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Interpreting Our American History

Bringing the Boston Massacre


Alive Through Art

Gregory S. Theberge
When the smoke cleared on the evening of
March 5, 1770, blood stained the foot of snow
which covered Boston’s Town House Square.
Three men lay dead, a man and boy lay
mortally wounded, six men were taken away
to recover from their wounds, and a day of
infamy was recorded in the annals of
American history…
7 March
Days 12

(J. Willard Marriot Library - The University of Utah)


The Impact of the Visual Image
21 March
Days 26

(Massachusetts Historical Society)


Paul Revere
by John Singleton Copley 1768
(Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(Private Collection)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(Private Collection)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(Private Collection)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(Library of Congress)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(Arlington House - The Robert E. Lee Memorial)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(Yale University Art Galleries)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(Gilder Lehman Collection)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(Gilder Lehman Collection)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(American Antiquarian Society)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(Library of Congress)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(National Heritage Museum)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(Massachusetts Historical Society)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(Private Collection)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(Massachusetts Historical Society)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(Massachusetts Historical Society)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(Boston Athaneum)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(National Heritage Museum)
Henry Pelham (Or Jonathan Smart)
by John Singleton Copley c. 1770 - 1774
(Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)
“Boy with a Squirrel” A.K.A. Henry Pelham
by John Singleton Copley 1765
(Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)
“Sir, When I heard that you were cutting a plate of the late Murder, I
thought it impossible, as I knew you was not capable of doing it unless you
coppied it from mine and as I thought I had entrusted it in the hands of a
person who had more regard to the dictates of Honour and Justice than to
take the undue advantage you have done of the confidence and Trust I
reposed in you. But I find I was mistaken, and after being at the great
Trouble and Expence of making a design paying for paper, printing &c,
find myself in the most ungenerous Manner deprived, not only of any
proposed Advantage, but even of the expence I have been at, as truly as if
you had plundered me on the highway. If you are insensible of the
Dishonour you have brought on yourself by this Act, the World will not
be so. However, I leave you to reflect upon and consider of one of the
most dishonorable Actions you could well be guilty of.


H. Pelham.


P S. I send by the Bearer the Prints I borrowed of you. My Mother
desired you would send the hinges and part of the press, that you had from
her.”
“THE FRUITS OF ARBITRARY POWER, OR THE BLOODY MASSACRE, Perpetrated in King Street Boston ...”
by Henry Pelham 1770
(American Antiquarian Society)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Jonathan Mulliken of Newburyport, Massachusetts, after Paul Revere 1770
(National Heritage Museum)
“The BOSTON MASSACRE perpetrated on March the 5th, 1770”
From: The Massachusetts Calendar, or an Almanac for 1772, Published by Isaiah Thomas
(Massachusetts Historical Society)
The 19th Century

1875
Chromolithograph of the Boston Massacre by J. H. Buford
After a Painting by William L. Champney c. 1855
(Boston Athenaeum)
“BOSTON MASSACRE” Lithograph
After a Painting by Alonzo Chapel c. 1868
(New York Public Library)
Harpers Magazine Illustration of “The Boston Massacre”
by Howard Pyle 1883
(Private Collection)
“The Death of Attucks”
by J.E. Taylor 1899
(Getty Images)
The 20th & 21st
Centuries
Unknown Piece of Crap Labeled as “The Boston Massacre” (Ropewalk Brawl???)
Unknown Artist
(Getty Images)
“The Bloody Massacre Story”
by an Unknown School Child
(Private Collection)
The Boston Massacre
“Assassin’s Creed” Video Game
(Private Collection)
The Boston Massacre Scene
“John Adams” H.B.O. Series
After “John Adams” by David McCullough
Boston Massacre Scene
2015
(American Heroes Channel)
Boston Massacre Reenactment
2015
(The Bostonian Sociery)
But How Accurate Are
Any Of
These Depictions?
To find the TRUTH…

Examine Primary Source Documents

Create a Composite Visual Image


So What is the “Closest” to the TRUTH?

