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880386

A Review of V.r ya gee Engine Valve


Timing
c. Gray
Ricardo Consulting Engineers plc

International Congress and Exposition


Detroit, Michigan
February 29-March 4, 1988
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Copyright ©1988 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

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880386

A Review of Variable Engine Valve


Timing
C. Gray
Ricardo Consulting Engineers plc

ABSTRACT BENEFITS OF VVT

This paper presents a broad review of the Since most work on VVT has been concerned
whole subject of variable valve timing applied with gasoline engines the major part of this
to both gasoline and diesel engines, including paper relates to this type of engine but a
related technology such as the use of short discussion of the potential benefits for
supplementary valves in the intake ports or diesel engines is also included.
manifolds. The current motivation to provide
variable valve timing and the state of The valve timing events of an engine are
development of mechanisms to achieve it are shown in diagrammatic form in Fig. 1, For
discussed, followed by a prediction of gasoline engines it is generally found that
possible future trends. the timing of IVC and the length of the
overlap period are the main variables which
need to be controlled in order to achieve most
of the potential benefits of VVT.
IT HAS LONG BEEN KNOWN that improvements in
gasoline engine performance would be
obtainable if the valve timing were variable
so that it could be optimised for any
combination of engine speed and load
TDC
throughout the whole operating range of the
engine. Crankshaft

However, the difficulty of providing a


Overlap n Rotation
Period
variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism with
acceptable cost, durability and reliability
has meant that very few automotive engines in
normal production have ever been equipped with
VVT, but the scale of present effort on the
subject indicates that more applications of
VVT may be expected in the next few years.

Much of the literature on VVT describes EVO


particular devices for varying the valve
timing of an experimental engine, followed by
a summary of the improvements in engine
performance parameters resulting from
optimising the valve timing at each running BDC
condition. The present paper aims to restate
the main points of this literature, to provide
TOC-Top Dead Centre BDC -Bottom Dead Centre
a further example of engine performance IVO-Inlet Valve Opening IVC -Inlet Valve Closing
benefits, and to provide a coherent review of EVO-Exhaust Valve Opening EVC-Exhaust Valve Closing
some of the more recent publications so that
the possible ways forward can be identified
and further progress encouraged. Figure 1 Valve Timing Diagram

0148-7191/88/0229-0386$02.50
Copyright 1988 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.
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2 880386

For gasoline engines, the emphasis in the In recent times there has been a shift of
past has been mainly on improving torque emphasis away from improvement of high-speed
throughout the speed range, and Fig. 2 shows torque towards improvement of fuel consumption
measurements taken on a typical modern 2 litre and smoothness of running at low speeds.
engine with three different values of IVC. Since fuel consumption is generally judged by
Details of the engine are given in the the results obtained on a driving cycle such
Appendix. The valve overlap and the exhaust as the ECE-15 fuel economy cycle, and
valve timing were held constant during these steady-state speeds at part loads, the results
tests. Although the results are presented as are affected to a large extent by the engine
a separate curve for each value of IVC, it can fuel consumption at light loads and at idle.
be seen that with continuously variable IVC It is therefore important to concentrate
the torque could be increased significantly in attention on these operating conditions. Fig.
comparison with the standard timing in both 3 shows fuel consumption contours at light
the upper and lower parts of the speed range. load and medium load for the same 2 litre
At low speeds this engine was knock limited; engine as before. It is seen that the best
otherwise the torque difference would have fuel consumption at these part loads is
been larger. obtained with early IVC and short overlap.
The reasons for this are uncertain but might
be associated with the lower residual gases.
Other forms of VVT investigated on the same
engine were:-
IVC 15 . Early
Std. (50*ABDC) - Variable valve overlap, with constant IVC
—1 VC 15" Late - Variable period cam, with constant angle
20 . 0verlap in all Cases
12 of peak lift

— 11
0
a 10
a-
IIIIMINMIN
MI 111 VVT.
Fig. 4 shows the IVC and overlap
variations with each of the three forms of

MIMI El
w
9 The benefits which could be obtained with
co the three alternative types of variable valve
8

7 IIIIIIIIIIIIIMII
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Engine Speed (rev/min)
timing when compared with fixed valve timing
are shown in Table 1. These values have all
been derived from test results of the same 2
litre engine. No allowance is made for
possible increased friction of the VVT
Figure 2 Effect of IVC on Full Load Brake mechanism.
Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) for
Typical 2 Litre Gasoline Engine.

