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AWS RDS

Terms in this set (30)

Amazon RDS manages ____, software ____, automatic ____, and _____
Amazon RDS manages backups, software patching, automatic failure detection, and
recovery
In order to deliver a managed service experience, Amazon RDS does ______to DB
instances, and it restricts access to certain system procedures and tables that
require advanced
privileges
does not provide shell access
What tools can one use to create or modify a DB instance
You can create and modify a DB instance by using the Amazon RDS command line
interface, the Amazon
RDS API, or the AWS Management Console
For each DB instance, you can select from ___ to ___ of associated storage capacity
For each DB instance, you can select from 5 GB to 3 TB of associated storage
capacity
DB instance storage comes in two types, ____ and ____
DB instance storage comes in two types, standard and provisioned IOPS
Standard storage is allocated
on ____
Amazon EBS volumes and connected to your DB instance
_____ optimized EBS
volumes and an optimized configuration stack and provides additional, dedicated
capacity for EBS I/O.
Provisioned IOPS
These optimizations enable instances to fully utilize the IOPS provisioned on an EBS
volume
Provisioned IOPS
If you need consistent performance and your database workloads generate a lot of
random I/O, you can
improve the performance of your DB instance by using ___
Amazon RDS Provisioned IOPS (input/output
operations per second) storage.
Provisioned IOPS delivers__________
fast, predictable,
and consistent throughput performance
For Provisioned IOPS When you create a DB instance, you specify an____ and ___
specify an IOPS rate and
storage space allocation.
Amazon RDS provisions that IOPS rate and storage ____ of the DB
the lifetime of the DB
Provisioned IOPS storage is optimized for ____ intensive
I/O intensive, online transaction
processing (OLTP) workloads that have stringent performance requirements
OLTP stands for
online transaction
processing (OLTP)
True or False You cannot decrease standard storage or Provisioned IOPS storage
allocated for a DB instance.
True
You can create a DB instance that uses Provisioned IOPS storage by using the AWS
____ , the AWS _____ OR the ___
using the AWS Management
Console, the Amazon RDS API, or the Command Line Interface (CLI)
CLI stands for
Command Line Interface (CLI)
If you are using Provisioned IOPS storage what instance classes should you use
m1.large, m1.xlarge,
m2.2xlarge, m2.4xlarge, or cr1.8xlarge instance classes
System activities such as automated backups, DB snapshots, and scale storage
operations may consume
_____ which will reduce the overall capacity available for normal database
operations
some I/O
To help you verify that you are making the best use of your Provisioned IOPS
storage, we have added
a new CloudWatch Metric called _____
called Disk Queue Depth.
For production OLTP use cases, we recommend that you use _________ for
enhanced fault
tolerance and __________ storage for fast and predictable performance.
For production OLTP use cases, we recommend that you use Multi-AZ deployments
for enhanced fault
tolerance and Provisioned IOPS storage for fast and predictable performance.
In addition to Multi-AZ
deployments, Provisioned IOPS storage complements the following 3 features:
1) Amazon VPC for network isolation and enhanced security.

2) Read Replicas.

3) DB Snapshots.
Because Provisioned IOPS storage reserves resources for your use, we can expect
to be ____
you are charged for the resources
whether or not you use them in a given month.
True or False Because Provisioned IOPS storage reserves resources for your use,
you are charged for the resources
whether or not you use them in a given month.
True
Using _________ increases the number of IO requests the system is capable of
processing
concurrently.
Using Provisioned IOPS storage increases the number of IO requests the system is
capable of processing
concurrently.
Increased concurrency allows for ___________ since IO requests spend less time in
a ____
Increased concurrency allows for decreased latency since IO requests spend less
time in a queue.
Decreased latency allows for _______ and allows for higher database ____
faster database commits, which improves response time and
allows for higher database throughput.
For example, consider a heavily loaded OLTP database provisioned for 10,000
Provisioned IOPS that
runs consistently at the channel limit of 105 Mbps throughput for reads. The
workload isn't perfectly
balanced, so there is some unused write channel bandwidth. What would increasing
Provisioned IOPS capacity from 10,000 TO 20,000 allow?
Increasing Provisioned IOPS capacity from 10,000 to 20,000 doubles the system's
capacity for concurrent
IO. Increased concurrency means decreased latency, which allows transactions to
complete faster, so
the database transaction rate increases. Read and write latency would improve by
different amounts and
the system would settle into a new equilibrium based on whichever resource
becomes constrained first.
Generally, . Increased concurrency means
decreased latency
Transactions can be completed faster by insuring
Increased concurrency means decreased latency,

Terms in this set (72)

What is Amazon RDS?


RDS is a managed service that makes it easy to set up, operate, and scale a relational database
in the cloud. It provides cost-efficient and resizable capacity, while managing time-
consuming database administration tasks, freeing you up to focus on you applications and
business.
Which relational database engines does RDS support?
RDS supports Amazon Aurora, MySQL, MariaDB, Oracle, SQL Server, and PostgreSQL
What does RDS manage on my behalf?
Provisioning the infrastructure capacity, installing database software, performing backups,
patching the software. If in a multi-AZ configuration, RDS manages synchronous data
replication across AZs and automatic failover.

You are still responsible for managing database settings specific to you application, the
relational schema, and any performance tuning required to optimize for app's workflow.
When would I use RDS vs. EC2 Relational Database AMIs?
AWS provides a number of database alternatives for developers. RDS enables you to run a
fully featured relational database while offloading database administration. Using one of our
many relational database AMIs on EC2 allows you to manage your own relational database in
the cloud. There are important differences between these alternatives that may make one
more appropriate for your use case.
What is a database instance (DB instance)?
A DB instance is a database environment in the cloud with the compute and storage resources
you specify. You can create and delete DB instances, define/refine infrastructure attributes of
your DB instance(s), and control access and security via the management console, APIs, or
CLI. You can run one or more DB instances, and each DB instance can support one or more
databases or database schema, depending on your engine type.
How many DB instances can I run with RDS?
By default, customers can have a total of 40 RDS DB instances. Of those 40, 10 can be
Oracle or SQL under the "License Included" model. All 40 can be used as Oracle or SQL if
under the "BYOL" model. You can request limit increases.
How many databases or schemas can I run with a DB instance?
Aurora, MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL: no limit imposed by software

Oracle: 1 database per instance; no limit on number of schemas per database imposed by
software

SQL Server: 30 databases per instance


How do I import data into an RDS DB instance?
MySQL: mysqldump or mysqlimport utilities
Oracle: Data Pump, import/export, SQL Loader
SQL Server: Import/Export wizard, full backup files (.bak), or Bulk Copy Program (BCP)
What is a maintenance window? Will my DB instance be available during maintenance
events?
Maintenance windows are 30 minutes in duration and you can set when they occur. These
windows can always be changed by you by modifying your DB instance and changes will
take effect immediately.

The only maintenance events that require RDS to take your DB instance offline are scale
compute operations (which generally take a few minutes). Required patching is automatically
scheduled only for patches that are security and durability related. Such patching occurs
infrequently (once every few months). If you use a Multi-AZ deployment, these events will
cause no outage.
What should I do if my queries seem to be running slow?
You can enable Enhanced Monitoring, which provides access to over 50 CPU, memory, file
systems, and disk I/O metrics. You can enable these features on a per instance basis and can
choose granularity all the way down to 1 second.

High levels of CPU utilization can reduce query performance and you may want to consider
scaling your DB instance class. RDS for MySQL and MariaDB has access to the slow query
logs for your database. RDS for Oracle has the Oracle Trace file data. RDS for SQL server
has client side SQL Server traces to identify slow queries.
How do I control if and when the engine version of my DB instance is upgraded to new
supported versions?
You can manually upgrade your DB to the most current minor version via the console or API.
You can also choose the enable Auto Minor Version Upgrade so that this is done
automatically. Scheduled upgrades on RDS will be communicated at least 30 days in
advance. DB engine upgrades require downtime, even in multi-AZ deployments. Major
upgrades will not occur automatically.
For Oracle and SQL Server on RDS, if a minor upgrade required a change to a different
edition it may not happen automatically (even if auto upgrade is enabled). The determination
on whether to allow automatic upgrades will be made on a case-by-case basis.
Can I test my DB instance with a new version before upgrading?
Yes, create a DB snapshot of your existing DB instance and restore from that snapshot to
create a new DB. You can then apply the upgrade on the new DB before deciding whether or
not to upgrade the original instance.
Does RDS provide guidelines for deprecating engine versions that are currently supported?
Major version releases are supported for at least 3 years after they are initially supported by
RDS and minor versions are supported for at least 1 year.

In some cases, we may deprecate specific major or minor versions sooner, such as when there
are security issues. In this case, RDS will automatically upgrade your database engine to
address the issue.
How will I be charged for my use of RDS?
DB Instance Hours, Storage (GB per month), I/O requests per month, Provisioned IOPS per
month, Backup Storage, and Data Transfer
What defines billable RDS instance hours?
DB instance hours are billed for each hour your DB instance is running in an available state.
If you no longer wish to be charged for your DB instance, you must stop or delete it to avoid
being billed for additional instance hours. Partial DB instance hours consumed are billed as
full hours.
How will I be billed for a stopped DB instance?
While your database instance is stopped, you are charged for provisioned storage (including
Provisioned IOPS) and backup storage (including manual snapshots and automated backups
within your specific retention window), but not for DB instance hours.
Why does my additional backup storage cost more than allocated DB instance storage?
The storage provisioned to your DB instance for your primary data is located within a single
AZ. When you DB is backed up, the backup data (including transaction logs) is geo-
redundantly replicated across multiple AZs to provide greater levels of durability. The price
for backup storage beyond your free allocation reflects this extra replication that occurs.
How will I be billed for Multi-AZ DB instance deployments?
Multi-AZ DB instance hours, Provisioned storage (for Multi-AZ DB instance), I/O requests
per month, backup storage, and data transfer
What is an RDS Reserved Instance (RI)?
RDS RI's can be purchased in one and three year terms at a significant discount. There are
three purchasing options: all-upfront, partial-upfront, or no up-front. An RDS RI is a reserved
DB instance.
How many reserved DB instances can I purchase?
You can purchase up to 40 reserved DB instances. If you need more you can request a limit
increase.
Are reserved DB instances available for Multi-AZ deployment?
Yes, when purchasing look for the Multi-AZ option among the DB configuration settings
available for purchase.
Are reserved DB instances available for read-replicas?
Yes, RI credits will be automatically applied to you account depending on how many you
purchase and how many replicas you use. Replicas must be in the same region as the RI
purchase.
How do I determine the appropriate DB instance class and size for my needs?
Assess you systems current compute, storage, and memory needs then refer to the available
DB instance options.
How do I scale the compute resources and/or storage resources associated with my RDS
database?
Memory and CPU can be modified by changing your instance class. Storage can be modified
by changing you storage allocation. When you change your DB size you can choose to have
changes applied during your maintenance window or immediately.

You can Cloudwatch to track your compute and storage resource utilization for no additional
charge.

SQL server does not support increases your storage allocation at this time. This is a feature
that will be available in the future.
What is the hardware configuration for RDS Storage?
RDS uses EBS for database logs and storage. RDS automatically stripes across multiple EBS
volumes in enhance IOPS performance. For MySQL and Oracle, you may observe increased
IOPS performance, for an existing DB instance, by increasing the storage allocation.
Will my RDS DB instance remain available during scaling?
For increases to storage capacity you DB instance can remain online. However, increases or
decreases to the compute instance will cause the database to temporarily go down (typically a
few minutes). This will occur during your scheduled maintenance window unless you specify
otherwise.
How can I scale my RDS DB beyond the largest DB instance and maximum storage
capacity?
If you DB instance requires more capacity than the largest DB instance or storage capacity
you can implement partitioning to spread your data across multiple DB instances.
What is Amazon RDS General Purpose (SSD) storage?
RDS General Purpose (SSD) storage is suitable for most medium I/O workloads. With a
baseline of 3 IOPS/GB and the ability to burst to up to 3,000 IOPS General Purpose can
handle workloads with a steady state traffic that occasionally spikes.
What is Amazon RDS Provisioned IOPS (SSD) storage?
RDS Provisioned IOPS (SSD) storage is suitable for high performance I/O workloads, it is
designed to deliver fast, predictable, and consistent I/O performance. You specify the IOPS
rate when provisioning the DB instance and RDS provisions that rate for the lifetime of the
instance. This storage is optimized for OLTP workloads.
What is Amazon RDS magnetic storage?
Magnetic storage is ideal for small databases with data that isn't frequently accessed. It is not
recommended for production databases.
How do I choose among the RDS storage options?
High-performance OLTP workloads: Provisioned IOPS (SSD)
Database workloads with moderate I/O requirements: General Purpose (SSD)
Non-production Database with infrequently accessed data: Magnetic
What is the difference between automatic backups and manual snapshots in RDS?
Automatic Backups: RDS automatically takes a daily complete snapshot of you database
during the backup window. This snapshot can be stored from 7-35 days (depending on how
you configure it). RDS also automatically captures transaction logs. This allows for a point-
in-time recovery of your database.

