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Management Process and Organization Behaviour

 
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MB  Management Process and Organization Behaviour 4 Credits

(Book ID: B



Assignment et

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A .
Management is a global need. It is essential to very individual, a family,
educational institution etc. Management is a distinct activity having the
following salient features or characteristics:

Ñm ÿ  : Management is a purposeful activity. It coordinates


the efforts of employees to achieve the goals of the organization. The
success of management is measured by the extent to which the
organisational goals are achieved. It is imperative that the organizational
goals must be welldefined and properly understood by the mangers at
various levels.
Ñm     : Management is one of the factors of
production together with land, labour and capital. It is the most critical
input in the success of any organised group activity. It is the force which
assembles and integrates other resources, namely, labour, capital and
materials. These factors do not by themselves ensure production; they
require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services
required by the society. Thus, management is an essential ingredient of
an organization.
Ñm   : Management is a distant process consisting of such
functions as planning, organizing, staffing, and directing and lay down
exactly the sequence of various functions of their relative significance. In

[ Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

essence, the process of management involves decisionmaking and


putting decisions into practice.
Ñm ÿ    : The essence of management is integration of
human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. All these
resources are made available to those who manage. Managers apply
knowledge, experience and management principles for getting the
results from the workers by the use of nonhuman resources. Managers
also seek to harmonize the individual͛s goal with the organizational goals
for the smooth working of the organisation.
Ñm  ÿ   : Management has been called an unseen force. Its
presence is evidenced by the result if its effortsorderliness, informed
employees, buoyant spirit and adequate work output. Thus, feeling of
management is resultoriented. One may not see with the naked eyes
the functioning of management but its results are apparently known.
People often remark of the effectiveness of management on the basis of
the end results, although they can͛t observe it during operation.

Ñm ÿ 
   Management is a process of organized
activities. Groups of people cannot be involved in the performance of
activities without organized activities. Management comes into
existence where a group of people are involved in achieving a common
objective. The organized activities may take a variety of forms ranging
from a tightly structured organization to a loosely knit organization.

Ñm    ÿ  : The managers cannot do everything


themselves. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work
accomplished through the efforts of others. They must motivate the
subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them.

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MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

Ñm    : Management has an organised body of


knowledge consisting of well defined concepts, principles and
techniques which have wide applications. o it is treated as a science.
The application of these concepts, principles and techniques requires
specializes knowledge and skills on the part of the manger. ince the
skills acquired by a manger are his personal possession, management is
viewed as an art.
Ñm    : Management as a team if managers represent
a system of authority, a hierarchy of command and control. Managers at
different levels possess varying degrees of authority. Generally, as we
move down in the managerial hierarchy, the degree of authority gets
gradually reduced. Authority enables the managers to perform their
functions effectively.
Ñm    : Management has grown as a field of
study taking help of so many other disciplines such as engineering,
Anthropology, ociology and Psycholo gy. Much of the management
literature is the result of association of these disciplines. For instance,
productivity orientation drew its inspiration from industrial engineering
and human relations orientation from Psychology. imilarly, ociology
and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of
management science.
Ñm      : Management is universal in character. The
principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the
fields of business, education, military, government and hospital.

Ñm      The existence of objectives is a basic


criterion of every human organization. The organizational objectives are

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MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

the desired state of affairs which an organization attempts to realize.


This realization of objectives is sought through the coordinated efforts of
the people constituting an organization.

Ñm   ÿ Management process involves decision making at


all levels. Decisionmaking describes the process by which a course of
action is selected as the way to deal with a specific problem. If there is
only one alternative, the question of decision making does not arise. The
quality of alternatives which a manger selects determines the
organization͛s performance, and the future of the organization.

Ñm      


 The essence of management is
integration of various organizational resources. Resources include
money, machine, materials, and people. Management is concerned with
the proper utilization of human resources which, in turn, utilize oth er
resources.