Examine Primary Source Documents

Create a Composite Visual Image


Utilize

Primary Source Documentation


British Accounts of Life in Boston
1768 - 1770
The Depositions of His Majesty’s 14th Regiment of Foot
Taken at Castle William in Boston Harbour, Massachusetts
August 1770
(Colonial Office Files 5/88, pages 425-523)
Transcribed by David Niescior 2012
British Accounts of Life in Boston
1768 - 1770
The Depositions of His Majesty’s 29th Regiment of Foot
Taken in Amboy, New Jersey
July - August 1770
(Colonial Office Files 5/88, pages 425-523)
Transcribed by David Niescior 2012
(Massachusetts Historical Society)
Trial Transcripts: Rex vs. Preston
October 24 - 30, 1770
Suffolk County Court
Queen Street Courthouse, Boston
(Massachusetts Historical Society)
Trial Transcripts: Rex vs. Wemms
November 27 - December 5, 1770
Suffolk County Court
Queen Street Courthouse, Boston
(Massachusetts Historical Society)
Paintings
Broadsides
Prints
Newspaper Accounts
Diaries
Create Evidence Based Art
Setting the Stage
The Environs of Town House Square
The Court or Town House
Old Brick Church
Customs House

Exchange Tavern

Setting the Stage


The Environs of Town House Square
The Court or Town House
Old Brick Church
Customs House

Exchange Tavern

But Just How Accurate Is It?


“South Prospect of the Court House In Boston...”
by Nathaniel Hurd 1751
(Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)
“South Prospect of the Court House In Boston...”
by Nathaniel Hurd 1751
(Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)
View of the Boston State House
Unknown Artist 1801
(Massachusetts Historical Society)
Old Brick Church - Built 1712 & Demolished 1808
by Unknown Artist c. 1800
(Old State House Museum)
Old Brick Church - Built 1712 & Demolished 1808
by Unknown Artist c. 1800
(Old State House Museum)
Massacre Site Drawing by Paul Revere (1770) - Possibly Used at the Trial of the 29th Regiment of Foot
(Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library)
Old Brick Church
Main Street / “Cornhill”

Town
Guard House House

Pudding Lane

Court Square
Exchange Tavern

(Royal)
Quaker Lane Exchange Lane
Sentry Box
Customs House

Michael Paine
Homestead

Massacre Site Drawing by Paul Revere (1770) - Possibly Used at the Trial of the 29th Regiment of Foot
(Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library)
“The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street, Boston on March 5th, 1770 by a party of the 29th Regiment”
by Paul Revere 1770
(Library of Congress)
“A S.W. (Southwest) View of the STATE HOUSE in BOSTON”
1791
(Boston Public Library)
Royal Exchange Lane

Quaker Lane

Charles Bahne Map


1770 King Street vs. 2012 State Street
Boston, Massachusetts
Pudding Lane

Court Square
Boston
March 5, 1770

“5 March Monday
much snow fell too night
dind at home with Mrs. Rowe Sucky G. Speakman
& Antony-- Spent the Evening at Mrs Cordis with
the Fire Club”
(Diary of John Rowe, 1770)
Boston
March 5, 1770

“I then went up stairs into the lower west chamber, next to


royal-exchange lane, and saw several guns fired in king-
street, which killed three persons which I saw lay on the
snow in the street, supposing the snow to be near a foot
deep”
(Testimony of Hammond Green)
Boston
March 5, 1770

“I saw three men lay dead on the snow; the snow being at
that time near a foot deep.”
(Testimony of Robert Patterson)

“Near the little run of water by the Sentry box”


(Testimony of Jane Whitehouse)
Boston
March 5, 1770

“Q. Was it a Moon-light night?