6 70
0
co
\Lark) bl e IVC
2000 rev/min Light Load
2200 rev/min Medium Loud ta-

70 rn
60
I
Va riabte
P eriod
60 Elir.- 1 101 rn

i
1.0
<
ill 0•98
c 50
0
Var'able ---
098 IAlggigfiM I l --07.96 a Overtop
ct 50
M
0 . 97 .....
0.95
MO ---• 095
U

0 . 95 --0.94
j 40
40 1111. - 11 0 93

30 3020
-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 20 40 60
Overlap deg.) Overtop Period ( deg.crank)

Figure 3 Relative Specific Fuel Consumption Figure 4. Combinations of Inlet Valve Closing
Contours at Part Loads for Typical 2 Angle and Overlap Period Used in
Litre Gasoline Engine. Tests of 2.0 Litre Engine.
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880386 3

This comparison indicates that the 1st Conventional Early Intake-


method offers substantial benefits at the Throttling Valve Closing
important low speed and part load conditions
but for maximum torque at rated speed an
increase in overlap, preferably with later IVC
also, gives better results.

An indirect benefit from improving the


engine torque and smoothness at low speeds is Patm
that a higher axle ratio can then be used and
this further improves the fuel consumption
because for a given road speed the engine runs Vtdc Vbdc Vtdc Vbdc
slower with correspondingly lower friction Volume Volume
losses.
Figure 5. Comparison of Ideal Pressure-Volume
An important additional improvement in Diagrams at Part Load for Early IVC
fuel consumption can be obtained if the inlet and Conventional Throttled Engine.
valve closing point can be varied over a wide
enough range to provide load control without
the pumping losses associated with inlet
throttling. Idealized pressure-volume diagrams
at part load for a conventional throttled Tablel.Comparison of Benefits from Alternative
engine and for an unthrottled engine with Timing Variations Relative to Engine
early IVC are shown in Fig. 5. Clearly there with Fixed Timing
is a significant reduction in pumping loss,
although the magnitude may be exaggerated in Variable Constant Variable
this example. IVC IVC Period
Constant Variable Cam
Overlap Overlap
Two papers by Tuttle (1*, 2) show the
effect of both late IVC and early IVC on the
pumping losses, fuel consumption and other
operating parameters of an unthrottled Increase in torque 8 9 11
homogeneous-charge spark ignition engine. at rated speed
Compared with a conventional throttled engine
operating at part load the engine with late Increase in torque 5 0 2
IVC had lower pumping losses, lower specific at low speed
fuel consumption, lower NOx emissions and
similar HC emissions. The engine with early Improvement in 5 0 3
IVC had somewhat higher HC emissions than the part load fuel
conventional engine but otherwise had similar consumption
benefits to the engine with late IVC.
According to Ma (3) a variation of IVC over a
range of 120 deg is necessary to provide load
control by early IVC down to 30r. of full control to by-pass excess exhaust gas or air.
load. For lower loads throttling is still Consequently, as shown by Watson and Janata
needed. Load control can also be aided by (4), it is possible to use valve timing which
variable valve lift which is an additional is optimised for low speed running because at
feature of some VVT mechanisms. high speeds the resulting lower volumetric
efficiency of the engine is compensated for by
In many cases exhaust emissions can be the higher delivery pressure of the
improved by VVT but for engines which will turbocharger. Thus good performance can be
still need catalysts to meet emissions obtained at both low and high speeds without
regulations there is little to be gained by the need for VVT and with reduced waste-gating
optimising the valve timing for this losses.
purpose.
DIESEL ENGINES - There are several
For engines without catalysts it will features of diesel engines that make the
often be found that valve timing optimised for potential benefits of VVT much less than for
best fuel consumption or torque and smooth gasoline engines.
running at low speeds will also give an
improvement in HC emission and possibly NOx Firstly, because the load is controlled
emission as well. simply by adjusting the quantity of fuel
injected and not by throttling, the pumping
TURBOCHARGED GASOLINE ENGINES - The losses at part loads are much smaller and
operating characteristics of a turbocharger there is no benefit to be gained by varying
compressor are such as to produce more air
than the engine needs at high speeds, making * Numbers in parentheses designate references
it necessary to have some form of waste-gate at end of paper.

