon as he had fired he said Damn
you fire. I am so sure that I thought it was he spoke. The next Gun fired and so
they fired through pretty quick. I ran off as soon as they had fired. Heard a
clattering on the pavements and saw a Soldier down. I was in a fright and cant say.
I was looking on the man that first fired. I do believe it was the man on the right
who had a Gun and am satisfied of it.” (Deposition of William Sawyer)

“I went and stood leaning over the Post, between the Corner and the Post.
Montgomery fired the first Gun. He was the next Man to me close to me, at the
right. Cant Say whether the 1st. Gun killed or hurt any one. I Stoopd down to look
under the Smoke and the others went off. ½ a Minute between 1st. and 2d. Gun.
Montgomery was knockd down and his Musquet fell out of his Hand by a Clubb or
stick of Wood by one of the Inhabitants and as soon as he got up he fired his Gun, I
think Carrol fired next. The Clubb was not thrown but I saw him struck with it. He
fell down himself and the Gun fell out of his Hand. The Person that struck was a
tall, stout man. There was 50 or 60 People near. Montgomery fired, about where
the Molatto fell. It was pointing towards the Place where we saw Attucks lie. It was
not the Mollato that struck Montgomery. But the Blow was very violent. I heard 3
Cheers given two Minutes before the Firing. Carrol stood the 3 d. from the right.
The People were shouting. Saw the Mollatto at the Head of 25 or 30 sailors with
Clubbs some of em. Molatto had a large Cord wood stick. It was 7 or 8 Minutes
before the firing that I saw them in Cornhill. They held their Sticks up huzzaing
and whistling. I Saw a Number of Soldiers at Murrays Barracks and officers
driving of em in. The Man that struck Montgomery down stood at the right of the
right Hand Grenadier. The Blow was before the firing.”
(Testimony of James Bailey - Rex Vs. Wemms)

“I saw the People throw Snow Balls at the Soldiers and saw a Stick about 3 feet
long strike a Soldier upon the right. He sallied and then fired. A little time a
second. Then the other fast after one another. One or two Snow balls hit the
Soldier, the stick struck, before firing.” (Deposition of Theodore Bliss)

“The Guard came down. I saw 'em load. Somebody spoke to the Captain and told
him he had best withdraw none of the People would interrupt him. I stood next to
the Grenadier. Saw a stick or piece of Ice strike him upon his right side. On which
he instantly fired and I went off. I heard no order given. I stood within two yards of
the Captain. He was in the front talking with a Person, I dont know who. I was
looking at the Captain when the Gun was fired. The Soldier stood on the Captains
right. I saw two or three Snow balls thrown at the Soldiers before the Gun was
fired, but none after for I went off immediately. The Captain had a Sword in his
hand. I know not whether he had a Surtout on but believe he had. I know Capt.
Preston by sight. The Prisoner is the Man. A Woman crowded by and spoke to the
second Soldier on the right. I think if the Captain had given orders anything loud I
should have heard.” (Deposition of Matthew Murray)

“Knows the 2 farthest Men, Hartigan and Carrol. Saw em there. I saw Montgomery
there and saw him fire. Saw no Blow given or stick or any thing thrown at him.
Montgomery stood at the right of C.P. I saw a little stick fly over their Heads, but
did not perceive that it hit. A Piece of a rattan or some such thing” (Testimony of
John Danbrook)

Q. Which way did Montgomery front?


R. A. He fronted the watch house.”
(Testimony of Richard Palmes)

“Q. Where did Montgomery stand?


A. At the corner of Royal-exchange-lane, the right hand man of the party.”
(Testimony of Jedediah Bass)
“When I came to King-street, I went immediately up to one of the soldiers, which I
take to be that man who is bald on the head, (pointing to
Montgomery).” (Testimony of Benjamin Burdick)

“Q. Did you see any thing extraordinary, to induce them to fire that gun?
A. Nothing, but a short stick was thrown, which seemed to go clear over all their
heads. I heard a clattering of their guns, but what was the occasion of it I do not
know.” (Testimony of Benjamin Burdick)

“Q. What sort of a stick was it that was thrown?


A. I took it to be a white birch cord-wood stick, an inch thick.” (Testimony of
Josiah Simpson)

“Q. What sort of a man, for heighth, was he that threw it?
A. He might be about five feet and an half.” (Testimony of Josiah Simpson)

“Q. Upon the oath you have taken, did that man throw the stick with considerable
violence, or not?
A. He threw it considerable hard, he threw it over hand.” (Testimony of Josiah
Simpson)

“I asked if they were going to fire, he said they could not fire without his orders;
directly I saw a snow ball and stick come from behind me which struck the
grenadier on the right, which I took to be Warren, he fended it off with his musket
as well as he could, and immediately he fired.

Q. Where did he stand?


A. He was the first man on the right, and the third man from the officer;
immediately after the first gun, the officer turned to the right and I turned to the
left and went down the lane; I heard the word fire given, but whether it was the
town's people or the officer, I do not know.” (Testimony of Theodore Bliss - The
grenadier on the “right” was Edward / Hugh Montgomery, not Warren)

“A Person who stood near behind me with trowsers on as the Grenadier pushed at
him in his station struck the Gun aside with a long stick. The Grenadier told 'em to
draw back. If he had stepd from his Station he might have killed me. I was just out
of his reach. Some that stood round me endeavoured to go back. Some people
came from Jacksons corner Damn 'em, knock over we are not afraid of 'em. A stout
man forced his way through came up between me and the Grenadier. He had a
stick in his hand. I saw him strike at the Officer. Persons were talking with him. I
saw him dodge and try to fend off the blow with his arm. He then began to strike
on the Grenadiers Gun who stood about a yard and a half from the Officer on the
right. I saw the Grenadier attempt to stick him with his Bayonet. aside with his
left hand, step'd in and gave a lick upon the Grenadiers neck or Shoulder with his
Club. It was a cord Wood stick not very long. As he struck I turnd about, looked at
the Officer. There was a bustle. The stout man had still hold of the Bayonet. After
the Molatto was killed I took him to be the man. While I was looking at the
Captain the People crowded me on between the Soldiers, upon the Mans having
the advantage of the Grenadier, crying kill 'em, kill 'em, knock 'em over.
Thereupon the Grenadier step'd back relieved himself and began to pay on the
people with his Gun to beat them back. They rush'd back very quick making a
great noise or screeching huzzaing and bid the Soldiers fire damn you, you dare not
fire. I jump'd back and heard a voise cry fire and immediately the first Gun fired. It
seemd to come from the left wing from the second or third man on the left. The
Officer was standing before me with his face towards the People. I am certain the
voice came from beyond him. The Officer stood before the Soldiers at a sort of a
corner. I turned round and saw a Grenadier who stood on the Captain's right swing
his Gun and fire. I took it to be Killeroy. I look'd a little to the right and saw a Man
drop. The Molatto was killed by the first Gun by the Grenadier on the Captains
Right. I was so frightened, after, I did not know where I was. The first place I
found myself in was Dehone's entry.”
(Testimony of Andrew, a Negro Servant)

“I heard some of the inhabitants cry out, heave no snow balls; others cry'd they
dare not fire. Captain Preston was then standing by the soldiers, when a snow ball
struck a grenadier, who immediately fired, Capt. Preston stand-ing close by him.
The Captain then spoke distinctly, Fire, Fire! I was then within four feet of Capt.
Preston and know him well, the soldiers fired as fast as they could one after
another. I saw the Molatto fall, and Mr. Samuel Gray went to look at him, one of
the soldiers, at the distance of about four or five yards, pointed his piece directly
for the said Gray's head and fired. Mr. Gray, after struggling, turned himself right
round upon his heel and fell dead. Capt. Preston some time after ordered them to
march to the guard-house. I then took up a round hat and followed the people that
carry'd him down to a house near the post-office. And further saith not.
CHARLES HOBBY.”
(Testimony of Charles Hobby - A Short NARRATIVE of the Horrid Massacre...”

“Somebody spoke to the Captain and told him he had best withdraw none of the
People would interrupt him. I stood next to the Grenadier. Saw a stick or piece of
Ice strike him upon his right side. On which he instantly fired and I went off. I
heard no order given. I stood within two yards of the Captain.”
(Testimony of Matthew Murray - A Short Narrative of the Horrid Massacre...”)

“William Sawyer of Bolton a Country Town. Hearing the Bells ring for fire I ran
towards the Town house. Came to the Guard. Saw some Soldiers fixing their
Bayonets. Saw people down Street. Went. The Soldiers came and faced about. The
people closed upon them. They stood dallying. I was first on the left Wing but
crowded to the right at Excha[nge] lane. The Soldiers were pushing to keep the
people off. They came as close as they could. The people kept huzzaing. Damn
'em. Daring 'em to fire. Threw Snow balls. I think they hit 'em. As soon as the
Snow balls were thrown and a club a Soldier fired. I heard the Club strike upon the
Gun and the corner man next the lane said fire and immediately fired. This was the
first Gun. As soon as he had fired he said Damn you fire. I am so sure that I
thought it was he spoke. The next Gun fired and so they fired through pretty quick.
I ran off as soon as they had fired. Heard a clattering on the pavements and saw a
Soldier down. I was in a fright and cant say. I was looking on the man that first
fired. I do believe it was the man on the right who had a Gun and am satisfied of it.
Others might have said the same but I did not hear them. The people were crying
fire. I dont believe the Soldiers did.”
(Testimony of William Sawyer - Rex Vs. Preston)
The Townspeople of Boston
Who Were in Town House Square
Just Before the First Shot Fired

March 5, 1770

Benjamin Alline
Andrew, A Negro Servant to Mr. Wendall
Francis Archibald
Crispus Attucks (Killed)
Jonathan Williams Austin
James Bailey
Gillam Bass
Jedediah Bass
George Bethune
Theodore Bliss
Ebenezer Bridgham
James Brewer
Benjamin Burdick
James Caldwell (Killed)
David Calef
Patrick Carr (Mortally Wounded)
Thomas Cain
Cato, A Servant
Jack, Negro Servant to Dr. Lloyd
John Clark (Wounded)
John Coburn
Samuel Condon
Daniel Cornwall
George Coster
Joseph Crosswell
Peter Cunningham
John Danbrook
Benjamin DavisSamuel Drowne
Nathaniel Fosdick
Benjamin Frizell
John Frost
Fullerton
John Gammell
Robert Goddard
Harrison Gray
Samuel Gray (Killed)
John Greene (Wounded)
Thomas Greenwood
Joseph Helyer
John Hickling
Edward Hill
Ebenezer Hinckley
Charles Hobby
Joseph Hooton
John Inman
Jack, Negro Servant
Langsford
John Leach, Jr.
Benjamin Lee
Thomas Marshall
Samuel Maverick (Mortally Wounded)
Christopher Monk (Wounded)
Dimond Morton
Matthew Murray
Newton Prince, a Negro Member of South Church
Richard Palmes
David Parker (Wounded)
Robert Patterson (Wounded)
Edward Paine / Payne (Wounded in the Right Arm)
Isaac Pierce
Robert Polley
Newton Prince
Francis Read
William Sawyer
Josiah Simpson
William Strong, Custom House Clerk
William Tant
Daniel Usher
Obadiah Whiston
Jayne Whitehouse
Thomas Wilkinson
Robert Williams
James Woodall / Waddell
William Wyat
Sailor wearing Trousers
A Tall Stout Man
Mystery Man in Black Walking Behind the Soldiers
Mystery Woman on the Right Flank

Townspeople Located Behind


The Soldiers Formed in a Semi - Circle Line
(In Alphabetical Order)

Ebenezer Bridgham (Map No. 10)

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Merchant
Dress: Unknown
Location: Somewhere behind the soldiers within the circle
Action: Observer

Thomas Cain (Map No. 11)

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Somewhere to the left side of the British Line, Possibly between the
sentry box and Custom House door at the time of the firings. Likely
with William Tant)
Action: Observer

“I heard and saw the flash of a gun that went off near the corner of the
aforementioned lane, and in the space of two seconds I heard the word fire given,
but by whom I cannot ascertain, but the soldiers fired regularly one after ano-ther,
and when discharged, loaded again; I then stood behind the centry box, between
the soldier next it and the Custom-house..” (Testimony of Thomas Cain)

Cato, a Servant (Map N0. 13)

Age & Race: African American Adult


Occupation: Servant
Dress: Unknown
Location: Near the Sentry Box
Action: Observer

“Cato, a Negro man, servant to Tuthill Hubbart, Esq; declares, that on Monday
evening the fifth of March current, on hearing the cry of fire, he ran into
Kingstreet, where he saw a number of people assembled before the Custom-House,
that he stood near the centry-box and saw the soldiers fire on the people, who stood
in the middle of said street ;”

Mystery Man in Black (Map No. 14)

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Wearing Dark Colored Clothes, likely black or blue plush trimmed with
gold, Likely had a wig on
Location: Somewhere directly behind the soldiers within the circle
Action: Walking back and forth behind the soldiers, touching them upon their back
or shoulder and cajoling them to fire.