Manual Snapshots: Snapshots are initiated by the user and are retained until deleted. You can
use them to restore your DB.
Snapshots can be copied. Also, when you restore a DB from a snapshot it starts a new DB
instance with a new endpoint. You can create multiple DBs from the same instance.
Do I need to enable automated backups for my RDS DB instance or is it done automatically?
Automated backups are enabled by default for RDS DB instances with a 7 day retention
period.
What is a backup window and why do I need it? Is my RDS DB available during this time?
The preferred backup window time is the user-defined period of time that your DB instance is
backed up. AWS uses these periodic backups in conjunction with your transaction logs to
enable restoring your database to any second within your retention period. During the backup
window I/O may be briefly suspended (typically less than a few seconds) and elevated
latency may occur. For Multi-AZ deployments this does not happen because the back up
done on the standby database.
Where are my RDS automatic backups and manual snapshots stored and how to I manage
their retention?
Backups and snapshots are stored in S3. You backups and snapshots are managed through the
RDS console.

You can choose to turn off automatic backups but it is not recommended.
What happens to my snapshots and RDS DB backups if I delete my DB instance?
Automated backups are deleted when the DB instance is deleted.

When deleting your instance you will be given the option to create one final snapshot. This
snapshot and all other manual snapshots will persist even after the DB has been deleted and
can be used to restore the DB at a later time.
What is a DB Subnet Group and why do I need one?
A DB Subnet group is a collection of subnets that you may want to designate for your RDS
DB instances in a VPC. Each DB subnet group should have at least one subnet for every AZ
in a given Region. When creating a DB instance in VPC, you will need to select a DB subnet
group. It is strongly recommended that you use the DNS name to connect to your DB
instance as the underlying IP address can change.
How do I connect to an RDS DB instance in VPC?
DB Instances deployed within a VPC can be accessed by EC2 instances deployed in the same
VPC. If these instances are deployed in a public subnet with associated EIPs, you can access
the EC2 instances via the internet. DB instances deployed within a VPC can be access from
the Internet or from EC2 Instances outside the VPC via VPN or bastion hosts that you can
launch in your public subnet. You can also setup a VPN Gateway that extends your corporate
network into your VPC, and allows access to the RDS DB instances in that VPC.
Can I move my existing DB instances outside VPC into my VPC?
If your DB instance is outside of your VPC you can move it into your VPC using the RDS
Management Console or by taking a snapshot and restoring it to VPC by specifying the DB
Subnet Group you want to use.
Can I move my existing DB instances inside my VPC to outside VPC?
Migration of DB instances from inside to outside VPC is not supported.
What precautions should I take to ensure that my DB instances in VPC are accessible by my
application?
You are responsible for modifying routing tables and networking ACLs in your VPC to
ensure that your DB instance is reachable from your client instances in the VPC. For Multi-
AZ deployments, after a failover, your client EC2 instance and RDS DB instance may be in
different AZs. You should configure your networking ACLs to ensure that cross-AZ
communication is possible.
Can I change the DB Subnet group of my DB instance?
An existing DB Subnet group can be updated to add more subnets, either for existing AZs or
new AZs added since the creation of the DB instance. Removing subnets from an existing
subnet group can cause unavailability for instances if they are running in a particular AZ that
gets removed from the subnet group.
What is an RDS master user account and how is it different from an AWS account?
To begin using Amazon RDS you will need an AWS developer account. A master user
account is different from an AWS developer account and used only within the context of
RDS to control access to your DB instances. The master user account is a native database
user account which you can use to connect to your DB instance.
What privileges are granted to the master user for my DB instance?
For MySQL, there is big list of privileges that you won't remember

For Oracle, the master user is granted the "dba" role. The master user inherits most of the
privileges associated with the role.

For SQL Server, a user that creates a database is granted the db_owner role.
Is there anything different about user management with RDS?
No, everything works the way you are familiar with when using a relational database you
manage yourself.
Can programs running on servers in my own data center access RDS databases?
Yes, you have to intentionally turn on the ability to access your database over the internet by
configuring Security Groups. You can authorize access for only the specific IPs, IP ranges, or
subnets corresponding to servers in your own data center.
Can I encrypt connections between my application and my DB instance using SSL?
Yes, this option is currently supported for the MySQL, MariaDB, SQL Server, PostgreSQL,
and Oracle engines. RDS generates an SSL certificate for each DB instance. Once an
encrypted connection is established, data transferred between the DB instance and your
application will be encrypted during the transfer. Be aware that SSL encryption is a compute-
intensive operation and will increase the latency of your database connection.
Can I encrypt data at rest on my RDS databases?
RDS supports encryption at rest for all database engines, using keys you manage using KMS.
On a database instance running with RDS encryption, data stored at rest in the underlying
storage is encrypted, as are its automated backups, read replicas, and snapshots. Encryption
and decryption are handled transparently. You can also add encryption to a previously
unencrypted DB instance by creating a DB snapshot and then creating an encrypted copy of
that snapshot. RDS for Oracle and SQL server support those engine's Transparent Data
Encryption technologies. Transparent Data Encryption in Oracle is integrated with AWS
CloudHSM, which allows you to securely generate, store, and manage your cryptographic
keys in single-tenant Hardware Security Module (HSM) appliances.
How do I control actions that my systems and users can take on specific RDS resources?
Through IAM Users with IAM policies applied.
I wish to perform security analysis or operational troubleshooting on my RDS deployment.
Can I get a history of all RDS API calls made on my account?
Yes use CloudTrail.
How do I choose the right configuration parameters for my DB instance(s)?
By default, RDS chooses the optimal configuration based on the DB instance class and
storage capacity. However, these values can be changed manually but please note that
changing configuration parameters from recommended values can have unintended effects,
ranging from degraded performance to system crashes and should only be attempted by
advanced users who wish to assume these risks.
What are DB parameter groups and how are they helpful?
A DB parameter group acts as a "container" for engine configuration values that can be
applied to one or more DB instances. Once associated, all DB instances that use a particular
DB parameter group get all the parameter updates to that group.
How can I monitor the configuration of my Amazon RDS resources?
Use AWS Config
What types of replication does RDS support and when should I use each?
Synchronous Replication- Multi-AZ deployments, DBs write concurrently on both primary
and standby so that the standby is up-to-date in the event a failure occurs
Asynchronous Replication- Read replicas, which use the DB engine's built-in replication
technology. They provide can improve read times and provide read availability benefits but
they are not designed to improve write availability.
What does it mean to run a DB instance as a Multi-AZ deployment?
When you create or modify your Db instance to run as Multi-AZ, RDS automatically
provisions and maintains a synchronous "standby" replica in a different AZ. During certain
types of planned maintenance, or in the unlikely event of DB instance failure or AZ failure,
RDS will automatically failover to the standby so that you can resume DB writes and reads as
soon as the standby is promoted. The standby DB cannot be used to serve traffic in a Multi-
AZ deployment.
What do "primary" and "standby" mean in the context of a Multi-AZ deployment?
The "primary" DB serves writes and reads. RDS provisions and maintains a "standby" DB
behind the scenes, which is an up-to-date replica of the primary. The standby is "promoted"
in failover scenarios. After failover, the standby becomes the primary and accepts your DB
operations. You do not interact with the standby at any point prior to promotion.
What are the benefits of a Multi-AZ deployment?
Enhanced DB durability and availability. Another implied benefit of running your DB
instance as a Multi-AZ deployment is that DB instance failover is automatic and requires no
administration. You are not required to monitor DB instance events and initiate manual DB
instance recovery.
Are there any performance implications of running my DB instance as a Multi-AZ
deployment?
You may observe elevated latencies relative to a standard DB instance deployment in a single
AZ as a result of the synchronous data replication performed on your behalf.
When running my DB instance as a Multi-AZ deployment, can I use the standby for
read/write operations?
No
What happens when I convert my RDS instance from single-AZ to multi-AZ?
For RDS MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, and Oracle database engines, when you elect to
convert RDS from Single to Multi-AZ the following happens:
1) A snapshot of your primary instance is taken, 2) A new standby instance is create in a
different AZ from the snapshot, 3) Synchronous replication is configured between the
instances
As such, there should be no downtime incurred.
What events would cause RDS to initiate a failover to the standby replica?
RDS detects and automatically recovers from the most common failure scenarios for Multi-
AZ deployments so that you can resume database operations as quickly as possible. RDS
automatically performs failover in the event of: 1) Loss of availability in primary AZ, 2) Loss
of network connectivity to primary, 3) Compute unit failure on primary, 4) Storage failure on
primary. When operation such as DB scaling or system upgrades are initiated for Multi-AZ
deployments, for enhanced availability, they are applied first on the standby prior to an
automatic failover. RDS deployments don't failover automatically in response to DB
operations such as long running queries, deadlocks, or database corruption errors.
Will I be alerted when automatic failover occurs?
Yes, RDS will emit a DB instance event
What happens during Multi-AZ failover and how long does it take?
Failover is done automatically by RDS. When failing over, RDS simply flips the CNAME of
your DB instance to point at the standby, which is in turn promoted to become the new
primary. Failovers typically completed within one to two minutes. Failover time can by
affected by whether large uncommitted transactions must be recovered; the use of adequately
large instance types is recommended with Multi-AZ for best results. Provision IOPs with
Multi-AZ instances is also recommended for fast, predictable, and consistent throughput
performance.
Can I initiate a "forced failover" for Multi-AZ DB instance deployment?
Yes, you can initiate a failover through the console for when using the RebootDBInstance
API call.
How do I control/configure Multi-AZ synchronous replication?
When you set the Multi-AZ parameter to true on a DB, synchronous replication is handled
automatically by RDS. You cannot select the AZ your standby is deployed in or alter the
number of standbys available.
Will by standby be in the same Region as my primary?
Yes your standby will be provision in a different AZ within the same Region as your primary.
Can I see which AZ my primary is currently located in?
Yes through the management console or the DescribeInstances API call
After failover, my primary is not located in a different AZ than my other AWS resources.
Should I be concerned about latency?
AZs are engineered to provide low latency network connectivity to other AZs within the
same Region. If addition, you may want to consider architecting your application and other
AWS resources with redundancy across multiple AZs so your application will be resilient in
the event of AZ failure.
How do DB snapshots and automated backups work with my Multi-AZ deployment?
You interact with automated backup and DB snapshot functionality in the same way whether
you are running a standard or Multi-AZ deployment. If you are running a Multi-AZ
deployment, automated backups and DB snapshots are simply taken from the standby to
avoid I/O suspension on the primary.
What does it meant to run a DB instance as a Read Replica?
Read Replicas make it east to take advantage of supported engines' built-in replication
functionality to elastically scale out beyond the capacity constraints of a single DB Instance
for read-heavy database workloads.
When would I want to consider using an RDS Read Replica?
Common reasons include: scaling beyond the compute or I/O capacity of a single DB
instance for read-heavy database workloads, serving read traffic while the source DB instance
is unavailable, and business reporting or data warehousing scenarios
Do I need to enable automatic backups on my DB instance before I can create read replicas?
Yes, backups must be enabled for read replicas to work.

erms in this set (107)


Kroonenburg 01

Amazon's ElastiCache uses which two engines?

A. Reddit & Memcrush

B. MyISAM & InnoDB

C. Redis & Memory

D. Redis & Memcached


D
Kroonenburg 02

Which of the following DynamoDB features are chargeable, when using a single
region? (Choose 2)

A. Incoming Data Transfer

B. The number of tables created

C. Read and Write Capacity

D. Storage of Data
C, D

There will always be a charge for provisioning read and write capacity and the
storage of data within DynamoDB, therefore these two answers are correct. There is
no charge for the transfer of data into DynamoDB, providing you stay within a single
region (if you cross regions, you will be charged at both ends of the transfer.) There
is no charge for the actual number of tables you can create in DynamoDB, providing
the RCU and WCU are set to 0, however in practice you cannot set this to anything
less than 1 so there always be a nominal fee associated with each table.
Kroonenburg 03

Under what circumstances would I choose provisioned IOPS over standard storage
when creating an RDS instance?

A. If your business was trying to save money.

B. If you have workloads that are not sensitive to latency/lag.

C. If you use online transaction processing in your production environment.

D. If this was a test DB.


C
Kroonenburg 04

When creating an RDS instance, you can select the Availability Zone into which you
deploy it.

A. False

B. True
B
Kroonenburg 05

In RDS, changes to the backup window take effect ________.

A. The next day

B. Immediately

C. You cannot back up in RDS.

D. After 30 minutes
B
Kroonenburg 06

Which of the following is not a feature of DynamoDB?