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4 880386

the inlet valve timing to reduce the quantity early inlet valve closing to control peak
of air inducted. firing pressure is not as effective as the use
of VCR pistons, but it allows the brake mean
Secondly, fuel injection equipment effective pressure (bmep) to be increased by
limitations currently restrict even the 30 to 40 per cent for a given peak firing
highest speed automotive diesels to a maximum pressure. Cycle efficiency can be more nearly
rated speed of 4500 rev/min or so, which is retained at high loads because the expansion
appreciably less than for a corresponding ratio is not reduced as with VCR pistons.
gasoline engine. This means that valve timing They noted also the same potential advantage
optimised for good cold starting ability, high as for VCR pistons in terms of ability to burn
torque at low speeds and good fuel economy is lower quality fuel, reduction of diesel knock
not too restrictive to air flow at the rated and reduction of exhaust emissions because of
speed. a reduction in ignition delay at light loads.

Thirdly, the compression ratio of a An early example of a practical


high-speed diesel engine needs to be much application of VVT is the Miller (8) system of
higher than for a gasoline engine. Typical variable inlet valve phasing for turbocharged
values would be: engines. This enables the inlet valve to be
closed before BDC so that the effective
IDI diesel 22:1 compression ratio is reduced and the
DI diesel 17:1 temperature of the trapped air is lowered,
Gasoline 9.5:1 thus reducing the mechanical and thermal
loading of the engine. The system has not
The clearance between the piston at TDC been widely applied because advances in engine
and the cylinder head face as a result has to design have made it possible to accept higher
be very small, and the valve to piston mechanical and thermal loads, thus making it
clearance is a critical design feature possible to achieve high output without
limiting the variation of IVO and EVC (5). resorting to VVT.
Any system of VVT would be restricted in its
operation because of this. Some efficiency benefits may be available
from variation in EVO timing so that exhaust
MEDIUM-SPEED DIESEL ENGINES - This class energy is most effectively used in the turbine
of engine is used for purposes such as at all loads and speeds, but the magnitude of
industrial power generation, marine propulsion the benefits available is uncertain.
and rail traction. The use of high-pressure Vormstein and Pleimling (9) for example
turbocharging and engine compression ratios in reported that the optimum EVO for a
the region of 12:1 is normal, with large valve medium-speed engine to maximise the mean
overlap periods. Valve/piston clash is no indicated pressure was the same at both 600
longer a problem because the piston to and 1000 rev/min, whereas Bhinder et al (10)
cylinder head clearance is greater and valve for a 6 litre turbocharged truck engine found
pockets can be provided in the piston crown. that the optimum EVO for both maximum bmep and
best specific fuel consumption varied from 50
The possible benefits of VVT for deg. before BDC at 1000 rev/min to 75 deg.
medium-speed engines are considered by Neth before BDC at 2500 rev/min. The fuel saving
and Streuli (6). Their predictions indicate relative to an engine with fixed EVO was
that variations in IVC and valve overlap over estimated to be up to 3.5 g/kW-hr.
the range of power output of a
highly-turbocharged marine engine could give: Engines burning heavy fuel tend to have
shorter overlap periods to prevent blowback
1) Improved matching of the turbocharger to into inlet ducts at low load. The actual
the engine. overlap used is therefore a compromise between
blowback and full load component
2) Reduced fuel consumption throughout the temperatures. VVT would help in this case if
whole load range. it could be arranged to give short overlap at
low loads and long overlap at high loads.
3) Lower temperatures at part load as a
result of the higher air/fuel ratio and MECHANISMS FOR VARYING VALVE TIMING
constant or decreasing thermal load.
Any student of the subject will soon
4) No exhaust gas reverse flow to cause become aware that the search for a practical
deposits on inlet valves and intake ducts and effective means to vary valve timing has
at very low part loads. caught the imagination of inventors worldwide,
probably ever since the invention of the
Further predictions of the benefits of internal combustion engine. Many devices are
applying VVT to similar engines are given by described in the patent literature and some
Ladommatos and Stone (7), who also considered have been tested on engines. In a good number
the effect of using variable compression ratio of cases engine performance results have been
(VCR) pistons. They concluded that the use of obtained in the laboratory and sometimes the

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880386 5

camshafts. Only a few mechanisms are known to


VARIABLE VALVE l'IMENG MEDIAttISMS have been put into large scale production at
• n, the time of writing, and these are all of the
Valve acluahon Mechanical tlydiciAIC kIr
Elecnmagntlic type which produce a steady phase angle