A. I do not remember seeing the Moon, but it was very
light.”
(Testimony of Archibald Wilson, Merchant)

“that on the evening of the fifth instant, (being a bright


moon-light evening) immediately after the massacre in
Kingstreet,..”
(Testimony of Spencer Walker, Taylor)
INTERMISSION
The Participants
Bostonians & The King’s Troops
The Crowd Before the Soldiers
“... a motley rabble of saucy boys, negroes and molattoes,
Irish teagues and outlandish jack tarrs”

John Adams in His Defense of those Soldiers on Trial


1770
Richard Palmes
“I went immediately to Capt. Preston (as soon as Mr. Bliss
had left him), and asked him if their guns were loaded, his
answer was they are loaded with powder and ball; I then said
to him I hope you do not intend they shall fire upon the
inhabitants; his reply was, by no means. When I was asking
him these questions my left hand was on his right shoulder;
Mr. John Hickling had that instant taken his hand off my
shoulder, and stept to my left, then instantly I saw a piece of
snow or ice fall among the soldiers, on which the soldier at the
officer's right hand stept back and discharged his gun, ...”
Richard Palmes
“... at the space of some seconds the soldier at his left fired
next, and the others one after the other. After the first gun
was fired, I heard the word Fire, but who said it I know not;
after the first gun was fired the said officer had full time to
forbid the other soldiers not to fire, but I did not hear him
speak to them at all; then turning myself to the left I saw one
man dead, distant about six feet; I having a stick in my hand
made a stroke at the soldier who fired, and struck the gun out
of his hand. I then made a stroke at the officer, my right foot
slipt, that brought me on my knee, the blow falling short; ...”
Richard Palmes
“... he says I hit his arm; when I was recovering myself from
the fall I saw the soldier that fired the first gun endeavoring
to push me through with his bayonet, on which I threw my
stick at his head, the soldier starting back, gave me an
opportunity to jump from him into exchange-lane, or I must
been inevitably run thro' my body. I looked back and saw
three persons laying on the ground, and perceiving a soldier
stepping round the corner as I thought to shoot me, I ran
down Exchange lane, and so up the next into King-
Street, ...”
Richard Palmes
“The Gun which went off first had scorched the nap of my
Surtout at the elbow.”

“The officer had to the best of my knowledge a cloth


coloured Surtout on. After the firing the Captain stepd
forward before the Men and struck up their Guns. One was
loading again and he damn'd 'em for firing and severely
repremanded 'em. I did not mean the Capt. had the Surtout
but the Man who spoke to him when coming with the
Guard.”
(Testimony of Wyat)
Andrew, “A Negro Servant to Mr. Wendall”

“I got to the head of Royal-exchange lane, right against the


soldiers; the first word I heard was a Grenadier say to a man
by me, Damn you stand back...

I turned about and saw the officer standing before the men,
and one or two persons engaged in talk with him. A number
were jumping on the backs of those that were talking with the
officer, to get as near as they could.”
Jane Crothers
Jane Whitehouse
Mrs. John Whitehouse, H.M. 14th Regt. of Foot

“Heard a Gentleman ask the Capt. if he was going to order his


men to fire. He said no Sir by no means, by no means. A Man
—the Centinel—then pushed me back. I step'd back to the
corner. He bid me go away for I should be killed.”
Unknown Woman on the British Right Flank
“I was looking at the Captain when the Gun was fired. The
Soldier stood on the Captains right. I saw two or three Snow
balls thrown at the Soldiers before the Gun was fired, but
none after for I went off immediately. The Captain had a
Sword in his hand. I know not whether he had a Surtout on
but believe he had. I know Capt. Preston by sight. The
Prisoner is the Man. A Woman crowded by and spoke to the
second Soldier on the right. I think if the Captain had given
orders anything loud I should have heard.”

(Deposition of Matthew Murray)


Unknown Woman on the British Right Flank
“I was looking at the Captain when the Gun was fired. The
Soldier stood on the Captains right. I saw two or three Snow
balls thrown at the Soldiers before the Gun was fired, but
none after for I went off immediately. The Captain had a
Jane Crothers ?
Sword in his hand. I know not whether he had a Surtout on
but believe he had. I know Capt. Preston by sight. The
Prisoner is the Man. A Woman crowded by and spoke to the
second Soldier on the right. I think if the Captain had given
orders anything loud I should have heard.”