Ñm !  "    


   Management involves working with
people and getting organizational objectives achieved through them.
Working through people is interpreted in terms of assigning activities to
subordinates.

x Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

Ú  
  
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A. Individuals overall abilities are made up of two sets of factors: Intellectual


and Physical.

  

Intellectual abilities are those required to perform mental activities.

IQ tests are designed to ascertain one͛s general intellectual abilities. Examples


of such tests are popular college admission tests such as, the AT, GMAT and
LAT. The seven most commonly cited dimensions making up intellectual
abilities are: number aptitude, verbal comprehension, perpetual speed,
inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, spatial visualization and memory.

THE ABILITITE ARE CATEGORIXED IN THE FOLLOWING TABLE:

      



#  
 Ability to do speedy and Accountant
accurate arithmetic.
# Read Write speaking ability enior Managers

 
 
   Identify similarities and Investigators.
differences quickly and
accurately.
 
 $ Logical and sequence drawing Market researcher
 

 $ Ability to use logic and assess upervisors
  the implications of the
argument.
   Ability to imagine Interior Decorator

 % 
& Ability to retain and recall past ales person
experience. remembering
customer͛s name.

A Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

Job differ in the demands they place on incumbents to use their


intellectual abilities. A review of the evidence demonstrates that
tests that assess verbal, numerical, spatial and perpetual abilities are
valid predicators of job proficiency at all levels of jobs.

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A. William heldon (cited in Phrase,



 classified personality according t o
body type. He called this person͛s somatotype.

heldon identified three main omatotype :

         


    

   Relaxed, sociable, Plump, buxom,


'  ( tolerant, comfort developed visceral
living, peaceful. structure

  Active, assertive, Muscular


vigorous,
combative

  Quiet, fragile, Lean, delicate,


'# ( restraines, non poor muscles
assertative,
sensitive

X Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

   

In
4 s, heldon proposed a theory about how there are certain
body types (͞somatotypes͟ that are associated with certain
personality characteristics. William heldon (

 was an
American psychologist who devoted his life to observing the variety
of human bodies and temperaments. He claimed there are three
such omatotype: Endomorphy, Mesomorphy and Ectomorphy.


.m Endomorphy : Focused on the digestive system , particularly the
stomach (endoderm; has the tendency toward plumpness, corresponds
to Viscerotonia temperament tolerant , love of comfort and luxury,
extravert.

.m Mesophorphy Focused on musculature and the circulatory system


(mesoderm, has the tendency towards muscularity, corresponds to the
omatotonia temperament courageous, energetic, active, dynamic,
assertive, aggressive, risk taker.

.m Ectomorphy ʹ Focused on the nervous system and the brain (ectoderm 
the tendency towards slightness, corresponds to Cerebrotonia
temperament artistic, sensitive, apprehensive, introvert.

 Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

x "      #      )

A.4 Individuals have a tendency to use a number of shortcuts when they judge
others. An understanding of these shortcuts can be helpful toward recognizing
when they can result in significant distortions.

[m  $   


Any characteristic that makes a person object or event stand out will
increase the probability that it will be perceived. It is impossible for an
individual to internalize and assimilate everything that is seen. Only
certain stimuli can be taken selectively. electivity works as a shortcut in
judging other people by allowing us to ͞speed read͟ others, but, not
without the risk of drawing an inaccurate picture. The tendency to see
what we want to see can make us draw unwarranted conclusions from
an ambiguous situation.

Úm  


The halo effect (Murphy and Anhalt,
  occurs when we draw a
general impression on the basis of a single characteristic. For example,
while appraising the lecturer, students may give prominence to a single
trait, such as, enthusiasm and allow their entire evaluation to be tainted
by how they judge the instructor on that one trait which stood out
prominently in their estimation of that person. Research suggests that it
is likely to be most extreme when the traits to b e perceived are
ambiguous in behavioural terms, when the traits have moral overtones,
and when the perceiver is judging traits with which he or she has had
limited experience.