“A Man came behind the Soldiers walkd backwards and forwards, encouraging
them to fire. The Captain stood on the left about three yards. The man touched one
of the Soldiers upon the back and said fire, by God I'll stand by you. He was
dressed in dark coloured Cloaths. I don't remember he had a Surtout or any lace
about him. He did not look like an Officer. The man fired directly on the word and
clap on the Shoulder. I am positive the man was not the Captain. My attention was
fixed on him, for the people said there's the Officer damn him lets kill him. I am
sure he gave no order” (Testimony of Jane Whitehouse)
“Soon after the first Gun I saw a Gentleman behind the Soldiers in velvet or blue
or black plush trimd with gold. He put his hand towards their backs. Whether he
touched them I know not and said by God I'll stand by you whilst I have a drop of
blood and then said fire and two went off and then the rest to 7 or 8.” (Testimony
of James Woodall)

“The Soldiers were in a single rank. The Gentleman behind had a


Wigg” (Testimony of James Woodall)

Newton / Newtown Prince (Map No. 15)

Age & Race: A Free Negro Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown, Member of the South Church
Dress: Unknown
Location: Somewhere near the door of the Custom House
Action: Observer

“Heard the Bell ring. Ran out. Came to the Chapple. Was told there was no fire but
something better, there was going to be a fight. Some had buckets and bags and
some Clubs. I went to the west end of the Town House where were a number of
people. I saw some Soldiers coming out of the Guard house with their Guns and
running down one after another to the Custom house. Some of the people said let's
attack the Main guard” (Testimony of Newton Prince, A Negro Member of the
South Church)

“After a while they huzzaed and went down King-street; there was a number of
people came down Prison-lane, and some from the Post-office; they went down to
the Custom house, and I went down. The soldiers were all placed round in a circle
with their guns breast high. I stood on the right wing, when the Captain came the
people crouded in to him to speak to him, and I went behind them, I went next to
the Custom-house door, there were people all round the soldiers.” (Testimony of
Newrown Prince, a Free Negro)
William Tant (Map No. 12)

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Somewhere to the left side of the British Line, Possibly between the
sentry box and Custom House door at the time of the firings. Likely
standing with Thomas Cain
Action: Observer

“ In the space of six or seven minutes, I saw a party of soldiers come from the main
guard, and draw themselves up in a line from the corner of the custom-house to the
centry-box; the people still continued in the street, crying, fire, fire, and be damn'd,
and hove some more snow-balls; whereupon I heard a musket go off, and in the
space of 2 or 3 seconds, I heard the word fire given, but by whom I know not, and
instantly the soldiers fired one after another. I then stood between the centry-box
and the custom-house door. And further I know not.” (Testimony of William Tant)

James Waddell / Woodall (Map No. 16)

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Mariner
Dress: Unknown, Likely Mariner
Location: “Betwixt the soldiers and the Sentry-box.”
Action: Observer

“Q. Where did you stand?


A. Betwixt the soldiers and the Sentry-box.” (Testimony of James Waddell)

“The Sentry box was in the Gutter and the Centinel fell in with the Soldiers. They
were drawn up. I saw one Soldier knock'd down. His Gun fell from him. I saw a
great many sticks and pieces of sticks and Ice thrown at the Soldiers. The Soldier
who was knock'd down took up his Gun and fired directly. Soon after the first Gun
I saw a Gentleman behind the Soldiers in velvet or blue or black plush trimd with
gold. He put his hand towards their backs. Whether he touched them I know not
and said by God I'll stand by you whilst I have a drop of blood and then said fire
and two went off and then the rest to 7 or 8. I stood between Capt. Preston and the
Lane. The Captain, after, seemed shocked and looked upon the Soldiers. I am very
certain he did not give the word fire. I did not hear the word but once till after all
the firing. They said 'twas only Powder and bid them fire. I saw one Person speak
to the Captain when the first gun was fired. The people at the time of firing were
about 4 yards distant. The Soldiers were in a single rank. The Gentleman behind
had a Wigg” (Deposition of James Woodall)

William Wyat of Salem (Map No. 17)

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Coaster of a Vessel docked at Treat’s Wharf
Dress: Likely Sailor’s Dress
Location: “Below” the “Left Wing” of the British Line
Action: Observer

“ I stood just below them on the left wing, and the said officer or-dered his men to
load, which they did accordingly, with the ut-most dispatch, then they remained
about six minutes, with their firelocks rested and bayonets fixed, but not standing
in exact order. I observed a considerable number of young lads, and here and there
a man amongst them, about the middle of the street, facing the soldiers, but not
within ten or twelve feet distance from them; I observed some of them, viz., the
lads, &c. had sticks in their hands, laughing, shouting, huzzaing, and crying fire;
but could not observe that any of them threw anything at the soldiers, or threatened
any of them. Then the said officer retired from before the soldiers and steping
behind them, to-wards the right wing, bid the soldiers fire; they not firing, he
presently again bid 'em fire; they not yet firing, he stamp'd and said, damn your
bloods, fire, be the consequence what it will; then the second man on the left wing
fired off his gun, then, after a very short pause, they fired one after another as
quick as possi-ble, beginning on the right wing; the last man's gun on the left wing
flash'd in the pan, then he prim'd again, and the people being withdrawn from
before the soldiers, most of them further down the street, he turn'd his gun toward
them and fired upon them.” (Deposition of William Wyat)

Miscellaneous Individuals Around the Sentry Box

“I went up to the custom-house door and saw 2 or 3 snow balls fall on the flat
stones near the steps of the door; I knock'd and Mr. Hammond Green came to the
door, while I was speaking to the centry, who stood upon the steps, I told him not
to let any body come into the door, and no person of-fered to come in; the said
Green ask'd who was there, I an-swer'd 'tis Thomas, let me in Hammond, when I
got in, the said Green said to me if I wanted to see anything, go up stairs, I went
into the back room and got the key of the little draw-ing-room, being the lower
west corner chamber, and went up stairs, and Elizabeth Avery, Mary Rogers and
Ann Green followed me into the room; we all looked thro' the glass, I saw some
persons standing by the centry-box striking with sticks, but did not see them hit
any body, tho' a number of persons were close by them; I told the women above
mentioned that I would not stay, for I was afraid that the house would be pull-ed
down, there being about forty or fifty persons consisting of men and boys; I saw
no persons throw any stones or attempt to break even a square of glass, or get into
the house (the next morning I found there was not a pane of glass broke in the said
house)” (Deposition of Thomas Greenwood)

“On this general Attack was made on the Men by a great Number of heavy Clubs,
and Snow-Balls being thrown at them, by which all our Lives were in imminent
Danger; some Persons at the same Time from behind calling out, 'Damn your
Bloods, ' why don't you fire ? Instantly three or four of the Soldiers fired, one after
another, and directly after three more in the same Confusion and Hurry.” ("Case of
Capt. Thomas Preston of the 29th Regiment.")

Townspeople Located In Front Of


The Soldiers Formed in a Semi - Circle Line
(In Alphabetical Order)

Many looking on in anger, yelling “Fire”, etc. Many looking on in shock or fear at
the sight of the soldiers firing.

SOME POSSIBLY RAISING THEIR HATS AND CHEERING:

“In a-bout a minute after I heard the word fire ! (but from whom I cannot say)
which the soldiers did. Looking round I saw three men lay dead on the snow; the
snow being at that time near a foot deep. Immediately they loaded again. The
people then gave three cheers, and cry'd out, let's go in upon them, and prevent
their firing again: upon which they put on their hats and advanced towards them.
My hand being raised to put on my hat, still advancing towards the soldiers, the
centi-nel up with his gun and fired, the balls going through my lower right arm, my
hand immediately falling; and finding myself wounded, made the best of my way
home with help. And further I say not.” (Testimony of Robert Patterson)

A Little Boy

Age & Race: Young Caucasian (?) Boy


Occupation: Little Boy
Dress: Unknown
Location: Somewhere running along the left of the British Line yelling “Fire!
Fire! Fire!”
Action: Observer

“Q. Where did you stand?


A. I was walking right before them. They had their guns rested on their hips; when
I passed the last man on the left, the first gun was fired from the right; as I
judged, the time might be twenty seconds before the first gun was fired from the
time they formed, in a short space there was another, and then very soon
another, and then there was a short space of time again, before the last guns
were fired. A little boy run along and cryed, fire! fire! fire! as people
generally do when there is fire, a soldier pointed his gun to him and fired,
but did not hit him, he was the last but one on the left.” (testimony of Joseph
Hiller)

Benjamin Alline

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Unknown Location
Action: Observer
Andrew, A Negro Servant to Mr. Wendall (Map No. 23)

Age & Race: African American Male


Occupation: Servant to Mr. Wendall
Dress: Unknown
Location: Close to Captain Preston and Richard Palmes, etc.
Action: Observing the conversation between Captain Preston and Richard Palmes

“While I stood there one of my acquaintance said he would go round the corner of
the Town-house, and see if the guard had turned out; he went to the corner and
called me, and told me the guard was come out. I went and looked down the street,
I saw a file of men, with an officer with a laced hat on before them; upon that we
all went to go towards him, and when we had got about half way to them, the
officer said something to them, and they filed off down the street; upon that I went
in the shade towards the Guard-house, and followed them down as far as Mr.
Peck's corner; I saw them pass through the croud, and plant themselves by the
Custom house...
I turned back and went through the people until I got to the head of Royal-
exchange lane, right against the soldiers; the first word I heard was a Grenadier say
to a man by me, Damn you stand back...
I turned about and saw the officer standing before the men, and one or two persons
engaged in talk with him. A number were jumping on the backs of those that
were talking with the officer, to get as near as they could.

Q. Did you hear what they said?


A. No. Upon this I went to go as close to the officer as I could; one of the persons
who was talking with the officer turned about quick to the people, and said,
Damn him he is going to fire; upon that they gave a shout, and cryed out Fire
and be damn'd, who cares, damn you, you dare not fire, and began to throw
snow balls, and other things, which then flew pretty thick
“When I was at the head of Royal Exchange I heard the Grenadier who stood
next the corner say damn your blood stand off, or back. The People without
were crowding in to see those within forcing themselves from the Grenadier
who was pushing his Bayonet at 'em.”

Q. Did they hit any of them?


A. Yes, I saw two or three of them hit, one struck a Grenadier on the hat, and the
people who were right before them had sticks; and as the soldiers were pushing
with their guns back and forth, they struck their guns, and one hit a Grenadier
on the fingers. At this time, the people up at the Town house called again come
away, come way; a stout man who stood near me, and right before the
Grenadiers, as they pushed with their bayonets the length of their arms, kept
striking on their guns. The people seemed to be leaving the soldiers, and to turn
from them, when there came down a number from Jackson's corner, huzzaing
and crying, Damn them they dare not fire, we are not afraid of them; one of
these people, a stout man with a long cord wood stick, threw himself in, and
made a blow at the officer; I saw the officer try to fend off the stroke,
whether he struck him or not I do not know: the stout man then turned
round, and struck the Grenadier's gun at the Captains right hand, and
immediately fell in with his club, and knocked his gun away, and struck
him over the head, the blow came either on the soldiers cheek or hat. This
stout man held the bayonet with his left hand, and twitched it and cried kill
the dogs, knock them over; this was the general cry; the people then
crouded in, and upon that the Grenadier gave a twitch back and relieved
his gun, and he up with it and began to pay away on the people. I was then
betwixt the officer and this grenadier, I turned to go off, when I had got
away about the length of a gun, I turned to look towards the officer; and I
heard the word fire; at the word fire I thought I heard the report of a gun,
and upon my hearing the report, I saw the same grenadier swing his gun,
and immediately he discharged it.