(Deposition of Matthew Murray)


Unknown Man Behind the British Right Flank

“A Man came behind the Soldiers walkd backwards and


forwards, encouraging them to fire. The Captain stood on
the left about three yards. The man touched one of the
Soldiers upon the back and said fire, by God I'll stand by you.
He was dressed in dark coloured Cloaths”

(Testimony of Jane Whitehouse / Mrs. John Whitehouse)


(A.K.A. Jane Crothers)
Unknown Man Behind the British Right Flank

“Soon after the first Gun I saw a Gentleman behind the


Soldiers in velvet or blue or black plush trimd with gold. He
put his hand towards their backs. Whether he touched them I
know not and said by God I'll stand by you whilst I have a
drop of blood and then said fire and two went off and then
the rest to 7 or 8.”

(Testimony of James Woodall)


Benjamin Burdick
Constable of the Town House Watch
“I had in my hand a highland broad Sword which I brought
from home. Upon my coming out I was told it was a wrangle
between the Soldiers and people, upon that I went back and got
my Sword. I never used to go out with a weapon. I had not my
Sword drawn till after the Soldier pushed his Bayonet at me. I
should have cut his head off if he had stepd out of his Rank to
attack me again. At the first firing the People were chiefly in
Royal Exchange lane, there being about 50 in the Street. After
the firing I went up to the Soldiers and told them I wanted to
see some faces that I might swear to them another day. The
Centinel in a melancholy tone said perhaps Sir you may.”
Benjamin Burdick
Constable of the Town House Watch
“At first I had a Stick, and my Wife, told me to take this the
Broadsword. I struck at the soldier who pushed at me, and
had I struck 2 or 3 Inches further, I should have left a March
that I could have sworn to. This was before the firing. I
struck the Cock of the Gun. The Man I struck was the 4th.
Man from the Corner, about the Middle. I saw but one
Thing thrown that was a short stick, about 2 or 3 foot long. I
heard a rattling. I took it they knocked their Guns together.
They were continually pushing at People, and it was pretty
slippery.”
Benjamin Burdick
Constable of the Town House Watch
“Q. Did you strike as hard as you could?
A. Yes, and hit the lock of his gun, and if I had struck a little
lower, I should have left a mark that I could have swore to.
Q. Was the sword in your hand drawn?
A. I drew it when the soldier pushed at me, and struck at him as
I have mentioned.
Q. Which gun went off first?
A. I took it to be the right hand man.
Q. Where did that soldier you struck at stand?
A. I believe the fourth or fifth man from the corner of
Exchange-lane.”
Samuel Gray
Ropemaker & Mechanic
“I saw the Molatto fall, and Mr. Samuel Gray went to look at
him, one of the soldiers, at the distance of about four or five
yards, pointed his piece directly for the said Gray's head and
fired. Mr. Gray, after struggling, turned himself right round
upon his heel and fell dead. Capt. Preston some time after
ordered them to march to the guard-house. I then took up a
round hat and followed the people that carry'd him down to a
house near the post-office. And further saith not. 
CHARLES HOBBY.”

(Testimony of Charles Hobby)


Samuel Gray
Ropemaker & Mechanic
“Kilroys Gun went off and S. Gray fell, and I heard no Gun
by his at that time. Gray spoke to nobody but me, that I
heard. He had no Weapen, was naked. Threw no snow Ball,
or any Thing. Grays Hands were in his Bosom. I was looking
Kilroy right in the Face. I heard the Ratling of Guns, but saw
nothing flung. I took it Kilroys Gun kill'd Gray. Did not see
that Kilroy aimed at Gray any more than me. He designed to
kill both of us I suppose”

(Deposition of Edward Gambett Langsford)


Samuel Gray
Ropemaker & Mechanic

“During this the rest of the guns were fired, one after
another when I saw two more fall, I ran to one and seeing the
blood gush out of his head tho' just expiring, I felt for the
wound and found a hole as big as my hand. This I have since
learned was Mr. Gray. I then went to Attucks and found him
gasping, pulled his head out of the gutter and left him;”