IN
.
I ilechaniCal or ▪ ohydtaulic
Elecli ushn-MvIiS variation of the whole camshaft.
Vari able Camshaft Yonab.lo Follower hydraulic crinivol Krynzewski scamiStaly)
il3othoisul Stonla,/ vcno,d
Ger onger {IS-17 1 The rather bewildering array of different
112 -14/ mechanisms can be classified in a number of
Link with trovablV plod!
different ways, one of which is shown in Fig.
_----,/ 6. This arranges the mechanisms first
Spn.gle- cam Multiple cams Swinging Levet Psot i\taltng Auxiliary
according to the means by which the valve is

/\
oremlltyvarnrg follower betweencoin any., corn
oarn In change or rocket corn and Sy cceenItit Addilion actuated, then (for mechanical actuation)
phase period r m,Stivcr.dcl!bllowet sod rod
system [Buroodt iFial I
main corn
secondly according to the means by which the
and lilt Dalrnter
UlLInner.0 SCPritill (25) [ I/tst,nn timing is varied. Some examples of the
Steady
PE-201
Cyclically
WnAd 125.27) different types (3, 8, 11-41) are given in
122-241
phase wrong
HydiAtilie lame!
Fig. 6 and short descriptions will now be
angle phone angle
vatialicri td nary
with 1031 was. given of a few which are believed to be under
Alta-Rome,-pmMavel development at the present time.
City Urn.. an phase r
Flow-rate Control by Spill control EltellOnie
Food IWCierrn1 .dirndl oil Curnenrns control
GM E
Fp r a WC check valve supply "D RENOLD CAMSHAFT PHASE-CHANGE MECHANISM
Renoir: Mitchell lEfury ISMI Msconl Hut.C.D
I 3 -32 I 13E1 1371 SEMI (32) - Fig. 7 shows this example of a
[Ron
133,3,36,35 1 mechanism to vary the phase angle of the inlet
camshaft of a double overhead camshaft (DOHC)
Figure 6. Classification of Variable Valve engine. It incorporates an axial motion
Timing Mechanisms. hydraulic piston with a helix on the inside
and a rounded rectangular external profile.
The assembly is mounted at the driven end of
mechanism has provided a useful tool for the the camshaft with the drive sprocket for a
optimisation of valve timing without the need chain drive attached to the outside. The
for producing several different alternative phase angle can be varied by 15 deg cam angle.

CAMSHAFT SENSOR
ENGINE
OIL
1 LINEAR TO ROTARY HELICAL CHA/NWHEE PRESSURE CHAIN
PISTON SHAFT WHEEL

SEAL

SENSOR
HP
SLOT

SOLENOID
VALVES BEARING
t CAMSHAFT
LP DRIVE
~CHAIN
BEARING

HOLLOW DOWEL
END OUTER OUTER BODY
PLATE BODY RETUPP
SPRING
HELIC AL SHAFT
To ,1
SUMP =..L

SCREW WITH
RESTRICTOR POSSIBLE MAP OF
OPTIMUM PHASE ANGLE
AGAINST SPEED S LOAD
RETURN SPRING

f.N\
hi van 0010
LINEAR TO ROTARY PISTON n tort

i.1.1DAD
t,irnt Anton

PHASE CONTROLLER

Figure 7. Renold Camshaft Phase Change Mechanism (28).


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6 880386

Adjustable
Cam Labe
(1 t‘fte Part

3-Dimensional Cam

<3-- Tilting Pod

Cylindrical Seating Outer Tubular


Inner Shaft
Hexagonal
Shaft
Saddle with guides Camshaft Section
to prevent
rotation
tappet
No.1
Shim No .2
Tappet with lugs to Engine Rotation
prevent transverse
movement of saddle Cam
Adjustment 111

Figure 8. Fiat 3-Dimensional Cam Mechanism Figure 9. Cam Phase Change Mechanism of Elrod
(14) and Nelson (38)