Q. Do you know who this stout man was, that fell in and struck the grenadier?
A. I thought, and still think it was the Molatto who was shot. (Testimony of
Andrew, a Negro Servant - contradicts other accounts of Captain Preston being
attacked before Montgomery fired the first shot, and what transpired prior to
Montgomery firing this shot)

“A stout man (Richard Palmes - My Note) forced his way through came up
between me and the Grenadier. He had a stick in his hand. I saw him strike at the
Officer. Persons were talking with him. I saw him dodge and try to fend off the
blow with his arm. He then began to strike on the Grenadiers Gun who stood about
a yard and a half from the Officer on the right. I saw the Grenadier attempt to
stick him with his Bayonet.” (Deposition of Andrew, a Negro Servant)
“I was crowding to get as near to the Officer as I could. A Person who stood near
behind me with trowsers on as the Grenadier pushed at him in his station struck the
Gun aside with a long stick. The Grenadier told 'em to draw back. If he had stepd
from his Station he might have killed me. I was just out of his reach. Some that
stood round me endeavoured to go back.” (Testimony of Andrew, a Negro Servant)

“The Officer was standing before me with his face towards the People.I turned
round and saw a Grenadier who stood on the Captain's right swing his Gun and
fire. I took it to be Killeroy. I look'd a little to the right and saw a Man drop. The
Molatto was killed by the first Gun by the Grenadier on the Captains Right. I was
so frightened, after, I did not know where I was. The first place I found myself in
was Dehone's entry.” (Testimony of Andrew, A Negro Servant)

Francis Archibald

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Clerk to Mr. Price
Dress: Unknown
Location: At “Stone’s Door”, not near the Soldiers
Action: Observer

“then the deponent was going home to the south-end. Just as he got to the
town-house he looked down King-Street and saw about fifty or sixty people
standing in the middle of said street, opposite the custom-house, then the deponent
went down to see what was the matter. When he got down said street he saw a
party of soldiers coming from the main-guard (amongst which was one Matthew
Kilroy of the 29th regiment) going to the centinel that was standing at the custom-
house: Then the deponent went over to the side of the way and there stood about
two minutes, when he saw the flash, and heard the report of a gun that was fired
from said centinel's post, and six or seven fired directly afterwards. (Deposition of
Francis Archibald)

“I know Matthew Killroy was of the party. I see him go down with 'em. He has
since told me he fired only Powder. The party was led down by a Non Commission
Officer, who I took to be a Corporal with his arms advanced as usual.” (Deposition
of Francis Archbald)
Crispus Attucks (Michael Johnson) (Map No. 24)

Age & Race: 47 years old Mulatto, born in 1723, from Framingham, Born to
Natick Indian and African American parents. Large man - 6’2” tall
Occupation: Mariner
Dress: Mariner dress
Location: In front of a group of 25 - 30 sailors, many of whom are carrying clubs,
towards Royal Exchange Lane and in front of Private Hugh
Montgomery. Is approximately 10 - 15 feet away from the soldiers.
Action: Laying wounded in the street after being shot twice in the chest. Prior to
this,. Has a large wood stick which he was leaning forward on with his
chest (explains angular entrance of the musket balls).

“There was 50 or 60 People near. Montgomery fired, about where the Molatto fell.
It was pointing towards the Place where we saw Attucks lie. It was not the Mollato
that struck Montgomery. But the Blow was very violent. I heard 3 Cheers given
two Minutes before the Firing. Carrol stood the 3 d. from the right. The People
were shouting. Saw the Mollatto at the Head of 25 or 30 sailors with Clubbs some
of em. Molatto had a large Cord wood stick.” (Testimony of James Bailey)

“I saw two fall as he fired, before I heard any other Gun. One fell just vs. my left
Elbow, and the other about 3 foot from me about 10 or 15 foot from the Soldier. In
a range with me, one was the Molatto. I believe it was with the first Gun that they
were. They were 5 foot a sunder. It was not a Minute, after the Molatto fell that the
other Man fell. I cant say, I heard another Gun, before I Saw the 2d Man down. I
did not hear Attucks say any Thing.” (Testimony of John Danbrook)

“ Q. Were they standing before Montgomery? A. Yes, about twelve or fifteen feet
from him, and about five feet apart, one was the Molatto, the other I did not know.

Q. Did the Molatto say any thing before the gun went off? A. I heard him say
nothing. The Molatto was leaning over a long stick he had, resting his breast
upon it.” (Testimony of John Danbrook)

“I Benjamin Church, jun. of lawful age, testify and say, that being requested by Mr.
Robert Pierpont the Coroner, to assist in examining the body of Crispus Attucks,
who was sup-posed to be murdered by the soldiers on Monday evening the 5th
instant, I found two wounds in the region of the Thorax, the one on the right side,
which entered thro' the second true Rib within an inch and a half of the Sternum,
dividing the Rib and separating the cartilaginous extremity from the Ster-num, the
ball passed obliquely downward thro' the Diaphragm and entering thro' the large
Lobe of the Liver and the Gall-Bladder, still keeping its oblique direction, divided
the Aorta Descendens just above its division into the Iliacs, from thence it made its
exit on the left side of the Spine. This wound I apprehended was the immediate
cause of his death. The other ball entered the fourth of the false Ribs, about five
inches from the linen alba, and descending obliquely passed through the second
false Rib, at the distance of about eight inches from the Linea Alba; from the
oblique direction of the wounds, I apprehend the gun must have been discharged
from some ele-vation, and further the deponent saith not.” (Testimony of Benjamin
Church)
“During this the rest of the guns were fired, one after another when I saw two more
fall, I ran to one and seeing the blood gush out of his head tho' just expiring, I felt
for the wound and found a hole as big as my hand. This I have since learned was
Mr. Gray. I then went to Attucks and found him gasping, pulled his head out of the
gutter and left him;” (Testimony of John Hickling)

Jonathan Williams Austin (Map No. 25)

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Clerk for John Adams
Location: In front of Private McCauley
Action: Being pushed with a bayonet by Private McCauley

“I saw one Maccaulley a Grenadier Prime and load. Turnd about. Heard the firing.
Saw Maccaulley loading again. Before I turnd 3 Guns were fired and the Molatto
was killed. I heard no Orders to Prime and load nor the word given, fire. Mccaulley
before any firing struck at me with his Bayonet.” (Deposition of Jonathan Williams
Austin)

“Q. Whereabouts did you stand?


A. I stood inside the gutter, close by the box.

Q. Whereabouts did the Sentry box stand?


A. Three or four feet from the corner of the Custom-House.

Q. How near was you to McCauley at that time?


A. I was about four feet off: McCauley said “Damn you, stand off,” and pushed his
bayonet at me: I did so: Immediately I heard the report of a gun.” (Testimony of
Jonathan Williams Austin)

James Bailey (Map No. 18)

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Sailor
Dress: Sailor Dress
Location: To the Right of the British Line at the Corner of the Custom House
Action: Leaning on a Hitching Post at the Corner of the Custom House at Royal
Exchange Lane

“When the Party came down, Carrol came and put his Bayonet up to my Breast,
and the sentry told him not to hurt me. I went and stood leaning over the Post,
between the Corner and the Post. Montgomery fired the first Gun. He was the next
Man to me close to me, at the right. Cant Say whether the 1st. Gun killed or hurt
any one.” (Testimony of James Bailey)

Gillam Bass

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Unknown Location
Action: Observer

Jedediah Bass (Map No. 19)

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown, but possibly a Mariner
Dress: Unknown
Location: Standing 5 feet away from Private Montgomery in Royal Exchange
Lane
Action: Observer

“ Q. How near did you stand to him?


A. About five feet off, within Royal-exchange-lane.”
(Testimony of Jedediah Bass)

Samuel Bliss (Map No. 26)

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Stands close enough to Richard Palmes and Captain Preston to hear
them speak. Also speaks to Captain Preston
Action: Observer

“At this time I heard a person ask Capt. Preston "whether they were loaded;" he
reply'd, "they were;" he then asked "whether he intended they should fire?" he
answered, "by no means." Also I saw some of the soldiers to appearance load their
muskets, which induced me to say to Capt. Preston, "For God's sake, don't let your
men fire." He reply'd, "They shall not." At this instant I saw a cake of ice, or snow-
ball, strike a grenadier upon the right” (Testimony of Samuel Bliss)

Theodore Bliss (Map No. 27)

Age & Race: A young man - Caucasian


Occupation: Carpenter
Dress: Unknown
Location: Stands close to John Hickling and Richard Palmes, likely to the right of
Richard Palmes and slightly behind him
Action: Probably looks fairly agitated as he was screaming at Captain Preston
“God damn you why don’t you fire.” prior to the arrival of Mr. Palmes

“When I had got there I saw Capt. Preston at the head of 7 or 8 Soldiers at the
Custom house drawn up, their Guns breast high and Bayonets fixed. Found
Theodore Bliss talking with the Captain. I heard him say why don't you fire or
words to that effect. The Captain answered I know not what and Bliss said God
damn you why don't you fire. I was close behind Bliss. They were both in the front.
Then I step'd immediately between them and put my left hand in a familiar manner
on the Captains right shoulder to speak to him. Mr. John Hickling then looking
over my shoulder I said to Preston are your Soldiers Guns loaded. He answered
with powder and ball. Sir I hope you dont intend the Soldiers shall fire on the
Inhabitants. He said by no means. The instant he spoke I saw something
resembling Snow or Ice strike the Grenadier on the Captains right hand being the
only one then at his right. He instantly stepd one foot back and
fired...” (Deposition of Richard Palmes)

“I saw but a few scattering people, supposed to be about thirty, in the street before
them at that time, and therefore was at a loss for the reason of such an appearance ;
going up to the officer I found a young man named Bliss talking with him; I
inquired his name of Bliss, who informed me that it was Preston. At that instant
Mr. Richard Palmes came up and asked the officer if he intended to fire upon the
people ?” (Deposition of John Hickling)

“I asked if they were going to fire, he said they could not fire without his orders;
directly I saw a snow ball and stick come from behind me which struck the
grenadier on the right, which I took to be Warren, he fended it off with his musket
as well as he could, and immediately he fired.

Q. Where did he stand?


A. He was the first man on the right, and the third man from the officer;
immediately after the first gun, the officer turned to the right and I turned to the left
and went down the lane; I heard the word fire given, but whether it was the town's
people or the officer, I do not know.” (Testimony of Theodore Bliss)

“Q. What number was coming down along with you?


A. Six or eight, in some places eight or ten, in others one after another, all the way
along from the South-end; the people were saying, the soldiers were quarrelling
with the inhabitants—breeding a rumpus—going to beat the inhabitants. Some said
we had better go home—others lets go now and see it out—it is the best time now
—and now is the only time.

Q. Had they buckets? []   A. Yes.

Q. Had all of them buckets? []   A. No.


Q. What had the rest?
A. Some had nothing at all, some had walking canes.” (Testimony of Theodore
Bliss)

James Brewer (Map No. 28)

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Block Maker
Dress: Unknown, Struck by Kilroy’s Bayonet as the Relief Guard came in
Location: Standing Close to Christopher Monk
Action: Spoke to Captain Preston, Observer

“I spoke to C[aptain] P[reston] and said to him every Body was about dispersing.
He said He hoped they were, and presently left me, and went in among them. Kit.
Monk was there. I turnd round to speak to Kit Monk, and they fired and K.
faltered. Kilroy struck me upon the Arm with his Bayonet as they came round
before they were formed. The Firing began upon the Right, I thought it the Man
quite upon the right. Kilroy struck at me.” (Testimony of James Brewer)

Benjamin Burdick (Map No. 50)

Age & Race: Caucasian, 38 years old. Born 23 May, 1742


Occupation: Town Watchman “Constable of the Town House Watch”, Barber
Dress: Unknown, As Town Watchman - Carrying and wielding a Scottish
Broadsword
Location: In front of the 4th or 5th Soldier from the Right
Action: Attacking the 4th or 5th soldier from the right with a Scottish Broadsword,
hitting his firelock on the lock plate as he was defending himself

“ I had in my hand a highland broad Sword which I brought from home. Upon my
coming out I was told it was a wrangle between the Soldiers and people, upon that
I went back and got my Sword. I never used to go out with a weapon. I had not my
Sword drawn till after the Soldier pushed his Bayonet at me. I should have cut his
head off if he had stepd out of his Rank to attack me again. At the first firing the
People were chiefly in Royal Exchange lane, there being about 50 in the Street.
After the firing I went up to the Soldiers and told them I wanted to see some faces
that I might swear to them another day. The Centinel in a melancholy tone said
perhaps Sir you may.” (Testimony of Benjamin Burdick)

“At first I had a Stick, and my Wife, told me to take this the Broadsword. I struck
at the soldier who pushed at me, and had I struck 2 or 3 Inches further, I should
have left a March that I could have sworn to. This was before the firing. I struck
the Cock of the Gun. The Man I struck was the 4th. Man from the Corner,
about the Middle. I saw but one Thing thrown that was a short stick, about 2 or 3
foot long. I heard a rattling. I took it they knocked their Guns together. They were
continually pushing at People, and it was pretty slippery.” (Testimony of Benjamin
Burdick)

“Q. Did you strike as hard as you could?


A. Yes, and hit the lock of his gun, and if I had struck a little lower, I should have
left a mark that I could have swore to.