A. The ability to perform operations by using a user-defined primary key

B. The ability to store relational based data

C. Data reads that are either eventually consistent or strongly consistent

D. The primary key can either be a single-attribute or a composite


B

DynamoDB is the AWS managed NoSQL database service. It has many features
that are being added to constantly, but it is not an RDBMS service and therefore it
will never have the ability to store relational data. All of the other options listed are
valid features of DynamoDB.
Kroonenburg 07

MySQL installations default to port number ________.

A. 3306

B. 80

C. 1433

D. 3389
A
Kroonenburg 08

If you want your application to check RDS for an error, have it look for an ______
code in the response from the Amazon RDS API.

A. Exit

B. Abort

C. Incorrect

D. Error
D
Kroonenburg 09

You are hosting a MySQL database on the root volume of an EC2 instance. The
database is using a large number of IOPS, and you need to increase the number of
IOPS available to it. What should you do?

A. Use Cloud Front to cache the database.

B. Migrate the database to Glacier.

C. Add 4 additional EBS SSD volumes and create a RAID 10 using these volumes.

D. Migrate the database to an S3 bucket.


C
Kroonenburg 10

If you are using Amazon RDS Provisioned IOPS storage with a Microsoft SQL
Server database engine, what is the maximum size RDS volume you can have by
default?

A. 500GB

B. 16TB

C. 1TB

D. 6TB

E. 32TB
B
Kroonenburg 11

If I wanted to run a database on an EC2 instance, which of the following storage


options would Amazon recommend?

A. EBS

B. S3

C. RDS
D. Glacier
A
Kroonenburg 12

When you have deployed an RDS database into multiple availability zones, can you
use the secondary database as an independent read node?

A. Yes.

B. It depends on how you set it up.

C. No.

D. Only in US-West-1.
C
Kroonenburg 13

When you add a rule to an RDS DB security group, you must specify a port number
or protocol.

A. True

B. False
B

Technically a destination port number is needed, however with a DB security group


the RDS instance port number is automatically applied to the RDS DB Security
Group.
Kroonenburg 14

Which set of RDS database engines is currently available?

A. MariaDB, SQL Server, MySQL, Cassandra

B. PostgreSQL, MariaDB, MongoDB, Aurora

C. Oracle, SQL Server, MySQL, PostgreSQL

D. Aurora, MySQL, SQL Server, Cassandra


C
Kroonenburg 15

Which of the following is most suitable for OLAP?

A. Redshift

B. RDS

C. ElastiCache
D. DynamoDB
A
Kroonenburg 16

What happens to the I/O operations of a single-AZ RDS instance during a database
snapshot or backup?

A. I/O operations to the database are sent to a Secondary instance of a Multi-AZ


installation (for the duration of the snapshot.)

B. I/O operations will function normally.

C. Nothing.

D. I/O may be briefly suspended while the backup process initializes (typically under
a few seconds), and you may experience a brief period of elevated latency.
D

I/O may be briefly suspended while the backup process initializes (typically under a
few seconds), and you may experience a brief period of elevated latency.
Kroonenburg 17

RDS Reserved instances are available for multi-AZ deployments.

A. True

B. False
A
Kroonenburg 18

AWS's NoSQL product offering is known as ________.

A. DynamoDB

B. MySQL

C. MongoDB

D. RDS
A
Kroonenburg 19

Which AWS service is ideal for Business Intelligence Tools/Data Warehousing?

A. Redshift

B. DynamoDB

C. Elastic Beanstalk
D. ElastiCache
A
Kroonenburg 20

How many copies of my data does RDS - Aurora store by default?

A. 1

B. 3

C. 6

D. 2
C
Kroonenburg 21

In RDS, what is the maximum value I can set for my backup retention period?

A. 45 Days

B. 15 Days

C. 30 Days

D. 35 Days
D
Kroonenburg 22

Can I "force" a failover for any RDS instance that has Multi-AZ configured?

A. Yes.

B. Only for Oracle RDS instances.

C. No.
A
Kroonenburg 23

What data transfer charge is incurred when replicating data from your primary RDS
instance to your secondary RDS instance?

A. There is no charge associated with this action.

B. The charge is the same as the standard data transfer charge.

C. The charge is double the standard data transfer charge.

D. The charge is half of the standard data transfer charge.


A
Kroonenburg 24

With new RDS Db instances, automated backups are enabled by default?

A. True

B. False
A
Kroonenburg 25

You can RDP or SSH in to an RDS instance to see what is going on with the
operating system.

A. False

B. True
A
Kroonenburg 26

Which of the following AWS services is a non-relational database?

A. ElastiCache

B. RDS

C. Redshift

D. DynamoDB
D
Kroonenburg 27

Which of the following data formats does Amazon Athena support? (Choose 3)

A. XML

B. JSON

C. Apache ORC

D. Apache Parquet
B, C, D

Amazon Athena is an interactive query service that makes it easy to analyse data in
Amazon S3, using standard SQL commands. It will work with a number of data
formats including "JSON", "Apache Parquet", "Apache ORC" amongst others, but
"XML" is not a format that is supported.
Kroonenburg 28

Which AWS DB platform is most suitable for OLTP?


A. ElastiCache

B. RDS

C. DynamoDB

D. Redshift
B
Baron 01

Which AWS database service is best suited for traditional Online Transaction
Processing (OLTP)?
A. Amazon Redshift
B. Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS)
C. Amazon Glacier
D. Elastic Database
B. Amazon RDS is best suited for traditional OLTP transactions. Amazon Redshift,
on the other hand, is designed for OLAP workloads. Amazon Glacier is designed for
cold archival storage.
Baron 02

Which AWS database service is best suited for non-relational databases?


A. Amazon Redshift
B. Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS)
C. Amazon Glacier
D. Amazon DynamoDB
D. Amazon DynamoDB is best suited for non-relational databases. Amazon RDS
and Amazon Redshift are both structured relational databases.
Baron 03

You are a solutions architect working for a media company that hosts its website on
AWS. Currently, there is a single Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2)
Instance on AWS with MySQL installed locally to that Amazon EC2 Instance. You
have been asked to make the company's production environment more resilient and
to increase performance. You suggest that the company split out the MySQL
database onto an Amazon RDS Instance with Multi-AZ enabled. This addresses the
company's increased resiliency requirements. Now you need to suggest how you
can increase performance. Ninety-nine percent of the company's end users are
magazine subscribers who will be reading additional articles on the website, so only
one percent of end users will need to write data to the site. What should you suggest
to increase performance?
A. Alter the connection string so that if a user is going to write data, it is written to the
secondary copy of the Multi-AZ database.
B. Alter the connection string so that if a user is going to write data, it is written to the
primary copy of the Multi-AZ database.
C. Recommend that the company use read replicas, and distribute the traffic across
multiple read replicas.
D. Migrate the MySQL database to Amazon Redshift to take advantage of columnar
storage and maximize performance.
C. In this scenario, the best idea is to use read replicas to scale out the database
and thus maximize read performance. When using Multi-AZ, the secondary database
is not accessible and all reads and writes must go to the primary or any read
replicas.

Multi-AZ Notes:
1) For disaster recovery
2) Synchronous DB copy
3) Same region (intra-region)
4) Offline (no query capability)
5) SQL Server, Oracle, MySQL, Postgres, MariaDB

Read Replica Notes:


1) For performance primarily
2) Asynchronous DB copy
3) Across AZs AND regions
4) Queryable
5) MySQL, Postgres, MariaDB, Aurora
6) No Oracle, No SQL Server
Baron 04

Which AWS Cloud service is best suited for Online Analytics Processing (OLAP)?
A. Amazon Redshift
B. Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS)
C. Amazon Glacier
D. Amazon DynamoDB
A. Amazon Redshift is best suited for traditional OLAP transactions. While Amazon
RDS can also be used for OLAP, Amazon Redshift is purpose-built as an OLAP data
warehouse.
Baron 05

You have been using Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) for the
last year to run an important application with automated backups enabled. One of
your team members is performing routine maintenance and accidentally drops an
important table, causing an outage. How can you recover the missing data while
minimizing the duration of the outage?
A. Perform an undo operation and recover the table.
B. Restore the database from a recent automated DB snapshot.
C. Restore only the dropped table from the DB snapshot.
D. The data cannot be recovered.
B. DB Snapshots can be used to restore a complete copy of the database at a
specific point in time. Individual tables cannot be extracted from a snapshot.
Baron 06

Which Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) database engines


support Multi-AZ?
A. All of them
B. Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL, and Oracle
C. Oracle, Amazon Aurora, and PostgreSQL
D. MySQL
A. All Amazon RDS database engines support Multi-AZ deployment.
Baron 07

Which Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) database engines


support read replicas?
A. Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle
B. MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, and Aurora
C. Aurora, Microsoft SQL Server, and Oracle
D. MySQL and PostgreSQL
B. Read replicas are supported by MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, and Aurora.
Baron 08

Your team is building an order processing system that will span multiple Availability
Zones. During testing, the team wanted to test how the application will react to a
database failover. How can you enable this type of test?
A. Force a Multi-AZ failover from one Availability Zone to another by rebooting the
primary instance using the Amazon RDS console.
B. Terminate the DB instance, and create a new one. Update the connection string.
C. Create a support case asking for a failover.
D. It is not possible to test a failover.
A

You can force a failover from one Availability Zine to another by rebooting the
primary instance in the AWS Management Console. This is often how people test a
failover in the real world. There is no need to create a support case.
Baron 09

You are a system administrator whose company has moved its production database
to AWS. Your company monitors its estate using Amazon CloudWatch, which sends
alarms using Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) to your mobile
phone. One night, you get an alert that your primary Amazon Relational Database
Service (Amazon RDS) Instance has gone down. You have Multi-AZ enabled on this
instance. What should you do to ensure the failover happens quickly?

A. Update your Domain Name System (DNS) to point to the secondary instance's
new IP address, forcing your application to fail over to the secondary instance.
B. Connect to your server using Secure Shell (SSH) and update your connection
strings so that your application can communicate to the secondary instance instead
of the failed primary instance.
C. Take a snapshot of the secondary instance and create a new instance using this
snapshot, then update your connection string to point to the new instance.
D. No action is necessary. Your connection string points to the database endpoint,
and AWS automatically updates this endpoint to point to your secondary instance.
D. Monitor the environment while Amazon RDS attempts to recover automatically.
AWS will update the DB endpoint to point to the secondary instance automatically.
Baron 10

You are working for a small organization without a dedicated database administrator
on staff. All of your current workloads use MySQL. You need to install Microsoft SQL
Server Enterprise edition quickly to support an accounting back office application on
Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS). What should you do?
A. Launch an Amazon RDS DB Instance, and select Microsoft SQL Server
Enterprise Edition under the Bring Your Own License (BYOL) model.
B. Provision SQL Server Enterprise Edition using the License Included option from
the Amazon RDS Console.
C. SQL Server Enterprise edition is only available via the Command Line Interface
(CLI).
Install the command-line tools on your laptop, and then provision your new Amazon
RDS Instance using the CLI.
D. You cannot use SQL Server Enterprise edition on Amazon RDS. You should
install this on to a dedicated Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2)
Instance.
B. Provision SQL Server Enterprise Edition using the License Included option from
the Amazon RDS Console.
Baron 11

You are building the database tier for an enterprise application that gets occasional
activity throughout the day. Which storage type should you select as your default
option?
A. Magnetic storage
B. General Purpose Solid State Drive (SSD)
C. Provisioned IOPS (SSD)
D. Storage Area Network (SAN)-attached
B. General Purpose (SSD) volumes are generally the right choice for databases that
have bursts of activity.
Baron 12

You are designing an e-commerce web application that will scale to potentially
hundreds of thousands of concurrent users. Which database technology is best
suited to hold the session state for large numbers of concurrent users?
A. Relational database using Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS)
B. NoSQL database table using Amazon DynamoDB
C. Data warehouse using Amazon Redshift
D. Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3)
B. NoSQL databases like Amazon DynamoDB excel at scaling to hundreds of
thousands of requests with key/ value access to user profile and session.
Baron 13

Which of the following techniques can you use to help you meet Recovery Point
Objective (RPO) and Recovery Time Objective (RTO) requirements? (Choose 3
answers)
A. DB snapshots
B. DB option groups
C. Read replica
D. Multi-AZ deployment
A, C, D. DB snapshots allow you to back up and recover your data, while read
replicas and a Multi-AZ deployment allow you to replicate your data and reduce the
time to failover.
Baron 14
When using Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) Multi-AZ, how can
you offload read requests from the primary? (Choose 2 answers)
A. Configure the connection string of the clients to connect to the secondary node
and perform reads while the primary is used for writes.
B. Amazon RDS automatically sends writes to the primary and sends reads to the
secondary.
C. Add a read replica DB instance, and configure the client's application logic to use
a read-replica.
D. Create a caching environment using ElastiCache to cache frequently used data.
Update the application logic to read/ write from the cache.
C, D. Amazon RDS allows for the creation of one or more read-replicas for many
engines that can be used to handle reads. Another common pattern is to create a
cache using Memcached and Amazon ElastiCache to store frequently used queries.
The secondary slave DB Instance is not accessible and cannot be used to offload
queries.
Baron 15