Jm   


Individuals do not evaluate a person in isolation. Their react ion to one
person is influenced by other persons they have encountered recently.
For example, an interview situation in which one sees a pool of job
applicants can distort perception. Distortion in any given candidate͛s
evaluation can occur as a result of his or her place in the interview
schedule.

a Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
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Management Process and Organization Behaviour

xm * 
This tendency to attribute one͛s own characteristics to other people 
which are called projection can distort perceptions made about others.
When managers engage in projection, they compromise their ability to
respond to individual differences. They tend to see people as more
homogeneous than they really are.

Am & 
tereotyping ʹjudging someone on the basis of our perception of the
group to which he or she belongs. Generalization is not without
advantages (Hilton &Hippel,
. It is a means of simplifying a complex
world, and it permits us to maintain consistency. The problem, of course,
is when we inaccurately stereotypes based on gender, age, race,
ethnicity and even weight. From a pe rpetual standout point, if people
expect to see these stereotypes, that is what they will perceive, whether
or not they are accurate.

Xm      


Individuals place a good deal of importance on first impressions. First
impressions are lasting impressions. We tend to remember what we
perceive first about a person, and sometimes we are quite reluctant to
change our initial impressions. Firstimpression error means the
tendency to form lasting opinions about an individual based on initial
perceptions. Primacy effects can be particularly dangerous in interviews,
given that we form first impressions quickly and that these impressions
may be the basis for longterm employment relationships.

§ Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

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A.5 Being Mr. Chandan following are the suggestion that i will give to Mr. Batra
to implement to have better environment of job satisfaction for the workers.


.m  &    "!: Employees tend to prefer jobs that give
them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of
tasks, freedom and feedback on how well they are doing. Under
conditions of moderate challenge, most employees will experience
pleasure and satisfaction.

.m   &*#  : People with personality types congrue nt with their


chosen vocations should find they have the right talents and abilities to
meet the demands of their jobs; and because of this success, they have a
greater probability of achieving high satisfaction from their work. It is
important, therefore to fit personality factors with job profiles.

.m 
# ": Employees want pay systems and promotion policies
that they perceive as being just, unambiguous and in line with their
expectations. When pay is seen as fair based on job demands, individual
skill level, and industry pay standards, satisfaction is likely to result.
imilarly, employees seek fair promotion policies and practices.
Promotions provide opportunities for personal growth, more
responsibilities and increased social status. Individual s who perceive that
promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner are likely to
experience job satisfaction.

[+ Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

4.m 
 $ "!      : Employees prefer physical conditions
that are comfortable and facilitate doing a good job. Temperature, light,
noise and other environmental factors should not be extreme and
provide personal comfort. Further, employees prefer working relatively
close to home, in clean and relatively modern facilities and with
adequate tools and equipment.

5.m 
 $ 
 Employees have need for social interaction.
Therefore, having friendly and supportive co workers and understanding
supervisor͛s leads to increased job satisfaction. Most employees want
their immediate supervisor to be understanding and friendly , those who
offer praise for good performance, listen to employees͛ opinions and
show a personal interest in them.

.m   #"  Whistle blowers are employees who inform authorities
of wrong doings of their companies or co workers. Whistle blowing is
important because committed organisational members sometime
engage in unethical behaviour in an intense desire to succeed.
Organisations can manage whistle blowing by communicating the
conditions that are appropriate for the disclosure of wrong doing.
Clearly delineating wrongful behaviour and the appropriate ways to
respond are important organizational actions.

m      #  & Corporate social responsibility is the obligation of


an organization to behave in ethical ways in the social environment in
which it operates. ocially responsible actions are expected of
organizations. Current concerns include protecting the environment,
promoting worker safety, supporting social issues, investing in the
community, etc. Managers must encourage both individual ethical
behaviour and organisational social responsibility.