Q. Was the sword in your hand drawn?


A. I drew it when the soldier pushed at me, and struck at him as I have mentioned.

Q. Which gun went off first?


A. I took it to be the right hand man.

Q. Where did that soldier you struck at stand?


A. I believe the fourth or fifth man from the corner of Exchange-lane.” (Testimony
of Benjamin Burdick)
Thomas Cain

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Unknown Location
Action: Observer

James Caldwell (Map No. 51)

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Mariner - A Mate on Captain Morton’s Ship
Dress: Possible Mariner Dress, but according to Revere’s Diagram of the Dead on
Town House Square, he is wearing a Sleeved Frock Coat,
Long Skirted Waistcoat, Breeches, Stockings, & Shoes
Location: Towards the middle of the street, diagonally across King Street from the
Custom House near Vernon’s Barber Shop. Per the Revere Trial Map
Illustration, in the middle of King Street, well away from the British line
Action: Will be shot in the chest & Killed instantly

David Calef

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Unknown, but within fairly close distance to Captain Preston
Action: Observer

“I was present at the firing”


Patrick Carr

Age & Race: 30 year old Caucasian Male


Occupation: Worked with Mr. Field, Leather Breeches - Maker
Dress: Unknown, but possibly wearing Leather Breeches
Location: In the middle of King Street - See the Revere Map
Action: Will be shot by a ball that entered near his hip and went out his side, Died
10 days later

John Clark

Age & Race: 17 year old Caucasian Male, Parents live in Medford
Occupation: Apprentice to Capt. Samuel Howard of Boston
Dress: Unknown
Location: x
Action: Will be shot by a ball that entered just above his groin and came out at his
hip, on the opposite side

John Coburn

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: In Royal Exchange Lane, then at Mr. Payne’s Door
Action: Observer

“...and a few minutes after, at the head of the royal exchange lane, in the street, I
saw a few, not exceeding fifteen or twenty persons, stop, as I supposed talking
what happened. I went to Mr. Payne's door and stood in his entry with
him,” (Testimony of John Coburn)
Samuel Condon

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Standing in Royal Exchange Lane near the corner of the Custom House
Action: Observer

“...in a few minutes after, a party came down from the main guard, consisting of
about eight soldiers with their guns and bayonets in a charg'd position, headed by
an officer, and posted themselves by the west corner of the Custom-house, round
the centry box in a half circle ; at this time I. stood near the door of the royal
exchange tavern, but apprehending danger as the soldiers stood with their muskets
and bayonets in a charg'd or presented po-sition, mov'd from thence down said
royal exchange lane, and stood nigh the west end of the custom-house, during this
in-terim I saw no violence offer'd the soldiers, in a few minutes after having placed
myself as aforesaid, a musket was fir'd by the soldier who stood next the
corner,” (Testimony of Samuel Condon)

Daniel Cornwall

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Barber
Dress: Unknown
Location: Located within a few Yards of Captain Preston
Action: Observer

“I went into a number round the Custom house. Some of them flinging Snow balls
and Oyster Shells at the Centinel. Some were for killing him. Some for taking the
Sentry Box and burning it. Some for throwing over board. Standing in the middle
of the Street saw the Soldiers by the Sentry box...” (Deposition of Daniel
Cornwall)

“Q. Where did you stand?


A. I stood at the head of Royal-exchange-lane, about three yards and a half from
the Sentry box.” (Testimony of Daniel Cornwall)
George Coster of the Bay of Bulls, Newfoundland

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Mariner
Dress: Unknown
Location: Middle of King Street, between Samuel Gray & Crispus Attucks
Action: Observer

“About half a minute after, two guns, one of which killed one Samuel Gray a
ropemaker, the other a molatto man, between which two men, the deponent stood;
after this the deponent heard the discharge of four or five guns more, by the
soldiers; immediately after which the deponent heard the discharge of two guns or
pistols from an open window of the middle story of the custom-house, near to the
place where the centry box was placed, and being but a small dis-tance from the
window, he heard the people from within speak and laugh, and soon after he saw
the casement lower'd down; after which the deponent, assisted others in carrying
off one of the corpses.” (Deposition of George Coster)

Joseph Crosswell

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Taylor
Dress: Unknown
Location: Standing 6 Feet away from Matthew Kilroy
Action: Observer

“ Next morning after the 5th of March, in King-street, before the soldiers were
apprehended, I saw Killroy, I have known him by sight almost ever since he hath
been here, I saw his bayonet bloody, the blood was dryed on five or six inches from
the point.

Q. How near were you to the bayonet?


A. About the same distance I am from the Judges, viz, six feet” (Testimony of
Joseph Crosswell)
Peter Cunningham

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Standing 4 Feet away from Captain Preston
Action: Observer

“Captain came and ordered the Men to prime and load. He came before 'em about
4 or 5 minutes after and put up their Guns with his Arm. They then fired and were
priming and loading again. I am pretty positive the Capt. bid 'em Prime and load. I
stood about 4 feet off him. Heard no Order given to fire.” (Deposition of Peter
Cunningham)

“Peter Cunningham. On Cry of fire, I went down Kingstreet and saw Capt. Preston
stand by Main Guard and cry turn out <Main> the Guard I went down and saw
Centinel pushing at the Boys, 30 or 40 at that time. The party drew up. In a few
minutes Pris[oner] said prime and load. I was in 4 foot of him. He stood before
them. They push'd as before. The prisoner put the Guns in an upright posture. Then
he was out of sight. Then they fired. The Person who gave order for <firing>
priming and load was dress'd in Red, and Sash, no Arms. I was within 5 feet of
him. The Soldiers all had Caps. I knew Capt. Preston by Sight very
well.” (Testimony of Peter Cunningham)

John Danbrook

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Standing somewhere between Crispus Attucks and Samuel Gray, about
12 feet from Captain Preston
Action: Observer

“I saw two fall as he fired, before I heard any other Gun. One fell just vs. my left
Elbow, and the other about 3 foot from me about 10 or 15 foot from the Soldier. In
a range with me, one was the Molatto. I believe it was with the first Gun that they
were. They were 5 foot a sunder. It was not a Minute, after the Molatto fell that the
other Man fell. I cant say, I heard another Gun, before I Saw the 2d Man down. I
did not hear Attucks say any Thing.” (Testimony of John Danbrook)

“Q. Whereabouts did you stand?


A. About ten or twelve feet from Capt. Preston, I saw a little stick fly over their
heads, but I did not
perceive it struck any of them.

Q. How large was it?


A. I took it to be a piece of a rattan.” (Testimony of John Danbrook)

Benjamin Davis

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Merchant
Dress: Unknown
Location: Standing somewhere on King Street
Action: Observer

“I found the numbers were encreasing, and, while I was standing there, two men
without hats on, came up to the Main Guard, and said, you must send assistance
directly, or the Sentry will be murdered, the officer I observed was quite a young
officer, and there were a number of soldiers standing with their watch coats on,
whether they or any soldiers went into the Main-Guard I cannot say, I heard very
soon the word given, “Guard,” and bid take off their watch coats; there came out
about seven, I think their guns were not shouldered, but they had them in their right
hands, walked across the street, and took their stand near the Sentry-box, but
whether in a half-moon or circle I cannot tell, the people crouded round them, I
heard a great deal of confused noise, a general confusion of noises, and there I
stood till the guns were fired.” (Testimony of Benjamin Davis)

Samuel Drowne

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Standing somewhere on King Street
Action: Observer

“Upon which they fired irregularly, pointing their guns variously in a part of a
circle as they stood: during the time of the soldiers firing, the deponent saw the
flashes of two guns fired from the custom-house, one of which was out of a win-
dow of the chamber westward of the balcony, and the other from the balcony, the
gun which he clearly discerned being pointed thro' the ballisters, and the person
who held the gun in a stooping posture, withdraw himself into the house, having a
handkerchief or some kind of cloth over his face. After this the deponent assisted in
carrying off the dead and wounded, as soon as the soldiers would permit the people
so to do, for at first they were cruel enough to obstruct the carrying them off.”

(Deposition of Samuel Drowne)

Nathaniel Fosdick

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Hatter
Dress: Wearing a Double Breasted Jacket, carrying a small stick in his hand
Location: Somewhere near Royal Exchange Lane, in front of Private Hartigan
Action: Observer, Will be wounded in the chest and arm by a bayonet
I saw Preston fall in betwixt the fourth and fifth man, the word was given fire!
immediately the right hand man fired; after that I pushed in towards them, and they
run a bayonet at me and wounded me in my arm.

Q. Who was it struck you?


A. The second man, the first gun was then fired, the second was not; the guns went
off pretty quick.

Q. Was it the same soldier that struck you, pushed you in the arm?
A. No. I was pushed twice in the arm by two different bayonets; I knocked off one
of them with my stick, with the other I was wounded in my breast, the wound an
inch long, through a double breasted jacket.” (Testimony of Nathaniel Fosdick)

“ then I heard the word FIRE, on my left one gun was fir'd off by a soldier on their
right. Upon which I rushed in, then seeing the first soldier that fired run at some
persons and fall upon the ground, I hallow'd to take his gun from him, then I
received three pushes by their bayonets, two in my left arm and one in my breast;
that at my breast I struck off with a stick, and the gun went off instantly. Then I
drew back, and finding one dead, as I thought, on my left and one on my right, I
then run over to quaker-lane, where I saw a number of people, I desired them to
step out and keep the soldiers from getting off; from thence I went over to the other
side the street, to the lane near the town watch-house, where I desired the people to
step out, and not to let the soldiers get off, for I would go home and get my gun
and bring a party against them, which I did, but meet-ing some of the inhabitants
returning, they told me the soldiers were gone off and affairs would be settled to-
morrow, on that I went home.” (Deposition of Nathaniel Fosdick)

“I heard the Word fire, and the right Hand Man fired. I then run in towards them
and they pushed me with their Bayonetts and wounded me in the Breast shewing
the scar. I had a Small Stick in my hand as big as my finger. Two different
Bayonetts run into my Arm, I can shew the scar now.” (Testimony of Nathaniel
Fosdick)

Benjamin Frizell

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Standing at a West Corner of the Town House
Action: Observer

“Benjamin Frizell, on the evening of the 5th of March, having taken his station
near the west corner of the Customhouse in King street, be-fore and at the time of
the soldiers firing their guns, declares (among other things) that the first discharge
was only of one gun, ...” (A Short Narrative of the Horrid Massacre on King
Street)

“the deponent taking his station at the west cor-ner of the house now called the
custom-house, and between the corner and the centry box, where standing about
two or three minutes, he saw six or seven soldiers come from the op-posite side of
the street, near to the head or opening of royal-exchange lane, where they halted,
and some of them spoke to the centry at the custom-house and faced about, in
which pos-ture they stood about two minutes, and in that time he heardnothing said
to them, or of them, by any of the inhabitants; but heard two or three cheers given
by the people, and two or three boatswain's calls piped, upon the last of which the
soldi-ers began their fire” (Deposition of Benjamin Frizell)
John Frost

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Somewhat near Captain Preston
Action: Observer

“The people in general seem'd to cry damn him he dare not fire. I did not hear the
Centinel call for help but saw the Guard come and a man who I took to be the
Captain. He had a thing or Plate upon his breast—a Sash on—a Sword in his hand
—and Regimentals. He stood in the rank three Soldiers on his right. I did not see
the Party till drawn up.” (Deposition of John Frost)

Fullerton

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Unknown
Action: Observer

John Gammell

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Unknown, but likely in the Middle of King Street near Quaker Lane
Action: Observer

“Not long after the deponent heard the word FIRE, and quickly the man on the
right wing fired, and successively several more. -- On this the deponent walked off
through Quaker lane” (Deposition of John Gammell)
Robert Goddard

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown, Lives at Wheeler’s Point
Dress: Unknown
Location: Towards the middle of the crowd, somewhat to the left
Action: Observer, Claims Captain Preston was behind his men, but that a person
struck him (Testimony likely questionable)

“ a man with a naked cutlass in his hand, who appear'd to be the commanding
officer (as be-fore), gave the word Fire; immediately a gun going off upon the left
of me, I saw a man like a sailor, go up to the commander, and strike him upon the
left arm. Immediately he the said officer said, think I'll be used in this manner,
Damn you, Fire, which they did” (Deposition of Robert Goddard)

“The Capt. was behind the Soldiers. The Captain told them to fire. One Gun went
off. A Sailor or Townsman struck the Captain. He thereupon said damn your bloods
fire think I'll be treated in this manner.” (Deposition of Robert Goddard)

Samuel Gray

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Ropemaker, Mechanic
Dress: Wearing a Round Hat, Carrying a Small Stick under his arm. According to
Revere’s Diagram of the Dead on Town House Square, he is wearing a
Frock Coat that is Buttoned Over (i.e. Cannot see a Waistcoat)
Location: Towards the middle of the crowd, in front of Matthew Kilroy. Per the
Revere Trial Illustration, behind Crispus Attucks and to his Right
Action: Cajoling others in the crowd to stand their ground. May have had his
hands in his coat “bosom” to keep warm when a ball pierced his head.
May look intoxicated. Will be shot in the head & Killed instantly

“I saw the Molatto fall, and Mr. Samuel Gray went to look at him, one of the
soldiers, at the distance of about four or five yards, pointed his piece directly for
the said Gray's head and fired. Mr. Gray, after struggling, turned himself right
round upon his heel and fell dead. Capt. Preston some time after ordered them to
march to the guard-house. I then took up a round hat and followed the people that
carry'd him down to a house near the post-office. And further saith not.
CHARLES HOBBY.” (Testimony of Charles Hobby)

“Q. Did you see any person fall? A. Yes, I saw Gray fall.