You are building a large order processing system and are responsible for securing
the database. Which actions will you take to protect the data? (Choose 3 answers)
A. Adjust AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) permissions for
administrators.
B. Configure security groups and network Access Control Lists (ACLs) to limit
network access.
C. Configure database users, and grant permissions to database objects.
D. Install anti-virus software on the Amazon RDS DB Instance.
A, B, C. Protecting your database requires a multilayered approach that secures the
infrastructure, the network, and the database itself. Amazon RDS is a managed
service and direct access to the OS is not available.
Baron 16

Your team manages a popular website running Amazon Relational Database Service
(Amazon RDS) MySQL back end. The Marketing department has just informed you
about an upcoming television commercial that will drive thousands of new visitors to
the website. How can you prepare your database to handle the load? (Choose 3
answers)
A. Vertically scale the DB Instance by selecting a more powerful instance class.
B. Create read replicas to offload read requests and update your application.
C. Upgrade the storage from Magnetic volumes to General Purpose Solid State
Drive (SSD) volumes.
D. Upgrade to Amazon Redshift for faster columnar storage.
A, B, C. Vertically scaling up is one of the simpler options that can give you
additional processing power without making any architectural changes. Read
replicas require some application changes but let you scale processing power
horizontally. Finally, busy databases are often I/ O- bound, so upgrading storage to
General Purpose (SSD) or Provisioned IOPS (SSD) can often allow for additional
request processing.
Baron 17

You are building a photo management application that maintains metadata on


millions of images in an Amazon DynamoDB table. When a photo is retrieved, you
want to display the metadata next to the image. Which Amazon DynamoDB
operation will you use to retrieve the metadata attributes from the table?
A. Scan operation
B. Search operation
C. Query operation
D. Find operation
C. Query is the most efficient operation to find a single item in a large table.
Baron 18

You are creating an Amazon DynamoDB table that will contain messages for a social
chat application. This table will have the following attributes: Username (String),
Timestamp (Number), Message (String). Which attribute should you use as the
partition key? The sort key?
A. Username, Timestamp
B. Username, Message
C. Timestamp, Message
D. Message, Timestamp
A. Using the Username as a partition key will evenly spread your users across the
partitions. Messages are often filtered down by time range, so Timestamp makes
sense as a sort key.
Baron 19

Which statement about Amazon DynamoDB tables is true? (Choose 1 answer)


A. Global secondary indexes can only be created when the table is being created.
B. Local secondary indexes can only be created when the table is being created.
C. You can only have one global secondary index.
D. You can only have one local secondary index.
B. You can have multiple local secondary indexes, and they must be created at the
same time the table is created. You can create multiple global secondary indexes
associated with a table at any time.
Baron 20

Which of the following workloads are a good fit for running on Amazon Redshift?
(Choose 2 answers)
A. Transactional database supporting a busy e-commerce order processing website
B. Reporting database supporting back-office analytics
C. Data warehouse used to aggregate multiple disparate data sources
D. Manage session state and user profile data for thousands of concurrent users
B, C. Amazon Redshift is an Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) data warehouse
designed for analytics, Extract, Transform, Load (ETL), and high-speed querying. It
is not well suited for running transactional applications that require high volumes of
small inserts or updates.
Banerjee 01

You are running your MySQL database in RDS. The database is critical for you, and
you can't afford to lose any data in the case of any kind of failure. What kind of
architecture will you go with for RDS?
A. Create the RDS across multiple regions using a cross-regional read replica
B. Create the RDS across multiple AZs in master standby mode
C. Create the RDS and create multiple read replicas in multiple AZs with the same
region
D. Create a multimaster RDS database across multiple AZs
B. If you use a cross-regional replica and a read replica within the same region, the
data replication happens asynchronously, so there is a chance of data loss.
Multimaster is not supported in RDS. By creating the master and standby
architecture, the data replication happens synchronously, so there is zero data loss.
Banerjee 02

Your application is I/O bound, and your application needs around 36,000 IOPS. The
application you are running is critical for the business. How can you make sure the
application always gets all the IOPS it requests and the database is highly available?
A. Install the database in EC2 using an EBS-optimized instance, and choose a I/O
optimized instance class with an SSD-based hard drive
B. Install the database in RDS using SSD
C. Install the database in RDS in multi-AZ using Provisioned IOPS and select 36,000
IOPS
D. Install multiple copies of read replicas in RDS so all the workload gets distributed
across multiple read replicas and you can cater to the I/O requirement
C. You can choose to install the database in EC2, but if you can get all the same
benefits by installing the database in RDS, then why not? If you install the database
in SSD, you don't know if you can meet the 36,000 IOPS requirement. A read replica
is going to take care of the read-only workload. The requirement does not say the
division of read and write IO between 36,000 IOPS.
Banerjee 03

You have a legacy application that needs a file system in the database server to
write application files. Where should you install the database?
A. You can achieve this using RDS because RDS has a file system in the database
server
B. Install the database on an EC2 server to get full control
C. Install the database in RDS, mount an EFS from the RDS server, and give the
EFS mount point to the application for writing the application files
D. Create the database using a multi-AZ architecture in RDS
B. In this example, you need access to the operating system, and RDS does not give
you access to the OS. You must install the database in an EC2 server to get
complete control.
Banerjee 04

You are running a MySQL database in RDS, and you have been tasked with creating
a disaster recovery architecture. What approach is easiest for creating the DR
instance in a different region?
A. Create an EC2 server in a different region and constantly replicate the database
over there.
B. Create an RDS database in the other region and use third-party software to
replicate the data across the database.
C. While installing the database, use multiple regions. This way, your database gets
installed into multiple regions directly.
D. Use the cross-regional replication functionality of RDS. This will quickly spin off a
read replica in a different region that can be used for disaster recovery.
D. You can achieve this by creating an EC2 server in a different region and
replicating, but when your primary site is running on RDS, why not use RDS for the
secondary site as well? You can use third-party software for replication, but when the
functionality exists out of the box in RDS, why pay extra to any third party? You can't
install a database using multiple regions out of the box.
Banerjee 05

If you encrypt a database running in RDS, what objects are going to be encrypted?
A. The entire database
B. The database backups and snapshot
C. The database log files
D. All of the above
D. When you encrypted a database, everything gets encrypted including the
database, backups, logs, read replicas, snapshot, and so on.
Banerjee 06

Your company has just acquired a new company, and the number of users who are
going to use the database will double. The database is running on Aurora. What
things can you do to handle the additional users? (Choose two.)
A. Scale up the database vertically by choosing a bigger box
B. Use a combination of Aurora and EC2 to host the database
C. Create a few read replicas to handle the additional read-only traffic
D. Create the Aurora instance across multiple regions with a multimaster mode
A, C. You can't host Aurora on a EC2 server. Multimaster is not supported in Aurora.
Banerjee 07

Which RDS engine does not support read replicas?


A. MySQL
B. Aurora MySQL
C. PostgreSQL
D. Oracle
D. Only RDS Oracle does not support read replicas; the rest of the engines do
support it.
Banerjee 08

What are the various ways of securing a database running in RDS? (Choose two.) A.
Create the database in a private subnet
B. Encrypt the entire database
C. Create the database in multiple AZs
D. Change the IP address of the database every week
A, B. Creating the database in multiple AZs is going to provide high availability and
has nothing to do with security. Changing the IP address every week will be a painful
activity and still won't secure the database if you don't encrypt it.
Banerjee 09

You're running a mission-critical application, and you are hosting the database for
that application in RDS. Your IT team needs to access all the critical OS metrics
every five seconds. What approach would you choose?
A. Write a script to capture all the key metrics and schedule the script to run every
five seconds using a cron job
B. Schedule a job every five seconds to capture the OS metrics
C. Use standard monitoring
D. Use advanced monitoring
D. In RDS, you don't have access to OS, so you can't run a cron job. You can't
capture the OS metrics by running a database job. Standard monitoring provides
metrics for one minute.
Banerjee 10

Which of the following statements are true for Amazon Aurora? (Choose three.)
A. The storage is replicated at three different AZs.
B. The data is copied at six different places.
C. It uses a quorum-based system for reads and writes.
D. Aurora supports all the commercial databases.
A, B, C. Amazon Aurora supports only MySQL and PostgreSQL. It does not support
commercial databases.
Banerjee 11

Which of the following does Amazon DynamoDB support? (Choose two.)


A. Graph database
B. Key-value database
C. Document database
D. Relational database
B, C. Amazon DynamoDB supports key-value and document structures. It is not a
relational database. It does not support graph databases.
Banerjee 12

I want to store JSON objects. Which database should I choose?


A. Amazon Aurora for MySQL
B. Oracle hosted on EC2
C. Amazon Aurora for PostgreSQL
D. Amazon DynamoDB
D. A JSON object needs to be stored in a NoSQL database. Amazon Aurora for
MySQL and PostgreSQL and Oracle are relational databases.
Banerjee 13

I have to run my analytics, and to optimize I want to store all the data in columnar
format. Which database serves my need?
A. Amazon Aurora for MySQL
B. Amazon Redshift
C. Amazon DynamoDB
D. Amazon Aurora for Postgres
B. Amazon Redshift stores all the data in columnar format. Amazon Aurora for
MySQL and PostgreSQL store the database in row format, and Amazon DynamoDB
is a NoSQL database.
Banerjee 14

What are the two in-memory key-value engines that Amazon ElastiCache supports?
(Choose two.)
A. Memcached
B. Redis
C. MySQL
D. SQL Server
A, B. MySQL and SQL Server are relational databases and not in-memory engines.
Banerjee 15

You want to launch a copy of a Redshift cluster to a different region. What is the
easiest way to do this?
A. Create a cluster manually in a different region and load all the data
B. Extend the existing cluster to a different region
C. Use third-party software like Golden Gate to replicate the data
D. Enable a cross-region snapshot and restore the database from the snapshot to a
different region
D. Loading the data manually will be too much work. You can't extend the cluster to
a different region. A Redshift cluster is specific to a particular AZ. It can't go beyond
an AZ as of writing this book. Using Golden Gate is going to cost a lot, and there is
no need for it when there is an easy solution available.
Hummel 01

How is load balancing enabled for multiple tasks to the same container instance?
A. Path-based routing
B. Reverse proxy
C. NAT
D. Dynamic port mappng
E. Dynamic listeners
D

AWS recently launched a new Application Load Balancer (ALB) that supports
Dynamic Port Mapping with ECS. It allows you to run two containers of a service on
a single server on dynamic ports which ALB automatically detects and reconfigures
itself.
Hummel 02

What encryption support is available for tenants that are deploying AWS
DynamoDB?
A. Server-side encryption
B. Client-side encryption
C. Client-side and server-side encryption
D. Encryption not supported
E. Block level encryption
B
Hummel 03

What are three primary reasons for deploying ElastiCache?


A. Data security
B. Managed service
C. Replication with REDIS
D. Durablility
E. Low latency
B, C, E
Hummel 04

What service does not support session data persistence store to enable web-based
stateful applications?
A. RDS
B. Memcached
C. DynamoDB
D. Redis
E. RedShift
B
Hummel 05

How does Memcached implement horizontal scaling?


A. Auto-Scaling
B. Database store
C. Partitioning
D. EC2 instances S3 bucket
C
Hummel 06

What two options are available for tenants to access ElastiCache (Choose 2)?
A. VPC peering link
B. EC2 instances
C. EFS mount
D. Cross-region VPC
A, B
Hummel 07

What two statements correctly describe in-transit encryption support on ElastiCache


platform (Choose 2)?
A. not supported for ElastiCache platform
B. supported on Redis replication group
C. encrypts cached data at rest
D. not supported on Memcached cluster
E. IPsec must be enabled first
B, D
Hummel 08

What Amazon AWS platform is designed for complex analytics of a variety of large
data sets based on custom code? The applications include machine learning and
data transformation.
A. EC2
B. Beanstalk
C. Redshift
D. EMR
D

Amazon EMR (Elastic Map Reduce) processes big data across a Hadoop cluster of
virtual servers on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and Amazon Simple
Storage Service (S3). The elastic in EMR's name refers to its dynamic resizing
ability, which allows it to ramp up or reduce resource use depending on the demand
at any given time.
Hummel 09

What are two primary advantages of DynamoDB?


A. SQL support
B. Managed service
C. Performance
D. CloudFront integration
B, C
Hummel 10

What two fault tolerant features does Amazon RDS support?


