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Group Members:

Rimsha Asad (17-Arid 1681)

Sadia Arooj (17-Arid 1684)

BSIT-5(A) Morning

Assignment No 1

Submitted to: Miss Aeman Shahzadi


Question No 1: Prepare a brief report on MIDI standards. Also
describe MIDI data, MIDI hardware/software, MIDI channels and
modes.
Answer:
1. MIDI Standards
DLS Format:
The DLS standards include detailed specifications for how MIDI protocol-controlled music
synthesizers should render the instruments in a DLS file. As a result, DLS can also be
considered primarily a synthesizer specification and only secondarily a file format.

General MIDI:
General MIDI (also known as GM or GM 1) is a standardized specification for electronic musical
instruments that respond to MIDI messages. GM was developed by the American MIDI
Manufacturers Association (MMA) and the Japan MIDI Standards Committee (JMSC) and first
published in 1991.

General MIDI Level 2:


General MIDI Level 2 or GM2 is a specification for synthesizers which defines several requirements
beyond the more abstract MIDI standard and is based on General MIDI and GS extensions. It was
adopted in 1999 by the MIDI Manufacturers Association (MMA).

Human User Interface Protocol:


Human User Interface Protocol (commonly abbreviated to HUI) is a proprietary MIDI
communications protocol for interfacing between a hardware audio control surface and digital audio
workstation (DAW) software. It was first created by Mackie and Digidesign in 1997 for use with Pro
Tools, and is now part of the Mackie Control Universal (MCU) protocol.

MIDI Tuning standard:


MIDI Tuning Standard (MTS) is a specification of precise musical pitch agreed to by the MIDI
Manufacturers Association in the MIDI protocol. MTS allows for both a bulk tuning dump message,
giving a tuning for each of 128 notes, and a tuning message for individual notes as they are played.

Roland GS:
Roland GS, or just GS, sometimes expanded as General Standard or General Sound, is an extension
of General MIDI specification. It requires that all GS-compatible equipment must meet a certain set
of features and it documents interpretations of some MIDI commands and bytes sequences, thus
defining more instrument tones, more controllers for sound effects, etc.
2. MIDI Data
When a musician plays a MIDI instrument, all of the key presses, button presses, knob turns and
slider changes are converted into MIDI data.

3. MIDI Hardware/Software

Hardware:
i. Cables:
Cables are the wires that link the MIDI hardware together.

ii. Connectors:
Cables terminate at connectors. These connectors connect the cables into the instrument.

iii. Management devices:


A MIDI merger is able to combine the input from multiple devices into a single stream, and
allows multiple controllers to be connected to a single device. A MIDI switcher allows switching
between multiple devices, and eliminates the need to physically repatch cables. MIDI patch
bays combine all of these functions.

iv. Interfaces:
A computer MIDI interface's main function is to match clock speeds between the MIDI device and
the computer.

v. Controllers:
Keyboards are by far the most common type of MIDI controller. Other controllers include drum
controllers and wind controllers, which can emulate the playing of drum kit and wind
instruments, respectively.

vi. Instruments:
A MIDI instrument contains ports to send and receive MIDI signals, a CPU to process those signals,
an interface that allows user programming, audio circuitry to generate sound, and controllers.

vii. Sampler:
A sampler can record and digitize audio, store it in random-access memory (RAM), and play it
back. Samplers typically allow a user to edit a sample and save it to a hard disk, apply effects to
it, and shape it with the same tools that synthesizers use.

viii. Drum Machines:


Drum machines typically are sample playback devices that specialize in drum and percussion
sounds.

ix. Effect devices:


Some effects units can be remotely controlled via MIDI. For example, the Eventide H3000 Ultra-
harmonizer allows such extensive MIDI control that it is playable as a synthesizer.
Software:

1) Sequencer:
Sequencing software provides a number of benefits to a composer or arranger. It allows
recorded MIDI to be manipulated using standard computer editing features such as cut, copy and
paste and drag and drop.

2) Notation/scoring software:
Scorewriting software typically lacks advanced sequencing tools, and is optimized for the
creation of a neat, professional printout designed for live instrumentalists.

3) Editor/librarians:
Patch editors allow users to program their equipment through the computer interface.

4) Auto-accompaniment programs:
Programs that can dynamically generate accompaniment tracks are called "auto-
accompaniment" programs. These create a full band arrangement in a style that the user selects,
and send the result to a MIDI sound generating device for playback.

5) Synthesis and sampling

6) Game Music

7) Other Applications:
 Game music MIDI Show Control
 VJs
 Turntablists
 Apple Motion

4. MIDI Channels
MIDI data is transmitted on MIDI channels. A single MIDI link through a MIDI cable can carry up
to sixteen channels of information, each of which can be routed to a separate device or
instrument. This could be sixteen different digital instruments, for example.

5. MIDI Modes
 Omni On/Poly – Device responds to MIDI data regardless of channel, and is polyphonic.
 Omni On/Mono – Device responds to MIDI data regardless of channel, and is
monophonic. This mode is rarely, if ever, used.
 Omni Off/Poly – Device responds to MIDI data only on one particular channel, and is
polyphonic. This is the normal mode for most keyboards that are not functioning
multitimbrally.
 Omni Off/Mono – Device responds to MIDI data only on one particular channel, and is
monophonic.
Question No 2: Apply following processing on any audio signal using
adobe audition and discuss the output.
i. Up-sampling or down-sampling
ii. Fade-ins and fade-outs
iii. Equalization
iv. Time stretching

Answer:
i. Up-sampling or down-sampling
Original Audio:
Up-Sampling:
Down-Sampling:
ii. Fade-ins and fade-outs
Fade-ins:

Fade-out:
iii. Equalization
iv. Time stretching

Original

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