Q. Where was that? A. He fell in the middle of the street.

Q. Was the place where he fell nearly opposite to the tall man you talk of? (This
was William Warren - my addition)

A. No; the gun that killed him, must have been nearer to the center. When the
soldiers on the left fired, there were fewer people in the street.” (Testimony of
Ebenezer Bridgham)

“Kilroys Gun went off and S. Gray fell, and I heard no Gun by his at that time.
Gray spoke to nobody but me, that I heard. He had no Weapen, was naked. Threw
no snow Ball, or any Thing. Grays Hands were in his Bosom. I was looking Kilroy
right in the Face. I heard the Ratling of Guns, but saw nothing flung. I took it
Kilroys Gun kill'd Gray. Did not see that Kilroy aimed at Gray any more than me.
He designed to kill both of us I suppose” (Deposition of Edward Gambett
Langsford)

“Q. Was you so near Gray, that if he had thrown any thing you must have seen it?
A. Yes, his hands were in his bosom, and, immediately after Killroy's firing, he
fell.” (Testimony of Edward Gambett Langsford)

“Kilroys Gun went off and S. Gray fell, and I heard no Gun by his at that time.
Gray spoke to nobody but me, that I heard. He had no Weapen, was naked. Threw
no snow Ball, or any Thing. Grays Hands were in his Bosom. I was looking Kilroy
right in the Face. I heard the Ratling of Guns, but saw nothing flung. I took it
Kilroys Gun kill'd Gray. Did not see that Kilroy aimed at Gray any more than me.
He designed to kill both of us I suppose” (Deposition of Edward Gambett
Langsford)

“During this the rest of the guns were fired, one after another when I saw two more
fall, I ran to one and seeing the blood gush out of his head tho' just expiring, I felt
for the wound and found a hole as big as my hand. This I have since learned was
Mr. Gray. I then went to Attucks and found him gasping, pulled his head out of the
gutter and left him;” (Testimony of John Hickling)
John Greene

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Apprentice to Capt. Samuel Howard of Boston
Dress: Unknown
Location: Coming up Leverett’s Lane
Action: Will be shot by a ball that entered just below his hip entered his thigh

John Greene

Age & Race: Caucasian Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Unknown
Action: Observer

“I John Green, of lawful age, testify and say, that on Monday evening the 5th
instant, just after nine o'clock, I went into the Custom-House, and saw in the
kitchen of said house two boys belonging to Mr. Piemont the barber, and also my
bro-ther Hammond Green; upon hearing an huzzaing and the bell ring, I went out,
and there were but 4 or 5 boys in king-street near the centinel, who was muttering
and growling, and seem'd very mad. I saw Edward Garrick who was crying, and
told his fellow-apprentice that the centinel had struck him. I then went as far as the
Brazen-Head, and heard the people huzzaing by Murray's barrack, I went down
kingstreet again, as far as the corner of royal exchange lane, by the centry, there
being about 40 or 50 people, chiefly boys, near the Custom-house, but saw no
person insult, or say anything to the centry, I then said to Bartholomew Broaders,
these words, viz. the centry (then standing on the steps and loading his gun) is
going to fire; upon which I went to the Custom-house gate and tried to get over the
gate, but could not; whilst standing there I saw Thomas Greenwood upon the
fence, to whom I said, open the gate; he said that he would not let his father in, and
then jump'd down into the lane and said to the deponent follow me, upon which I
went down the lane with him, and round by the Post-office, to the main-guard ; he
went into the guard-house and said turn out the guard, but the guard was out
before, and I heard that a party was gone to the custom-house; I then heard the
guns go off, one after another, and saw three persons fall ; immediately after, a
Negro drummer beat to arms, upon that the soldiers drew up in a rank (and I did
not see Greenwood again, until the next morning), after that I saw the 29th
regiment drawn up in a square, at the south-west corner of the town-house ; soon
after I went home ; and further I say not.” (Deposition of John Greene)

Thomas Greenwood

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Stood between the East Steps of the Town House and the Whipping
Post
Action: Observer. Had helped to bring a Fire Engine to King Street, but stopped
before bringing it there

“I fell in with a number of people, most of them that I saw had sticks and clubs in
their hands, and huzza'd, af-ter that we went round the north side of the Town-
house, and stood between the east steps of the town house and whipping-
post,...” (Deposition of Thomas Greenwood)

Joseph Helyer

Age: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Walking away from the Left Flank of the British Line
Action: Observer

“Whether 1/2 moon or strait I know not, with their Bayonets charged. Just after I
passed the last Man on the left a gun was fired on the right. In about 20 seconds a
second. In about 10 seconds a third. The last man but one fired on the left last. I
heard no order”
John Hickling (Map No. 22)

Age: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Standing over the the Left Shoulder of Richard Palmes, in line with
Private Hugh Montgomery
Action: Listening in on the conversation between Richard Palmes and Captain
Preston. Had his hand on Richard Palmes’ back at one time, but may have
dropped it

“Mr. John Hickling then looking over my shoulder I said to Preston are your
Soldiers Guns loaded. He answered with powder and ball. Sir I hope you dont
intend the Soldiers shall fire on the Inhabitants. He said by no means. The instant
he spoke I saw something resembling Snow or Ice strike the Grenadier on the
Captains right hand being the only one then at his right. He instantly stepd one
foot back and fired...” (Deposition of Richard Palmes)

“ (No. 73)

I JOHN Hickling being of lawful age, testify and say, that on monday the 5th day
of March 1770, returning from New Boston in the evening between the hours of
nine and ten o'clock, I heard a noise and the cry of fire in King-street, and inquiring
the cause was informed the soldiers intended to fire on the inhabitants,
immediately proceeding to the place I saw eight or nine soldiers with fixed
bayonets, charged breast high standing in a circular manner at the corner of the
custom house, and an officer standing before them at the end of the bayonets,
between the soldiers and the inhabitants. I saw but a few scattering people,
supposed to be about thirty, in the street before them at that time, and therefore was
at a loss for the reason of such an appearance ; going up to the officer I found a
young man named Bliss talking with him; I inquired his name of Bliss, who
informed me that it was Preston. At that instant Mr. Richard Palmes came up and
asked the officer if he intended to fire upon the people ? he answered, by no
means; Palmes asked if the guns were loaded? Preston answered in the affirmative.
Palmes further asked, with powder and ball? Preston answered they were. The
soldiers, during this conversation assumed different postures, shoving their
bayonets frequent-ly at the people, one in particular pushing against my side swore
he would run me thro', I laid hold of his bayonet and told him that no body was
going to meddle with them. Not more than ten seconds after this I saw something
white, resembling a piece of snow or ice, fall among the soldiers, which knock'd
the end of a firelock to the ground. At that instant the word fire was given, but by
whom I know not ; but concluded it did not come from the officer aforesaid, as I
was within a yard of him and must have heard him had he spoken it, but am
satisfied said Preston did not forbid them to fire, I instantly leap'd within the
soldier's bayonet as I heard him cock his gun, which that moment went off between
Mr. Palmes and myself. I thinking there was nothing but powder fired stood still,
till upon the other side of Mr. Palmes and close to him, I saw another gun fired,
and the man since called Attucks fall. I then withdrew about two or three yards, &
turning saw Mr. Palmes upon his knee, and the soldiers pushing at him with their
bayonets. During this the rest of the guns were fired, one after another when I saw
two more fall, I ran to one and seeing the blood gush out of his head tho' just
expiring, I felt for the wound and found a hole as big as my hand. This I have since
learned was Mr. Gray. I then went to Attucks and found him gasping, pulled his
head out of the gutter and left him; I returned to the soldiers and asked them what
they thought of themselves, and whether they did not deserve to be cut to pieces, to
lay men wallowing in their blood in such a manner, they answered God damn
them, they should have stood out of our way. The soldiers were then loading their
muskets and told me upon my peril not to come any nearer to them. I further
declare that I heard no other affront given them than the huzzaing and whistling of
boys in the street. 

JOHN HICKLING.

Suffolk, ss. Boston, March 16, 1770. The above-named John Hickling, personally
appearing, and being care-fully examined and duly cautioned to testify the whole
Truth, maketh solemn oath to the fore-written deposi-tion by him subscribed, taken
to perpetuate the remem-brance of the thing.

Before, RI. DANA, Just. of Peace & of the Quorum.

And JOHN HILL, Just. Peace.” (Deposition of John Hickling)

Edward Hill

Age & Race: Adult Servant to Mr. George Spooner, Merchant of Boston
Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown, Had in his hand a small stick
Location: Somewhere near the Post Officer
Action: Observer
Ebenezer Hinckley

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Unknown Location
Action: Observer

Joseph Hinckley (Map No. 22)

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Unknown Location
Action: Observer

“On the evening of the 5th March I heard the bells ring, I was in Mr. Hall's house, I
went out in order to see where the fire was, I heard the drum beat, I went to the
shop and got a stick, and went down to the Conduit, I saw thirty or forty people
with sticks in their hands.

Q. Were they walking sticks?


A. Some were short clubs, some were walking sticks.”

Q. How near did you stand to the soldiers?


A. I fell back to the middle of the street when the first gun was fired.

Q. To which wing did you fall?


A. To the center, I was right facing them.

Q. How many guns were fired?


A. I think six or seven, I did not count them.

Q. Did you see the people come close up to the soldiers, and strike on their guns?
A. No, they held their sticks up over their heads, flourishing and brandishing them,
saying, damn you fire? you dare not fire.

Q. Did you see any sticks thrown?


A. No, nor any thing else, Samuel Gray who was shot that night, clapped me on the
shoulder, and said, do not run my lad, they dare not fire, and he ran back and
forth among the people and clapped others also on the back as he did me.
(Testimony of John Hinkley)

Charles Hobby (Map No. 35)

Age & Race: Caucasian Male Adult


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Somewhere near the Town House
Action: Observer

“ I then left them and went to kingstreet. I then saw a party of soldiers loading their
musquets about the custom-house door, after which they all shouldered. I heard
some of the inhabitants cry out, heave no snow balls; others cry'd they dare not
fire. Captain Preston was then standing by the soldiers, when a snow ball struck a
grenadier, who immediately fired, Capt. Preston stand-ing close by him. The
Captain then spoke distinctly, Fire, Fire! I was then within four feet of Capt.
Preston and know him well, the soldiers fired as fast as they could one after
another. I saw the Molatto fall, and Mr. Samuel Gray went to look at him, one of
the soldiers, at the distance of about four or five yards, pointed his piece directly
for the said Gray's head and fired. Mr. Gray, after struggling, turned himself right
round upon his heel and fell dead. Capt. Preston some time after ordered them to
march to the guard-house. I then took up a round hat and followed the people that
carry'd him down to a house near the post-office. And further saith
not.” (Testimony of Charles Hobby)

Joseph Hooton (Map No. 34)

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Somewhere in the middle of King Street Near the Custom House.
Action: Observer
“Between 9 and 10 o'clock the deponent came into Kingstreet, and stood about the
mid-dle of the street, or nearer the custom-house, in the direction of Quaker and
Royal Exchange lanes, and saw about eight or ten soldiers drawn up near the
custom-house” (Deposition of Joseph Hooton)

John Inman

Age & Race: A Caucasian Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: By Edward Davis’ Door on the Opposite side of the street
Action: Observer

Jack, Negro Servant to Dr. Llyd

Age & Race: African American Male


Occupation: Servant to Dr. Lloyd
Dress: Unknown
Location: Walking towards “Stone’s Door”
Action: Having been hit in the head with a snowball, walks to “Stone’s Door”

Edward Gambett Langsford

Age & Race: A Caucasian Male


Occupation: Town Watchman
Dress: Possibly dressed as a Watch Man, Carrying a “Stick” which may be a long
staff. May be carrying a lantern.
Location: Near Private Kilroy and Samuel Gray in the Middle of King Street,
“Within three or four feet of the gutter, on the outside” Standing to
Samuel Gray’s left, in close proximity for Gray to fall at his left foot.
Action: Observer

“I am one of the Town Watch” (Testimony of Edward Gambett Langsford)

“Called to the Guard who came down. Somebody said place yourselves. Sometime
after I heard the word fire given and one Gun was fired on the left and soon after a
second on the left. A third on the right if I remember right. I dont know who gave
the word fire. There was about 1/2 minute between the first and second
Gun.” (Deposition of Edward Gambett Langsford)

“At the Party, S. Gray came to me, took me by the shoulder and said what is here
to pay? I said I dont know but I believe Something or other would come of it, by
and by. S. Gray was just by me, when the 1st Gun went off. I stood so near that
they might have reached me, and they did. A Bayonet went thro my Cloaths. I
heard the Word Fire, twice, once G–d d—n you fire. About 40 or 50 People in the
Streets, but others coming from Quaker Lane and Royal Exchange Lane. I had a
Stick. I tho't 7 or 8 Soldiers. Dont know who fired the 1st Gun. I stood about ½
Way between the Centry Box and R[oyal] Exchange Lane.I saw Kilroy fire, and
Saml. Gray fell and struck my left foot. I knew him before, very well, and know it
was he. [ . . . ] there was 2 or 3 at Kilroys right. With red [coa]ts, but cant say
whether armed or not. I said God d—n you, dont fire, or damn you dont, and he
fired at once. Gray stood still by me. Kilroys Gun went off and S. Gray fell, and I
heard no Gun by his at that time. Gray spoke to nobody but me, that I heard. He
had no Weapen, was naked. Threw no snow Ball, or any Thing. Grays Hands were
in his Bosom. I was looking Kilroy right in the Face. I heard the Ratling of Guns,
but saw nothing flung. I took it Kilroys Gun kill'd Gray. Did not see that Kilroy
aimed at Gray any more than me. He designed to kill both of us I
suppose” (Deposition of Edward Gambett Langsford)

“Q. Where about did he stand that fired?