A. Copy snapshot to a different region
B. Create read replica to a different region
C. Copy unencrypted read-replica only
D. Copy read/write replica and snapshot
A, B
Hummel 11

What managed services are included with Amazon RDS? (select four)
A. Assign network capacity to database instances
B. Install database software
C. Perform regular backups
D. Data replication across multiple availability zones
E. Data replication across single availability zone only
F. Configure database
G. Performance tuning
A, B, C, D
Hummel 12

What two configuration features are required to create a private database instance?
A. Security group
B. Network ACL
C. CloudWatch
D. Elastic IP (EIP)
E. Nondefault VSP
F. DNS
A, F
Hummel 13

What storage type is recommended for an online transaction processing (OLTP)


application deployed to Multi-AZ RDS with significant workloads?
A. General Purpose SSD
B. Magnetic
C. EBS volumes
D. Provisioned IOPS
D
Hummel 14
What features are supported with Amazon RDS? (Select three)
A. Horizontal scaling with multiple read replicas
B. Elastic load balancing RDS read replicas
C. Replicate read replicas cross-region
D. Automatic failover to master database instance
E. Application load balancer (ALB)
A, C, E
Hummel 15

What are three advantages of standby replica in a Multi-AZ RDS deployment?


A. Fault tolerance
B. Eliminate I/O freezes
C. Horizontal scaling
D. Vertical scaling
E. Data redundancy
A, B, E

Vertical scaling implies increasing the size (cpu and memory) of the server.

Horizontal scaling implies read replicas.


Hummel 16

What consistency model is the default used by DynamoDB?


A. Strongly consistent
B. Eventually consistent
C. No default model
D. Casual consistency
E. Sequential consistency
B
Hummel 17

What does RDS use for database and log storage?


A. EBS
B. S3
C. Instance store
D. Local store
E. SSD
A
Hummel 18

What statements correctly describe support for Microsoft SQL Server within Amazon
VPC? (select three)
A. read/write replica
B. Read replica only
C. Vertical scaling
D. Native load balancing
E. EBS storage only
F. S3 storage only
B, C, D
Hummel 19

Select two features available with Amazon RDS for MySQL?


A. Auto-Scaling
B. Read requests to standby replicas
C. Real-time database replication
D. Active read requests only
B, C
Hummel 20

What are two characteristics of Amazon RDS (choose 2)?


A. Database managed service
B. NoSQL queries
C. Native load balancer
D. Database write replicas
E. Automatic failover of read replica
A, C
Hummel 21

What caching engines are supported with Amazon ElastiCache? (Select two)
A. HAProxy
B. Route 53
C. RedShift
D. REdis
E. Memcached
F. CloudFront
D, E
Hummel 22

What are three primary characteristics of DynamoDB?


A. Less scalable than RDS
B. Static content
C. Store metadata for S3 objects
D. Replication to three Availability Zones
E. High read/write throughput
C, D, E
Hummel 23

What are three examples of using Lambda functions to move data between AWS
services?
A. Read data directly from DynamoDB streams to RDS
B. Read data from Kinesis stream and write data to DynamoDB
C. Read data from DynamoDB stream to Firehose and write to S3
D. Read data from S3 and write metadata to DynamoDB
E. Read data from Kinesis firehose to Kinesis data stream
B, C, D

Kinesis Streams. The more customizable option, Streams is best suited for
developers building custom applications or streaming data for specialized needs.
The customizability of the approach, however, requires manual scaling and
provisioning. Data typically is made available in a stream for 24 hours, but for an
additional cost, users can gain data availability for up to seven days.
Kineses Firehose. The simpler approach, Firehose handles loading data streams
directly into AWS products for processing. Scaling is handled automatically, up to
gigabytes per second, and allows for batching, encrypting, and compressing.
Firehose also allows for streaming to S3, Elasticsearch Service, or Redshift, where
data can be copied for processing through additional services.
Hummel 24

You have enabled Amazon RDS database services in VPC1 for an application with
public web servers in VPC2. How do you connect the web servers to the RDS
database instance so they can communicate considering the VPC's are in different
regions?
A. VPC endpoints
B. VPN gateway
C. Path-based routing
D. Publicly accessible database
E. VPC peering
D
Hummel 25

You have a requirement to create an index to search customer objects stored in S3


buckets. The solution should enable you to create a metadata search index for each
object stored to an S3 bucket. Select the most scalable and cost effective solution.
A. RDS, ElastiCache
B. DynamoDB,. Lambda
C. RDS, EMR, ALB
D. RedShift
B
Hummel 26

What are three advantages of using DynamoDB over S3 for storing IoT sensor data
where there are 100,000 datapoint samples sent per minute?
A. S3 must create a single file for each event
B. IoT can write data directly to DynamoDB
C. DynamoDB provides fast read/writes to a structured table for queries
D. DynamoDB is designed for frequent access and fast lookup of small records
E. S3 is designed for frequent access and fast lookup of smaller records
F. IoT can write data directly to S3
B, C, D
Hummel 27

Your company is a provider of online gaming that customers access with various
network access devices including mobile phones. What is a data warehousing
solutions for large amounts of information on player behavior, statistics and events
for analysis using SQL tools?
A. redShift
B. DynamoDB
C. RDS
D. Elasticsearch
A
Hummel 28

What two statements are correct when comparing Elasticsearch and RedShift as
analytical tools?
A. Elasticsearch is a text search engine and document indexing tool
B. RedShift supports complex SQL-based queries with Petabyte sized data store
C. Elasticsearch supports SQL queries
D. RedShift provides only basic analytical services
E. Elasticsearch does not support JSON data type
A, B
Hummel 29

What happens when read or write requests exceed capacity units (throughput
capacity) for a DynamoDB table or index? (select two)
A. DynamoDB automatically increases read/write units
B. DynamoDB can throttle requests so that requests are not exceeded
C. HTTP 400 code is returned (Bad Request)
D. HTTP 500 code is returned (Server Error)
E. DynamoDB automatically increases read/write units if provisioned throughput is
enabled
B, C
Hummel 30

What read consistency method provides lower latency for GetItem requests?
A. Strongly persistent
B. Eventually consistent
C. Strongly consistent
D. Write consistent
B
Hummel 31

You must specify strongly consistent read and write capacity for you DynamoDB
database. You have determined read capacity of 128 Kbps and write capacity of 25
Kbps is required for your application. What is the read and write capacity units
required for DynamoDB table?
A. 32 read units, 25 write units
B. 1 read unit, 1 write unit
C. 16 read units, 2.5 write units
D. 64 read units, 10 write units
A

Read Capacity: single read per second for 4 KB


Write Capcity: single write per second for 1 KB
Hummel 32

What DynamoDB capacity management technique is based on the tenant specifying


an upper and lower range for read/write capacity units?
A. Demand
B. Provisioned throughput
C. Reserved capacity
D. Auto scaling
E. General purpose
D
Hummel 33

What is the maximum volume size of a MySQL RDS database?


A. 6 TB
B. 3 TB
C. 16 TB
D. unlimited
C
Hummel 34

What is the maximum size of a dynamoDB record (item)?


A. 400 KB
B. 64 KB
C. 1 KB
D. 10 KB
A
Baron - Chapter 10 - ElastiCache - 01

Which of the following objects are good candidates to store in a cache? (Choose 3
answers)
A. Session state
B. Shopping cart
C. Product catalog
D. Bank account balance
B, C

Many types of objects are good candidates to cache because they have the potential
to be accessed by numerous users repeatedly. Even the balance of a bank account
could be cached for short periods of time if the back-end database query is slow to
respond.
Baron - Chapter 10 - ElastiCache - 02

Which of the following cache engines are supported by Amazon ElastiCache?


(Choose 2 answers)
A. MySQL
B. Memcached
C. Redis
D. Couchbase
B, C

Amazon ElastiCache supports Memcached and Redis cache engines. MySQL is not
a cache engine, and Couchbase is not supported.
Baron - Chapter 10 - ElastiCache - 03
How many nodes can you add to an Amazon ElastiCache cluster running
Memcached?
A. 1
B. 5
C. 20
D. 100
C

The default limit is 20 nodes per cluster.


Baron - Chapter 10 - ElastiCache - 04

How many nodes can you add to an Amazon ElastiCache cluster running Redis?
A. 1
B. 5
C. 20
D. 100
A

Redis clusters can only contain a single node; however, you can group multiple
clusters together into a replication group.
Baron - Chapter 10 - ElastiCache - 05

An application currently uses Memcached to cache frequently used database


queries. Which steps are required to migrate the application to use Amazon
ElastiCache with minimal changes? (Choose 2 answers)
A. Recompile the application to use the Amazon ElastiCache libraries.
B. Update the configuration file with the endpoint for the Amazon ElastiCache
cluster.
C. Configure a security group to allow access from the application servers.
D. Connect to the Amazon ElastiCache nodes using Secure Shell (SSH) and install
the latest version of Memcached.
B, C

Amazon ElastiCache is Application Programming Interface (API)-compatible with


existing Memcached clients and does not require the application to be recompiled or
linked against the libraries. Amazon ElastiCache manages the deployment of the
Amazon ElastiCache binaries.
Baron - Chapter 10 - ElastiCache - 06

How can you back up data stored in Amazon ElastiCache running Redis? (Choose 2
answers)
A. Create an image of the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instance.
B. Configure automatic snapshots to back up the cache environment every night.
C. Create a snapshot manually.
D. Redis clusters cannot be backed up.
B, C

Amazon ElastiCache with the Redis engine allows for both manual and automatic
snapshots. Memcached does not have a backup function.
Baron - Chapter 10 - ElastiCache - 07

How can you secure an Amazon ElastiCache cluster? (Choose 3 answers)


A. Change the Memcached root password.
B. Restrict Application Programming Interface (API) actions using AWS Identity and
Access Management (IAM) policies.
C. Restrict network access using security groups.
D. Restrict network access using a network Access Control List (ACL).
B, C, D

Limit access at the network level using security groups or network ACLs, and limit
infrastructure changes using IAM.
Baron - Chapter 10 - ElastiCache - 08

You are working on a mobile gaming application and are building the leaderboard
feature to track the top scores across millions of users. Which AWS services are
best suited for this use case?
A. Amazon Redshift
B. Amazon ElastiCache using Memcached
C. Amazon ElastiCache using Redis
D. Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)
C

Amazon ElastiCache with Redis provides native functions that simplify the
development of leaderboards. With Memcached, it is more difficult to sort and rank
large datasets. Amazon Redshift and Amazon S3 are not designed for high volumes
of small reads and writes, typical of a mobile game.
Baron - Chapter 10 - ElastiCache - 09

You have built a large web application that uses Amazon ElastiCache using
Memcached to store frequent query results. You plan to expand both the web fleet
and the cache fleet multiple times over the next year to accommodate increased
user traffic. How do you minimize the amount of changes required when a scaling
event occurs?
A. Configure AutoDiscovery on the client side
B. Configure AutoDiscovery on the server side
C. Update the configuration file each time a new cluster
D. Use an Elastic Load Balancer to proxy the requests
A

When the clients are configured to use AutoDiscovery, they can discover new cache
nodes as they are added or removed. AutoDiscovery must be configured on each
client and is not active server side. Updating the configuration file each time will be
very difficult to manage. Using an Elastic Load Balancer is not recommended for this
scenario.
Baron - Chapter 10 - ElastiCache - 10

Which cache engines does Amazon ElastiCache support? (Choose 2 answers)


A. Memcached
B. Redis
C. Membase
D. Couchbase
A, B

Amazon ElastiCache supports both Memcached and Redis. You can run self-
managed installations of Membase and Couchbase using Amazon Elastic Compute
Cloud (Amazon EC2).

YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...

erms in this set (43)

What does Amazon RDS stand for?

a. Regional Data Server.

b. Relational Database Service

c. Regional Database Service.


B
How many relational database engines does RDS currently support?

A. MySQL, Postgres, MariaDB, Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server

B. Just two: MySQL and Oracle.

C .Five: MySQL, PostgreSQL, MongoDB, Cassandra and SQLite.

D. Just one: MySQL.


A
If I modify a DB Instance or the DB parameter group associated with the instance,
should I reboot the instance for the changes to take effect?

A. No

B. Yes
B
What is the name of licensing model in which I can use your existing Oracle
Database licenses to run Oracle deployments on Amazon RDS?

A. Bring Your Own License

B. Role Bases License

C. Enterprise License

D. License Included
A
Will I be charged if the DB instance is idle?

A. No

B. Yes

C. Only is running in GovCloud

D. Only if running in VPC


B
What is the minimum charge for the data transferred between Amazon RDS and
Amazon EC2 Instances in the same Availability Zone?

A. USD 0.10 per GB

B. No charge. It is free.

C. USD 0.02 per GB

D. USD 0.01 per GB


B
Does Amazon RDS allow direct host access via Telnet, Secure Shell (SSH), or
Windows Remote Desktop Connection?

A. Yes

B. No

C. Depends on if it is in VPC or not


B
What are the two types of licensing options available for using Amazon RDS for
Oracle?

