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20/12/2019 List of Human Diseases

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List of Human Diseases


The word disease implies that dis-ease (not easy). In other words malfunctioning or improper functioning of various body parts like genetic disorder,
hormonal imbalance, malfunctioning of immune system of body are some factors which affects the human health or it is a condition that prevents the body
or mind from working normally.

SHIKHA GOYAL
FEB 11, 2016 12:21 IST

The word disease implies that dis-ease (not easy). In other words malfunctioning or improper functioning of various body parts like
genetic disorder, hormonal imbalance, malfunctioning of immune system of body are some factors which affects the human health. The
diseases caused by intrinsic sources are called organic or metabolic diseases like cardiac failure, kidney failure, diabetes, allergies, cancer
etc and the diseases caused by extrinsic factors are Kwashiorkor, obesity, Night blindness, scurvy etc. Some diseases are also caused by
micro-organisms due to unbalanced diet such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi, protozoan’s, helminthes, worms, etc.; environmental
pollutants, tobacco, alcohol and narcotic drugs are also an important extrinsic factors which upset human health.

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inRead invented by Teads

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Types of Diseases: On the basis of its nature, character and causes of its spreadness is of two types:
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1. Congenital Disease is the diseases which are present since birth. These are caused due to genetic abnormality or due to metabolic
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disorders or malfunctioning of any organ. They are basically permanent, generally not easily curable and may be inherited to the children
like Harelip, Cleft Palate, Club foot etc. Also due to imbalance in the chromosomes the appearance of Mongalism, to born the blue baby
due to cardiac disorder etc are also some examples of it.

2. Acquired Disease is those defects or disorders which are not present by birth but appear due to the various causes and factors. These
may be further categorized into following heads:

(i) Communicable or infectious diseases: These are caused by a variety of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi and worms. The
pathogens are generally carried with the help of a vector.

(ii) Non-communicable or non-infectious or degenerative diseases: These occur due to the malfunctioning of some organ or organ system
in the body. It may be of various types like De ciency diseases: These occur due to the de ciency of some nutrients, minerals or vitamins,
Cancerous diseases, Allergy, Genetic diseases.

Diseases Spread through Blood Transfusion

AIDS (Acquired Immuno De ciency Syndrome): It destroys immune system of the body & is caused by the Human Immuno de ciency
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ू े एसएसएससी फ़ॉरे ट गाड भत जा न
Virus (HIV).There are
अथ यव था को कैसेtwo
भा types of HIV namely HIV-1हand
वत करता य HIV-2. Theहै ?most common virus currently
मनाया जाता associated
2020: with AIDS
उ तराखंड सबओड is HIV-1. A virus
नेट स वस मज
found in the blood of wild African green monkey called the Simian Immuno de ciency Virus (SIV) is similar to HIV-2. HIV is a retrovirus. It

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can synthesize DNA from RNA. The major cell infected by HIV is the helper T-Iymphocyte that bears the CD-4 receptor site. HIV
progressively destroys T-Iymphocytes. The patient occasionally will suffer from swollen lymph nodes, mild prolonged fever, diarrhoea or
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Important facts about AIDS: AIDS in India was rst reported in 1986 and is the end stage of the disease. HIV antibodies can be
detected by the ELISA test (Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay). World AIDS Day is celebrated on 1st December.

OTHER DISEASES

Cancer: They are characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of cells which leads to a mass of cells known as neoplasm.
Abnormal and persistent cell division localized in a particular region is called benign tumor.

Gout: It results from accumulation of uric acid crystals in the synovial joints. It is a disease associated with an inborn error of uric acid
metabolism that increases production or interferes with the excretion of uric acid.

Haemophilia is called bleeder's disease. It is a disorder which is sex-linked and is a recessive condition. In a patient of haemophilia, blood
clotting is de cient.

Haemophilia A, is characterized by lack of anti- haemophilia globulin factor VIII. About four- fths of the cases of haemophilia are of this
type.

Haemophilia B or Christmas disease results from a defect in plasma thromboplastic component.