(Testimony of John Hickling)


H.M. 29th Regiment of Foot
Boston Massacre
March 5, 1770
Captain Thomas Preston
The Sentry:
Private Hugh White - Major Pierce Butler's Battalion Company
The Guard:
Corporal William Wemms - Capt. Ponsonby Molesworth's Battalion Company
Private William Warren - Capt. John Corrance's Grenadier Company
Private William McAuly - Capt. John Corrance's Grenadier Company
Private Matthew Kilroy - Capt. John Corrance's Grenadier Company
Private John Carroll - Capt. John Corrance's Grenadier Company
Private James Hartigan - Capt. John Corrance's Grenadier Company
Private Edward / Hugh Montgomery - Capt. John Corrance's Grenadier Company

(Courtesy Don Hagist)


Massacre Site Drawing by Paul Revere (1770) - Possibly Used at the Trial of the 29th Regiment of Foot
(Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library)
Captain Thomas Preston
H.M. 29th Regiment of Foot

48 Years of Age at the time of the “Massacre”

“The Captain had a Sword in his hand. Was dressd in his


Regimentals. Had no Surtout on. I saw nothing thrown nor any
blows given at all. The first man on the right who fired after
attempting to push the People slipped down and drop'd his Gun out
of his hand. The Person who stepd in between the 4th and 5th Men I
look upon it gave the orders to fire. His back was to me. I shall always
think it was him. The Officer had a Wig on.”
(Deposition of Nathaniel Fosdick)
Captain Thomas Preston
H.M. 29th Regiment of Foot

“I knew the Captain by sight and name. He stood to the left of the
whole rather behind with his back towards the long Wharfe. He had
his Regimentals, a hat on, his breast plate and Sash round his body
and Sword in his hand.”
(Deposition of Benjamin Lee)

“Were in a line with an Officer before 'em, with a Sword in his hand,
a laced hat on, and a red Coat, and I remember Silver on his
Shoulder.”
(Deposition of Andrew, A Negro Servant)
Captain Thomas Preston
H.M. 29th Regiment of Foot

“... as I got there I saw Capt. Preston at the head of six or eight
soldiers; the soldiers had their guns breast high, with their bayonets
fixed. I went immediately to Capt. Preston, and asked him if the
soldiers guns were loaded; his answer was, "They were loaded with
powder and ball;" I then asked him if he intended they should fire on
the inhabitants, his answer to me was, "By no means." I did not hear
him tell the soldiers not to fire, nor did I hear him speak to them. I
saw a piece of ice fall among the soldiers; immediately upon this the
soldier upon his right hand fired his gun, that instant I heard the
word "Fire," but by whom I know not; the soldier at his left hand
fired next, and the others one after another, as fast as they could...”
(Testimony of Richard Palmes)
Captain Thomas Preston
H.M. 29th Regiment of Foot

“I turned myself to my left, and saw one man dead, upon which I
struck at the soldier who first fired the gun, and hit his left arm or
hand, which made his gun fall; I then struck at Capt. Preston, and
thought I hit his head, but he says I hit his arm; on my making the
stroke at him I fell on my right knee. I saw the soldier that fired the
first fire going to push his bayonet at me, upon which I threw my stick
at his head; he gave back, and gave me an opportunity to jump out of
his way, or must been run through the body. I directly passed through
Exchange-lane,”
(Testimony of Richard Palmes)
Corporal William Wemms
Captain Ponsonby Molesworth's Battalion Company

“Archbald. I know Matthew Killroy was of the party. I see him go


down with 'em. He has since told me he fired only Powder. The
party was led down by a Non Commission Officer, who I took to be
a Corporal with his arms advanced as usual.”

(Testimony of Archbald - Rex Vs. Preston)


Corporal William Wemms
Captain Ponsonby Molesworth's Battalion Company
“ Q. What was the situation of the Corporal?
A. He was the corner man at the left of the party.”
(Testimony of Ebenezer Bridgham, Merchant)

“ Q. Did they come down in a threatening posture?