A. BYOL and Enterprise License

B. BYOL and License Included

C. Enterprise License and License Included

D. Role based License and License Included


B
You are running a database on an EC2 instance, with the data stored on Elastic
Block Store (EBS) for persistence At times throughout the day, you are seeing large
variance in the response times of the database queries Looking into the instance
with the isolate command you see a lot of wait time on the disk volume that the
database's data is stored on. What two ways can you improve the performance of
the database's storage while maintaining the current persistence of the data?
Choose 2 answers

A. Move to an SSD backed instance


B. Move the database to an EBS-Optimized Instance

C. Use Provisioned IOPs EBS

D. Use the ephemeral storage on an m2.4xLarge Instance Instead


BC
Amazon RDS automated backups and DB Snapshots are currently supported for
only the __________ storage engine

A. InnoDB

B. MyISAM
A
A user has launched an RDS MySQL DB with the Multi AZ feature. The user has
scheduled the scaling of instance storage during maintenance window. What is the
correct order of events during maintenance window? 1. Perform maintenance on
standby 2. Promote standby to primary 3. Perform maintenance on original primary
4. Promote original master back as primary

A. 1, 2, 3, 4

B. 1, 2, 3

C. 2, 3, 4, 1
B
Can I control if and when MySQL based RDS Instance is upgraded to new supported
versions?

A. No

B. Only in VPC

C. Yes
C
A user has scheduled the maintenance window of an RDS DB on Monday at 3 AM.
Which of the below mentioned events may force to take the DB instance offline
during the maintenance window?

A. Enabling Read Replica

B. Making the DB Multi AZ

C. DB password change

D. Security patching
D
A user has launched an RDS postgreSQL DB with AWS. The user did not specify
the maintenance window during creation. The user has configured RDS to update
the DB instance type from micro to large. If the user wants to have it during the
maintenance window, what will AWS do?

A. AWS will not allow to update the DB until the maintenance window is configured

B. AWS will select the default maintenance window if the user has not provided it

C. AWS will ask the user to specify the maintenance window during the update

D. It is not possible to change the DB size from micro to large with RDS
B
Can I test my DB Instance against a new version before upgrading?

A. No

B. Yes

C. Only in VPC
B
When should I choose Provisioned IOPS over Standard RDS storage?

A. If you have batch-oriented workloads

B. If you use production online transaction processing (OLTP) workloads

C. If you have workloads that are not sensitive to consistent performance


B
Is decreasing the storage size of a DB Instance permitted?

A. Depends on the RDMS used

B. Yes

C. No
C
Because of the extensibility limitations of striped storage attached to Windows
Server, Amazon RDS does not currently support increasing storage on a _____ DB
Instance.

A. SQL Server

B. MySQL

C. Oracle
A
If I want to run a database in an Amazon instance, which is the most recommended
Amazon storage option?

A. Amazon Instance Storage

B. Amazon EBS
C. You can't run a database inside an Amazon instance.

D. Amazon S3
b
For each DB Instance class, what is the maximum size of associated storage
capacity?

A. 1TB

B. 2TB

C. 500GB

D. 6TB (Except SQL Server which is currently 4TB)


D
You are running a successful multi-tier web application on AWS and your marketing
department has asked you to add a reporting tier to the application. The reporting tier
will aggregate and publish status reports every 30 minutes from user-generated
information that is being stored in your web applications database. You are currently
running a Multi-AZ RDS MySQL instance for the database tier. You also have
implemented ElastiCache as a database caching layer between the application tier
and database tier. Please select the answer that will allow you to successfully
implement the reporting tier with as little impact as possible to your database.

A. Continually send transaction logs from your master database to an S3 bucket and
generate the reports off the S3 bucket using S3 byte range requests.

B. Generate the reports by querying the synchronously replicated standby RDS


MySQL instance maintained through Multi-AZ

C. Launch a RDS Read Replica connected to your Multi AZ master database and
generate reports by querying the Read Replica.

D. Generate the reports by querying the ElastiCache database caching tier.


C
A company is deploying a new two-tier web application in AWS. The company has
limited staff and requires high availability, and the application requires complex
queries and table joins. Which configuration provides the solution for the company's
requirements?

A. MySQL Installed on two Amazon EC2 Instances in a single Availability Zone

B. Amazon RDS for MySQL with Multi-AZ

C. Amazon ElastiCache

D. Amazon DynamoDB
B
Your company is getting ready to do a major public announcement of a social media
site on AWS. The website is running on EC2 instances deployed across multiple
Availability Zones with a Multi-AZ RDS MySQL Extra Large DB Instance. The site
performs a high number of small reads and writes per second and relies on an
eventual consistency model. After comprehensive tests you discover that there is
read contention on RDS MySQL. Which are the best approaches to meet these
requirements? (Choose 2 answers)

A. Deploy ElasticCache in-memory cache running in each availability zone

B. Implement sharding to distribute load to multiple RDS MySQL instances

C. Increase the RDS MySQL Instance size and Implement provisioned IOPS

D. Add an RDS MySQL read replica in each availability zone


AD
Your company has HQ in Tokyo and branch offices all over the world and is using
logistics software with a multi-regional deployment on AWS in Japan, Europe and
US .The logistic software has a 3-tier architecture and currently uses MySQL 5.6 for
data persistence. Each region has deployed its own database. In the HQ region you
run an hourly batch process reading data from every region to compute cross-
regional reports that are sent by email to all offices this batch process must be
completed as fast as possible to quickly optimize logistics how do you build the
database architecture in order to meet the requirements?

A. For each regional deployment, use RDS MySQL with a master in the region and a
read replica in the HQ region

B. For each regional deployment, use MySQL on EC2 with a master in the region
and send hourly EBS snapshots to the HQ region

C. For each regional deployment, use RDS MySQL with a master in the region and
send hourly RDS snapshots to the HQ region

D. For each regional deployment, use MySQL on EC2 with a master in the region
and use S3 to copy data files hourly to the HQ region

E. Use Direct Connect to connect all regional MySQL deployments to the HQ region
and reduce network latency for the batch process
A
What would happen to an RDS (Relational Database Service) multi-Availability Zone
deployment if the primary DB instance fails?

A. The IP of the primary DB Instance is switched to the standby DB Instance.

B. A new DB instance is created in the standby availability zone.

C. The canonical name record (CNAME) is changed from primary to standby.

D. The RDS (Relational Database Service) DB instance reboots.


C
Your business is building a new application that will store its entire customer
database on a RDS MySQL database, and will have various applications and users
that will query that data for different purposes. Large analytics jobs on the database
are likely to cause other applications to not be able to get the query results they need
to, before time out. Also, as your data grows, these analytics jobs will start to take
more time, increasing the negative effect on the other applications. How do you
solve the contention issues between these different workloads on the same data?

A. Enable Multi-AZ mode on the RDS instance

B. Use ElastiCache to offload the analytics job data

C. Create RDS Read-Replicas for the analytics work

D. Run the RDS instance on the largest size possible


C
Will my standby RDS instance be in the same Availability Zone as my primary?

A. Only for Oracle RDS types

B. Yes

C. Only if configured at launch

D. No
b
Is creating a Read Replica of another Read Replica supported?

A. Only in certain regions

B. Only with MySQL based RDS

C. Only for Oracle RDS types

D. No
d
A user is planning to set up the Multi AZ feature of RDS. Which of the below
mentioned conditions won't take advantage of the Multi AZ feature?

A. Availability zone outage

B. A manual failover of the DB instance using Reboot with failover option

C. Region outage

D. When the user changes the DB instance's server type


C
When you run a DB Instance as a Multi-AZ deployment, the "_____" serves
database writes and reads
A. secondary

B. backup

C. stand by

D. primary
D
When running my DB Instance as a Multi-AZ deployment, can I use the standby for
read or write operations?

A. Yes

B. Only with MSSQL based RDS

C. Only for Oracle RDS instances

D. No
D
Read Replicas require a transactional storage engine and are only supported for the
_________ storage engine

A. OracleISAM

B. MSSQLDB

C. InnoDB

D. MyISAM
C
A user is configuring the Multi AZ feature of an RDS DB. The user came to know that
this RDS DB does not use the AWS technology, but uses server mirroring to achieve
replication. Which DB is the user using right now?

A. My SQL

B. Oracle

C. MS SQL

D. PostgreSQL
C
If I have multiple Read Replicas for my master DB Instance and I promote one of
them, what happens to the rest of the Read Replicas?

A. The remaining Read Replicas will still replicate from the older master DB Instance

B. The remaining Read Replicas will be deleted


C. The remaining Read Replicas will be combined to one read replica
A
If you have chosen Multi-AZ deployment, in the event of a planned or unplanned
outage of your primary DB Instance, Amazon RDS automatically switches to the
standby replica. The automatic failover mechanism simply changes the ______
record of the main DB Instance to point to the standby DB Instance.

A. DNAME

B. CNAME

C. TXT

D. MX
B
MX
When automatic failover occurs, Amazon RDS will emit a DB Instance event to
inform you that automatic failover occurred. You can use the _____ to return
information about events related to your DB Instance

A. FetchFailure

B. DescriveFailure

C. DescribeEvents

D. FetchEvents
C
The new DB Instance that is created when you promote a Read Replica retains the
backup window period.

A. TRUE

B. FALSE
A
Will I be alerted when automatic failover occurs?

A. Only if SNS configured

B. No

C. Yes

D. Only if Cloudwatch configured


A
Can I initiate a "forced failover" for my MySQL Multi-AZ DB Instance deployment?

A. Only in certain regions


B. Only in VPC

C. Yes

D. No
C
A user is accessing RDS from an application. The user has enabled the Multi AZ
feature with the MS SQL RDS DB. During a planned outage how will AWS ensure
that a switch from DB to a standby replica will not affect access to the application?

A. RDS will have an internal IP which will redirect all requests to the new DB

B. RDS uses DNS to switch over to standby replica for seamless transition

C. The switch over changes Hardware so RDS does not need to worry about access

D. RDS will have both the DBs running independently and the user has to manually
switch over
B
Which of the following is part of the failover process for a Multi-Availability Zone
Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS) instance?

A. The failed RDS DB instance reboots.

B. The IP of the primary DB instance is switched to the standby DB instance.

C. The DNS record for the RDS endpoint is changed from primary to standby.

D. A new DB instance is created in the standby availability zone.


C
Which of the following are use cases for Amazon DynamoDB? Choose 3 answers

A. Storing BLOB data.

B. Managing web sessions

C. Storing JSON documents

D. Storing metadata for Amazon S3 objects

E. Running relational joins and complex updates.

F. Storing large amounts of infrequently accessed data.


BCD
A client application requires operating system privileges on a relational database
server. What is an appropriate configuration for highly available database
architecture?

A. A standalone Amazon EC2 instance


B. Amazon RDS in a Multi-AZ configuration

C. Amazon EC2 instances in a replication configuration utilizing a single Availability


Zone

D. Amazon EC2 instances in a replication configuration utilizing two different


Availability Zones
D

RDS and Availability Zon


Created by
lulin0808

Terms in this set (23)

RDS and Availability Zon


When creating an RDS instance, you can select which availability zone to deploy the
instance
RDS and security group
When you add a rule to an RDS security group, you need to specify a port number or
protocols.
Multi-AZ RDS instances replication
-- Synchronous replication
-- For Disaster Recovery
-- Available for Oracle, SQL Server, PostGres, MySQL
, MariaDB,Aurora
What happen when you convert RDS from a single AZ to a multi-AZ deployment.
Which of the following things will happen?
For MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL and Oracle database:

when you elect to convert your RDS instance from Single-AZ to Multi-AZ, the
following happens: A snapshot of your primary instance is taken, A new standby
instance is created in a different Availability Zone, from the snapshot, synchronous
replication is configured between primary and standby instances.
RDS Fail-over
To automatically failover from one geographic location to another you should use
Multi-AZ for RDS.
Elastic Cache
Managed, in-memory data store services.
two types of cache engines:
Redis: open source key-value ste
Memcached
MySQL default database port
3306. Same as Aurora
Backups
2 types of backup:
Automatic
Database snapshot
Automatic Backup
--Retention days: between 1 - 35 days
--Point-in-time recovery down to second
--Enabled automatically be default
--Stored in S3
--Automatic backup=database snapshot+transaction logs
--You get the free backup storage equal to the size of database
Snapshot
User initialized
Stored even after RDS is deleted
Restore
-- Restored version is a new RDS instance with new DNS endpoint
Encryption
-- Done by KMS (Key Management Service)
-- Support by Oracle, MySQL, Aurora, MariaDB, SQL server PostGreSQL
--Encryption for an existing database is not supported. You have to create a copy to
database, then encrypt
Read Replica features
-- It is Asynchronous
-- Used for scale out performance , not for DR
Redshift
-- Single node 160GB
-- Multi-node (lead node manage client connection and receives query)
-- Columnar data improve performance
-- significant compression take advantage of columnar data
-- massive parallel processing
-- 10 times faster
-- less space used
Redshift Pricing
by compute note hours, will not be charged by lead node
by backup
data transfer (within VPC)
Aurora database
--MySQL compatible
-- 5 times faster performance
-- one tenth of cost
Aurora Scalling
-- Storage Scalling: starting at 10GB, 10GB incremental, upto 64TB
-- Compute Scalling: Up to 32vCPU scalling and 244GB memory
-- 2 copies of data in each available zone, minimum of 3 AZ, 6 copies of data
-- Transparently handle the loss of 2 copies of data without affecting write availability,
loss 3 copies of odata without affecting read availability
-- Disk is self-healing. data blocks and disks are scanned constantly for error and
repaired automatically
Aurora Replica
2 types of replica
-- Aurora Replica , upto 15
-- MySQL read replica, upto 5

automatically failover
DynomoDB
Stored on SSD
Spread across 3 geographically distinct location
Eventual consist reads (default)
Strongly consist reads
DynamoDB object size limit
4K
What is Read Replica
Amazon RDS Read Replicas provide enhanced performance and durability for
database (DB) instances
This feature makes it easy to elastically scale out beyond the capacity constraints of
a single DB instance for read-heavy database workloads.
Which RDS type has Read replica
Read Replica is available for MySQL, PostGreSQL, MariaDB and Aurora.
It is not available for Oracle and SQL server
Benifits of enable Multi-AZ RDS
With Multi-AZ RDS instances and automated backups, I/O activity is no longer
suspended on your primary during your preferred backup window, since backups are
taken from the standby.
=

What is Amazon RDS?