A. He stood on my right, as I stood facing them: I stood about half way betwixt the
box and Royal-exchange lane. I looked this man (pointing to Killroy) in the face,
and bid him not fire; but he immediately fired, and Samuel Gray fell at my feet.
Killroy thrust his bayonet immediately through my coat and jacket; I ran towards
the watch-house, and stood there.” (Testimony of Edward Gambett Langsford)
John Leach, Jr. (Map No. 32)

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: In Royal Exchange Lane
Action: Observer

“I ran up Royal Exchange alley, so called, when I had got to the head of the alley, I
saw about eight soldiers standing round the centry box by the Custom-House with
their guns levelled breast high and a con-siderable number of people stand in
Kingstreet, when I had been there about three minutes I heard the word fire (but
who it came from I cannot say) but nobody seemed to mind it, about half a minute
after I heard the word fire again, and some other words, but could not tell what
they were; directly the soldier on the right hand fired, I had a blow on my back
which I tho't was from the butt of a gun, I was then a-going off when I heard five
or six guns go off which I took to be nothing but powder...” (Deposition of John
Leach, Jr.)

Benjamin Lee (Map No. 36)

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Somewhat Near Captain Preston
Action: Observer

“A man went and asked him if he was going to fire. No Sir upon my honor if I can
any way avoid it. I knew the Captain by sight and name. He stood to the left of the
whole rather behind with his back towards the long Wharfe. He had his
Regimentals, a hat on, his breast plate and Sash round his body and Sword in his
hand. I saw no Snow balls. I went away as soon as the Man spoke to the
Captain” (Deposition of Benjamin Lee)
Thomas Marshall (Map No. 31)

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male who lived next to the Custom House on King
Street
Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Likely off to the left of the British soldiers
Action: Observer

“ I Thomas Marshall, of lawful age, do testify and declare, that on Monday night
the fifth of March, four or five minutes after nine o'clock, coming from Col.
Jackson's house on dock-Square, to my house in Kingstreet, next door to the
custom-house, I saw no person in the street but the centinel at the custom-house in
perfect peace; after I had been in my house ten or twelve mi-nutes, being in my
shop in the front of the house, I heard the cry of Murder at a distance, on which I
opened the door, but saw no person in the street; but in half a minute I saw several
persons rushing out from the main guard house, crying out, Damn them, where are
they? They came down as far as the corner of Mr. Philips's house; I saw their
swords and bayonets glitter in the moon-light, crying out as before, and by Jesus
let them come; at which time I was called into the house by one of my family, but
returned again in half a minute, and saw ten or twelve soldiers, in a tumultuous
manner, in the middle of Kingstreet, opposite to royal exchange lane, flourishing
their arms, and saying, damn them where are they, and crying fire; the bells then
rung as for fire; I was then called in again for half a minute, and returning again to
the door, the inhabitants began to collect. -- Soon after a party of soldiers came
down the south side of King street and cross'd over to the custom-house centinel,
and form'd in a rank by him, nor did I see any manner of abuse offered the centinel,
and in three minutes at the farthest they began to fire on the inhabitants, by which
several persons were killed, and several others were wounded.” (Testimony of
Thomas Marshall)
Samuel Maverick (Map No. 30)

Age & Race: 17 year old Caucasian male, son of the widow Maverick
Occupation: Apprentice to Mr. Greenwood, an Ivory - Turner
Dress: According to the Revere Diagram of the Dead on Town House Square, he is
wearing a Frock Coat, Breeches, Stockings, Shoes and a Tricorn Hat
Location: According to the Revere Diagram of the Dead on Town House Square,
he is in Quaker Lane
Action: Will be shot by a ball that went through his belly which cut out his back.
Mortally wounded, he will die the following morning

“Q. Was you sent for to Maverick?


A. Yes.
Q. Did he say any thing to you?
A. Yes, about two hours before his death, I asked him concerning the affair, he
went he said up the lane, and just as he got to the corner, he heard a gun, he did not
retreat back, but went to the Town-House, as he was going along, he was shot: It
seems strange by the direction of the ball, how he could be killed by the firing at
the Custom-House; it wounded a portion of the liver, stomach and intestines, and
lodged betwixt the lower ribs, where I cut it out, the ball must have struck some
wall or something else, before it struck him.

Q. Where did he say he was when he was wounded?


A. He was betwixt Royal exchange-lane and the Town-house going up towards the
Town house.” (Testimony of Dr. Richard Hirons)

Christopher Monk (Map No. 29)

Age & Race: 17 year old Caucasian male


Occupation: Apprentice to Mr. Walker, Shipwright
Dress: Unknown, Had a Catstick in his Hand
Location: Standing next to James Brewer
Action: Will be shot by a ball that entered his back about 4 inches above the left
kidney, near the spine, and was cut out of the breast on the same side
“I spoke to C[aptain] P[reston] and said to him every Body was about dispersing.
He said He hoped they were, and presently left me, and went in among them. Kit.
Monk was there. I turnd round to speak to Kit Monk, and they fired and K.
faltered. Kilroy struck me upon the Arm with his Bayonet as they came round
before they were formed. The Firing began upon the Right, I thought it the Man
quite upon the right. Kilroy struck at me. Saw no Blows, nothing thrown. Monk
had a Catstick 2  in his Hand”

Dimond Morton

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Unknown
Action: Observer

Matthew Murray (Map No. 37)

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Standing next to Private Montgomery and 2 Yards from Captain Preston
Action: Observer - Looking at Captain Preston

“The Guard came down. I saw 'em load. Somebody spoke to the Captain and told
him he had best withdraw none of the People would interrupt him. I stood next to
the Grenadier. Saw a stick or piece of Ice strike him upon his right side. On which
he instantly fired and I went off. I heard no order given. I stood within two yards of
the Captain. He was in the front talking with a Person, I dont know who. I was
looking at the Captain when the Gun was fired. The Soldier stood on the Captains
right. I saw two or three Snow balls thrown at the Soldiers before the Gun was
fired, but none after for I went off immediately. The Captain had a Sword in his
hand. I know not whether he had a Surtout on but believe he had. I know Capt.
Preston by sight. The Prisoner is the Man. A Woman crowded by and spoke to the
second Soldier on the right. I think if the Captain had given orders anything loud I
should have heard.” (Deposition of Matthew Murray)
I went to the head of Royal exchange-lane, and saw a cluster of people there, and I
saw a boy who said that the Sentry had knocked him down with the butt-end of his
gun; I saw the Sentry on the steps, and the people after he loaded, said, fire! Damn
you fire! Presently after the party came down, I stood close to them, they were
swinging their bayonets, telling the people to make way, I saw a man talking with
Capt. Preston, I went to hear what he said, I could not hear, the grenadier on the
right was struck some where on his right side, but I do not know with what, but
directly he fired.

Q. Was that the right hand man? A. Yes. (Testimony of Matthew Murray)

Richard Palmes (Map No. 21)

Age: Unknown - Caucasian Described as a “Stout” Man


Occupation: Merchant / Apothecary
Dress: Wearing a Cloth Colored Surtout, singed on the left elbow
Location: Standing to Captain Preston’s right, with Private Hugh Montgomery
nearby to his left picking up his firelock
Action: Slipping on his right foot, is striking Captain Preston with tremendous
Force

“When I had got there I saw Capt. Preston at the head of 7 or 8 Soldiers at the
Custom house drawn up, their Guns breast high and Bayonets fixed. Found
Theodore Bliss talking with the Captain. I heard him say why don't you fire or
words to that effect. The Captain answered I know not what and Bliss said God
damn you why don't you fire. I was close behind Bliss. They were both in the front.
Then I step'd immediately between them and put my left hand in a familiar manner
on the Captains right shoulder to speak to him. Mr. John Hickling then looking
over my shoulder I said to Preston are your Soldiers Guns loaded. He answered
with powder and ball. Sir I hope you dont intend the Soldiers shall fire on the
Inhabitants. He said by no means. The instant he spoke I saw something
resembling Snow or Ice strike the Grenadier on the Captains right hand being the
only one then at his right. He instantly stepd one foot back and
fired...” (Testimony of Richard Palmes)

“I had a large Stick in my hand.” (Testimony of Richard Palmes)


“(No. 53)

I Richard Palmes of Boston, of lawful age, testify and say, that between the hours
of nine and ten o'clock of the 5th instant, I heard one of the bells ring, which I
supposed was oc-casioned by fire, & enquiring where the fire was, was answered
that the soldiers were abusing the inhabitants; I asked where, was first answered at
Murray's barracks. I went there and spoke to some officers that were standing at
the door, I told them I was surprized they suffered the soldiers to go out of the bar-
racks after eight o'clock ; I was answered by one of the officers pray do you mean
to teach us our duty ; I answered I did not, only to remind them of it; one of them
then said, you see that the soldiers are all in their barracks, and why do not you go
to your homes; Mr. James Lamb and I said, Gentlemen let us go home, & were
answered by some, home, home; according-ly I asked Mr. William Hickling if he
was going home, he said he was, I walked with him as far as the post-office, upon
my stopping to talk with two or three people, Mr. Hickling left me; I then saw Mr.
Pool Spear going towards the town-house, he asked me if I was going home, I told
him I was; I asked him where he was going that way, he said he was go-ing to his
brother David's. But when I got to the town-pump, we were told there was a
rumpus at the custom-house door; Mr. Spear said to me you had better not go, I
told him I would go and try to make peace; I immediately went there and saw Capt.
Preston at the head of six or eight soldiers in a circular form, with guns breast high
and bayonets fixed; the said Captain stood almost to the end of their guns. I went
immediately to Capt. Preston (as soon as Mr. Bliss had left him), and asked him if
their guns were loaded, his answer was they are loaded with powder and ball; I
then said to him I hope you do not intend they shall fire upon the inhabitants; his
reply was, by no means. When I was asking him these questions my left hand was
on his right shoulder; Mr. John Hickling had that instant taken his hand off my
shoulder, and stept to my left, then instantly I saw a piece of snow or ice fall
among the soldiers, on which the soldier at the officer's right hand stept back and
discharged his gun, at the space of some seconds the soldier at his left fired next,
and the others one after the other. After the first gun was fired, I heard the word
Fire, but who said it I know not; after the first gun was fired the said officer had
full time to forbid the other soldiers not to fire, but I did not hear him speak to
them at all ; then turning myself to the left I saw one man dead, distant about six
feet; I having a stick in my hand made a stroke at the soldier who fired, and struck
the gun out of his hand. I then made a stroke at the officer, my right foot slipt, that
brought me on my knee, the blow falling short; he says I hit his arm; when I was
recovering myself from the fall I saw the soldier that fired the first gun
endeavoring to push me through with his bayonet, on which I threw my stick at his
head, the soldier starting back, gave me an opportunity to jump from him into
exchange-lane, or I must been inevitably run thro' my body. I looked back and saw
three persons laying on the ground, and perceiving a soldier stepping round the
corner as I thought to shoot me, I ran down Exchange lane, and so up the next into
King-Street, and followed Mr. Gridley with several other persons with the body of
Capt. Morton's apprentice up to the prison house, and saw he had a ball shot
through his breast; at my return I found that the officer and soldiers were gone to
the main guard. To my best observation there were not seventy people in King
street at the time of their firing, and them very scattering; but in a few minutes after
the firing there were upwards of a thousand; finding the soldiers were gone I went
up to the main-guard and saw there the soldiers were formed into three divisions,
the front division in the posture of platoon firing, and I expected they would fire.
Hearing that his Honor the Lieutenant-Governor was going to the Council-
chamber, I went there ; his Honor looking out of the door desired the peo-ple to
hear him speak; he desired them to go home and he would enquire into the affair in
the morning, and that the law should take its course, and said, I will live and die by
the law. A gentleman desired his Honor to order the soldiers to their barracks, he
answered it was not in his power, and that he had no command over the troops, and
that it lay with Col. Dalrymple and not with him, but that he would send for him,
which after some time he did ; upon that a gentleman desi-red his Honor to look
out of the window facing the main-guard, to see the position the soldiers were in,
ready to fire on the inhabitants, which he did after a good deal of perswasion, and
called for Col. Carr and desired him to order the troops to their barracks in the
same order they were in; accordingly they were ordered to shoulder their guns, and
were marched off by some officers, and further saith not. RICH. PALMES.