A. Very threatening, at least their countenances looked so, they
said make way, damn you make way, and they pricked some
of the people.
Q. Did you see the Corporal?
A. I saw a person with the party, whom I took to be the Corporal.
Q. Had he a surtout on? 
A. Yes, he had.”
(Testimony of Benjamin Lee, Apprentice)
Corporal William Wemms
Captain Ponsonby Molesworth's Battalion Company

“ I did not see any thing thrown at the Centinel. I stood at the foot of
the Town house when the Guns were fired. I heard the People cry
damn your bloods fire on. To the best of my recollection the Corporal
had a Surtout on. I had none.”
(Testimony of Henry Knox)
Private Hugh White (The Sentinel)
Captain Pierce Butler’s Battalion Company

30 Years of Age at the time of the “Massacre”

“ He desired his Men to halt and the Centinel to recover his Arm, fall
into his Rank and march up to the Main Guard. The Centinel fell in
and the men wanted to move forward to the Guard house but could
not for the Riot.”
(Testimony of Jane Whitehouse)

“A little boy run along and cryed, fire! fire! fire! as people generally
do when there is fire, a soldier pointed his gun to him and fired, but
did not hit him, he was the last but one on the left.”
(Testimony of Joseph Hiller)
Private Hugh White (The Sentinel)
Captain Pierce Butler’s Battalion Company

“Immediately they loaded again. The people then gave three cheers,
and cry'd out, let's go in upon them, and prevent their firing again:
upon which they put on their hats and advanced towards them. My
hand being raised to put on my hat, still advancing towards the
soldiers, the centinel up with his gun and fired, the balls going
through my lower right arm, my hand immediately falling; and
finding myself wounded, made the best of my way home with help.
And further I say not.”
(Deposition of Robert Patterson)
Private William Warren
Captain John Corrance’s Grenadier Company

“ Q. Do you know any of the prisoners at the bar?


A. I particularly saw that tall man, (pointing to Warren, one of the
prisoners.)

Q. What part of the circle did the tall man stand in?
A. He stood next but one to the Corporal. The tall man whoever he
was, was the man I saw discharge his piece.”
(Testimony of Ebenezer Bridgeham, Merchant)
Private William McCauley
Captain John Corrance’s Grenadier Company

“I saw one Maccaulley a Grenadier Prime and load. Turnd about.


Heard the firing. Saw Maccaulley loading again. Before I turnd 3
Guns were fired and the Molatto was killed. I heard no Orders to
Prime and load nor the word given, fire. Mccaulley before any firing
struck at me with his Bayonet.”

“Q. How near was you to McCauley at that time?


I was about four feet off: McCauley said “Damn you, stand off,” and
pushed his bayonet at me: I did so: Immediately I heard the report of
a gun.”
(Testimony of Jonathan Williams Austin)
Private Matthew Kilroy
Captain John Corrance’s Grenadier Company

“I saw Kilroy fire, and Saml. Gray fell and struck my left foot. I knew
him before, very well, and know it was he. [ . . . ] there was 2 or 3 at
Kilroys right. With red [coa]ts, but cant say whether armed or not. I
said God d—n you, dont fire, or damn you dont, and he fired at
once. Gray stood still by me. Kilroys Gun went off and S. Gray fell,
and I heard no Gun by his at that time. Gray spoke to nobody but me,
that I heard. He had no Weapen, was naked. Threw no snow Ball, or
any Thing. Grays Hands were in his Bosom. I was looking Kilroy
right in the Face. I heard the Ratling of Guns, but saw nothing flung.
I took it Kilroys Gun kill'd Gray. Did not see that Kilroy aimed at
Gray any more than me. He designed to kill both of us I suppose”
(Deposition of Edward Gambett Langsford - Watchman)
Private John Carroll
Captain John Corrance’s Grenadier Company

“ Carrol stood the 3 d. from the right.”