RDS is a managed service that makes it easy to set up, operate, and scale a
relational database in the cloud. It provides cost-efficient and resizable capacity,
while managing time-consuming database administration tasks, freeing you up to
focus on you applications and business.
Which relational database engines does RDS support?
RDS supports Amazon Aurora, MySQL, MariaDB, Oracle, SQL Server, and
PostgreSQL
What does RDS manage on my behalf?
Provisioning the infrastructure capacity, installing database software, performing
backups, patching the software. If in a multi-AZ configuration, RDS manages
synchronous data replication across AZs and automatic failover.

You are still responsible for managing database settings specific to you application,
the relational schema, and any performance tuning required to optimize for app's
workflow.
When would I use RDS vs. EC2 Relational Database AMIs?
AWS provides a number of database alternatives for developers. RDS enables you
to run a fully featured relational database while offloading database administration.
Using one of our many relational database AMIs on EC2 allows you to manage your
own relational database in the cloud. There are important differences between these
alternatives that may make one more appropriate for your use case.
What is a database instance (DB instance)?
A DB instance is a database environment in the cloud with the compute and storage
resources you specify. You can create and delete DB instances, define/refine
infrastructure attributes of your DB instance(s), and control access and security via
the management console, APIs, or CLI. You can run one or more DB instances, and
each DB instance can support one or more databases or database schema,
depending on your engine type.
How many DB instances can I run with RDS?
By default, customers can have a total of 40 RDS DB instances. Of those 40, 10 can
be Oracle or SQL under the "License Included" model. All 40 can be used as Oracle
or SQL if under the "BYOL" model. You can request limit increases.
How many databases or schemas can I run with a DB instance?
Aurora, MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL: no limit imposed by software

Oracle: 1 database per instance; no limit on number of schemas per database


imposed by software

SQL Server: 30 databases per instance


How do I import data into an RDS DB instance?
MySQL: mysqldump or mysqlimport utilities
Oracle: Data Pump, import/export, SQL Loader
SQL Server: Import/Export wizard, full backup files (.bak), or Bulk Copy Program
(BCP)
What is a maintenance window? Will my DB instance be available during
maintenance events?
Maintenance windows are 30 minutes in duration and you can set when they occur.
These windows can always be changed by you by modifying your DB instance and
changes will take effect immediately.

The only maintenance events that require RDS to take your DB instance offline are
scale compute operations (which generally take a few minutes). Required patching is
automatically scheduled only for patches that are security and durability related.
Such patching occurs infrequently (once every few months). If you use a Multi-AZ
deployment, these events will cause no outage.
What should I do if my queries seem to be running slow?
You can enable Enhanced Monitoring, which provides access to over 50 CPU,
memory, file systems, and disk I/O metrics. You can enable these features on a per
instance basis and can choose granularity all the way down to 1 second.

High levels of CPU utilization can reduce query performance and you may want to
consider scaling your DB instance class. RDS for MySQL and MariaDB has access
to the slow query logs for your database. RDS for Oracle has the Oracle Trace file
data. RDS for SQL server has client side SQL Server traces to identify slow queries.
How do I control if and when the engine version of my DB instance is upgraded to
new supported versions?
You can manually upgrade your DB to the most current minor version via the
console or API. You can also choose the enable Auto Minor Version Upgrade so that
this is done automatically. Scheduled upgrades on RDS will be communicated at
least 30 days in advance. DB engine upgrades require downtime, even in multi-AZ
deployments. Major upgrades will not occur automatically.

For Oracle and SQL Server on RDS, if a minor upgrade required a change to a
different edition it may not happen automatically (even if auto upgrade is enabled).
The determination on whether to allow automatic upgrades will be made on a case-
by-case basis.
Can I test my DB instance with a new version before upgrading?
Yes, create a DB snapshot of your existing DB instance and restore from that
snapshot to create a new DB. You can then apply the upgrade on the new DB before
deciding whether or not to upgrade the original instance.
Does RDS provide guidelines for deprecating engine versions that are currently
supported?
Major version releases are supported for at least 3 years after they are initially
supported by RDS and minor versions are supported for at least 1 year.

In some cases, we may deprecate specific major or minor versions sooner, such as
when there are security issues. In this case, RDS will automatically upgrade your
database engine to address the issue.
How will I be charged for my use of RDS?
DB Instance Hours, Storage (GB per month), I/O requests per month, Provisioned
IOPS per month, Backup Storage, and Data Transfer
What defines billable RDS instance hours?
DB instance hours are billed for each hour your DB instance is running in an
available state. If you no longer wish to be charged for your DB instance, you must
stop or delete it to avoid being billed for additional instance hours. Partial DB
instance hours consumed are billed as full hours.
How will I be billed for a stopped DB instance?
While your database instance is stopped, you are charged for provisioned storage
(including Provisioned IOPS) and backup storage (including manual snapshots and
automated backups within your specific retention window), but not for DB instance
hours.
Why does my additional backup storage cost more than allocated DB instance
storage?
The storage provisioned to your DB instance for your primary data is located within a
single AZ. When you DB is backed up, the backup data (including transaction logs)
is geo-redundantly replicated across multiple AZs to provide greater levels of
durability. The price for backup storage beyond your free allocation reflects this extra
replication that occurs.
How will I be billed for Multi-AZ DB instance deployments?
Multi-AZ DB instance hours, Provisioned storage (for Multi-AZ DB instance), I/O
requests per month, backup storage, and data transfer
What is an RDS Reserved Instance (RI)?
RDS RI's can be purchased in one and three year terms at a significant discount.
There are three purchasing options: all-upfront, partial-upfront, or no up-front. An
RDS RI is a reserved DB instance.
How many reserved DB instances can I purchase?
You can purchase up to 40 reserved DB instances. If you need more you can
request a limit increase.
Are reserved DB instances available for Multi-AZ deployment?
Yes, when purchasing look for the Multi-AZ option among the DB configuration
settings available for purchase.
Are reserved DB instances available for read-replicas?
Yes, RI credits will be automatically applied to you account depending on how many
you purchase and how many replicas you use. Replicas must be in the same region
as the RI purchase.
How do I determine the appropriate DB instance class and size for my needs?
Assess you systems current compute, storage, and memory needs then refer to the
available DB instance options.
How do I scale the compute resources and/or storage resources associated with my
RDS database?
Memory and CPU can be modified by changing your instance class. Storage can be
modified by changing you storage allocation. When you change your DB size you
can choose to have changes applied during your maintenance window or
immediately.

You can Cloudwatch to track your compute and storage resource utilization for no
additional charge.

SQL server does not support increases your storage allocation at this time. This is a
feature that will be available in the future.
What is the hardware configuration for RDS Storage?
RDS uses EBS for database logs and storage. RDS automatically stripes across
multiple EBS volumes in enhance IOPS performance. For MySQL and Oracle, you
may observe increased IOPS performance, for an existing DB instance, by
increasing the storage allocation.
Will my RDS DB instance remain available during scaling?
For increases to storage capacity you DB instance can remain online. However,
increases or decreases to the compute instance will cause the database to
temporarily go down (typically a few minutes). This will occur during your scheduled
maintenance window unless you specify otherwise.
How can I scale my RDS DB beyond the largest DB instance and maximum storage
capacity?
If you DB instance requires more capacity than the largest DB instance or storage
capacity you can implement partitioning to spread your data across multiple DB
instances.
What is Amazon RDS General Purpose (SSD) storage?
RDS General Purpose (SSD) storage is suitable for most medium I/O workloads.
With a baseline of 3 IOPS/GB and the ability to burst to up to 3,000 IOPS General
Purpose can handle workloads with a steady state traffic that occasionally spikes.
What is Amazon RDS Provisioned IOPS (SSD) storage?
RDS Provisioned IOPS (SSD) storage is suitable for high performance I/O
workloads, it is designed to deliver fast, predictable, and consistent I/O performance.
You specify the IOPS rate when provisioning the DB instance and RDS provisions
that rate for the lifetime of the instance. This storage is optimized for OLTP
workloads.
What is Amazon RDS magnetic storage?
Magnetic storage is ideal for small databases with data that isn't frequently
accessed. It is not recommended for production databases.
How do I choose among the RDS storage options?
High-performance OLTP workloads: Provisioned IOPS (SSD)
Database workloads with moderate I/O requirements: General Purpose (SSD)
Non-production Database with infrequently accessed data: Magnetic
What is the difference between automatic backups and manual snapshots in RDS?
Automatic Backups: RDS automatically takes a daily complete snapshot of you
database during the backup window. This snapshot can be stored from 7-35 days
(depending on how you configure it). RDS also automatically captures transaction
logs. This allows for a point-in-time recovery of your database.

Manual Snapshots: Snapshots are initiated by the user and are retained until
deleted. You can use them to restore your DB.

Snapshots can be copied. Also, when you restore a DB from a snapshot it starts a
new DB instance with a new endpoint. You can create multiple DBs from the same
instance.
Do I need to enable automated backups for my RDS DB instance or is it done
automatically?
Automated backups are enabled by default for RDS DB instances with a 7 day
retention period.
What is a backup window and why do I need it? Is my RDS DB available during this
time?
The preferred backup window time is the user-defined period of time that your DB
instance is backed up. AWS uses these periodic backups in conjunction with your
transaction logs to enable restoring your database to any second within your
retention period. During the backup window I/O may be briefly suspended (typically
less than a few seconds) and elevated latency may occur. For Multi-AZ deployments
this does not happen because the back up done on the standby database.
Where are my RDS automatic backups and manual snapshots stored and how to I
manage their retention?
Backups and snapshots are stored in S3. You backups and snapshots are managed
through the RDS console.

You can choose to turn off automatic backups but it is not recommended.
What happens to my snapshots and RDS DB backups if I delete my DB instance?
Automated backups are deleted when the DB instance is deleted.

When deleting your instance you will be given the option to create one final
snapshot. This snapshot and all other manual snapshots will persist even after the
DB has been deleted and can be used to restore the DB at a later time.
What is a DB Subnet Group and why do I need one?
A DB Subnet group is a collection of subnets that you may want to designate for your
RDS DB instances in a VPC. Each DB subnet group should have at least one subnet
for every AZ in a given Region. When creating a DB instance in VPC, you will need
to select a DB subnet group. It is strongly recommended that you use the DNS name
to connect to your DB instance as the underlying IP address can change.
How do I connect to an RDS DB instance in VPC?
DB Instances deployed within a VPC can be accessed by EC2 instances deployed in
the same VPC. If these instances are deployed in a public subnet with associated
EIPs, you can access the EC2 instances via the internet. DB instances deployed
within a VPC can be access from the Internet or from EC2 Instances outside the
VPC via VPN or bastion hosts that you can launch in your public subnet. You can
also setup a VPN Gateway that extends your corporate network into your VPC, and
allows access to the RDS DB instances in that VPC.
Can I move my existing DB instances outside VPC into my VPC?
If your DB instance is outside of your VPC you can move it into your VPC using the
RDS Management Console or by taking a snapshot and restoring it to VPC by
specifying the DB Subnet Group you want to use.
Can I move my existing DB instances inside my VPC to outside VPC?
Migration of DB instances from inside to outside VPC is not supported.
What precautions should I take to ensure that my DB instances in VPC are
accessible by my application?
You are responsible for modifying routing tables and networking ACLs in your VPC
to ensure that your DB instance is reachable from your client instances in the VPC.
For Multi-AZ deployments, after a failover, your client EC2 instance and RDS DB
instance may be in different AZs. You should configure your networking ACLs to
ensure that cross-AZ communication is possible.
Can I change the DB Subnet group of my DB instance?
An existing DB Subnet group can be updated to add more subnets, either for existing
AZs or new AZs added since the creation of the DB instance. Removing subnets
from an existing subnet group can cause unavailability for instances if they are
running in a particular AZ that gets removed from the subnet group.
What is an RDS master user account and how is it different from an AWS account?
To begin using Amazon RDS you will need an AWS developer account. A master
user account is different from an AWS developer account and used only within the
context of RDS to control access to your DB instances. The master user account is a
native database user account which you can use to connect to your DB instance.
What privileges are granted to the master user for my DB instance?
For MySQL, there is big list of privileges that you won't remember

For Oracle, the master user is granted the "dba" role. The master user inherits most
of the privileges associated with the role.