Hepatitis : It is a viral disease, causes hepatic anorexia resulting in liver damage (liver cancer) or jaundice. It is transmitted by the faecal-
oral route. Children and young adults are susceptible to it and no vaccines are acceptable.

Various इंDe ciency


टरनेट शटडाउनDiseases
या है और यह रा य ग णत दवस 22 दसंबर को यक
ू े एसएसएससी फ़ॉरे ट गाड भत जा न
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VIRAL DISEASES OF HUMANS

 
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Name of Caused by Parts of body affected Method of spread Type of Vaccination

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disease
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Respiratory passages:
MARKETPLACEA myxovirus
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epithelial lining ofJOBS
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(RNA virus)
and bronchi.

Large variety of
viruses,
Common
commonly Respiratory passages Droplet Infection Intramuscular injection.
cold
rhino-virus (RNA
Virus)

Living atteneuated virus


Variola virus Respiratory passages, then
Smallpox Droplet Infection (Wounds in skin) applied by scratching skin, no
(DNA virus) skin
longer carried

Chickenpox Varicella- zoster Blistering Skin rash Air-borne droplets Living attenuated virus

A Respiratory passages,
Mumps paramyxovirus infection via blood, salivary Droplet infection Living attenuated virus
(RNA virus) glands, testes in adult males

A Respiratory passages,
Measles paramyxovirus spreading to skin and Droplet infection Living attenuated virus
(RNA virus) intestines.

Living attenuated virus, more


German
Respiratory passages, lymph essential for girls because
measles Rubella virus Droplet infection
nodes in neck, eyes and skin. disease causes complication
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(Rubella) रा य ग णत दवस 22 दसंबर को यक
ू े एसएसएससी फ़ॉरे ट गाड भत जा न
अथ यव था को कैसे भा वत करता ह य मनाया जाता है ? 2020: उ तराखंin pregnancy.
ड सबओड नेट स वस मज

Poliomyelitis Poliovirus (RNA Pharynx and intestines, then Droplet infection or via human Living attenuated virus given
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(polio) Virus) blood; occasionally motor faeces orally


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neurons in spinal cord,
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An arbovirus i.e
arthropod-borne Lining of blood vessels and Vector- arthropods e.g ticks,
Yellow fever Living attenuated virus
virus (RNA liver mosquitoes
Virus)

Retrovirus (RNA Sexual intercourse homo- and


AIDS Skin Cancer Not available
virus) hetrosexuals

It is transmitted to people from wild


Ebola
Ebola Virus Fatal Illness in Humans, animals and spreads in the human No licensed Ebola vaccine is
haemorrhagic
disease (EVD) Fever population through human-to- available
fever
human transmission.

Zika Virus Causes mild illness in the Basically Infection in pregnant


Zika disease (mosquito people like dengue, yellow women is linked to abnormally No vaccine available
borne disease) fever small heads in their babies.

Bacterial Diseases of Humans

Name of disease  Caused by Parts of body affected Method of spread Type of vaccination or
antibodies

Diphtheria Corynebacterium Upper respiratory tract, Droplet infection Toxoid


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अथ यव था को कैसे भा वत diphtheria
करता ह यmainly throat
मनाया जाता है ? also toxin 2020: उ तराखंड सबओड नेट स वस मज
affects heart.

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Tuberculosis (TB) Mycobacterium Mainly lungs Droplet infection, BCG living attenuated
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tuberculosis Drinking milk from bacteria. Antibiotics e.g.
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Whooping cough Bordetella pertussis Upper respiratory tract, Droplet infection Killed bacteria
(Pertussis) inducing violent
coughing

Gonorrhoea Neisseria gonorrhoeae Reproductive organs: Contagion by sexual Antibiotics, e.g.


mainly mucous contact penicillin, streptomycin
membranes of
urinogenital tract.
Newborn infants may
acquire serious eye
infections if they pass
through infected birth
canal.

Syphilis Treponema pallidum Reproductive organs, Contagion by sexual Antibiotics. e.g. penicillin
then eyes, bones, joints, contact
central nervous system,
heart and skin.