Suffolk, ss. Boston, March 17, 1770. Richard Palmes, above-named, after due
examination, made oath to the truth of the above affidavit, taken to perpetuate the
remembrance of the thing. 

Before RI. DANA, Just. of Peace and of the Quorum.

JOHN HILL. Just. Peace.” (Testimony of Richard Palmes)

“The Gun which went off first had scorched the nap of my Surtout at the
elbow.” (Testimony of Richard Palmes)

“The officer had to the best of my knowledge a cloth coloured Surtout on. After the
firing the Captain stepd forward before the Men and struck up their Guns. One was
loading again and he damn'd 'em for firing and severely repremanded 'em. I did not
mean the Capt. had the Surtout but the Man who spoke to him when coming with
the Guard.”
(Testimony of Wyat)
But Henry Knox also talked to Captain Preston, Could he have had a cloth
colored surtout on?

"I did not see any thing thrown at the Centinel. I stood at the foot of the Town
house when the Guns were fired. I heard the People cry damn your bloods fire on.
To the best of my recollection the Corporal had a Surtout on. I had none."
(Testimony of Henry Knox)

So... NO

“A stout man forced his way through came up between me and the Grenadier. He
had a stick in his hand. I saw him strike at the Officer. Persons were talking with
him. I saw him dodge and try to fend off the blow with his arm. He then began to
strike on the Grenadiers Gun who stood about a yard and a half from the Officer on
the right. I saw the Grenadier attempt to stick him with his Bayonet.” (Testimony
of Andrew, a Negro Servant)

David Parker

Age & Race: A Caucasian “Lad”


Occupation: Apprentice to Mr. Eddy the Wheelwright
Dress: Unknown
Location: x
Action: Will be shot by a ball that entered his thigh

Robert Patterson (Map No. 38)

Age & Race: A Caucasian Male


Occupation: “Seafaring Man” / Mariner
Dress: Trousers
Location: Somewhere in the Middle of King Street, Likely in Line with Private
White
Action: Will be shot by a ball that entered his thigh

“I immedi-ately went thro' the lane, and stood in the middle of King-street about 10
or 11 minutes (the centinel then standing lean-ing against his box), when I saw an
officer with 7 or 8 soldiers coming from the main-guard, clearing the way with
their guns and bayonets, go below the centinel box, and turn up & place
themselves around it, facing the people standing opposite royal exchange lane;
when I saw a man with a light coloured sur-tout at the custom-house door, the door
being wide open, there standing with his shoulder against the side -- then I heard
the officer order the soldiers to load; which they did: After that Iheard the people
say, damn you, why don't you fire. In a-bout a minute after I heard the word fire !
(but from whom I cannot say) which the soldiers did. Looking round I saw three
men lay dead on the snow; the snow being at that time near a foot deep.
Immediately they loaded again. The people then gave three cheers, and cry'd
out, let's go in upon them, and prevent their firing again: upon which they put
on their hats and advanced towards them. My hand being raised to put on my
hat, still advancing towards the soldiers, the centinel up with his gun and
fired, the balls going through my lower right arm, my hand immediately
falling; and finding myself wounded, made the best of my way home with
help. And further I say not.” (Deposition of Robert Patterson)

Edward Paine / Payne (Map No. 39)

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Merchant
Dress: Unknown
Location: Standing upon the “sell” of his Entry Door opposite the East End of the
Custom House, Joined by Mr. George Bethune and Mr. Harrison Gray
Action: Observer, on the steps of his door, would be wounded in his arm

“That this deponent then went home, and stood upon the sell of his entry door,
which is nearly opposite to the east end of the custom-house, where he was soon
joined by Mr. George Bethune, and Mr. Harrison Gray, that the people round the
centinel were then crying out Fire, Fire, damn you why don't you Fire, soon af-ter,
he perceived a number of soldiers coming down towards the centinel, with their
arms in a horizontal posture, and their bayonets fixed, who turned the people from
before the custom-house, and drew up before the door, the people, who still
remained in the street and about the soldiers, continued calling out to them to fire.
In this situation they remained some minutes, when he heard a gun snap, and
presently a sin-gle gun fired, and soon after several others went off one after
another, to the number of three or four, and then heard the rammers go into the
gunsas tho' they were loading; imme-diately after which three or four more went
off in the same manner; at which time a ball pass'd through the deponent's right
arm, upon which he immediately retired into the house. That at the time of the
centinel's being surrounded, and at the time of the firing, it appeared to the
deponent, that there were from fifty to an hundred persons in the street, and not
more. The deponent further saith not. (Deposition of Edward Payne)

“Q. Was this before the soldiers came down?


A. Yes. Mr. Gray and I were talking of the foolishness of the people in calling the
Sentry to fire on them; in about a minute after, I saw a number of soldiers come
down from the Main guard, and it appeared to me they had their muskets in a
horizontal posture, they went towards the Custom house, and shoved the people
from the house, I did not see in what manner they drew up: at this time Mr.
Bethune joined us on my steps at the door, and the noise in the street continued
much the same as before, fire! fire! Damn you, fire! why do you not fire? Soon
after this, I thought I heard a gun snap, I said to Mr. Gray, there is a gun
snapped, did you not hear it? He said yes; immediately a gun went off, I reached
to see whether it was loaded with powder, or any body lying dead, I heard three
more, then there was a pause, and I heard the iron rammers go into their guns,
and then there was three more discharged, one after another; it appeared to me
there were seven in all, as soon as the last gun was discharged I perceived I was
wounded, and went into the house.” (Testimony of Edward Paine)

Robert Polley (Map No. 40)

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: In Royal Exchange Lane
Action: Observer

“ I then went down royal exchange lane, when I was in the middle of the lane I
heard the discharge of a gun, which was immediately followed by about seven
others.” (Testimony of Robert Polley)
Francis Read

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Near Exchange Lane
Action: Observer

Nathaniel Russel (Map No. 41)

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Chairmaker
Dress: Unknown
Location: Near Exchange Lane, over the Shoulder of Crispus Attucks
Action: Observer

“I went to the Town-house, there I saw Mr. Cox; I saw a number of people with
clubs; I saw at a distance, a parcel of soldiers at the Custom house; I went down to
the right of them, where Capt. Preston stood; I had not been there a minute before
the guns were fired, previous to which, I saw several things but dont know what
they were, thrown at the soldiers, as they stood in a circle by the Custom house. I
was at the west of the soldiers; I was looking over the Molatto's shoulder: I saw
Samuel Gray there. Upon these things being thrown, I intended to retreat as fast as
I could; I had not got three yards before the guns were fired, first one, then another,
and so on, I think there were seven in all.

Q. How many people do you think there might be in the whole?


A. About two hundred.

Q. Did the soldiers say any thing to the people?


A. They never opened their lips; they stood in a trembling manner, as if they
expected nothing but death. They fired first on the right. I was looking on the
whole body, no one between me and the soldiers that interrupted my sight; I saw no
blows given, or any of the soldiers fall.

Q. Might not their trembling proceed from rage as well as fear?


A. It might proceed from both.” (Testimony of Nathaniel Russel)
William Sayer

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male from Bolton


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Unknown
Action: Observer

“I was first on the left Wing but crowded to the right at Excha[nge] lane. The
Soldiers were pushing to keep the people off. They came as close as they could.
The people kept huzzaing. Damn 'em. Daring 'em to fire. Threw Snow balls. I think
they hit 'em. As soon as the Snow balls were thrown and a club a Soldier fired. I
heard the Club strike upon the Gun and the corner man next the lane said fire and
immediately fired. This was the first Gun. As soon as he had fired he said Damn
you fire. I am so sure that I thought it was he spoke. The next Gun fired and so
they fired through pretty quick. I ran off as soon as they had fired. Heard a
clattering on the pavements and saw a Soldier down. I was in a fright and cant say.
I was looking on the man that first fired. I do believe it was the man on the right
who had a Gun and am satisfied of it.” (Deposition of William Sawyer)

Josiah Simpson

Age & Race: Caucasian Adult Male


Occupation: Joiner
Dress: Unknown
Location: In King Street, Towards Royal Exchange Lane Near Vernon’s Barber
Shop, Standing Near Robert Patterson who was wounded
Action: Observer

“A little space of time ensued, and then he heard the words, damn you, fire; the
sound of which words seemed to proceed from the left of all the soldiers, and very
near to the centry box; upon this order he judged two guns were discharged, and
immedi-ately three more, and then two more; one of the two last guns went about
five or six inches over the deponent's back: after which he stood up, and another
gun was discharged which wounded one Robert Patterson in the arm, and the blood
was sprinkled upon the deponent's hand and waistcoat: after the firing the deponent
saw four persons drop; then looking towards the soldiers the deponent saw them
making towards the inhabitants with their fixed bayonets; upon which he retired
down Quaker lane, and went round into the main street homewards, where he met
a number of people going up royal exchange lane-- from thence he retired
home.” (Deposition of Josiah Simpson)

“I was before em at the Edge of the Gutter. I went then to the People and said for
G–d Sake Gentlemen dont trouble these Men they are on duty. They said they
would not, nor would be drove off by them. I then withdrew to the other Side of
the Way and saw a Man a going to throw a Clubb. I begd him not to and he did not.
I was then just by Wardells [Warden's] shop. I saw then one Clubb thrown in to the
soldiers, I heard the Word present, I stoopd down and a little Time ensued, and then
I heard d—n you fire. I believe the Clubb hit one of the Soldiers
Guns” (Testimony of Josiah Simpson)

“Q. Did you hear any orders given for firing?