For SQL Server, a user that creates a database is granted the db_owner role.
Is there anything different about user management with RDS?
No, everything works the way you are familiar with when using a relational database
you manage yourself.
Can programs running on servers in my own data center access RDS databases?
Yes, you have to intentionally turn on the ability to access your database over the
internet by configuring Security Groups. You can authorize access for only the
specific IPs, IP ranges, or subnets corresponding to servers in your own data center.
Can I encrypt connections between my application and my DB instance using SSL?
Yes, this option is currently supported for the MySQL, MariaDB, SQL Server,
PostgreSQL, and Oracle engines. RDS generates an SSL certificate for each DB
instance. Once an encrypted connection is established, data transferred between the
DB instance and your application will be encrypted during the transfer. Be aware that
SSL encryption is a compute-intensive operation and will increase the latency of your
database connection.
Can I encrypt data at rest on my RDS databases?
RDS supports encryption at rest for all database engines, using keys you manage
using KMS. On a database instance running with RDS encryption, data stored at rest
in the underlying storage is encrypted, as are its automated backups, read replicas,
and snapshots. Encryption and decryption are handled transparently. You can also
add encryption to a previously unencrypted DB instance by creating a DB snapshot
and then creating an encrypted copy of that snapshot. RDS for Oracle and SQL
server support those engine's Transparent Data Encryption technologies.
Transparent Data Encryption in Oracle is integrated with AWS CloudHSM, which
allows you to securely generate, store, and manage your cryptographic keys in
single-tenant Hardware Security Module (HSM) appliances.
How do I control actions that my systems and users can take on specific RDS
resources?
Through IAM Users with IAM policies applied.
I wish to perform security analysis or operational troubleshooting on my RDS
deployment. Can I get a history of all RDS API calls made on my account?
Yes use CloudTrail.
How do I choose the right configuration parameters for my DB instance(s)?
By default, RDS chooses the optimal configuration based on the DB instance class
and storage capacity. However, these values can be changed manually but please
note that changing configuration parameters from recommended values can have
unintended effects, ranging from degraded performance to system crashes and
should only be attempted by advanced users who wish to assume these risks.
What are DB parameter groups and how are they helpful?
A DB parameter group acts as a "container" for engine configuration values that can
be applied to one or more DB instances. Once associated, all DB instances that use
a particular DB parameter group get all the parameter updates to that group.
How can I monitor the configuration of my Amazon RDS resources?
Use AWS Config
What types of replication does RDS support and when should I use each?
Synchronous Replication- Multi-AZ deployments, DBs write concurrently on both
primary and standby so that the standby is up-to-date in the event a failure occurs
Asynchronous Replication- Read replicas, which use the DB engine's built-in
replication technology. They provide can improve read times and provide read
availability benefits but they are not designed to improve write availability.
What does it mean to run a DB instance as a Multi-AZ deployment?
When you create or modify your Db instance to run as Multi-AZ, RDS automatically
provisions and maintains a synchronous "standby" replica in a different AZ. During
certain types of planned maintenance, or in the unlikely event of DB instance failure
or AZ failure, RDS will automatically failover to the standby so that you can resume
DB writes and reads as soon as the standby is promoted. The standby DB cannot be
used to serve traffic in a Multi-AZ deployment.
What do "primary" and "standby" mean in the context of a Multi-AZ deployment?
The "primary" DB serves writes and reads. RDS provisions and maintains a
"standby" DB behind the scenes, which is an up-to-date replica of the primary. The
standby is "promoted" in failover scenarios. After failover, the standby becomes the
primary and accepts your DB operations. You do not interact with the standby at any
point prior to promotion.
What are the benefits of a Multi-AZ deployment?
Enhanced DB durability and availability. Another implied benefit of running your DB
instance as a Multi-AZ deployment is that DB instance failover is automatic and
requires no administration. You are not required to monitor DB instance events and
initiate manual DB instance recovery.
Are there any performance implications of running my DB instance as a Multi-AZ
deployment?
You may observe elevated latencies relative to a standard DB instance deployment
in a single AZ as a result of the synchronous data replication performed on your
behalf.
When running my DB instance as a Multi-AZ deployment, can I use the standby for
read/write operations?
No
What happens when I convert my RDS instance from single-AZ to multi-AZ?
For RDS MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, and Oracle database engines, when you
elect to convert RDS from Single to Multi-AZ the following happens:
1) A snapshot of your primary instance is taken, 2) A new standby instance is create
in a different AZ from the snapshot, 3) Synchronous replication is configured
between the instances
As such, there should be no downtime incurred.
What events would cause RDS to initiate a failover to the standby replica?
RDS detects and automatically recovers from the most common failure scenarios for
Multi-AZ deployments so that you can resume database operations as quickly as
possible. RDS automatically performs failover in the event of: 1) Loss of availability
in primary AZ, 2) Loss of network connectivity to primary, 3) Compute unit failure on
primary, 4) Storage failure on primary. When operation such as DB scaling or system
upgrades are initiated for Multi-AZ deployments, for enhanced availability, they are
applied first on the standby prior to an automatic failover. RDS deployments don't
failover automatically in response to DB operations such as long running queries,
deadlocks, or database corruption errors.
Will I be alerted when automatic failover occurs?
Yes, RDS will emit a DB instance event
What happens during Multi-AZ failover and how long does it take?
Failover is done automatically by RDS. When failing over, RDS simply flips the
CNAME of your DB instance to point at the standby, which is in turn promoted to
become the new primary. Failovers typically completed within one to two minutes.
Failover time can by affected by whether large uncommitted transactions must be
recovered; the use of adequately large instance types is recommended with Multi-AZ
for best results. Provision IOPs with Multi-AZ instances is also recommended for
fast, predictable, and consistent throughput performance.
Can I initiate a "forced failover" for Multi-AZ DB instance deployment?
Yes, you can initiate a failover through the console for when using the
RebootDBInstance API call.
How do I control/configure Multi-AZ synchronous replication?
When you set the Multi-AZ parameter to true on a DB, synchronous replication is
handled automatically by RDS. You cannot select the AZ your standby is deployed in
or alter the number of standbys available.
Will by standby be in the same Region as my primary?
Yes your standby will be provision in a different AZ within the same Region as your
primary.
Can I see which AZ my primary is currently located in?
Yes through the management console or the DescribeInstances API call
After failover, my primary is not located in a different AZ than my other AWS
resources. Should I be concerned about latency?
AZs are engineered to provide low latency network connectivity to other AZs within
the same Region. If addition, you may want to consider architecting your application
and other AWS resources with redundancy across multiple AZs so your application
will be resilient in the event of AZ failure.
How do DB snapshots and automated backups work with my Multi-AZ deployment?
You interact with automated backup and DB snapshot functionality in the same way
whether you are running a standard or Multi-AZ deployment. If you are running a
Multi-AZ deployment, automated backups and DB snapshots are simply taken from
the standby to avoid I/O suspension on the primary.
What does it meant to run a DB instance as a Read Replica?
Read Replicas make it east to take advantage of supported engines' built-in
replication functionality to elastically scale out beyond the capacity constraints of a
single DB Instance for read-heavy database workloads.
When would I want to consider using an RDS Read Replica?
Common reasons include: scaling beyond the compute or I/O capacity of a single DB
instance for read-heavy database workloads, serving read traffic while the source DB
instance is unavailable, and business reporting or data warehousing scenarios
Do I need to enable automatic backups on my DB instance before I can create read
replicas?
Yes, backups must be enabled for read replicas to work.

Terms in this set (30)

Amazon RDS manages ____, software ____, automatic ____, and _____
Amazon RDS manages backups, software patching, automatic failure detection, and
recovery
In order to deliver a managed service experience, Amazon RDS does ______to DB
instances, and it restricts access to certain system procedures and tables that
require advanced
privileges
does not provide shell access
What tools can one use to create or modify a DB instance
You can create and modify a DB instance by using the Amazon RDS command line
interface, the Amazon
RDS API, or the AWS Management Console
For each DB instance, you can select from ___ to ___ of associated storage capacity
For each DB instance, you can select from 5 GB to 3 TB of associated storage
capacity
DB instance storage comes in two types, ____ and ____
DB instance storage comes in two types, standard and provisioned IOPS
Standard storage is allocated
on ____
Amazon EBS volumes and connected to your DB instance
_____ optimized EBS
volumes and an optimized configuration stack and provides additional, dedicated
capacity for EBS I/O.
Provisioned IOPS
These optimizations enable instances to fully utilize the IOPS provisioned on an EBS
volume
Provisioned IOPS
If you need consistent performance and your database workloads generate a lot of
random I/O, you can
improve the performance of your DB instance by using ___
Amazon RDS Provisioned IOPS (input/output
operations per second) storage.
Provisioned IOPS delivers__________
fast, predictable,
and consistent throughput performance
For Provisioned IOPS When you create a DB instance, you specify an____ and ___
specify an IOPS rate and
storage space allocation.
Amazon RDS provisions that IOPS rate and storage ____ of the DB
the lifetime of the DB
Provisioned IOPS storage is optimized for ____ intensive
I/O intensive, online transaction
processing (OLTP) workloads that have stringent performance requirements
OLTP stands for
online transaction
processing (OLTP)
True or False You cannot decrease standard storage or Provisioned IOPS storage
allocated for a DB instance.
True
You can create a DB instance that uses Provisioned IOPS storage by using the AWS
____ , the AWS _____ OR the ___
using the AWS Management
Console, the Amazon RDS API, or the Command Line Interface (CLI)
CLI stands for
Command Line Interface (CLI)
If you are using Provisioned IOPS storage what instance classes should you use
m1.large, m1.xlarge,
m2.2xlarge, m2.4xlarge, or cr1.8xlarge instance classes
System activities such as automated backups, DB snapshots, and scale storage
operations may consume
_____ which will reduce the overall capacity available for normal database
operations
some I/O
To help you verify that you are making the best use of your Provisioned IOPS
storage, we have added
a new CloudWatch Metric called _____
called Disk Queue Depth.
For production OLTP use cases, we recommend that you use _________ for
enhanced fault
tolerance and __________ storage for fast and predictable performance.
For production OLTP use cases, we recommend that you use Multi-AZ deployments
for enhanced fault
tolerance and Provisioned IOPS storage for fast and predictable performance.
In addition to Multi-AZ
deployments, Provisioned IOPS storage complements the following 3 features:
1) Amazon VPC for network isolation and enhanced security.
2) Read Replicas.

3) DB Snapshots.
Because Provisioned IOPS storage reserves resources for your use, we can expect
to be ____
you are charged for the resources
whether or not you use them in a given month.
True or False Because Provisioned IOPS storage reserves resources for your use,
you are charged for the resources
whether or not you use them in a given month.
True
Using _________ increases the number of IO requests the system is capable of
processing
concurrently.
Using Provisioned IOPS storage increases the number of IO requests the system is
capable of processing
concurrently.
Increased concurrency allows for ___________ since IO requests spend less time in
a ____
Increased concurrency allows for decreased latency since IO requests spend less
time in a queue.
Decreased latency allows for _______ and allows for higher database ____
faster database commits, which improves response time and
allows for higher database throughput.
For example, consider a heavily loaded OLTP database provisioned for 10,000
Provisioned IOPS that
runs consistently at the channel limit of 105 Mbps throughput for reads. The
workload isn't perfectly
balanced, so there is some unused write channel bandwidth. What would increasing
Provisioned IOPS capacity from 10,000 TO 20,000 allow?
Increasing Provisioned IOPS capacity from 10,000 to 20,000 doubles the system's
capacity for concurrent
IO. Increased concurrency means decreased latency, which allows transactions to
complete faster, so
the database transaction rate increases. Read and write latency would improve by
different amounts and
the system would settle into a new equilibrium based on whichever resource
becomes constrained first.
Generally, . Increased concurrency means
decreased latency
Transactions can be completed faster by insuring
Increased concurrency means decreased latency,