Tetanus Clostridium tetani Blood. Wound infection Toxoid


Toxin produced which
affects motor nerves of
spinal cord and hence
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muscles, causing
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lockjaw and spreading to


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the muscles.
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Cholera VibrioSCHOOL
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bacteria: short-QUIZZES
small intestine. (a) food - or water borne lived protection and not
of material always effective
contaminated with Antibiotics e.g.
faeces from infected tetracyclines,
person. chloramphenicol.
(b) handling of
contaminated Objects.
(c) vector, e,g. ies
moving from human
faeces to food.

Typhoid fever Salmonella typhi Alimentary canal, then Same as cholera Killed bacteria (TAB
spreading to lymph and vaccine)
blood, lungs, bone
marrow, spleen.

Bacterial dysentery Shigella dysenteriae Alimentary canal, mainly Same as cholera No vaccine.
ileum and colon

Bacterial food poisoning Salmonella spp. Alimentary canal Mainly foodborne meat Antibiotic. e.g.
(gastro enteritis or from infected animals tetracyclines.
salmonellosis) from poultry and pigs.
Also via faecal
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contamination as
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cholera

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Diseases Caused By Worms


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Disease
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habitat

Ancylostomiasis or 'Hook-worm Ancylostoma duobenale, small Transmission from person to Dermatitis; reddish, severe
disease' intestine (jejunum) of man person, lariform larvae passed anaemia; duodenal ulcer,
out in faeces, man picks up constipation. Patient pale, face
infection walking barefoot on puffy with swelling of lower
faecally-contaminated soil. eyelids.

Ascariasis Ascaris Lumbricoides; small Transmission from person to Larvae in lung cause
intestine (jejunum) of man person, ripe eggs passed out in pneumonia. May give rise to
faeces, infection affected by typhoid-like fever, causes
swallowing ripe Ascaris eggs protein and Vitamin A
with raw vegetables. de ciencies resulting in protein-
calorie malnutrition and night
blindness respectively. Can
cause appendicitis, jaundice.

Enterobiasis or 'Pinworm Enterobius vermicularis, Transmission from one person Eczematous condition round
disease' caecum and vermiform to another by ingestion of eggs the anus, bed wetting at night,
appendix in contaminated food or drink. in ammation of vermiform
appendix.

Filariasis Wuchereria Bancrofti, lymphatic Part of the life cycle in Elephantiasis i.e. enormous
vessels and lymph nodes. mosquito in which larvae enlargement of certain parts
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ू े एसएसएससी फ़ॉरे ट गाड भत जा न
develop and become infectious such as that of leg, scrotum,
अथ यव था को कैसे भा वत करता ह य मनाया जाता है ? 2020: उ तराखंड सबओड नेट स वस मज
to man, with mosquito bite

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larvae deposited on skin which penis, labia, clitoris, breast,


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enter through puncture wound forearm.
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Diseases Caused By Worms

Diseases caused by Fungi

Disease Pathogen responsible Mode of transmission Main symptoms

Ringworm (tinea) Microsporum, Trichophyton Direct contact from unbathed Contain one or more blistered
cats and dogs or objects areas on skin and scalp. Cause
handled by infected individuals partial and temporary baldness
in children.

Athlete's foot Trichophyton Bad foot hygiene where skin Painful itching or burning
remains warm and moist for sensation in the infected areas.
long periods. Crack appears in the skin, mass
of loose dead skin clings
between toes.

Madura foot Maurella Mycetomi Fungi gain entry through some Produce a chronic, granulating
minor injury to the skin. infection of the lower
extremities, affected part
becomes enlarged and
develops many deep sores,
extensive bone destruction
इंटरनेट शटडाउन या है और यह रा य ग णत दवस 22 दसंबर को यक
ू े एसएसएससी फ़ॉरे ट गाड भत जा न
अथ यव था को कैसे भा वत करता ह य मनाया जाता है ? leading
2020: उ तराखं to नेcrippling
ड सबओड ट स वस deformities. मज

Dhobie itch Several Different Fungi Direct contact through Objects A type of ringworm infection
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