A. I heard damn you fire: it seemed to me as it came from the Sentry-box where I
left the Captain. I was then by Vernon the barber's shop; I had passed across the
street. I saw a man going to throw a club, I begged of him not to do it, for I said
if he did, the soldiers would certainly fire: he said, he would not, and did not. I
then saw a white club thrown at some distance from me towards the soldier's

Q. What sort of a stick was it that was thrown?


A. I took it to be a white birch cord-wood stick, an inch thick.

Q. What sort of a man, for heighth, was he that threw it?


A. He might be about five feet and an half.” (Testimony of Josiah Simpson)

William Strong (Map No. 44)

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Clerk at the Custom House
Dress: Unknown
Location: Somewhere on King Street, after leaving the Custom House Door and
Checking the Latch
Action: Observer

“I walked to the Custom house steps, curiosity led me to see if they were so
prudent as to fasten the Custom-house door; I tryed the latch, and it was fast; a
fellow said to one of the soldiers, damn you why do you turn your bayonet this
way, turn it the other way. I thought I was not safe there, but went to my old place,
and stood there a few minutes; I thought I heard two guns cock, immediately I
heard one go off, soon after another, and I think four more. I think six in all. The
people said where I was standing, they fired nothing but powder. I thought to go up
to an acquaintance's house, and went in the middle of the street, and coming
opposite to the soldiers, I saw two men lay, one on the right and one on the left, on
their backs; I concluded they were dead.” (Testimony of William Strong)

Obadiah Whiston

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Somewhere on King Street
Action:

“I followed them (to see where they were going) as far as the Custom-house, where
said Pres-ton drew them up, and some boys being in the street, huzza'd; a few
minutes after, as I stood there, I saw one gun go off, and several more were fired
directly after ; the people near me said there was some persons killed, after which I
saw one man dead” (Testimony of Obadiah Whiston)

Jane Whitehouse / Crothers (Map No. 20)

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Female, Lived on Royal Exchange Lane
At the time of the Massacre was known as Jane Crothers
Married Pvt. Joseph Whitehouse of the 14th Regiment at Christ Church on March
27, 1770
Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: In front of Private Hugh White, the Sentry
Action: Observer, is being pushed off by Private Hugh White

“Heard a Gentleman ask the Capt. if he was going to order his men to fire. He said
no Sir by no means, by no means. A Man—the Centinel—then pushed me back. I
step'd back to the corner. He bid me go away for I should be killed.” (Deposition of
Jane Whitehouse)
Robert Williams (Map No. 45)

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location:In the thickest part of the crowd (Right Side)
Action: Observer

“I run down the north side of the Town-house, and saw a number of people, twenty
or thirty, collected. I tryed to press into the midst of them to know what they were
about; I could not get in; I therefore stepped over the gutter, and saw the soldiers
seven or eight of them, by the Sentry box. Some of the people were leaning on
their sticks, some standing with their hands in their bosoms, and some were
whistling. Numbers were crouding to get in as I was. I had my eye on the right
hand man. Somebody said, do not press on the soldiers, I repeated the same words,
do not press on the soldiers: when I said that, I saw something like a flash at my
left, and heard the report of a gun, and the people opened from right to left; but I
could not see where the gun was fired from; it made a noise like a pistol, and I
imagined it was nothing but powder. As the people crouded to the lane, it took the
view of the right hand soldiers from me, but I had a view of the left. I heard
another gun go off, and saw a man fall.” (Testimony of Robert Williams)

Thomas Wilkinson

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Near Mr. Waldoe’s Shop
Action: Observer

William Wyatt

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: About 5 or 6 yards from Captain Preston
Action: Observer
“His back was to me when the last Order was given. I was then about 5 or 6 yards
off and within 2 yards at the first. He stood in the rear when the Guns were fired.
Just before I heard a Stick, which I took to be upon a Gun. I did not see it. The
officer had to the best of my knowledge a cloth coloured Surtout on. After the
firing the Captain stepd forward before the Men and struck up their Guns. One was
loading again and he damn'd 'em for firing and severely repremanded 'em. I did not
mean the Capt. had the Surtout but the Man who spoke to him when coming with
the Guard.” (Testimony of Henry Knox)

Sailor Wearing Trousers (Map No. 46)

Age & Race: Caucasian


Occupation: Mariner
Dress: Mariner Coat with Trousers, Carrying a Stick
Location: Near Private Hugh Montgomery, Behind Andrew, a Negro Servant
Action: Beating at the firelock of Private Hugh Montgomery

“I was crowding to get as near to the Officer as I could. A Person who stood near
behind me with trowsers on as the Grenadier pushed at him in his station struck the
Gun aside with a long stick. The Grenadier told 'em to draw back. If he had stepd
from his Station he might have killed me. I was just out of his reach. Some that
stood round me endeavoured to go back.” (Testimony of Andrew, a Negro Servant)

A Tall Stout Man (Map No. 47)

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Male - Considered “Tall & Stout” (5’6”?)
Occupation: Likely a Mariner
Dress: Likely Mariner dress, Throwing a 3 foot long Birch Stick Overhand
Location: Near Private Montgomery, to his right
Action: Has hit Private Montgomery with a Birch Stick, Overhand Motion

“Montgomery was knockd down and his Musquet fell out of his Hand by a Clubb
or stick of Wood by one of the Inhabitants and as soon as he got up he fired his
Gun, I think Carrol fired next. The Clubb was not thrown but I saw him struck with
it. He fell down himself and the Gun fell out of his Hand. The Person that struck
was a tall, stout man. There was 50 or 60 People near. Montgomery fired, about
where the Molatto fell. It was pointing towards the Place where we saw Attucks
lie. It was not the Mollato that struck Montgomery. But the Blow was very
violent.... The Man that struck Montgomery down stood at the right of the right
Hand Grenadier. The Blow was before the firing.” (Testimony of James Bailey)

“Q. What sort of a stick was it that was thrown?


A. I took it to be a white birch cord-wood stick, an inch thick.” (Testimony of
Josiah Simpson)

“Q. What sort of a man, for heighth, was he that threw it?
A. He might be about five feet and an half.” (Testimony of Josiah Simpson)

“Q. Upon the oath you have taken, did that man throw the stick with considerable
violence, or not?
A. He threw it considerable hard, he threw it over hand.” (Testimony of Josiah
Simpson)

Mystery Woman on the Right Flank (Map No. 48)

Age & Race: Adult Caucasian Female


Occupation: Unknown
Dress: Unknown
Location: Near Privates Hartigan and Montgomery to the Right Flank

Action:
“I stood next to the Grenadier. Saw a stick or piece of Ice strike him upon his right
side. On which he instantly fired and I went off. I heard no order given. I stood
within two yards of the Captain. He was in the front talking with a Person, I dont
know who. I was looking at the Captain when the Gun was fired. The Soldier stood
on the Captains right. I saw two or three Snow balls thrown at the Soldiers before
the Gun was fired, but none after for I went off immediately. The Captain had a
Sword in his hand. I know not whether he had a Surtout on but believe he had. I
know Capt. Preston by sight. The Prisoner is the Man. A Woman crowded by and
spoke to the second Soldier on the right. I think if the Captain had given orders
anything loud I should have heard. (Testimony of Matthew Murray)
Regarding Shots Fired from the Customs House Windows

Boston Gazette and Country Journal


Number 779, 12 March 1770

“A Servant Boy of one Manwaring the Tide-waiter from Quebec is now in Goal,
having deposed that himself, by the Order and Encouragment of his Superiors had
discharged a Musket several Times from one of the Windows of the House in
King-Street, hired by the Commissioners and Custom House Officers to do their
Business in; more than one other Person swore upon Oath, that they apprehended
several Discharges came from that Quarter. -- It is not improbable that we may
soon be able to account for the Assassination of Mr. Otis some Time past; the
Message by Wilmot, who came from the same House to the infamous Richardson
before his firing the Gun which kill'd young Snider, and to open up such a Scene of
Villainy acted by a dirty Banditti, as must astonish the Public. It is supposed that
there must have been a greater Num-ber of People from Town and Country at the
Funeral of those who were massacred by the Soldiers, than were ever together on
this Continent on any Occasion.”

“George Coster, being in King-street at the time above mentioned, declares that in
five or six minutes after he stopped, he heard the word of command given to the
soldiers fire; upon which one gun was fired, which did no execution, as the
deponent observed; about half a minute after two guns, one of which killed one
Samuel Gray a ropemaker, the other a mulatto man, between which two men the
deponent stood, after this the deponent heard the discharge of four or five guns
more, by the soldiers; immediately after which the deponent heard the discharge of
two guns or pistols, from an open window of the middle story of the CUSTOM-
HOUSE, near to the place where the centry box is placed, and being but a small
distance from the window, he heard the people from within speak and laugh, and
soon after saw the casement lowered down; after which the deponent assisted
others in carrying off one of the corps.” (A Short Narrative of the Horrid Massacre
on King Street)

“Upon which they fired irregularly, pointing their guns variously in a part of a
circle as they stood: during the time of the soldiers firing, the deponent saw the
flashes of two guns fired from the custom-house, one of which was out of a win-
dow of the chamber westward of the balcony, and the other from the balcony, the
gun which he clearly discerned being pointed thro' the ballisters, and the person
who held the gun in a stooping posture, withdraw himself into the house, having a
handkerchief or some kind of cloth over his face. After this the deponent assisted in
carrying off the dead and wounded, as soon as the soldiers would permit the people
so to do, for at first they were cruel enough to obstruct the carrying them off.”

(Deposition of Samuel Drowne)

“Samuel Drowne, towards the end of his depo-sition (which contains a pretty full
account of the proceedings of the soldiers on the evening of the 5th instant),
declares, that he saw the flashes of two guns fired from the Custom-House, one of
which was out of a window of the chamber westward of the balcony, and the other
from the balcony; the gun (which lie clearly discerned), being pointed through the
ballisters, and the per-son who held the gun, in a stooping posture with-drew
himself into the house, having a handker-chief or some kind of cloth over his
face.These depositions shew clearly that a number of guns were fired from the
Custom-House. -- As this affair is now enquiring into, all the no-tice we shall take
of it is, that it distinguishes the actors in it into Street-Actors and House-Actors;
which is necessary to be observed.” (A Short Narrative of the Horrid Massacre on
King Street)

“(No. 58)

I Charlotte Bourgate, of lawful age, an indented servant to Edward Manwaring,
Esq; being at my master's lodgings at Mr. Hudson's at the north end, on the night of
the horrid massacre in Kingstreet, of the 5th instant, heard the bells ring, which I
took to be for fire (about half an hour before the bells rung, my master, with one
Mr. Munro, said they would go to the custom-house and drink a glass of wine) then
I went out, therebeing nobody in the house that I knew of, but Mr. Hudson & wife;
then I went up to the custom-house door and knocked, when a young man, which I
have since heard was named Hammond Green, let me in and locked the door; when
I saw my master and Mr. Munroe said they would go to the Custom-House and
drink a glass of wine. Then I went out, there being nobody in the house that I knew
of but Mr. Hudson and wife; then I went up to the Custom-house door and
knocked, when a young man, which I have since heard was named Hammond
Green, let me in and locked the door, when I saw my Master and Mr. Mun-roe
come down stairs, and go into a room ; when four or five men went up stairs,
pulling and haleing me after them, and said, my good boy come; when I was
carried into the chamber, there was but one light in the room, and that in the corner
of the chamber, when I saw a tall man loading a gun (then I saw two guns in the
room) my master not being in the chamber,

there was a number of gentlemen in the room: After the gun was loaded, the tall
man gave it to me and told me to fire, and said he would kill me if I did not; I told
him I would not. He drawing a sword out of his cane, told me, if I did not fire it, he
would run it thro' my guts. The man putting the gun out of the window, it being a
little open, I fired it side way up the street; the tall man then loaded the gun again. I
heard the balls go down. The man then laid it on the window again, and told me to
fire it. I told him I would not fire again; he told me again, he would run me thro'
the guts if I did not. Upon which I fired the same way up the street. After I fired the
second gun, I saw my master in the room; he took a gun and pointed it out of
the window; I heard the gun go off: Then a tall man came and clapp'd me on the
shoulders above and below stairs, and said, that's my good boy, I'll give you some
money to morrow. I said, I don't want any money. There being a light in the lower
room, and the door being upon the jarr, I saw it was the tall man that clapp'd me on
the shoulder; then the young man Hammond Green let me out of the door, there
being two or three people in the entry; when I got out of the house, I saw a number
of people in the streets. And I ran home as fast as I could, and set up all night in my
master's kitchen. And further say, that my master licked me the next night for
telling Mrs. Waldron about his firing out of the Custom house. And for fear that I
should be licked again, I did deny all that I said before Justice Quincy, which I am
very sorry for. And further I say not. his Attest. Elisha Story,” (Deposition of
Charlotte Bourgate)

“I Benjamin Church, jun. of lawful age, testify and say, that being requested by Mr.
Robert Pierpont the Coroner, to assist in examining the body of Crispus Attucks,
who was sup-posed to be murdered by the soldiers on Monday evening the 5th
instant, I found two wounds in the region of the Thorax, the one on the right side,
which entered thro' the second true Rib within an inch and a half of the Sternum,
dividing the Rib and separating the cartilaginous extremity from the Ster-num, the
ball passed obliquely downward thro' the Diaphragm and entering thro' the large
Lobe of the Liver and the Gall-Bladder, still keeping its oblique direction, divided
the Aorta Descendens just above its division into the Iliacs, from thence it made its
exit on the left side of the Spine. This wound I apprehended was the immediate
cause of his death. The other ball entered the fourth of the false Ribs, about five
inches from the linen alba, and descending obliquely passed through the second
false Rib, at the distance of about eight inches from the Linea Alba; from the
oblique direction of the wounds, I apprehend the gun must have been discharged
from some ele-vation, and further the deponent saith not.” (Deposition of Benjamin
Church - Evidence for shots fired from above, or that Attucks was leaning forward
when shot)

Questionable:
Isaac Pierce. The Lieut. Governor asked Capt. Preston didn't you know you had no
power to fire upon the Inhabitants or any number of People collected together
unless you had a Civil Officer to give order. The Captain replied I was obliged to,
to save my Centry. You must know it Sir said the Lieut. Governor.

Joseph Belknap. The Lieut. Governor said to Preston Don't you know you can do
nothing without a Magistrate. He answered I did it to save my Men.

Jonathan Mason. The Lieut. Governor said you are sensible Sir you had no right to
fire without a Civil Magistrate or to that effect. Capt. Preston's answer implied that
his Men were insulted and abused. I cannot recollect the words.