[[ Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

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A. According to Maslow͛s Need Hierarchy theory,, human beings have wants
and desires which influences their behaviour, only unsatisfied needs can
influence behaviour, satisfied needs cannot. The needs are arranged in order
of importance, from the basic to the complex. The person advances to the next
level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. The
further they progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality , humanness and
psychological health a person will show.

The five needs given by Maslow are as follows:


.m &   Includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily
needs.
.m & Includes security and protection from physical and emotional
harm.
.m   Includes affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship.
4.m  Includes internal esteem factors, such as , selfrespect,
autonomy and achievement and external esteem factors, such as ,
status, recognition and attention.
5.m 
 %   The drive to become what one is capable of
becoming; includes growth, achieving one͛s potential, and self 
fulfilment.

[Ú Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

   &  -  .   & !    "  


.m The first points take care of the esteem needs. Offering cash rewards to
employees satisfies their self respect. They get external esteem factors
such as status, recognition and attention from others. They get to enjoy
general esteem from others.

.m The second point takes care of the social and self actualization needs.
When the employee refers to others, his need of affection,
belongingness, acceptance and friendship are satisfied. In this way, his
social needs are satisfied. When the employee is referring to others, his
selfactualization needs are also satisfied.

.m The third point takes care of the safety and social needs. The employee͛s
emotional needs are taken care of when they are praised for their good
performance. Their selfrespect is also satisfied. They get status,
recognition and attention. Their esteem nee ds are also satisfied.

The policy creates an employer  employee friendly relationship and makes the
bond stringer between them. And the work performance of the employees
also increases.

[J Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

 
       [
MB  Management Process and Organization Behaviour 4 Credits

(Book ID: B



Assignment et

[        )   ÿ      


  

A.
Emotional Intelligence is a relatively recent behavioural model, rising to
prominence with Daniel Goleman͛s
5 Book called ͚Emotional Intelligence͛.
Emotional Intelligence is increasingly relevant to organizational development
and developing people, because the EI principles provide a new way to
understand and assess people͛s behaviours, management styles, attitudes,
interpersonal skills and potential.

GOLEMAN͛ MODEL OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

Daniel Goleman and the Hay Group have identified a set of competencies that
differentiate individuals with Emotional Intelligence. The Competencies fall
into four clusters:


.m  " : Capacity for understanding one͛s emotions, one͛s
strengths, and one͛s weaknesses.
.m    : Capacity for effectively managing one͛s motives and
regulating one͛s behaviour.
.m   " : Capacity for understanding what others are saying
and feeling and why they feel and act as they do.
4.m      : capacity for acting in such a way that one is
able to get desired results from others and reach personal goals.

The most popular and accepted mixed model of emotional intelligence is the
one proposed by Goleman (
5. He lived emotional intelligence as a total of
personal and social competences. Personal competence determines how we

[x Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

manage ourselves, whereas social competence determines how we handle our


interpersonal relationships.

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

PERONAL COMPETENCE OCIAL COMPETENCE

ELF AWARENE EMPATHY

ELF REGULATION OCIAL ILL

MOTIVATION

ÿ       ÿ  

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A. The Five tage Model is one of the most important models in group
developments.

THE FIVE TAGE MODEL

The Five tage Model of group development was proposed by Bruce Tuckman
in
5 (initially it was a four stage but later he added a fifth stage, Adjourning,
in the
 .


.m  ÿ: In this stage the members are entering the group . the main
concern is to facilitate the entry of the group members. The individuals
entering are concerned with issues such as what the group can offer
them, their needed contribution the similarity in terms of their personal
needs, goals and group goals, the acceptable normative and behavioural
standards expected for group membership and recognition for doing the
work as per the group members.