FIAT 3-DIMENSIONAL CAM - Fig. 8 shows the It is seen that the cam period varies but
tapered-profile cam engaging with a its phase angle remains constant because
tilting-pad type of follower. Axial movement variation of the phase angle would cause the
of the camshaft brings a different part of the cam surface to become hollow, thus destroying
cam into engagement with the follower, giving the line contact required with a flat
a change in valve lift and timing. Since the follower.
base circle radius has to be constant along
the length of the cam but the peak is tapered, Although much progress towards the
the pad follower has to change its angle of introduction of this mechanism on engines in
tilt as the cam rotates. A barrel-shaped normal production has been reported (18),
roller follower might provide an alternative there has been no announcement that this has
to the tilting pad but the contact stresses been achieved at the time of writing.
would be greatly increased.
ELROD AND NELSON CAM-LOBE PHASING (42) -
The variations in inlet and exhaust valve Fig. 9 shows one form of this system for
timing and lift quoted in an example are shown producing a continuously-variable change of
in Table 2. phase angle of individual cams instead of the
whole camshaft. A control mechanism on one
end of the shaft varies the phase angle of an
inner hexagonal-section shaft to which the
movable cams are attached relative to an outer
Table 2. Example of Variations of Valve Timing tubular shaft which is driven by the drive
and Lift with Fiat 3-Dimensional Cam pulley or sprocket.

In one possible application each inlet


Low Speed High Speed valve is operated by a tappet riding on two
crank deg crank deg adjacent cams; one fixed and one variable.
This allows the valve opening period to be
Inlet valve opening 6 BTDC 27.5 BTDC varied but the valve train dynamic control
Inlet valve closing 42 ABDC 62.5 ABDC will inevitably be poor because of the sudden
Inlet cam period 228 270 changes in acceleration and velocity when
transferring control from one cam to the
Exhaust valve opening 42 BBDC 62.5 BBDC other.
Exhaust valve closing 6 ATDC 27.5 ATDC
Exhaust cam period 228 270 In another application each inlet valve
of an engine with 3 or 4 valves per cylinder

Valve overlap
period 12 55 is operated by a separate cam. The overall

Valve lift 6.33mm 9.3mm valve opening period can then be extended by
varying the phase of one cam, and good dynamic
control of each valve is retained.
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880386 7

Like the devices which vary the phase Camshaft


angle of the whole camshaft, the valve train
operates in just the same way as a valve train
with fixed timing once the phase angle has
Solenoid Valve
been set to the required value. This means
that in principle there is no additional
friction and no adverse effect on dynamic First Tappet
control.
Tappet
FORD HARMONIC DRIVE (3) - There are Chamber
several ways to produce a cyclic speed
variation of a camshaft so that the valve
opening periods can be dynamically shrunk or Second Tappet
stretched to obtain the required valve timing with
variations. The 1:1 harmonic drive mechanism Hydraulic Valve Pressure
described by Ma and shown in Fig 10 has a Braking Reservoir
number of advantages over other devices. The
variable angular oscillation amplitude is Valve Spring
created by an eccentric coupling with a
transverse slider mechanism which produces
identical but opposite angular changes to two
oppositely-phased VVT members, thereby
performing the VVT function and at the same
time maintaining perfect inertia balance. The Figure 11. Schematic Arrangement of Electra -
design is claimed to be compact, robust and hydraulic VVT Mechanism (14)
potentially of low cost. It is for a
4-cylinder engine and is in the form of a unit
with just two sliding components mounted at
the middle of the engine, driving a short hydraulic chamber during part of the cam
camshaft for each cylinder.
event. The idea of having a solenoid valve to
control the flow is very attractive because it
is easily integrated with an electronic engine
management system.

An electrohydraulically controlled VVT


system based on a patent of Bosch is described
by Geringer (14) and shown in Fig. 11. Its
main features are:
A hydraulic cylinder with an upper
piston operated by the cam and a
lower piston acting on the valve.

A solenoid valve which allows oil to


flow from the cylinder to an
accumulator or vice versa when it is
open.

A damper to control the valve


TO VVT CONTROL
seating velocity.

This system is claimed to be capable of


Figure 10. Ford VVT 1:1 Harmonic Drive (3) operating up to usual gasoline engine rated
speeds, gives large variations in timing and
lift, and is claimed to have low losses
because of the reduced valve operating forces
Because of the continuously oscillating and stroke at low lifts. Some probable
motion there is a friction penalty but it is disadvantages are that the additional parts
claimed that this has been reduced to 0.07 bar between the cam and the valve increase the
friction mean effective pressure by careful height of the engine, there is the additional
design for low friction and reduced number of cost of a solenoid valve and other parts for
moving parts. each inlet valve, the valve train stiffness is
reduced and the reliability of the solenoid
ELECTROHYDRAULIC CONTROL - There are a valves and other components would need to be
number of possible ways of achieving VVT based of a high order.
on the principle of a hydraulic tappet (or a
hydraulic lash adjuster) with some form of To summarise, this short review of VVT
control valve to allow oil to escape from the mechanisms is not intended to do more than
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8 880386