“Montgomery was knockd down and his Musquet fell out of his Hand
by a Clubb or stick of Wood by one of the Inhabitants and as soon as
he got up he fired his Gun, I think Carrol fired next.”
(Testimony of James Bailey)
Private James Hartigan
Captain John Corrance’s Grenadier Company

xx
Private Edward / Hugh Montgomery
Captain John Corrance’s Grenadier Company

35 Years of Age at the time of the “Massacre”

“ Q. Where did Montgomery stand?


A. At the corner of Royal-exchange-lane, the right hand man of
the party.”
(Testimony of Jedediah Bass)

“ When I came to King-street, I went immediately up to one of the


soldiers, which I take to be that man who is bald on the head,
(pointing to Montgomery).”
(Testimony of Benjamin Burdick)
Private Edward / Hugh Montgomery
Captain John Corrance’s Grenadier Company

“Montgomery was knockd down and his Musquet fell out of his Hand
by a Clubb or stick of Wood by one of the Inhabitants and as soon as
he got up he fired his Gun, I think Carrol fired next. The Clubb was
not thrown but I saw him struck with it. He fell down himself and the
Gun fell out of his Hand. The Person that struck was a tall, stout man.
There was 50 or 60 People near. Montgomery fired, about where the
Molatto fell. It was pointing towards the Place where we saw Attucks
lie. It was not the Mollato that struck Montgomery. But the Blow was
very violent...”
(Testimony of James Bailey)
Private Edward / Hugh Montgomery
Captain John Corrance’s Grenadier Company

“The Man that struck Montgomery down stood at the right of the
right Hand Grenadier. The Blow was before the firing.. Did not see
any Blow given or any Thing sent but the Blow I gave myself and the
Piece of Ice which hit Montgomery. Montgomery could not have
been knockd down and I not have seen it before the firing, for he
stood close to Captn. Preston. I struck Montgomery and knockd him
down just as the last Gun was fired”
(Testimony of James Bailey)
Private Edward / Hugh Montgomery
Captain John Corrance’s Grenadier Company

“Knows the 2 farthest Men, Hartigan and Carrol. Saw em there. I


saw Montgomery there and saw him fire. Saw no Blow given or stick
or any thing thrown at him. Montgomery stood at the right of C.P. I
saw a little stick fly over their Heads, but did not perceive that it hit.
A Piece of a rattan or some such thing ”
(Testimony of John Danbrook)

“ Q. Which way did Montgomery front?


A. He fronted the watch house.”
(Testimony of Richard Palmes)
Material Culture Specifics
Detail: Pre-1768 Warrant Coats with Yellow Tails & “Mariner” Cuffs
White Laced Cocked Hats
Likely Battalion Company Troops Mistakenly Represented by Pelham & Revere in Haste
“CAPS”
“Peter Cunningham. On Cry of fire, I went down Kingstreet and
saw  Capt. Preston  stand by Main Guard and cry  turn
out  <Main>  the Guard... The Person who gave order
for  <firing>  priming and load was dress'd in Red, and Sash, no
Arms. I was within 5 feet of him. The Soldiers all had Caps. I knew
Capt. Preston by Sight very well.”

The Trial of Capt. Thos. Preston


Notes of Robert Treat Paine

While the 29th Regiment of Foot may have received new clothing
and accoutrements that met the standards of the 1768 Warrant in
November of 1769, there is no evidence to suggest that it was issued
to the troops by March of 1770. Given the details displayed by the
Pelham and Revere illustrations, it is highly likely that these troops
were wearing their old uniforms at the time of the “Massacre”.
Detail: Grenadier, H.M. 29th Regiment of Foot
by David Morier c. 1751 - 1760
(The Royal Collection)
“A View of Part of the Town of Boston in New - England And British Ships of War Landing Their Troops 1768”
by Paul Revere c. 1770
(American Antiquarian Society)
“A View of Part of the Town of Boston in New - England And British Ships of War Landing Their Troops 1768”
by Paul Revere c. 1770
(American Antiquarian Society)
Cloth Grenadier Cap, H.M. 12th Regiment of Foot with Regimental Designation in Roman Numerals c. 1759
Height 28 cm, Width 20 cm, Diameter 20 cm
(Zeghaus)
Arms
The 29th Regiment of Foot was issued new Firearms in 1765
These were likely 1756 Long Land Pattern Firelocks