[A Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

.m  ÿ: This is a turbulent phase where individuals try to basically


form coalitions and cliques to achieve a desired status within the group.
Members also go through the process of identifying to their expected
role requirements in relation to group requirements. In the process,
membership expectations tend to get clarified, and attention shifts
towards hurdles coming in the way of attaining group goals. Individuals
begin to understand and appreciate each other͛s interpersonal styles ,
and efforts are made to find ways to accomplish group goals while also
satisfying individuals needs.

.m  ÿ: From the norming stage of group development, the group
really begins to come together as a coordinated unit. At this point, close
relationships develop and the group shows cohesiveness. Group
members will strive to maintain positive balance at this stage.

4.m  ÿ The group now becomes capable of dealing with complex
tasks and handling internal disagreements in novel ways. The structure is
stable and members are motivated by group goals and are generally
satisfied. The structure is fully functional and accepted at this stage.
Group energy makes a transaction from member͛s focus on getting to
know and understand each other to performing.

5.m  ÿ A wellintegrated group is able to disband, if required,


when its work is accomplished, through in itself it may be a painful
process for group members, emotionally. The adjourning stage of group
development is especially important for the many tem porary groups
that are rampant in today͛s workplaces. Members of these groups must
be able to convene quickly, do their jobs on a tight schedule, and then
adjourn often to reconvene later, whenever required.

[X Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

J     # 


        )   

A. AMONG THE MOT PROMINENT OURCE OF CONFLICT IN THE


ORGANIATION ARE A FOLLOW:


.m       : The growth of highly specialized,
creative, welleducated staff poses unique problems for line managers.
Faced with a growing dependence on staff, line managers must adjust to
a reduction in organizational power and prestige. Conflict in most
organizations persists between line and staff because it is virtually
impossible to define precisely the responsibilit y and authority
relationships between the two.

.m ÿ 
     ÿ: From one perspective,
the conflict between the organization and the individual centres around
the individual͛s failure to fulfil the organization͛s expectations regardin g
productivity or compliance with rules. From another, the conflict is often
seen as resulting from excessive organizational demands. uch conflict
may be over or hidden from view, depending on the perception each
side has of the power of the other.

.m  ÿ   : Organizations constantly change in


response to personnel turnover, expansion or contraction, the adoption
of new policies, changes in external environment and so on. As a result,
it is impossible to establish job responsibilities once and for all. When a
change occurs, one person reaches out to assume more responsibility,
another retrenches and still another tentatively assumes responsibility
for certain functions without knowing definitely who should be
performing them. Thus, the stage is set for conflict.

4.m    : Conflicts between an organization͛s


functional Units, such as sales, accounting and manufacturing are
commonplace. The sales department is at odds with manufacturing
because quality is too low or prices are too high to meet the
competition. Although departments are separated on the basis of
function, they can never function as completely autonomous units. They

[ Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

must somehow resist the constant urge to view the organization in


terms of their narrow selfinterests.

5.m      : Individual differences in such personal qualities


as values, attitudes, abilities and personality traits are often the cause of
conflict. Two managers may learn to despise each other thoroughly for
reasons totally unrelated to their work, but their performance on the job
may suffer because of it.

.m  ÿ  ÿ  Conflict among managers if often caused


by the fact that there is poor agreement over goals. Perhaps, an even
more common source of conflict is the clash of the personal goals of
managers and employees with the goals of the organization.

.m          Line supervisors in


manufacturing must meet production deadlines, but they are dependent
upon production schedules, warehousing shipping, and others for
effective performance. A bottleneck at any point can prevent the line
supervisors from being effective and is quite naturally an occasion for
interpersonal conflict.

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A.4 Environmental and internal conditions that lie beyond an individual͛s


control are called environmental stressors. uch stressors can have a
considerable impact on work performance and adjustment. We can organize
environmental stressors into the following categories:


.m    : Task demands are factors related to a person͛s job.
They include the design of the individual͛s job, working conditio ns, and
the physical work layout. Changes and lack of control are two of the
most stressful demands people face at work. Changes leads to
uncertainty, a lack of predictability in a person͛s daily tasks and activities
and may be caused by job insecurity rel ated to difficult economic times.