give an indication of current activity in this optimum swirl and different valve timing gives
field. It remains to be seen whether further good low speed performance (45).
development of these or other mechanisms will
produce a reliable system with a sufficiently The reed valve, in principle,
attractive ratio of benefits to cost for it to automatically prevents backflow of exhaust gas
be adopted in production. Even if this cannot during the overlap period and return flow of
be achieved in the near future it can be air from the cylinder during the compression
expected that successful applications to stroke at low speeds; hence valve timing
laboratory and experimental engines will be optimised for maximum power with large overlap
seen. and late inlet valve closing, can be used
without impairing low speed/low load
ALTERNATIVE VALVE TECHNOLOGY performance. However, the reed valve would
need to be very close to the poppet valve to
There are a number of alternatives to VVT be effective, and it would be bound to cause a
which may be capable of giving similar restriction in the port, thus reducing the
benefits. These can be grouped into three maximum power. An example of an inlet
categories: manifold with reed valves was tested by
Emmenthal and Manz (46) on a small
Alternatives to the poppet valve turbocharged engine. Compared with a
- Supplementary valves in the inlet conventional manifold they measured increased
port or manifold torque at low speeds and a reduction of only a
- Two inlet valves, with differences few per cent at high speeds.
in size, timing or porting
CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE TRENDS
These categories will now be looked at
each in turn, although some overlap occurs The potential performance and economy
when for instance a butterfly valve is used to benefits of VVT for gasoline engines have been
control air flow to one of two inlet valves. widely reported in the literature, current
emphasis being mainly on the improvement of
ALTERNATIVES TO THE POPPET VALVE - The fuel consumption, especially at part loads and
poppet valve is firmly established as the best idle. Improvements in low speed torque and
type of valve for sealing the combustion smoothness are also important since they allow
chamber and allowing a good flow of inlet and the final drive gear ratio to be raised, with
exhaust gases. However, other types of valve a consequent further improvement in fuel
are known and might be easier to control to consumption.
vary the timing.
There is only limited interest in the use
The Cross rotary valve gives rapid of VVT on diesel engines because only the
opening and closing but since it combines larger more highly-rated engines can be
inlet and exhaust ports in one assembly the expected to show significant benefits.
only form of control that can be envisaged is
to change the phase angle of inlet and exhaust Present known applications of VVT to
together. This would give very little engines in quantity production are confined to
benefit. phase-angle changing mechanisms for the inlet
camshafts of DOHC engines. The 3-dimensional
Sleeve valves are another alternative to cam mechanism from Fiat is reported to be near
poppet valves but to vary the motion of the to production and may be released to the
sleeve in order to vary the timing would public in the near future.
probably be as difficult as to vary the timing
of a poppet valve. Research into all aspects of VVT
technology continues at educational
SUPPLEMENTARY VALVES IN THE INLET PORT OR establishments, automotive engine makers,
MANIFOLD - Since valves in these positions do research organisations and engine component
not have to withstand the high pressure and makers worldwide.
temperature of the gases in the cylinder they
can be of simple lightweight construction with PREDICTIONS OF FUTURE TRENDS - Since it
only moderate sealing efficiency and they are is clearly difficult to devise VVT mechanisms
relatively simple to control. Typically a capable of producing the desired timing
butterfly valve or a simple rotary valve is variations with acceptable cost, durability
used, but there is also the possibility of and reliability, it can be expected that
using a reed valve which is self-actuating. engine makers will continue to pursue any
simpler alternatives that o:Ters some or all
The supplementary valve can be used to of the potential benefits of VVT.
give effectively late opening or early closing
(or both) of the inlet valve (43), or to Turbocharging may be considered to be one
change the tuning of the induction system to of the alternatives to VVT, hence it is
improve low speed torque (44) or to shut off unlikely that engines will be fitted with both
one of two inlet ports so that the other with these features.
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880386 9
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APPENDIX

The engine for which test results are given


in Table 1 and Figs. 2 and 3 was a homogeneous
charge carburetted gasoline engine with a High
Ratio Compact Chamber (HRCC) in head, under the
exhaust valve, with low swirl., This type of
chamber is described by Thring and Overington
(47).

The engine had 4 cylinders in line, 2 valves


per cylinder, 2.0 litre displacement and 11.5:1
compression ratio.
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Downloaded from SAE International by University of New South Wales, Monday, August 27, 2018

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