British Long Land 1756 Pattern Firelock


Marked for H.M. 47th Regiment of Foot
Likely Carried on 19 April, 1775
(Don Troiani)
Arms
The Grenadiers of a British Regiment were issued Hangers
They are called “Cutlasses” in many Boston accounts from 1768 - 1770

British Grenadier Hanger


Marked for H.M. 25th Regiment of Foot
(Don Troiani)
Accoutrements

Altered
Pre - 1768 Warrant
Cartridge Pouch
(Don Troiani)
Accoutrements

Altered
Pre - 1768 Warrant
Cartridge Pouch
(Don Troiani)
Accoutrements

Altered Pre - 1768 Warrant Cartridge Pouch


(Don Troiani)
Accoutrements

British Grenadier Cartridge Pouch Belt with Replaced Wires vs. Leather Thongs
c. 1765 - 1775
(Don Troiani)
Timing the Scene
English Gilt Pair Cased Watch with Verge Movement
by Dollop of London c. 1760
(Cogs & Pieces, Antique Pocket Watches)
Town House Square
Boston, Massachusetts (Royal)
5 March, 1770 Exchange Lane
8:00 P.M.
Hitching
Post

Private Hugh White


Battalion Co.
H.M. 29th Regiment of Foot

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post

Private Hugh White


Battalion Co.
H.M. 29th Regiment of Foot

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Edward Garrick
Benjamin Broaders
Ann Green
Mary Rogers
Hitching
Post

Private Hugh White


Battalion Co.
H.M. 29th Regiment of Foot

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House

Edward Garrick
Benjamin Broaders
Hitching
Post

Private Hugh White


Battalion Co.
H.M. 29th Regiment of Foot

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House

Edward Garrick
Benjamin Broaders
(Royal)
Lieutenant-Captain John Goldfinch Exchange Lane
H.M. 14th Regiment of Foot

Hitching
Post

Private Hugh White


Battalion Co.
H.M. 29th Regiment of Foot
Edward Garrick
Benjamin Broaders
Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post

Private Hugh White


Battalion Co.
H.M. 29th Regiment of Foot

Edward Garrick
Benjamin Broaders
Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
(Royal)
Exchange Lane

Hitching
Post
Private Hugh White
Battalion Co.
H.M. 29th Regiment of Foot

Edward Garrick
Benjamin Broaders
Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post
Private Hugh White
Battalion Co.
H.M. 29th Regiment of Foot

Edward Garrick
Benjamin Broaders
Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post

Private Hugh White


Battalion Co.
H.M. 29th Regiment of Foot

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Private Warren

Corporal Wemms

Hitching
Post

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Unknown Woman
(Or NOT)

Hitching
Post

Jane Crothers

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Captain Thomas Preston

Hitching
Post

“Man in Black”

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
(Royal)
Captain Thomas Preston Exchange Lane
Private James Hartigan
Grenadier Co. Private Edward / Hugh Montgomery
Grenadier Co.
Private John Carroll
Grenadier Co.
Private Matthew Kilroy
Grenadier Co.
Private William McCauley
Grenadier Co.
Private William Warren
Grenadier Co.
Private Hugh White
Battalion Co.
Corporal WilliamWemms
Battalion Co. Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Attucks

Hickling
Palmes

Hitching
Post

Burdick

Jane Crothers
Private White

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post
Montgomery

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Sam. Gray

Hitching
Post
Hartigan

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post

Kilroy

Warren

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House
Hitching
Post

Kilroy

Warren

Sentry The
Box
PAINT IT! Customs
House
Hitching
Post

Kilroy

Warren

Sentry The
Box
Customs
House

Troiani Painting
View
Creating a New Vision
Of the Boston Massacre:
Reconstructing
The 5th of March, 1770
Based on Period Accounts
BOSTON
March
2016
THE FUTURE

250 Years
THANK YOU!