[a Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

Lack of control is a second major source of stress, especially in work


environments that are difficult and psychologically demanding. The lack
of control may be caused by inability to influence the timing of tasks and
activities, to select tools or methods for accomplishing the work, to
make decisions that influence work outcomes, or to exercise direct
action affect the work outcomes.

.m     The socialpsychological demands of the work


environment may be every bit as stressful as task demands at work. Role
demands relate to pressures placed on a person as a function of the
particular role he or she plays in the organization. Role conflicts cre ate
expectations that may be hard to reconcile or satisfy. Role conflict
results from inconsistent or incompatible expectations communicated to
a person. The conflict may be an inter role, intrarole or person role
conflict.
The second major cause of role stress is role ambiguity. Role ambiguity is
created when role expectations are not clearly understood and the
employee is not sure what he or she is to do.

.m      Are pressures created by other


employees. Lack of social support from coll eagues and poor
interpersonal relationships can cause considerable stress, especially
among employees with a high social need. Abrasive personalities, sexual
harassment and the leadership style in the organization are
interpersonal demands for people at work.

4.m      Nonwork demands create stress for people,
which carry over into the work environment or vice versa. Workers
subject to family demands, people have personal demands related to
nonwork organizational commitments such as religious and public
service organizations. These demands become more or less stressful,
depending on their compatibility with the person͛s work and family life
and their capacity to provide alternative satisfactions for the person.

[§ Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

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A.5 Power can be categorized into Formal as well as Informal Power

  #   


      

     The opposite of coercive power is reward


power. Reward power is the extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and
intrinsic rewards to control other people. Examples of such rewards include
money, promotions, compliments, or enriched jobs. Although all managers
have some access to rewards, success in accessing and utilizing rewards to
achieve influence varies according to the skills of the manager.
Or

Reward power depends on the ability of the power wielder to confer valued
material rewards; it refers to the degree to which the individual can give others
a reward of some kind such as benefits, time off, desired gifts, promotions or
increases in pay or responsibility. This power is obvious but also ineffective if
abused. People who abuse reward power can become pushy or became
reprimanded for being too forthcoming or 'moving things too quickly'.

Ú+ Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

  #   


       

      The coercive power base is being dependent


on fear. It is based on the application, or the threat of application, of
physical sanctions such as the infliction of pain, the generation of frustration
through restriction of movement, or the controlling by force of basic
physiological or safety needs. In an organization one can exercise power over
another if they have the power to dismiss, suspend, demote another
assuming that the job is valuable to the person on whom power is being
unleashed.
Or

Coercive power is the application of negative influences. It includes the ability


to demote or to withhold other rewards. The desire for valued rewards or the
fear of having them withheld that ensures the obedience of those under
power. Coercive power tends to be the most obvious but least effective form
of power as it builds resentment and resistance from the people who
experience it.

P.T.O

Ú[ Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

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X In the case of ͞Window to Truth͟ is a famous and old magazine. The top
management decides to start the eedition of the magazine.

They also decide the redefine the policies and culture of ͞Window of Truth͟

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   ÿ Technological changes are responsible for changing the nature
of the job performed at all levels in an organi zation. When there is a change in
technology in the organization͛s environment and other organizations adopt
the new technology, the organization under focus becomes less cost effective
and its competitive position weakens.

    Due to rapid changes in the business scenario with


increasing competition and global economy, the needs and demands are also
changing among the customers, suppliers and other stakeholders.
Organizations are, therefore forced to change their operational methods to
meet the demands of the stake holders.

ÚÚ Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester
Management Process and Organization Behaviour

  
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   With changing needs and values of the employees,


organizations change their policies. For example, attractive financial incentives,
challenging assignments, vertical growth opportunities and autonomy at work
may be provided in an organization to attract and retain its effective
employees.

ÚJ Jyotsna Taneja
MBA
st emester